Science.gov

Sample records for halo high velocity

  1. Mixing between High Velocity Clouds and the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritton, Jeffrey A.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin

    2014-11-01

    In the Galactic halo, metal-bearing Galactic halo material mixes into high velocity clouds (HVCs) as they hydrodynamically interact. This interaction begins long before the clouds completely dissipate and long before they slow to the velocity of the Galactic material. In order to make quantitative estimates of the mixing efficiency and resulting metal enrichment of HVCs, we made detailed two- and three-dimensional simulations of cloud-interstellar medium interactions. Our simulations track the hydrodynamics and time-dependent ionization levels. They assume that the cloud originally has a warm temperature and extremely low metallicity while the surrounding medium has a high temperature, low density, and substantial metallicity, but our simulations can be generalized to other choices of initial metallicities. In our simulations, mixing between cloud and halo gas noticeably raises the metallicity of the high velocity material. We present plots of the mixing efficiency and metal enrichment as a function of time.

  2. Mixing between high velocity clouds and the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Gritton, Jeffrey A.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin E-mail: rls@physast.uga.edu

    2014-11-01

    In the Galactic halo, metal-bearing Galactic halo material mixes into high velocity clouds (HVCs) as they hydrodynamically interact. This interaction begins long before the clouds completely dissipate and long before they slow to the velocity of the Galactic material. In order to make quantitative estimates of the mixing efficiency and resulting metal enrichment of HVCs, we made detailed two- and three-dimensional simulations of cloud-interstellar medium interactions. Our simulations track the hydrodynamics and time-dependent ionization levels. They assume that the cloud originally has a warm temperature and extremely low metallicity while the surrounding medium has a high temperature, low density, and substantial metallicity, but our simulations can be generalized to other choices of initial metallicities. In our simulations, mixing between cloud and halo gas noticeably raises the metallicity of the high velocity material. We present plots of the mixing efficiency and metal enrichment as a function of time.

  3. A GRAVITATIONAL DOUBLE-SCATTERING MECHANISM FOR GENERATING HIGH-VELOCITY OBJECTS DURING HALO MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Samsing, Johan

    2015-02-01

    We present a dynamical model that describes how halo particles can receive a significant energy kick from the merger between their own host halo and a target halo. This could provide a possible explanation for some high-velocity objects, including extended systems like globular clusters (GCs). In the model we especially introduce a double-scattering mechanism, where a halo particle receives a significant part of its total energy kick by first undergoing a gravitational deflection by the target halo and subsequently by its original host halo. This generates an energy kick that is due to the relative velocity between the halos during the deflections. We derive analytically the total kick energy of the particle, which is composed of energy from the double-scattering mechanism and tidal fields, as a function of its position in its original host halo just before merger. In the case of a 1:10 merger, we find that the presented mechanisms can easily generate particles with a velocity approximately two times the virial velocity of the target halo. This motivates us to suggest that the high velocity of the recently discovered GC HVGC-1 can be explained by a head-on halo merger. Finally, we illustrate the orbital evolution of high-velocity particles outside the virial sphere of the target halo by solving the equation of motion in an expanding universe. We find a sweet spot around a scale factor of 0.3-0.5 for ejecting particles into large orbits, which can easily reach beyond approximately five virial radii.

  4. A Gravitational Double-scattering Mechanism for Generating High-velocity Objects during Halo Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsing, Johan

    2015-02-01

    We present a dynamical model that describes how halo particles can receive a significant energy kick from the merger between their own host halo and a target halo. This could provide a possible explanation for some high-velocity objects, including extended systems like globular clusters (GCs). In the model we especially introduce a double-scattering mechanism, where a halo particle receives a significant part of its total energy kick by first undergoing a gravitational deflection by the target halo and subsequently by its original host halo. This generates an energy kick that is due to the relative velocity between the halos during the deflections. We derive analytically the total kick energy of the particle, which is composed of energy from the double-scattering mechanism and tidal fields, as a function of its position in its original host halo just before merger. In the case of a 1:10 merger, we find that the presented mechanisms can easily generate particles with a velocity approximately two times the virial velocity of the target halo. This motivates us to suggest that the high velocity of the recently discovered GC HVGC-1 can be explained by a head-on halo merger. Finally, we illustrate the orbital evolution of high-velocity particles outside the virial sphere of the target halo by solving the equation of motion in an expanding universe. We find a sweet spot around a scale factor of 0.3-0.5 for ejecting particles into large orbits, which can easily reach beyond approximately five virial radii.

  5. High-velocity gas toward the LMC resides in the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; de Boer, K. S.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: To explore the origin of high-velocity gas in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud, (LMC) we analyze absorption lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of a Galactic halo star that is located in front of the LMC at d = 9.2+4.1-7.2 kpc distance. Methods: We study the velocity-component structure of low and intermediate metal ions (C ii, Si ii, Si iii) in the spectrum of RX J0439.8-6809, as obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and measure equivalent widths and column densities for these ions. We supplement our COS data with a Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of the nearby LMC star Sk -69 59 and with H i 21 cm data from the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn (LAB) survey. Results: Metal absorption toward RX J0439.8-6809 is unambiguously detected in three different velocity components near vLSR = 0, + 60, and + 150 km s-1. The presence of absorption proves that all three gas components are situated in front of the star, thus located in the disk and inner halo of the Milky Way. For the high-velocity cloud (HVC) at vLSR = + 150 km s-1, we derive an oxygen abundance of [O/H] =-0.63 (~0.2 solar) from the neighboring Sk -69 59 sight line, in accordance with previous abundance measurements for this HVC. From the observed kinematics we infer that the HVC hardly participates in the Galactic rotation. Conclusions: Our study shows that the HVC toward the LMC represents a Milky Way halo cloud that traces low column density gas with relatively low metallicity. We rule out scenarios in which the HVC represents material close to the LMC that stems from a LMC outflow.

  6. The interaction of high-velocity clouds with the galactic halo gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerp, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.

    The analysis of the new Leiden/Dwingeloo 21-cm line and the ROSAT all-sky-survey data provided evidence for the interaction of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) with the gas of the galactic halo. The quantitative correlation of both surveys gave evidence that the Milky Way is enclosed within a gaseous halo with a vertical scale height of 4.4 kpc and a radial scale length of 15 kpc. Within this gaseous halo, soft X-ray plasma (T ~= 10^{6.2} K) as well as cold neutral atomic hydrogen seems to coexist. Using this gaseous halo model we can derive the intensity distribution of the soft X-ray background across the entire sky. However, towards the prominent HVC complexes we found excess soft X-ray emission. These areas of enhanced X-ray emission are by a factor of 2 to 3 brighter than the total ``calm'' SXRB intensity. These soft X-ray enhancements, as well as the recently detected H alpha-emission of HVCs may indicate that the HVCs interact with their environment. In the X-ray regime the excess radiation releases about 1036 {erg}/{s}. Compared to the kinetic energy of an HVC complex with MHVC ~= 10^6 - 10^7 M_{\\odot} and Ekin ~= 1053 - 1054 {erg}/{s}, only a tiny fraction of the HVCs motion is transferred into heating of the HVC material. Our results indicate that the HVC matter itself is heated up, not only the surrounding gaseous halo medium, because the determined emission measures of EM ~= 0.015 cm^{-6} pc (T ~= 10^{6.2} - 10^{6.3}) K are an order of magnitude larger than the surrounding volume density.

  7. Formation of a Giant Galactic Gaseous Halo: Metal-Absorption Lines and High-Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan

    1992-04-01

    A Galactic gaseous halo formed through the interstellar disk-halo connection is simulated by means of a two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic code based upon the chimney model of the interstellar medium, a new version of the galactic fountain. Galactic rotation, heating processes by diffuse UV flux, and radiative cooling processes are taken into account. The resulting gaseous halo can be divided into three categories, i.e., wind-type halo, bound-type halo, and cooled-type halo. In this way, we try to reproduce the column densities of C IV, N V, O VI, and Si IV in the observed absorption lines of halo stars. Assuming that the radiatively cooled halo gas condenses into clouds due to thermal instabilities, we can calculate their distribution and ballistic motions in the Galactic gravitational field. These correspond to the high- and intermediate-velocity clouds observed at high Galactic latitudes. We find that a cooled-type halo with a gas temperature between 5 X 10^5 and 10^6 K and a density between 10^-3 and 10^-2 cm^-3 at the disk-halo interface can reproduce the observational facts about our Galaxy. Supposing that the metal-absorption-line systems of QSOs arise from the halos of intervening galaxies formed by similar processes, we calculate features of the Ca II, Mg II, C IV, and Si IV absorption lines in various stages of galactic evolution. We conclude that C IV systems which are greater than 50 kpc in size correspond to the wind-type halo. On the other hand, Mg II and Ca II systems can only be detected in a very restricted region ( Metaxa, SMALL FAINT CLUSTERS IN THE LMC This is a short review of the main results of my Ph.D. thesis concerning some important problems on the dynamical properties of the LMC star clusters. The topic of this thesis was to find and study the dynamical paramters (tidal radius r_t core radius r_c concentration parameters log (r_t/r_c), and total mass M) for a large sample of small LMC clusters and to define their location in the

  8. Magnetized galactic haloes and velocity lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Irwin, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an analytic model of a magnetized galactic halo surrounding a Mestel gravitating disc. The magnetic field is taken to be in energy equipartition with the pressure dominant rotating halo gas (not with the cosmic rays), and the whole system is in a steady state. A more flexible `anisotropic equipartition' model is also explored. A definite pressure law is required to maintain the equilibrium, but the halo density is constant. The velocity/magnetic system is scale-free. The objective is to find the rotational velocity lag in such a halo. The magnetic field is not force-free so that angular momentum may be transported from the halo to the intergalactic medium. We find that the `X'-shaped structure observed for halo magnetic fields can be obtained together with a simple analytic formula for the rate of decline of the velocity with height z. The formula also predicts the change in lag with radius, r.

  9. Highly Ionized Gas in the Galactic Halo and the High Velocity Clouds Toward PG 1116+215

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, R.; Sembach, K. R.; Tripp, T. M.; Savage, B. D.

    2003-12-01

    Recent observations of extragalactic objects with FUSE have revealed the presence of high ionization OVI absorption associated with high velocity clouds (HVCs), defined as gas which lies at absolute velocities beyond 100 km/s in the Local Standard of Rest. We have acquired high spectral resolution observations with STIS ( ˜ 10 km/s) and FUSE ( ˜ 20 km/s) of the quasar PG 1116+215. The spectra show absorption at Vlsr=184km/s from a wide range of ionization species:CIV, OI, OVI, MgII, SiII, SiIII, SiIV, and FeII. The strong and broad O VI absorption in this HVC extends from ˜ 120 to 230 km/s with a weak wing of absorption to 300km/s. Although the HVC is not seen in HI 21 cm emission down to N(HI) ˜ 2x1018 cm-2, it is seen in the HI Lyman series up to at least the 918.13Å line. In addition, we have non-detection constraints on the column denisties of CI, NI, NV, and SII. We can rule out photoionization in an ultra-low density (n ˜ 10-6 cm-3) Local Group medium adopted by some investigators to explain the O VI and O VII absorption detected in several directions. We are currently in the process of determining if these data either support or rule out other models of HVCs, such as the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium, Dark Matter dominated mini-halos, or interactions with a low density (10-4-10-5 cm-3) Galactic corona or Local Group medium. In addition, we will also use abundance infomation to study the enrichment history and constrain possible sources for the high velocity gas, such as tidal debris from cannibalized galaxies.

  10. Halo velocity profiles in screened modified gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronke, M.; Llinares, C.; Mota, D. F.; Winther, H. A.

    2015-05-01

    Screened modified gravity predicts potentially large signatures in the peculiar velocity field that makes it an interesting probe to test gravity on cosmological scales. We investigate the signatures induced by the Symmetron and a Chameleon f(R) model in the peculiar velocity field using N-body simulations. By studying fifth force and halo velocity profiles, we identify three general categories of effects found in screened modified gravity models: a fully screened regime where we recover Λ cold dark matter to high precision, an unscreened regime where the fifth force is in full operation, and, a partially screened regime where screening occurs in the inner part of a halo, but the fifth force is active at larger radii. These three regimes can be pointed out very clearly by analysing the deviation in the maximum cluster velocity. Observationally, the partially screened regime is of particular interest since an uniform increase of the gravitational force - as present in the unscreened regime - is degenerate with the (dynamical) halo mass estimate, and, thus, hard to detect.

  11. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC HALO STARS IN VIRGO

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Thomas G.; Mateo, Mario; Martinez-Delgado, David E-mail: mmateo@umich.ed

    2010-11-15

    We present multi-slit radial velocity measurements for 111 stars in the direction of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS). The stars were photometrically selected to be probable main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo. When compared with the radial velocity distribution expected for the halo of the Milky Way, as well as the distribution seen in a control field, we observe a significant excess of negative velocity stars in the field, which can likely be attributed to the presence of a stellar stream. This kinematic excess peaks at a Galactic standard of rest radial velocity of -75 km s{sup -1}. A rough distance estimate suggests that this feature extends from {approx}15 kpc out to, and possibly beyond, the {approx}30 kpc limit of the study. The mean velocity of these stars is incompatible with those of the VSS itself (V{sub gsr} {approx} 130 km s{sup -1}), which we weakly detect, but it is consistent with radial velocity measurements of nearby 2MASS M-giants and SDSS+SEGUE K/M-giants and blue horizontal branch stars that constitute the leading tidal tail of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Some oblate models for the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo predict that the leading arm of the Sagittarius Stream should pass through this volume, and have highly negative (V{sub gsr} {approx}< -200 km s{sup -1}) radial velocities, as it descends down from the northern Galactic hemisphere toward the Galactic plane. The kinematic feature observed in this study, if it is in fact Sagittarius debris, is not consistent with these predictions, and instead, like other leading stream radial velocity measurements, is consistent with a recently published triaxial halo model, or, if axisymmetry is imposed, favors a prolate shape for the Galactic halo potential. However, a rough distance estimate to the observed kinematic feature places it somewhat closer (D {approx} 15-30 kpc) than the Sagittarius models predict (D {approx} 35-45 kpc).

  12. HALO VELOCITY GROUPS IN THE PISCES OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Vivas, A. Katherina; Duffau, Sonia E-mail: zi@u.washington.ed E-mail: sonia.duffau@gmail.co

    2010-07-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of five faint (V {approx} 20) RR Lyrae stars associated with the Pisces overdensity conducted with the Gemini South Telescope. At a heliocentric and galactocentric distance of {approx}80 kpc, this is the most distant substructure in the Galactic halo known to date. We combined our observations with literature data and confirmed that the substructure is composed of two different kinematic groups. The main group contains eight stars and has (V{sub gsr}) = 50 km s{sup -1}, while the second group contains four stars at a velocity of (V{sub gsr}) = -52 km s{sup -1}, where V{sub gsr} is the radial velocity in the galactocentric standard of rest. The metallicity distribution of RR Lyrae stars in the Pisces overdensity is centered on [Fe/H] = -1.5 dex and has a width of 0.3 dex. The new data allowed us to establish that both groups are spatially extended making it very unlikely that they are bound systems, and are more likely to be debris of a tidally disrupted galaxy or galaxies. Due to small sky coverage, it is still unclear whether these groups have the same or different progenitors.

  13. uvby-β photometry of high-velocity and metal-poor stars. XI. Ages of halo and old disk stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, W. J.; Moitinho, A.; Márquez, A.; Parrao, L.; Covarrubias, E.

    2006-01-01

    New uvby-β data are provided for 442 high-velocity and metal-poor stars; 90 of these stars have been observed previously by us, and 352 are new. When combined with our previous two photometric catalogues, the data base is now made up of 1533 high-velocity and metal-poor stars, all with uvby-β photometry and complete kinematic data, such as proper motions and radial velocities taken from the literature. Hipparcos, plus a new photometric calibration for Mv also based on the Hipparcos parallaxes, provide distances for nearly all of these stars; our previous photometric calibrations give values for E(b-y) and [Fe/H]. The [Fe/H], V(rot) diagram allows us to separate these stars into different Galactic stellar population groups, such as old-thin-disk, thick-disk, and halo. The X histogram, where X is our stellar-population discriminator combining V(rot) and [Fe/H], and contour plots for the [Fe/H], V(rot) diagram both indicate two probable components to the thick disk. These population groups and Galactic components are studied in the (b-y)0, Mv diagram, compared to the isochrones of Bergbusch & VandenBerg (2001, ApJ, 556, 322), to derive stellar ages. The two thick-disk groups have the mean characteristics: ([Fe/H], V(rot), Age, σW') ≈ (-0.7 dex, 120 km s-1, 12.5 Gyr, 62.0 km s-1), and ≈(-0.4, 160, 10.0, 45.8). The seven most metal-poor halo groups, -2.31 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.31, show a mean age of 13.0 ± 0.2 (mean error) Gyr, giving a mean difference from the WMAP results for the age of the Universe of 0.7 ± 0.3 Gyr. These results for the ages and components of the thick disk and for the age of the Galactic halo field stars are discussed in terms of various models and ideas for the formation of galaxies and their stellar populations.

  14. Fermi-LAT Observations of High- and Intermediate-velocity Clouds: Tracing Cosmic Rays in the Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaldo, L.; Digel, S. W.; Casandjian, J. M.; Franckowiak, A.; Grenier, I. A.; Jóhannesson, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T. A.; Reimer, O.; Strong, A. W.

    2015-07-01

    It is widely accepted that cosmic rays (CRs) up to at least PeV energies are Galactic in origin. Accelerated particles are injected into the interstellar medium where they propagate to the farthest reaches of the Milky Way, including a surrounding halo. The composition of CRs coming to the solar system can be measured directly and has been used to infer the details of CR propagation that are extrapolated to the whole Galaxy. In contrast, indirect methods, such as observations of γ-ray emission from CR interactions with interstellar gas, have been employed to directly probe the CR densities in distant locations throughout the Galactic plane. In this article we use 73 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range between 300 MeV and 10 GeV to search for γ-ray emission produced by CR interactions in several high- and intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) located at up to ∼7 kpc above the Galactic plane. We achieve the first detection of IVCs in γ rays and set upper limits on the emission from the remaining targets, thereby tracing the distribution of CR nuclei in the halo for the first time. We find that the γ-ray emissivity per H atom decreases with increasing distance from the plane at 97.5% confidence level. This corroborates the notion that CRs at the relevant energies originate in the Galactic disk. The emissivity of the upper intermediate-velocity Arch hints at a 50% decline of CR densities within 2 kpc from the plane. We compare our results to predictions of CR propagation models.

  15. Do gamma-ray bursts originate from an extended Galactic Halo of high-velocity neutron stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brown, Lawrence E.; The, Lih-Sin; Linder, Eric V.; Petrosian, Vahe; Blumenthal, George R.; Hurley, Kevin C.

    1994-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst brightness distribution is inhomogeneous and the distribution on the sky is nearly isotropic. These features argue against an association of gamma-ray bursts with those Galactic objects that are known to exhibit a strong concentration toward the Galactic center or plane. The observed statistical properties indicate a cosmological origin. Circumstantial evidence suggests that neutron stars are involved in the burst phenomenon. Here we consider Population II neutron stars in an extended Galactic Halo (EGH) as an alternative to cosmological scenarios. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data indicate a small deviation from isotropy near the 2 sigma level of statistical significance. If confirmed for an increasing number of bursts, these anisotropies could rule out cosmological scenarios. On the other hand, EGH models require small anisotropies like those observed by BATSE. We consider simple distribution models to determine the generic properties such halos must have to be consistent with the observations and discuss the implications of the corresponding distance scale on burst models.

  16. HALO-TO-HALO SIMILARITY AND SCATTER IN THE VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Strigari, Louis E.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Hahn, Oliver; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-02-10

    We examine the velocity distribution function (VDF) in dark matter halos from Milky Way to cluster mass scales. We identify an empirical model for the VDF with a wider peak and a steeper tail than a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, and discuss physical explanations. We quantify sources of scatter in the VDF of cosmological halos and their implication for direct detection of dark matter. Given modern simulations and observations, we find that the most significant uncertainty in the VDF of the Milky Way arises from the unknown radial position of the solar system relative to the dark matter halo scale radius.

  17. The Evolution of Gas Clouds Falling in the Magnetized Galactic Halo: High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs) Originated in the Galactic Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Shelton, Robin L.; Raley, Elizabeth A.

    2009-07-01

    In the Galactic fountain scenario, supernovae and/or stellar winds propel material into the Galactic halo. As the material cools, it condenses into clouds. By using FLASH three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we model and study the dynamical evolution of these gas clouds after they form and begin to fall toward the Galactic plane. In our simulations, we assume that the gas clouds form at a height of z = 5 kpc above the Galactic midplane, then begin to fall from rest. We investigate how the cloud's evolution, dynamics, and interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by the initial mass of the cloud. We find that clouds with sufficiently large initial densities (n >= 0.1 H atoms cm-3) accelerate sufficiently and maintain sufficiently large column densities as to be observed and identified as high-velocity clouds (HVCs) even if the ISM is weakly magnetized (1.3 μG). However, the ISM can provide noticeable resistance to the motion of a low-density cloud (n <= 0.01 H atoms cm-3) thus making it more probable that a low-density cloud will attain the speed of an intermediate-velocity cloud rather than the speed of an HVC. We also investigate the effects of various possible magnetic field configurations. As expected, the ISM's resistance is greatest when the magnetic field is strong and perpendicular to the motion of the cloud. The trajectory of the cloud is guided by the magnetic field lines in cases where the magnetic field is oriented diagonal to the Galactic plane. The model cloud simulations show that the interactions between the cloud and the ISM can be understood via analogy to the shock tube problem which involves shock and rarefaction waves. We also discuss accelerated ambient gas, streamers of material ablated from the clouds, and the cloud's evolution from a sphere-shaped to a disk- or cigar-shaped object.

  18. Revised Model of the Steady-state Solar Wind Halo Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.; moon, Y.-J.

    2016-08-01

    A recent study discussed the steady-state model for solar wind electrons during quiet time conditions. The electrons emanating from the Sun are treated in a composite three-population model—the low-energy Maxwellian core with an energy range of tens of eV, the intermediate ∼102–103 eV energy-range (“halo”) electrons, and the high ∼103–105 eV energy-range (“super-halo”) electrons. In the model, the intermediate energy halo electrons are assumed to be in resonance with transverse EM fluctuations in the whistler frequency range (∼102 Hz), while the high-energy super-halo electrons are presumed to be in steady-state wave–particle resonance with higher-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the Langmuir frequency range (∼105 Hz). A comparison with STEREO and WIND spacecraft data was also made. However, ignoring the influence of Langmuir fluctuations on the halo population turns out to be an unjustifiable assumption. The present paper rectifies the previous approach by including both Langmuir and whistler fluctuations in the construction of the steady-state velocity distribution function for the halo population, and demonstrates that the role of whistler-range fluctuation is minimal unless the fluctuation intensity is arbitrarily raised. This implies that the Langmuir-range fluctuations, known as the quasi thermal noise, are important for both halo and super-halo electron velocity distribution.

  19. The ROCKSTAR Phase-space Temporal Halo Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 105 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>1010 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s-1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  20. THE ROCKSTAR PHASE-SPACE TEMPORAL HALO FINDER AND THE VELOCITY OFFSETS OF CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-10

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10{sup 5} CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10{sup 10} particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s{sup -1} at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  1. Revised Model of the Steady-state Solar Wind Halo Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.; moon, Y.-J.

    2016-08-01

    A recent study discussed the steady-state model for solar wind electrons during quiet time conditions. The electrons emanating from the Sun are treated in a composite three-population model—the low-energy Maxwellian core with an energy range of tens of eV, the intermediate ˜102–103 eV energy-range (“halo”) electrons, and the high ˜103–105 eV energy-range (“super-halo”) electrons. In the model, the intermediate energy halo electrons are assumed to be in resonance with transverse EM fluctuations in the whistler frequency range (˜102 Hz), while the high-energy super-halo electrons are presumed to be in steady-state wave–particle resonance with higher-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the Langmuir frequency range (˜105 Hz). A comparison with STEREO and WIND spacecraft data was also made. However, ignoring the influence of Langmuir fluctuations on the halo population turns out to be an unjustifiable assumption. The present paper rectifies the previous approach by including both Langmuir and whistler fluctuations in the construction of the steady-state velocity distribution function for the halo population, and demonstrates that the role of whistler-range fluctuation is minimal unless the fluctuation intensity is arbitrarily raised. This implies that the Langmuir-range fluctuations, known as the quasi thermal noise, are important for both halo and super-halo electron velocity distribution.

  2. Measuring the Stellar Halo Velocity Anisotropy With 3D Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Sohn, S. Tony

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematic information outside of the solar neighborhood. Our sample consists of 13 Milky Way halo stars with measured proper motions and radial velocities in the line of sight of M31. Proper motions were measured using deep, multi-epoch HST imaging, and radial velocities were measured from Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We measure β = -0.3-0.9 +0.4, which is consistent with isotropy, and inconsistent with measurements in the solar neighborhood. We suggest that this may be the kinematic signature of a relatively early, massive accretion event, or perhaps several such events.

  3. Velocity Structure and Plasma Properties in Halo CMEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, William (Technical Monitor); Raymond, John C.

    2003-01-01

    We have identified a set of 23 Halo CMEs through July 2002 and 21 Partial Halo CMEs from the LASCO Halo CME Mail Archive for which Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) spectra exist. For each event we have collected basic information such as the event speed, whether or not UVCS caught the bright front, lines detected, Doppler shift and associated flare class. We have also obtained excellent observations of some of the spectacular events in November 2003, and we have made theoretical calculations pertaining to CME expansion at the heights observed by UVCS. We first analyzed the halo CMEs on 21 April and 24 August 2002 and the partial halo on 23 July 2002, because the X-class flares associated with these CMEs were extensively observed by RHESSI and other instruments as part of the MAX MILLENIUM campaign. These very fast CMEs showed extremely violent disruption of the pre-CME streamers, little or no cool prominence material, and the unusual (for UVCS heights) hot emission line [Fe XVIII]. Results, including a discussion of the current sheet interpretation for the [Fe XVIII] emission, are published in Raymond et al. and presented at the Fall 2002 AGU meeting and the solar physics summer school in L'Aquila, Italy. We are currently preparing two papers on the Dec. 28, 2000 partial halo event. This event was chosen to take advantage of the SEP event measured by WIND and ACE, and because a Type II radio burst coincides with the time that broad, blue-shifted O VI emission appeared in the UVCS spectra. One paper deals with a new density and velocity diagnostic for very fast CMEs; pumping of O VI lambda 1032 by Ly beta and pumping of O VI lambda 1038 by O VI lambda 1032. The other discusses physics of the shock wave and association with the SEP event. In the coming year we plan to expand the list of Halo and Partial Halo events observed by UVCS through the end of 2003. We will look at those events as a class to search for correlation between UV spectral characteristics

  4. Hidden Galactic Accretion: The Discovery of Low-Velocity Halo Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Heiles, C. E.; Stanimirovic, S.; Douglas, K.; Gibson, S.; Korpela, E.

    2007-12-01

    High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs) have been thought to be part of the Galactic accretion process since their discovery more than 40 years ago. Two modes through which HVCs may be generated and contribute to the ongoing growth of our Galaxy are (1) the tidal stripping of satellite galaxies and (2) the fragmented condensation of the Galaxy's hot baryonic halo. We have run cosmological Tree-SPH simulations of a Milky-Way sized galaxy, in which we can resolve clouds down to 10^5 M⊙, in an attempt to probe the cooling halo accretion process. The simulations show that this HVC generation mechanism can indeed reproduce the characteristics of observed population of HVCs, including the flux, velocity and cloud clustering properties. These simulations also predict an equally large population of halo clouds moving at lower radial velocities: Low-Velocity Halo Clouds (LVHCs). These clouds would not be observed as HVCs, but would rather be confused with local disk gas. Taking advantage of the known empirical result that HVCs have undetectably low infrared dust flux compared to their 21cm column, we search for these clouds in the preliminary GALFA-HI survey and IRAS. We announce the discovery of the first examples of these clouds, and describe their properties. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST 04-06987 and NSF grant AST 07-09347.

  5. The behaviour of shape and velocity anisotropy in dark matter haloes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. E-mail: hansen@dark-cosmology.dk

    2012-10-01

    Dark matter haloes from cosmological N-body simulations typically have triaxial shapes and anisotropic velocity distributions. Recently it has been shown that the velocity anisotropy, β, of cosmological haloes and major merger remnants depend on direction in such a way that β is largest along the major axis and smallest along the minor axis. In this work we use a wide range of non-cosmological N-body simulations to examine halo shapes and direction-dependence of velocity anisotropy profiles. For each of our simulated haloes we define 48 cones pointing in different directions, and from the particles inside each cone we compute velocity anisotropy profiles. We find that elongated haloes can have very distinct velocity anisotropies. We group the behaviour of haloes into three different categories, that range from spherically symmetric profiles to a much more complex behaviour, where significant differences are found for β along the major and minor axes. We encourage future studies of velocity anisotropies in haloes from cosmological simulations to calculate β-profiles in cones, since it reveals information, which is hidden from a spherically averaged profile. Finally, we show that spherically averaged profiles often obey a linear relation between β and the logarithmic density slope in the inner parts of haloes, but this relation is not necessarily obeyed, when properties are calculated in cones.

  6. The Highly Flattened Dark Matter Halo of NGC 4244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, Rob P.

    1996-08-01

    In a previous paper (Olling 1995, AJ, 110,591) a method was developed to determine the shapes of dark matter halos of spiral galaxies from an accurate determination of the rotation curve, the flaring of the gas layer and the velocity dispersion in the HI. Here this method is applied to the almost edge-on Scd galaxy NGC 4244 for which the necessary parameters are determined in the accompanying paper (AJ, 112,457, 1996). The observed flaring of the HI beyond the optical disk puts significant constraints on the shape of the dark matter halo, which are almost independent of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. NGC 4244's dark matter halo is found to be highly flattened with a shortest-to-longest axis ratio of 0.2_-0.1_^+0.3^. If the dark matter is disk-like, the data presented in this paper imply that the vertical velocity dispersion of the dark matter must be 10%-30% larger than the measured tangential dispersion in the H I . Alternatively, the measured flaring curve is consistent with a round halo if the gaseous velocity dispersion ellipsoid is anisotropic. In that case the vertical dispersion of the gas is 50%- 70% of the measured tangential velocity dispersion.

  7. The Highly Flattened Dark Halo of NGC 4244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, R. P.

    1995-12-01

    In a previous paper (Olling 1995, AJ, 110, 591) a method was developed to determine the shapes of dark matter halos of spiral galaxies from an accurate determination of the rotation curve and the flaring of the gas layer. Here this method is applied to the almost edge-on spiral NGC 4244. I present sensitive high resolution VLA B, C, and D array observations in the 21-cm spectral line of neutral atomic hydrogen of the nearby Scd galaxy NGC 4244. The observed flaring of the HI beyond the optical disk puts significant constraints on the dark matter halo, which are almost independent of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. I find that NGC 4244's dark matter halo is highly flattened: c/a=0.1 - 0.5. Alternatively, the measured flaring curve is consistent with a round halo if the gaseous velocity dispersion ellipsoid is anisotropic. In that case the vertical dispersion of the gas is 50 - 70% of the measured tangential velocity dispersion. A new technique is presented to determine simultaneously the inclination and the thickness of the gas layer from high resolution HI observations. This procedure uses the apparent widths at many azimuths rather than just the edge channels, and can be used at inclinations as low as 60^o .

  8. Cosmic web alignments with the shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    We study the alignment of dark matter haloes with the cosmic web characterized by the tidal and velocity shear fields. We focus on the alignment of their shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities. We use a cosmological N-body simulation that allows us to study dark matter haloes spanning almost five orders of magnitude in mass (109-1014) h-1 M⊙ and spatial scales of (0.5-1.0) h-1 Mpc to define the cosmic web. The strongest alignment is measured for halo shape along the smallest tidal eigenvector, e.g. along filaments and walls, with a signal that gets stronger as the halo mass increases. In the case of the velocity shear field only massive haloes >1012 h-1 M⊙ tend to have their shapes aligned along the largest tidal eigenvector, i.e. perpendicular to filaments and walls. For the angular momentum we find alignment signals only for haloes more massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙ both in the tidal and velocity shear fields where the preferences is to be parallel to the middle eigenvector; perpendicular to filaments and parallel to walls. Finally, the peculiar velocities show a strong alignment along the smallest tidal eigenvector for all halo masses; haloes move along filaments and walls. The same alignment is present with the velocity shear, albeit weaker and only for haloes less massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙. Our results show that the two different algorithms used to define the cosmic web describe different physical aspects of non-linear collapse and should be used in a complementary way to understand the cosmic web influence on galaxy evolution.

  9. Velocity Structure and Plasma Properties in Halo CMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.

    2004-01-01

    We have identified a set of 23 Halo CMEs and 21 Partial Halo CMEs from the LASCO Halo CME Archive for which UVCS spectra exist through July 2002. For each event we have collected basic information such as the event speed, whether or not UVCS caught the bright front, lines detected, Doppler shift and associated flare class. We are currently analyzing the subset for which UVCS caught the CME front. We also obtained excellent observations of some of the spectacular events in November 2003, and we have made theoretical calculations pertaining to CME expansion at the heights observed by UVCS. In one event we were able to analyze the properties of the current sheet in detail.

  10. Analysis of HST/COS spectra of the bare C-O stellar core H1504+65 and a high-velocity twin in the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.

    2015-12-01

    H1504+65 is an extremely hot white dwarf (effective temperature Teff = 200 000 K) with a carbon-oxygen dominated atmosphere devoid of hydrogen and helium. This atmospheric composition was hitherto unique among hot white dwarfs (WDs), and it could be related to recently detected cooler WDs with C or O dominated spectra. The origin of the H and He deficiency in H1504+65 is unclear. To further assess this problem, we performed ultraviolet spectroscopy with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In accordance with previous far-ultraviolet spectroscopy performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the most prominent lines stem from C iv, O v-vi, and Ne vi-viii. Archival HST/COS spectra are utilized to prove that the supersoft X-ray source RX J0439.8-6809 is, considering the exotic composition, a twin of H1504+65 that is even hotter (Teff = 250 000 K). In contrast to earlier claims, we find that the star is not located in the Large Magellanic Cloud but a foreground object in the Galactic halo at a distance of 9.2 kpc, 5.6 kpc below the Galactic plane, receding with vrad = +220 km s-1. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666.

  11. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P. )

    1993-12-25

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. We describe what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. We present initial results from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam.

  12. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-06-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam.

  13. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam.

  14. Determination of the large scale volume weighted halo velocity bias in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-06-01

    A profound assumption in peculiar velocity cosmology is bv=1 at sufficiently large scales, where bv is the volume-weighted halo(galaxy) velocity bias with respect to the matter velocity field. However, this fundamental assumption has not been robustly verified in numerical simulations. Furthermore, it is challenged by structure formation theory (Bardeen, Bond, Kaiser and Szalay, Astrophys. J. 304, 15 (1986); Desjacques and Sheth, Phys. Rev D 81, 023526 (2010), which predicts the existence of velocity bias (at least for proto-halos) due to the fact that halos reside in special regions (local density peaks). The major obstacle to measuring the volume-weighted velocity from N-body simulations is an unphysical sampling artifact. It is entangled in the measured velocity statistics and becomes significant for sparse populations. With recently improved understanding of the sampling artifact (Zhang, Zheng and Jing, 2015, PRD; Zheng, Zhang and Jing, 2015, PRD), for the first time we are able to appropriately correct this sampling artifact and then robustly measure the volume-weighted halo velocity bias. (1) We verify bv=1 within 2% model uncertainty at k ≲0.1 h /Mpc and z =0 - 2 for halos of mass ˜1012- 1013h-1M⊙ and, therefore, consolidate a foundation for the peculiar velocity cosmology. (2) We also find statistically significant signs of bv≠1 at k ≳0.1 h /Mpc . Unfortunately, whether this is real or caused by a residual sampling artifact requires further investigation. Nevertheless, cosmology based on the k ≳0.1 h /Mpc velocity data should be careful with this potential velocity bias.

  15. Elliptical galaxies with rapidly decreasing velocity dispersion profiles: NMAGIC models and dark halo parameter estimates for NGC 4494

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Lucia; Gerhard, Ortwin; Coccato, Lodovico; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Arnaboldi, Magda

    2013-06-01

    NGC 4494 is one of several intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies inferred to have an unusually diffuse dark matter halo. We use the χ2-made-to-measure particle code NMAGIC to construct axisymmetric models of NGC 4494 from photometric and various kinematic data. The extended kinematics include light spectra in multiple slitlets out to 3.5Re, and hundreds of planetary nebula velocities out to ≃7Re, thus allowing us to probe the dark matter content and orbital structure in the halo. We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate confidence boundaries for the halo parameters, given our data and modelling set-up. We find that the true potential of the dark matter halo is recovered within ΔG (merit function) ≲ 26 (Δχ2 ≲ 59) at the 70 per cent confidence level (CL), and within ΔG ≲ 32 (Δχ2 ≲ 70) at the 90 per cent CL. These numbers are much larger than the usually assumed Δχ2 = 2.3 (4.6) for the 70 per cent (90 per cent) CL for two free parameters, perhaps case dependent, but calling into question the general validity of the standard assumptions used for halo and black hole mass determinations. The best-fitting models for NGC 4494 have a dark matter fraction of about 0.6 ± 0.1 at 5Re (70 per cent CL) and are embedded in a dark matter halo with circular velocity ˜200 km s-1. The total circular velocity curve (CVC) is approximately flat at vc = 220 km s-1 outside ˜0.5Re. The orbital anisotropy of the stars is moderately radial. These results are independent of the assumed inclination of the galaxy, and edge-on models are preferred. Comparing with the haloes of NGC 3379 and NGC 4697, whose velocity dispersion profiles also decrease rapidly from the centre outwards, the outer CVCs and dark matter haloes are quite similar. NGC 4494 shows a particularly high dark matter fraction inside ˜ 3Re, and a strong concentration of baryons in the centre.

  16. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  17. Halo formation in high-power klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pakter, R.; Chen, C.

    1999-07-01

    Beam losses and radio-frequency (rf) pulse shortening are important issues in the development of high-power microwave (HPM) sources such as high-power klystrons and relativistic magnetrons. In this paper, the authors explore the formation and characteristics of halos around intense relativistic electron beams in a Periodic Permanent Magnet focusing klystron as well as in a uniform solenoidal focusing klystron. A self-consistent electrostatic model is used to investigate intense relativistic electron beam transport as an rf field induced mismatch between the electron beam and the focusing field develops. To model the effect of such mismatch in the PPM klystron experiment, they initialize the beam with an envelope mismatch. For zero canonical angular momentum and an initial mismatch of 100 percent, for example, the preliminary results show halo particles with a maximum radius extending up to several core radii at the rf output section. Transient effects and the influence of finite canonical angular momentum are being studied.

  18. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  19. Connecting Massive Galaxies to Dark Matter Halos in BOSS. I: Is Galaxy Color a Stochastic Process in High Mass Halos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shun; Leauthaud, Alexie; Hearin, Andrew P.; Bundy, Kevin; Zentner, Andrew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Reid, Beth A.; Sinha, Manodeep; Coupon, Jean; Tinker, Jeremy L.; White, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-05-01

    We use subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) to model the stellar mass function (SMF) and clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) "CMASS" sample at z ˜ 0.5. We introduce a novel method which accounts for the stellar mass incompleteness of CMASS as a function of redshift, and produce CMASS mock catalogs which include selection effects, reproduce the overall SMF, the projected two-point correlation function wp, the CMASS dn/dz, and are made publicly available. We study the effects of assembly bias above collapse mass in the context of "age matching" and show that these effects are markedly different compared to the ones explored by Hearin et al. (2013) at lower stellar masses. We construct two models, one in which galaxy color is stochastic ("AbM" model) as well as a model which contains assembly bias effects ("AgM" model). By confronting the redshift dependent clustering of CMASS with the predictions from our model, we argue that that galaxy colors are not a stochastic process in high-mass halos. Our results suggest that the colors of galaxies in high-mass halos are determined by other halo properties besides halo peak velocity and that assembly bias effects play an important role in determining the clustering properties of this sample.

  20. STELLAR MASS VERSUS STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION: WHICH IS BETTER FOR LINKING GALAXIES TO THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS?

    SciTech Connect

    Li Cheng; Wang Lixin; Jing, Y. P.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently suggested that compared to its stellar mass (M{sub *}), the central stellar velocity dispersion ({sigma}{sub *}) of a galaxy might be a better indicator for its host dark matter halo mass. Here we test this hypothesis by estimating the dark matter halo mass for central galaxies in groups as a function of M{sub *} and {sigma}{sub *}. For this we have estimated the redshift-space cross-correlation function (CCF) between the central galaxies at given M{sub *} and {sigma}{sub *} and a reference galaxy sample, from which we determine both the projected CCF, w{sub p} (r{sub p} ), and the velocity dispersion profile. A halo mass is then obtained from the average velocity dispersion within the virial radius. At fixed M{sub *}, we find very weak or no correlation between halo mass and {sigma}{sub *}. In contrast, strong mass dependence is clearly seen even when {sigma}{sub *} is limited to a narrow range. Our results thus firmly demonstrate that the stellar mass of central galaxies is still a good (if not the best) indicator for dark matter halo mass, better than the stellar velocity dispersion. The dependence of galaxy clustering on {sigma}{sub *} at fixed M{sub *}, as recently discovered by Wake et al., may be attributed to satellite galaxies, for which the tidal stripping occurring within halos has stronger effect on stellar mass than on central stellar velocity dispersion.

  1. Radial Velocities of Very Metal-Poor Stars as Probes of the Dual Halo Model of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Juric, M.; Carollo, D.; Lee, Y.; An, D.; Aoki, W.; Norris, J. E.; Yong, D.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the distribution of radial velocities (RVs) for a large sample of very metal-poor stars from SDSS/SEGUE (N > 25000 with [Fe/H]< -2.0, of which 900 have [Fe/H] < -3.0), and two smaller recent high-resolution spectroscopic studies of the most metal-poor stars known (N > 300, of which 150 have [Fe/H] < -3.0). The RVs are compared with the expected behavior obtained using the GALFAST code of Juric, under the assumption that the halo of the Milky Way comprises a single population with canonical kinematics (e.g., as described by Chiba & Beers 2000). We find clear evidence that the RVs of these stars are inconsistent with draws from such a model, and that they appear to require at least a two-component halo. This test is, by design, independent of questions related to assignment of estimated stellar distances, or selection criteria related to proper motions, and provides strong support of the dual halo model described by Carollo et al. (2007, 2010).

  2. SIMULATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS. I. HYDRODYNAMICS AND HIGH-VELOCITY HIGH IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Kyujin; Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L. E-mail: dbh@physast.uga.edu

    2011-09-20

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) traveling through the hot, tenuous medium in the Galactic halo. A suite of models was created using the FLASH hydrodynamics code, sampling various cloud sizes, densities, and velocities. In all cases, the cloud-halo interaction ablates material from the clouds. The ablated material falls behind the clouds where it mixes with the ambient medium to produce intermediate-temperature gas, some of which radiatively cools to less than 10,000 K. Using a non-equilibrium ionization algorithm, we track the ionization levels of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in the gas throughout the simulation period. We present observation-related predictions, including the expected H I and high ion (C IV, N V, and O VI) column densities on sightlines through the clouds as functions of evolutionary time and off-center distance. The predicted column densities overlap those observed for Complex C. The observations are best matched by clouds that have interacted with the Galactic environment for tens to hundreds of megayears. Given the large distances across which the clouds would travel during such time, our results are consistent with Complex C having an extragalactic origin. The destruction of HVCs is also of interest; the smallest cloud (initial mass {approx} 120 M{sub sun}) lost most of its mass during the simulation period (60 Myr), while the largest cloud (initial mass {approx} 4 x 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}) remained largely intact, although deformed, during its simulation period (240 Myr).

  3. Highly-Ionized Gas in the Galactic Halo: A FUSE Survey of O 6 Absorption toward 22 Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsargo, J.; Sembach, K. R.; Howk, J. C.; Savage, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of 22 Galactic halo stars are studied to determine the amount of O 6 in the Galactic halo between ~0.3 and ~10 kpc from the Galactic mid-plane. Strong O 6 λ 1031.93 absorption was detected toward 21 stars, and a reliable 3 σ upper limit was obtained toward HD 97991. The weaker member of the O 6 doublet at 1037.62 Å could be studied toward only six stars. The observed columns are reasonably consistent with a patchy exponential O 6 distribution with a mid-plane density of 1.7x10-8 cm-3 and scale height between 2.3 and 4 kpc. We do not see clear signs of strong high-velocity components in O 6 absorption along the Galactic sight lines, which indicates the general absence of high velocity O 6 within 2-5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane. The correlation between the H 1 and O 6 intermediate velocity absorption is also poor. The O 6 velocity dispersions are much larger than the value of ~18 km/s expected from thermal broadening for gas at T ~ 3x105 K, the temperature at which O 6 is expected to reach its peak abundance in collisional ionization equilibrium. Turbulence, inflow, and outflow must have an effect on the shape of the O 6 profiles. Kinematical comparisons of O 6 with Ar 1 reveal that 9 of 21 sight lines are closely aligned in LSR velocity (|Δ VLSR| <=5 km/s ), while 8 of 21 exhibit significant velocity differences (|Δ VLSR| >= 15 km/s ). This dual behavior may indicate the presence of two different types of O 6-bearing environments toward the Galactic sight lines. Comparison of O 6 with other highly-ionized species suggests that the high ions are produced primarily by cooling hot gas in the Galactic fountain flow, and that turbulent mixing also has a significant contribution. The role of turbulent mixing is most important toward sight lines that sample supernova remnants like Loop I and IV. We are also able to show that the O 6 enhancement toward the Galactic center region that was observed in the FUSE

  4. The radial velocity dispersion profile of the Galactic halo: constraining the density profile of the dark halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Giuseppina; Helmi, Amina; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Mateo, Mario; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Norris, John; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2005-12-01

    We have compiled a new sample of 240 halo objects with accurate distance and radial velocity measurements, including globular clusters, satellite galaxies, field blue horizontal branch (FHB) stars and red giant stars from the Spaghetti survey. The new data lead to a significant increase in the number of known objects for Galactocentric radii beyond 50 kpc, which allows a reliable determination of the radial velocity dispersion profile out to very large distances. The radial velocity dispersion shows an almost constant value of 120 km s-1 out to 30 kpc and then continuously declines down to 50 km s-1 at about 120 kpc. This fall-off puts important constraints on the density profile and total mass of the dark matter halo of the Milky Way. For a constant velocity anisotropy, the isothermal profile is ruled out, while both a dark halo following a truncated flat (TF) model of mass 1.2+1.8-0.5× 1012Msolar and a Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile of mass 0.8+1.2-0.2× 1012Msolar and c= 18 are consistent with the data. The significant increase in the number of tracers combined with the large extent of the region probed by these has allowed a more precise determination of the Milky Way mass in comparison to previous works. We also show how different assumptions for the velocity anisotropy affect the performance of the mass models.

  5. Core-halo issues for a very high intensity beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, P. A. P.; Chauvin, N.; Uriot, D.

    2014-02-17

    The relevance of classical parameters like beam emittance and envelope used to describe a particle beam is questioned in case of a high intensity accelerator. In the presence of strong space charge effects that affect the beam differently following its density, the much less dense halo part behaves differently from the much denser core part. A method for precisely determining the core-halo limit is proposed, that allows characterizing the halo and the core independently. Results in 1D case are given and discussed. Expected developments extending the method to 2D, 4D, or 6D phase spaces are examined.

  6. Beam-halo measurements in high-current proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.K.; Chan, K.C.D.; Colestock, P.L.; Crandall, K.R.; Garnett, R.W.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Lysenko, W.; Qiang, J.; Schneider, J.D.; Schulze, M.E.; Sheffield, R.L.; Smith, H.V.; Wangler, T.P.

    2002-01-11

    We present results from an experimental study of the beam halo in a high-current 6.7-MeV proton beam propagating through a 52-quadrupole periodic-focusing channel. The gradients of the first four quadrupoles were independently adjusted to match or mismatch the injected beam. Emittances and beamwidths were obtained from measured profiles for comparisons with maximum emittance-growth predictions of a free-energy model and maximum halo-amplitude predictions of a particle-core model. The experimental results support both models and the present theoretical picture of halo formation.

  7. BEAM HALO FORMATION IN HIGH-INTENSITY BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.

    2005-03-18

    Studies of beam halo became unavoidable feature of high-intensity machines where uncontrolled beam loss should be kept to extremely small level. For a well controlled stable beam such a loss is typically associated with the low density halo surrounding beam core. In order to minimize uncontrolled beam loss or improve performance of an accelerator, it is very important to understand what are the sources of halo formation in a specific machine of interest. The dominant mechanisms are, in fact, different in linear accelerators, circular machines or Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL). In this paper, we summarize basic mechanisms of halo formation in high-intensity beams and discuss their application to various types of accelerators of interest, such as linacs, rings and ERL.

  8. The Common-origin of Kinetic Turbulence and Electron-Halo of Velocity Distribution Function in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Haihong

    2015-04-01

    Observations of solar wind show that the power spectra of magnetic fluctuations break from Kolmogorov scaling law at ion inertial length. In addition, the electron velocity distribution function of solar wind exhibits an isotropic halo. What causes the spectral break and electron halo are two puzzles in heliophysics. I present a new model (Che et al., PRL 112, 2014 and ApJL, 795, 2014) that accounts for both puzzles--the kinetic turbulence and electron halo of solar wind originate from the nanoflare-accelerated keV electron beams in the inner corona. With PIC simulations, we found that the keV electron beams drive strong two-stream instabilities. The nonlinear evolution of the two-stream instability gives rise to an isotropic electron halo, kinetic Alfvenic wave and whistler wave turbulence through forward and inverse energy cascades.The most important predictions of this model include: 1) the energy injection plateau in the magnetic power spectra; 2) the enhanced parallel electrostatic fluctuation in the solar wind; 3) the core-halo relative drift, a relic of the saturated two-stream instability; 4) the temperature ratio of core-halo is determined by the two-stream instability heating property and the core-halo density ratio. The generation of Langmuir waves can produce type III micro-radio bursts that resemble the well-studied type III bursts observed in solar flares.

  9. SIMULATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS. II. ABLATION FROM HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS AS A SOURCE OF LOW-VELOCITY HIGH IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Kwak, Kyujin; Shelton, Robin L. E-mail: rls@physast.uga.edu

    2012-07-01

    In order to determine if the material ablated from high-velocity clouds (HVCs) is a significant source of low-velocity high ions (C IV, N V, and O VI) such as those found in the Galactic halo, we simulate the hydrodynamics of the gas and the time-dependent ionization evolution of its carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen ions. Our suite of simulations examines the ablation of warm material from clouds of various sizes, densities, and velocities as they pass through the hot Galactic halo. The ablated material mixes with the environmental gas, producing an intermediate-temperature mixture that is rich in high ions and that slows to the speed of the surrounding gas. We find that the slow mixed material is a significant source of the low-velocity O VI that is observed in the halo, as it can account for at least {approx}1/3 of the observed O VI column density. Hence, any complete model of the high ions in the halo should include the contribution to the O VI from ablated HVC material. However, such material is unlikely to be a major source of the observed C IV, presumably because the observed C IV is affected by photoionization, which our models do not include. We discuss a composite model that includes contributions from HVCs, supernova remnants, a cooling Galactic fountain, and photoionization by an external radiation field. By design, this model matches the observed O VI column density. This model can also account for most or all of the observed C IV, but only half of the observed N V.

  10. A Detailed Analysis of the Multi-Velocity Components of strong HI-selected absorbers in the Halos of z~0.5 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoof, Brittany; Ribaudo, Joseph; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    One driving force of galaxy evolution is the presence and circulation of material throughout the extended gaseous environment of a galaxy, the circumgalactic material (CGM). In the Milky Way, high-velocity clouds (HVC) are well studied systems that trace outflows, inflows, and recycled material throughout the CGM. We examine archival QSO spectra from HST/COS in an effort to similarly identify absorption systems with high-velocity absorption relative to the rest-frame of a strong HI-selected absorber in order to dissect the various components and their origins in the halos of z~0.5 galaxies.

  11. TWO DISTANT HALO VELOCITY GROUPS DISCOVERED BY THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Cohen, Judith G.; Levitan, David; Kirby, Evan N.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Prince, Thomas A.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason A.; Juric, Mario; Ofek, Eran O.

    2012-08-20

    We report the discovery of two new halo velocity groups (Cancer groups A and B) traced by eight distant RR Lyrae stars and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory survey at R.A. {approx} 129 Degree-Sign , decl. {approx} 20 Degree-Sign (l {approx} 205 Degree-Sign , b {approx} 32 Degree-Sign ). Located at 92 kpc from the Galactic center (86 kpc from the Sun), these are some of the most distant substructures in the Galactic halo known to date. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Palomar Observatory 5.1 m Hale telescope and W. M. Keck Observatory 10 m Keck I telescope indicate that the two groups are moving away from the Galaxy at v-bar{sub gsr}{sup A} = 78.0{+-}5.6 km s{sup -1} (Cancer group A) and v-bar{sub gsr}{sup B} = 16.3{+-}7.1 km s{sup -1} (Cancer group B). The groups have velocity dispersions of {sigma}{sub v{sub g{sub s{sub r}{sup A}}}} = 12.4{+-}5.0 km s{sup -1} and {sigma}B{sub v{sub g{sub s{sub r}{sup B}}}} =14.9{+-}6.2 km s{sup -1} and are spatially extended (about several kpc), making it very unlikely that they are bound systems, and more likely to be debris of tidally disrupted dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. Both groups are metal-poor (median metallicities of [Fe/H]{sup A} = -1.6 dex and [Fe/H]{sup B} = -2.1 dex) and have a somewhat uncertain (due to small sample size) metallicity dispersion of {approx}0.4 dex, suggesting dwarf galaxies as progenitors. Two additional RR Lyrae stars with velocities consistent with those of the Cancer groups have been observed {approx}25 Degree-Sign east, suggesting possible extension of the groups in that direction.

  12. The Milky Way's halo in 6D: Gaia's Radial Velocity Spectrometer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, George; Cropper, Mark; Katz, David; Sartoretti, Paola; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Marchal, Olivier; Gueguen, Alain; Benson, Kevin; Dolding, Chris; Huckle, Howard; Smith, Mike; Baker, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Gaia's Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) has been operating in routine phase for over one year since initial commissioning. RVS continues to work well but the higher than expected levels of straylight reduce the limiting magnitude. The end-of-mission radial-velocity (RV) performance requirement for G2V stars was 15 km s-1 at V = 16.5 mag. Instead, 15 km s-1 precision is achieved at 15 < V < 16 mag, consistent with simulations that predict a loss of 1.4 mag. Simulations also suggest that changes to Gaia's onboard software could recover ~0.14 mag of this loss. Consequently Gaia's onboard software was upgraded in April 2015. The status of this new commissioning period is presented, as well as the latest scientific performance of the on-ground processing of RVS spectra. We illustrate the implications of the RVS limiting magnitude on Gaia's view of the Milky Way's halo in 6D using the Gaia Universe Model Snapshot (GUMS).

  13. High geocentric velocity meteor ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. A.; Rogers, L. A.; Hawkes, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    Interstellar origin meteoroids have now been detected using radar, image intensified video, large aperture radar and space dust impact techniques. Dynamical and radiation production mechanisms will eject some meteoroids from other planetary systems into orbits which will impact Earth with high geocentric velocities. In this paper we numerically model the ablation of high geocentric velocity (71 to 500~km s-1) meteors in order to predict the heights, light curves and trail lengths to be expected. We modeled three compositions and structures: asteroidal, cometary and porous cometary. Meteoroid masses ranging from 10-6 to 10-13~kg were used in the model. As expected, these high geocentric velocity meteors, when compared to other meteors, ablate higher in the atmosphere. For example a 300~km s-1 cometary structure meteor of mass 10-9~kg will have a peak luminosity at about 190 km. They will also have significantly longer trail lengths. The same 300~km s-1, 10-9~kg cometary meteor would be within 2 mag of its peak brightness for a vertical displacement of 60 km if incident at a zenith angle of 45°. The peak light intensity of these high geocentric velocity meteors changes only slowly with velocity. Although the incident kinetic energy per unit time increases dramatically, this is largely offset by a decrease in the optical luminous efficiency in this velocity regime according to our luminous efficiency model. The 300~km s-1, 10-9~kg cometary meteor would have an absolute meteor magnitude at peak luminosity of about +8.5 mag. Our results suggest that at least those high geocentric velocity meteors larger than about 10-8~kg should be observable with current meteor electro-optical technology although there may be observational biases against their detection. The results of this paper can be used to help optimize a search strategy for these very high geocentric velocity meteors.

  14. Highly ionized gas in the Galactic halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Slavin, Jonathan D.

    1994-01-01

    We reexamine the values of electron density n(sub e) and gas pressure P/k in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Galactic halo, as inferred from C IV emission and absorption lines and using current C IV atomic data. In a homogeneous model with 4.7 less than or equal to log T less than or equal to 5.3, the data are consistent with 0.01 less than or equal to n(sub e) less than or equal to 0.02/cu cm and 2200 less than or equal to P/k less than or equal to 3700/cu cm K, a factor of 2-3 higher than advocated by Martin & Bowyer (1990) and comparable to the thermal pressure in the disk. If some of the C IV absorption arises from nonemitting, photoionized gas, then the inferred density and pressure will increase accordingly. The volume filling factor for homogeneous models ranges from 0.5% to 5%. Because of the constraints arising from filling factor and radiated power, most of the C IV must arise from gas near the peak of the cooling curve, at log t less than or equal to 5.6. We relate both emission-line and absorption-line observations to recent models in which turbulent mixing layers and isobarically cooling supernova remnants (SNRs) provide significant amounts of halo gas at approximately 10(exp 5.3) K and process 20-40 solar mass/yr with a power of approximately 10(exp 41) ergs/sec. Since the observed C IV and N V absorption scale heights have been reported to differ, at 4.9 kpc and 1.6 kpc, respectively, we examine inhomogeneous models with different exponential scale heights of T, P, and SN energy input. The ISM may change its character with distance above the Galactic plane, as superbubbles and mixing layers dominate over isolated SNRs as the source of the C IV. For appropiate scale heights, the midplane pressure is twice the homogeneous values quoted above. The O IV lambda 1034 diffuse emission line, which can be used as a temperature diagnostic of the hot gas, is predicted to be comparable in strength to that of C IV lambda 1549 (approximately 6000 photons

  15. The distance to the high velocity clouds of neutral hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the distance to high velocity gas clouds. These clouds are believed to lie in the halo of the galaxy, but this is a matter of controversy. The technique was used to look for the effect of absorption by these clouds against the light of stars at various distances along the line of sight to these clouds. This was done in the ultraviolet using the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Absorption at the velocity of the clouds was not found in any of the stars, which have kiloparsec distances. It was concluded that the vertical distance to these clouds is at least 1.5 kpc, putting them firmly in the halo of the galaxy.

  16. Connecting massive galaxies to dark matter haloes in BOSS - I. Is galaxy colour a stochastic process in high-mass haloes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shun; Leauthaud, Alexie; Hearin, Andrew P.; Bundy, Kevin; Zentner, Andrew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Reid, Beth A.; Sinha, Manodeep; Coupon, Jean; Tinker, Jeremy L.; White, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    We use subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) to model the stellar mass function (SMF) and clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) `CMASS' sample at z ˜ 0.5. We introduce a novel method which accounts for the stellar mass incompleteness of CMASS as a function of redshift, and produce CMASS mock catalogues which include selection effects, reproduce the overall SMF, the projected two-point correlation function wp, the CMASS dn/dz, and are made publicly available. We study the effects of assembly bias above collapse mass in the context of `age matching' and show that these effects are markedly different compared to the ones explored by Hearin et al. at lower stellar masses. We construct two models, one in which galaxy colour is stochastic (`AbM' model) as well as a model which contains assembly bias effects (`AgM' model). By confronting the redshift dependent clustering of CMASS with the predictions from our model, we argue that that galaxy colours are not a stochastic process in high-mass haloes. Our results suggest that the colours of galaxies in high-mass haloes are determined by other halo properties besides halo peak velocity and that assembly bias effects play an important role in determining the clustering properties of this sample.

  17. A High-Throughput Yeast Halo Assay for Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bray, Walter; Lokey, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    When a disk of filter paper is impregnated with a cytotoxic or cytostatic drug and added to solid medium seeded with yeast, a visible clear zone forms around the disk whose size depends on the concentration and potency of the drug. This is the traditional "halo" assay and provides a convenient, if low-throughput, read-out of biological activity that has been the mainstay of antifungal and antibiotic testing for decades. Here, we describe a protocol for a high-throughput version of the halo assay, which uses an array of 384 pins to deliver ∼200 nL of stock solutions from compound plates onto single-well plates seeded with yeast. Using a plate reader in the absorbance mode, the resulting halos can be quantified and the data archived in the form of flat files that can be connected to compound databases with standard software. This assay has the convenience associated with the visual readout of the traditional halo assay but uses far less material and can be automated to screen thousands of compounds per day. PMID:27587777

  18. The velocity distribution of cometary hydrogen - Evidence for high velocities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael E.; Spinrad, Hyron

    1993-01-01

    The Hamilton Echelle spectrograph on the 3-m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory was used to obtain high-velocity and spatial resolution 2D spectra of H-alpha 6563-A emission in Comets Austin and Levy. The presence of the components expected from water dissociation and collisional thermalization in the inner coma is confirmed by the hydrogen velocity distribution. In Comet Austin, the potential high-velocity hydrogen includes velocities of up to about 40 km/s and is spatially symmetric with respect to the nucleus. In Comet Levy, the high-velocity hydrogen reaches velocities of up to 50 km/s and is situated exclusively on the sunward side of the nucleus. The two distinct signatures of high-velocity hydrogen imply two distinct sources.

  19. Full halo coronal mass ejections: Do we need to correct the projection effect in terms of velocity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Pan, Z.; Zhang, M.; Ye, P.; Wang, S.

    2013-12-01

    The projection effect would distort our understanding of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and influence the space weather forecasting. To evaluate the projection effect, the de-projected kinematic parameters of full halo CMEs (FHCMEs) listed in the CDAW CME catalog from 2007 March 1 to 2012 May 31 are studied by applying the Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) model. It is revealed that, although these CMEs are all full halo in the view angle of SOHO, the de-projected parameters, including the propagation direction and angular width, could vary in a large range. Projection effect is a major but not only reason causing a CME being halo. By comparing the de-projected velocity with projected velocity of these CMEs, we find that not all of FHCMEs need to be corrected for their velocities; Almost all the FHCMEs which have obvious projection effect are originating within 45 of the Sun-Earth line and moving slower than 900 km/s in the plane-of-sky.

  20. Full halo coronal mass ejections: Do we need to correct the projection effect in terms of velocity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Pan, Zonghao; Zhang, Min; Ye, Pinzhong; Wang, S.

    2013-11-01

    The projection effect is one of the biggest obstacles in learning the real properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and forecasting their geoeffectiveness. To evaluate the projection effect, 86 full halo CMEs (FHCMEs) listed in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop CME catalog from 1 March 2007 to 31 May 2012 are investigated. By applying the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model, we obtain the deprojected values of the propagation velocity, direction, and angular width of these FHCMEs and compare them with the projected values measured in the plane-of-sky. Although these CMEs look full halo in the view angle of SOHO, it is found that their propagation directions and angular widths could vary in a large range, implying projection effect is a major reason causing a CME being halo, but not the only one. Furthermore, the comparison of the deprojected and projected velocities reveals that most FHCMEs originating within 45° of the Sun-Earth line with a projected speed slower than 900 km s-1 suffer from large projection effect, while the FHCMEs originating far from the vicinity of solar disk center or moving faster than 900 km s-1have small projection effect. Thus, for the latter class of FHCMEs, it is not necessary to correct the measured velocities.

  1. Simulations of High Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Robin

    Recently, a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding clouds of fast moving material within and near our Galaxy. Not only have observations revealed more clouds and enabled better distance estimates, but they have found large numbers of high velocity high ions. Observations of faint stars have revealed that our Galaxy is threaded with streams of stars, the likely remnants of subsumed dwarf galaxies. It has become apparent that the gas stripped from such galaxies likely contributed to the population of high velocity clouds (HVCs), making HVCs signposts of the Milky Way's growth via accretion. Theoretical and simulational work on this explanation for HVCs have advanced as have theoretical and simulational work on other explanations and on HVC-galaxy interactions. But, much work has yet to be done. Here, we propose a suite of multi-dimensional simulations of HVC-galaxy interactions designed to determine how HVCs affect the Galaxy and designed to determine the characteristics of the clouds and environmental gas that enable high velocity gas to be rich in high stage ions. This work will contribute toward NASA's strategic goal to discover how the universe works and evolves. The project will employ simulations and theory, while also producing results that will be helpful for deciphering vast numbers of observations taken by NASA telescopes.

  2. The formation of massive black holes in z ˜ 30 dark matter haloes with large baryonic streaming velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Li, Miao

    2014-03-01

    The origins of the ˜109 M⊙ quasar supermassive black holes (BHs) at redshifts z > 6 remain a theoretical puzzle. One possibility is that they grew from ˜105 M⊙ BHs formed in the `direct collapse' of pristine, atomic-cooling (temperatures ≳ 8000 K; PAC) gas that did not fragment to form ordinary stars due to a lack of molecular hydrogen and metals. We propose that baryonic streaming - the relic relative motion of gas with respect to dark matter from cosmological recombination - provides a natural mechanism for establishing the conditions necessary for direct collapse. This effect delays the formation of the first stars by inhibiting the infall of gas into dark matter haloes; streaming velocities more than twice the root-mean-square value could forestall star formation until halo virial temperatures ≳ 8000 K. The resulting PAC gas can proceed to form massive BHs by any of the mechanisms proposed in the literature to induce direct collapse in the absence of an ultraviolet background. This scenario produces haloes containing PAC gas at a characteristic redshift z ˜ 30. It can explain the abundance of the most luminous quasars at z ≈ 6, regardless of whether direct collapse occurs in nearly all or less than 1 per cent of PAC haloes.

  3. PROBING THE HALO FROM THE SOLAR VICINITY TO THE OUTER GALAXY: CONNECTING STARS IN LOCAL VELOCITY STRUCTURES TO LARGE-SCALE CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sheffield, Allyson A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.

    2012-11-20

    This paper presents the first potential connections made between two local features in velocity space found in a survey of M giant stars and stellar spatial inhomogeneities on global scales. Comparison to cosmological, chemodynamical stellar halo models confirms that the M giant population is particularly sensitive to rare, recent and massive accretion events. These events can give rise to locally observed velocity sequences-each made from a small fraction of debris from a massive progenitor, passing at high velocity through the survey volume, near the pericenter of the eccentric orbit of the system. The majority of the debris is found in much larger structures, whose morphologies are more cloud-like than stream-like and which lie at the orbital apocenters. Adopting this interpretation, the full-space motions represented by the observed M giant velocity features are derived under the assumption that the members within each sequence share a common space velocity. Orbit integrations are then used to trace the past and future trajectories of these stars across the sky revealing plausible associations with large, previously discovered, cloud-like structures. The connections made between nearby velocity structures and these distant clouds represent preliminary steps toward developing coherent maps of such giant debris systems. These maps promise to provide new insights into the origin of debris clouds, new probes of Galactic history and structure, and new constraints on the high-velocity tails of the local dark matter distribution that are essential for interpreting direct dark matter particle detection experiments.

  4. The Formation of Dark Matter Halos and High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Shy

    2011-03-01

    In the concordance ΛCDMcosmological model, galaxies form in the centers of dark matter halos and merge with one another following the mergers of their host halos. Thus, we set out to quantify the growth mechanisms of dark matter halos. For this purpose, we analyze several large N-body simulations of the growth of cosmic structure. We devise a novel merger tree construction algorithm that properly takes into account halo fragmentations. We find that the merger rate evolves rapidly with redshift but depends weakly on mass, and that the proportions between mergers of different mass ratios, e.g.major and minor mergers, are universal. We also show that the merger rate per progenitor halo (related to future mergers and to galaxy pair counting) is smaller than that per descendant halo (related to past mergers and galaxy disturbed morphplogies), and that their redshift and mass dependencies are different. We find that only ~60%of the mass accreted onto halos arrives in mergers that are resolved in our simulations. Moreover, the functional form of the merger rate suggests that the merger contribution saturates at that value. Using full particle histories, we confirm that smoothly-accreted particles make a significant fraction of dark matter halos. This has important implications for the smoothness of gas accretion. Disk galaxies at z~2are rapidly star-forming, but show regular rotation, indicating little merger activity. We use a large dark matter simulation to show that even non-merging z~2 halos grow fast enough to explain observed high star-formation rates. We also follow those halos to z=0, finding that many do not undergo major mergers at all. The z~2disks also show high velocity dispersions and irregular clumpy morphologies. We run "zoom-in" cosmological hydrodynamical simulations focusing on the formation of individual z~2 galaxies. We find that the clumpy morphologies are a result of gravitational instability, where the high random motions make the (turbulent

  5. High Velocity Outflows in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola; Nestor, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    High velocity (HV) outflows are important components of SMBH growth and evolution. The ability of SMBHs to accrete matter and light up as AGN probably requires that outflows are present to carry away angular momentum. Outflows during the luminous AGN phase might also play a critical role in ``unveiling" young dust-enshrouded AGN and in ``polluting" the intergalactic medium with metals at high redshifts. Nonetheless, AGN outflows remain poorly understood. We have begun a program to study a nearly unexplored realm of AGN outflow parameter space: HV winds with v> 10,000 km/s up to v~ 0.2c but small velocity dispersions (narrow absorption lines), such that v/(Delta) v ≫ 1. These extreme outflows have been detected so far in just a few quasars, but they might be ubiquitous if, as expected, the flows subtend a small solid angle as seen from the central engine. Narrow-line HV flows merit specific attention because they pose unique challenges for theoretical models of the wind acceleration, mass loss rates, launch radii, etc. They might also comprise a significant fraction of absorbers previously attributed to unrelated (interveinng) gas or galaxies. We have compiled a list of bright quasars with candidate HV outflow lines (CIV 1550 A) in existing SDSS spectra. We now propose to observe ~50 of these candidates with the 2.1m GoldCam to i) identify/confirm some of the true outflow systems (based on line variability), ii) place a firm lower limit on the fraction of quasars with narrow-line HV outflows, iii) compile a short list of confirmed HV outflow sources for future study, and iv) use the combined SDSS and GoldCam data to measure or constrain basic outflow properties, such as the kinematics, locations, and physical conditions.

  6. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.

    1998-02-01

    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  7. MAGNETIZED GAS IN THE SMITH HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Alex S.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Mao, S. A.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Lockman, Felix J. E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au E-mail: benjamir@uww.edu

    2013-11-01

    We report the first detection of magnetic fields associated with the Smith High Velocity Cloud. We use a catalog of Faraday rotation measures toward extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud, new H I observations from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a spectroscopic map of Hα from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey. There are enhancements in rotation measure (RM) of ≈100 rad m{sup –2} which are generally well correlated with decelerated Hα emission. We estimate a lower limit on the line-of-sight component of the field of ≈8 μG along a decelerated filament; this is a lower limit due to our assumptions about the geometry. No RM excess is evident in sightlines dominated by H I or Hα at the velocity of the Smith Cloud. The smooth Hα morphology of the emission at the Smith Cloud velocity suggests photoionization by the Galactic ionizing radiation field as the dominant ionization mechanism, while the filamentary morphology and high (≈1 Rayleigh) Hα intensity of the lower-velocity magnetized ionized gas suggests an ionization process associated with shocks due to interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. The presence of the magnetic field may contribute to the survival of high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud as they move from the Galactic halo to the disk. We expect these data to provide a test for magnetohydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas.

  8. What Happens to a High Velocity Cloud When it Hits the Milky Way's Disk: Is Dark Matter Necessary for Survival?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Robin L.; Galyardt, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter halos enshroud some of the most massive high velocity clouds. Their gravitational pull confines the clouds as they pass through the intergalactic medium. Given the ability of dark matter halos to stabilize their embedded baryonic clouds against hydrodynamic interactions that would otherwise disrupt them, it has further been suggested that dark matter halos could enable high velocity clouds to survive impacts with the Milky Way's disk. The survival of high velocity clouds, such as the Smith Cloud, during a passage through the disk has been cited as evidence for the presence of dark matter. However, a second actor, the magnetic field, may also be at play. In order to characterize, measure, and disentangle their effects, we have performed magnetohydrodynamic simulations of massive high velocity clouds as they impact a galactic disk. Here, we present the rate at which material dissipates in a variety of situations that include or exclude dark matter and magnetic fields.

  9. IUE observations of blue halo high luminosity stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.; Franco, M. L.; Stalio, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two high luminosity population II blue stars of high galactic latitude, BD+33 deg 2642 and HD 137569 were observed at high resolution. The stellar spectra show the effect of mass loss in BD+33 deg 2642 and abnormally weak metallic lines in HD 137569. The interstellar lines in the direction of BD+33 deg 2642, which lies at a height z greater than or equal to 6.2 kpc from the galactic plane, are split into two components. No high ionization stages are found at the low velocity component; nor can they be detected in the higher velocity clouds because of mixing with the corresponding stellar/circumstellar lines.

  10. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl via Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the solar wind electron halo can be formed by the scattering of the strahl. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions) a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a very limited energy range. When the magnetic field is well off the nominal solar wind flow direction such filaments are inconsistent with any local forces and are probably the result of strong scattering. Furthermore, observations indicates that the strahl component is frequently and significantly anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx.2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  11. INTERMEDIATE-VELOCITY MOLECULAR GAS AT HIGH NORTHERN GALACTIC LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, Loris; Smith, Allison J.

    2010-10-20

    We surveyed the CO(1-0) transition in 16 regions at Galactic latitudes >45{sup 0} which contain compact dust cores less than half a degree in size with E(B - V) values {approx} 0.1 mag. We discovered three new intermediate-velocity molecular clouds and two high-latitude molecular clouds with more typical local standard of rest velocity ({approx}0 km s{sup -1}). The three intermediate-velocity molecular clouds (detected in CO emission in 11 lines of sight) nearly double the number of previously known, CO-emitting clouds. In order to detect the CO(1-0) line, N(H{sub 2}) values of at least 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} are necessary, implying that the molecular/atomic fraction of these objects is significant and is in contrast to the primarily atomic lines of sight with log N(H{sub 2}) < 17.3 detected in absorption by FUSE. The three molecular clouds are projected on and likely associated with a previously known intermediate-velocity H I feature known as the Intermediate Velocity Spur that may extend to the Galactic halo.

  12. Constraints on the Orbit of High Velocity Cloud Complex A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Alexandre; Benjamin, R. A.; Penn, J. A.; Wakker, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    Galactic high-velocity clouds are generally thought to be circum-galactic clouds of neutral hydrogen gas orbiting the Milky Way at distances of a few to a few hundred kiloparsecs from the disk of the Milky Way. Recent efforts to bracket the distances to these clouds via searches for optical/ultraviolet absorption lines in the spectra of distant halo stars have led to new distances limits for many of the larger cloud "complexes". This advance allows for the calculation of more secure orbits for these clouds, with orbital estimates now available for the Magellanic Stream, GCN (Galactic Center Negative) complex, GCP (Galactic Center Positive, or Smith Cloud) complex, and Complex H. We present new constraints on the trajectory of high velocity cloud Complex A, matching the distance constraints, the radial velocity and gradient in the radial velocity. The dependence of these orbital parameters on the section of the complex matched, the model potential, tidal disruption, and drag forces are all presented. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881 and NASA Astrophysical Theory program award NNX10AI70G.

  13. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  14. ASSEMBLY BIAS AND THE DYNAMICAL STRUCTURE OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Faltenbacher, Andreas; White, Simon D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Millennium Simulation we examine assembly bias for the halo properties: shape, triaxiality, concentration, spin, shape of the velocity ellipsoid, and velocity anisotropy. For consistency, we determine all these properties using the same set of particles, namely all gravitationally self-bound particles belonging to the most massive substructure of a given friends-of-friends halo. We confirm that near-spherical and high-spin halos show enhanced clustering. The opposite is true for strongly aspherical and low-spin halos. Further, below the typical collapse mass, M{sub *}, more concentrated halos show stronger clustering, whereas less concentrated halos are less clustered which is reversed for masses above M{sub *}. Going beyond earlier work we show that: (1) oblate halos are more strongly clustered than prolate ones; (2) the dependence of clustering on the shape of the velocity ellipsoid coincides with that of the real-space shape, although the signal is stronger; (3) halos with weak velocity anisotropy are more clustered, whereas radially anisotropic halos are more weakly clustered; (4) for all highly clustered subsets we find systematically less radially biased velocity anisotropy profiles. These findings indicate that the velocity structure of halos is tightly correlated with environment.

  15. Detection of ultraviolet halos around highly inclined galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-07-10

    We report the discovery of diffuse ultraviolet light around late-type galaxies out to 5-20 kpc from the midplane using Swift and GALEX images. The emission is consistent with the stellar outskirts in the early-type galaxies but not in the late-type galaxies, where the emission is quite blue and consistent with a reflection nebula powered by light escaping from the galaxy and scattering off dust in the halo. Our results agree with expectations from halo dust discovered in extinction by Ménard et al. to within a few kpc of the disk and imply a comparable amount of hot and cold gas in galaxy halos (a few× 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉} within 20 kpc) if the dust resides primarily in Mg II absorbers. The results also highlight the potential of UV photometry to study individual galaxy halos.

  16. High velocity pulsed wire-arc spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor); Kincaid, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Wire arc spraying using repetitively pulsed, high temperature gas jets, usually referred to as plasma jets, and generated by capillary discharges, substantially increases the velocity of atomized and entrained molten droplets. The quality of coatings produced is improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the coated surface. The effectiveness of wire-arc spraying is improved by replacing the usual atomizing air stream with a rapidly pulsed high velocity plasma jet. Pulsed power provides higher coating particle velocities leading to improved coatings. 50 micron aluminum droplets with velocities of 1500 m/s are produced. Pulsed plasma jet spraying provides the means to coat the insides of pipes, tubes, and engine block cylinders with very high velocity droplet impact.

  17. High velocity gas in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamphuis, J.; Vanderhulst, J. M.; Sancisi, R.

    1990-01-01

    Two nearby, nearly face-on spiral galaxies, M 101 and NGC 6946, observed in the HI with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) as part of a program to search for high velocity gas in other galaxies, are used to illustrate the range of properties of high velocity gas in other galaxies found thusfar.

  18. High dynamic range image display with halo and clipping prevention.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Gabriele; Marsi, Stefano; Ramponi, Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    The dynamic range of an image is defined as the ratio between the highest and the lowest luminance level. In a high dynamic range (HDR) image, this value exceeds the capabilities of conventional display devices; as a consequence, dedicated visualization techniques are required. In particular, it is possible to process an HDR image in order to reduce its dynamic range without producing a significant change in the visual sensation experienced by the observer. In this paper, we propose a dynamic range reduction algorithm that produces high-quality results with a low computational cost and a limited number of parameters. The algorithm belongs to the category of methods based upon the Retinex theory of vision and was specifically designed in order to prevent the formation of common artifacts, such as halos around the sharp edges and clipping of the highlights, that often affect methods of this kind. After a detailed analysis of the state of the art, we shall describe the method and compare the results and performance with those of two techniques recently proposed in the literature and one commercial software. PMID:21078576

  19. High velocity knot in the Helix nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Meaburn, J.; Walsh, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A high velocity (about 66 km/s) split feature about 15 arcseconds in extent has been detected in forbidden O II emission over a dark knot in the loop of the Helix nebula. This velocity splitting is much greater than the 20 km/s large scale splitting observed previously, and several mechanisms are proposed to account for this feature.

  20. High precision atomic data for halo nuclei and related nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Noertershaeuser, Wilfried

    2013-07-11

    Nuclear charge radii of the lightest neutron-halo isotopes {sup 6,8}He, {sup 11}Li, and {sup 11}Be have been measured during the last decade using tailored laser-spectroscopic techniques for the needs of high-accuracy isotope shift measurements on millisecond-isotopes with very low production yields. Nuclear charge radii can be extracted using high-precision calculations of the mass-shift contribution and the electronic factor of the finite-nuclear-size effect. These results are important benchmarks for nuclear structure theory and give access to the correlations between halo neutrons and average distances of the halo neutrons from the core nucleus.

  1. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, S. Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Fukano, A.

    2014-02-15

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.

  2. High velocity pulsed plasma thermal spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Massey, D. W.; Kincaid, R. W.; Whichard, G. C.; Mozhi, T. A.

    2002-03-01

    The quality and durability of coatings produced by many thermal spray techniques could be improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the substrate. Additionally, better control of the chemical and thermal environment seen by the particles during flight is crucial to the quality of the coating. A high velocity thermal spray device is under development through a Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, which provides significantly higher impact velocity for accelerated particles than is currently available with existing thermal spray devices. This device utilizes a pulsed plasma as the accelerative medium for powders introduced into the barrel. Recent experiments using a particle imaging diagnostic system showed that the device can accelerate stainless steel and WC-Co powders to velocities ranging from 1500 to 2200 m/s. These high velocities are accomplished without the use of combustible gases and without the need of a vacuum chamber, while maintaining an inert atmosphere for the particles during acceleration. The high velocities corresponded well to modeling predictions, and these same models suggest that velocities as high as 3000 m/s or higher are possible.

  3. The halo Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Racco, Davide; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Dark matter halos are the building blocks of the universe as they host galaxies and clusters. The knowledge of the clustering properties of halos is therefore essential for the understanding of the galaxy statistical properties. We derive an effective halo Boltzmann equation which can be used to describe the halo clustering statistics. In particular, we show how the halo Boltzmann equation encodes a statistically biased gravitational force which generates a bias in the peculiar velocities of virialized halos with respect to the underlying dark matter, as recently observed in N-body simulations.

  4. Core-halo limit and internal dynamics of high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, P. A. P.; Valette, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pichoff, N.; Uriot, D.

    2015-08-15

    The dynamics of high-intensity beams largely depends on their internal space charge forces. These forces are responsible of non-linear coupling, emittance growth, and halo generation. They contribute to shape the beam density profile. As a consequence, an analysis of this profile can be a precious indicator capable of revealing the internal dynamics of the beam. This paper recalls the precise core-halo limit determination proposed earlier, then studies its behavior through a wide range of beam profiles, and finally shows its relevance as an indicator of the limit separating the two space charge field regimes of the core and the halo.

  5. Discovery of High Proper-Motion Ancient White Dwarfs: Nearby Massive Compact Halo Objects?

    PubMed

    Ibata; Irwin; Bienaymé; Scholz; Guibert

    2000-03-20

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic identification of two very high proper-motion ancient white dwarf stars, found in a systematic proper-motion survey. Their kinematics and apparent magnitude clearly indicate that they are halo members, while their optical spectra are almost identical to the recently identified cool halo white dwarf WD 0346+246. Canonical stellar halo models predict a white dwarf volume density that is 2 orders of magnitude less than the rho approximately 7x10-4 M middle dot in circle pc-3 inferred from this survey. With the caveat that the sample size is very small, it appears that a significant fraction, approximately 10%, of the local dark matter halo is in the form of very old, cool, white dwarfs. PMID:10702128

  6. Internal Detonation Velocity Measurements Inside High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J; Bennett, C V; Cole, G; Hare, D E; May, C; Udd, E

    2009-01-16

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation models and detonation models of high explosives, the ability to continuously measure the detonation velocity within an explosive is required. Progress on an embedded velocity diagnostic using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber containing a chirped fiber Bragg grating is reported. As the chirped fiber Bragg grating is consumed by the moving detonation wave, the physical length of the unconsumed Bragg grating is monitored with a fast InGaAs photodiode. Experimental details of the associated equipment and data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within PBX-9502 are presented. This small diameter fiber sensor has the potential to measure internal detonation velocities on the order of 10 mm/{micro}sec along path lengths tens of millimeters long.

  7. Multiphase galaxy formation: high-velocity clouds and the missing baryon problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maller, Ariyeh H.; Bullock, James S.

    2004-12-01

    The standard treatment of cooling in cold dark matter haloes assumes that all of the gas within a `cooling radius' cools and contracts monolithically to fuel galaxy formation. Here we take into account the expectation that the hot gas in galactic haloes is thermally unstable and prone to fragmentation during cooling and we show that the implications are more far-reaching than previously expected: allowing multiphase cooling fundamentally alters expectations about gas infall in galactic haloes and naturally gives rise to a characteristic upper limit on the masses of galaxies, as observed. Specifically, we argue that cooling should proceed via the formation of high-density, ~104 K clouds, pressure-confined within a hot gas background. The background medium that emerges has a low density, and can survive as a hydrostatically stable corona with a long cooling time. The fraction of halo baryons contained in the residual hot core component grows with halo mass because the cooling density increases with gas temperature, and this leads to an upper-mass limit in quiescent, non-merged galaxies of ~1011 Msolar. In this scenario, galaxy formation is fuelled by the infall of pressure-supported clouds. For Milky-Way-size systems, clouds of mass ~5 × 106 Msolar that formed or merged within the last several Gyr should still exist as a residual population in the halo, with a total mass in clouds of ~2 × 1010 Msolar. The baryonic mass of the Milky Way galaxy is explained naturally in this model, and is a factor of 2 smaller than would result in the standard treatment without feedback. We expect clouds in galactic haloes to be ~1 kpc in size and to extend ~150 kpc from galactic centres. The predicted properties of Milky Way clouds match well the observed radial velocity distribution, angular sizes, column densities and velocity widths of high-velocity clouds around our Galaxy. The clouds we predict are also of the type needed to explain high-ion absorption systems at z < 1, and the

  8. A stellar feedback origin for neutral hydrogen in high-redshift quasar-mass haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Feldmann, Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Murray, Norman

    2016-09-01

    Observations reveal that quasar host haloes at z ˜ 2 have large covering fractions of cool dense gas (≳60 per cent for Lyman limit systems within a projected virial radius). Most simulations have so far failed to explain these large observed covering fractions. We analyse a new set of 15 simulated massive haloes with explicit stellar feedback from the FIRE project, covering the halo mass range Mh ≈ 2 × 1012 - 1013 M⊙ at z = 2. This extends our previous analysis of the circum-galactic medium of high-redshift galaxies to more massive haloes. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback is not included in these simulations. We find Lyman limit system covering fractions consistent with those observed around quasars. The large H I covering fractions arise from star formation-driven galactic winds, including winds from low-mass satellite galaxies that interact with cosmological filaments. We show that it is necessary to resolve these satellite galaxies and their winds to reproduce the large Lyman limit system covering fractions observed in quasar-mass haloes. Our simulations predict that galaxies occupying dark matter haloes of mass similar to quasars but without a luminous AGN should have Lyman limit system covering fractions comparable to quasars.

  9. Properties of the highly ionized disk and halo gas toward two distant high-latitude stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) intermediate -resolution observations of S III, Si III, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption along the sight lines to HD 18100 (l = 217.9 deg, b = -62.7, d = 3.1 kpc, z = -2.8 kpc) and HD 100340 (l = 258.9 deg, b = +61.2 deg, d = 5.3 kpc, z = 4.6 kpc) are presented. These small science aperture spectra have resolutions ranging from 11 to 20 km/s full width at half maximum (FWHM) and S/N from 30 to 65 per diode substep. Strong absorption by moderately and highly ionized gas is seen in each direction. The absorption in the direction of the south Galactic polar region (HD 18100) is kinematically simple, while the absorption in the direction of north Galactic polar region (HD 100304) is kinematically complex. In each case the absorption by the highly ionized gas lies within the velocity range of absorption by neutral and weakly ionized gas. Along each sight line, the velocity dispersion determined from the unsaturated absorption lines increases with the energy required to create each ion. The logarithmic column densities for Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V are log N(atoms/sq cm = 12.71, 13.10, 13.58, and 12.75 toward HD 18100 and log N = 12.88, 13.31, 13.83, and 13.04 toward HD 100340. Average ionic ratios among these species are very similar along the two sight lines. Differences in profile shape between the absorption for AL II, Si IV, C IV, and N V provide additional support for the claim of Savage, Sembach, & Cardelli (1994) that there exists two types of highly ionized gas in the interstellar medium. One type of highly ionized gas is responsible for the structured Si IV absorption and part of the C IV absorption. In this gas N(C IV)/N(Si IV) approximately 3.0 and N(C IV)/N(N V) greater than 6. The absorption by this gas seems to be associated with some type of self-regulating interface or mixing layer between the warm and hot interstellar medium. The other type of highly ionized gas is responsible for most of the N V

  10. A High-Velocity Collision With Our Galaxy's Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    University).Using the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, Park and collaborators have observed a supershell in the outskirts of the Milky Way and it has a high-velocity cloud at its center! Could this pair of objects be the evidence needed?A Revealing PairThe supershell, GS040.2+00.670, is roughly 3,000 light-years across, and its in the process of expanding outwards. The interior of the shell is filled with a complex structure that looks almost like spokes extending from a central hub. CHVC040, a compact high-velocity cloud, is located right at the central hub; the authors calculate a probability of less than a thousandth of a percent that this alignment is random.An integrated intensity map (click for a better look!) of neutral hydrogen showing the overall picture of the supershell (left), with the hub-and-spoke complex structure indicated within the shell. Contours in a close-up view (right) shows the location of the high-velocity cloud directly at the central hub. [Park et al. 2016]Park and collaborators examine the morphology and the velocity data for the shell and the cloud. Based on the authors calculations, if CHVC040 were traveling at a typical velocity for high-velocity clouds (several hundred kilometers per second), it would have enough energy to have created the supershell when it slammed into the disk. The parameters of the shell allow the authors estimate when the collision happened: roughly five million years ago.If this scenario is correct, Park and collaborators observations demonstrate that some compact high-velocity clouds can survive their trip through the galactic halo to smash into the galactic disk, forming a supershell on impact. A systematic study of the ~300 known compact high-velocity clouds in the Milky Way may reveal other, similar systems of compact high-velocity clouds coincident with supershells.CitationGeumsook Park et al 2016 ApJ 827 L27. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/827/2/L27

  11. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  12. Rotation of tokamak halo currents

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-05-15

    During tokamak disruptions, halo currents, which can be tenths of the total plasma current, can flow at the plasma edge along the magnetic field lines that intercept the chamber walls. Non-axisymmetric halo currents are required to maintain force balance as the plasma kinks when the edge safety factor drops to about two in a vertical displacement event. The plasma quickly assumes a definite toroidal velocity v{sub a}(r) with respect to that of the magnetic kink, v{sub k}, where v{sub a}(r) is set by the radial electric field required for ambipolarity. The plasma velocity, v{sub pl}=v{sub a}+v{sub k}, near the edge is influenced by the interaction with neutrals and with the potential in the halo required for quasi-neutrality on open magnetic field lines, and the plasma velocity in the core is influenced by external error fields. When plasma effects dominate magnetic locking, the magnetic kink should rotate at a diamagnetic speed of either the edge or the core. If the magnetic field lines of the halo plasma intercept the wall at locations of very different electrical conductivity, the toroidal rotation of the halo currents can intermittently stall at wall locations of high conductivity. Such stalling is seen in experiments. The toroidal phase difference between the stalled halo currents and the kink, which is expected to rotate smoothly, must satisfy {delta}{phi}<{+-}{pi}/2. A concern cited by ITER engineers is that the time varying force of the rotating halo could substantially increase the disruption loads on in-vessel components.

  13. Rotation of tokamak halo currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-05-01

    During tokamak disruptions, halo currents, which can be tenths of the total plasma current, can flow at the plasma edge along the magnetic field lines that intercept the chamber walls. Non-axisymmetric halo currents are required to maintain force balance as the plasma kinks when the edge safety factor drops to about two in a vertical displacement event. The plasma quickly assumes a definite toroidal velocity va(r) with respect to that of the magnetic kink, vk, where va(r) is set by the radial electric field required for ambipolarity. The plasma velocity, vpl=va+vk, near the edge is influenced by the interaction with neutrals and with the potential in the halo required for quasi-neutrality on open magnetic field lines, and the plasma velocity in the core is influenced by external error fields. When plasma effects dominate magnetic locking, the magnetic kink should rotate at a diamagnetic speed of either the edge or the core. If the magnetic field lines of the halo plasma intercept the wall at locations of very different electrical conductivity, the toroidal rotation of the halo currents can intermittently stall at wall locations of high conductivity. Such stalling is seen in experiments. The toroidal phase difference between the stalled halo currents and the kink, which is expected to rotate smoothly, must satisfy δϕ <±π/2. A concern cited by ITER engineers is that the time varying force of the rotating halo could substantially increase the disruption loads on in-vessel components.

  14. High velocity impact resistance of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justo, Jo; Marquer, A. T.

    2003-09-01

    Composite materials are used in applications that require protection against high velocity impacts by fragment simulating projectiles. In this work, the ballistic performance of two commercially available materials against a fragments simulating projectile (FSP) is studied. The materials used were an aramid fiber with a phenolic matrix and a polyethylene fiber with a thermoplastic film. Impact tests have been carried out, with velocities ranging from 300 m/s to 1260m/s. The projectile used is a 1.1g NATO FSP. Impact velocity and exit velocity are measured, to determine the V{50} and the energy absorbed in cases where perforation occurs. Assessment of the impact damaged area is done using ultrasonic C-scan inspection. Types of damage and damage mechanisms have been identified. Several mechanical tests have been carried out to determine the mechanical properties, at different strain rates. Future work in numerical simulation of impact will be done using commercial code AutodyntinycircledR ftom Century Dynamics.

  15. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  16. Transfer of nucleons at high relative velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Oertzen, W.

    1985-02-01

    We discuss nucleon transfer between bound states of nuclei at high relative velocities. It is shown that the tails of the internal momentum distributions of the nuclear states participating in the transition strongly influence the transfer probabilities at energies between 30-90 MeV/u. Data and DWBA calculations show an exponential decrease of the cross sections in this energy regime and we dub it TGV (Transfer à Grande Vitesse).

  17. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  18. Inflow velocities of cold flows streaming into massive galaxies at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Ceverino, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We study the velocities of the accretion along streams from the cosmic web into massive galaxies at high redshift with the help of three different suites of AMR hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. The results are compared to free-fall velocities and to the sound speeds of the hot ambient medium. The sound speed of the hot ambient medium is calculated using two different methods to determine the medium's temperature. We find that the simulated cold stream velocities are in violent disagreement with the corresponding free-fall profiles. The sound speed is a better albeit not always correct description of the cold flows' velocity. Using these calculations as a first order approximation for the gas inflow velocities vinflow = 0.9 vvir is given. We conclude from the hydrodynamical simulations as our main result that the velocity profiles for the cold streams are constant with radius. These constant inflow velocities seem to have a `parabola-like' dependency on the host halo mass in units of the virial velocity that peaks at Mvir = 1012 M⊙ and we also propose that the best-fitting functional form for the dependency of the inflow velocity on the redshift is a square root power-law relation: v_inflow ∝ √{z + 1} v_vir.

  19. Do high-velocity clouds form by thermal instability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James; Nipoti, Carlo; Fraternali, Filippo

    2009-08-01

    We examine the proposal that the HI `high-velocity' clouds (HVCs) surrounding the Milky Way and other disc galaxies form by condensation of the hot galactic corona via thermal instability. Under the assumption that the galactic corona is well represented by a non-rotating, stratified atmosphere, we find that for this formation mechanism to work the corona must have an almost perfectly flat entropy profile. In all other cases, the growth of thermal perturbations is suppressed by a combination of buoyancy and thermal conduction. Even if the entropy profile were nearly flat, cold clouds with sizes smaller than 10kpc could form in the corona of the Milky Way only at radii larger than 100kpc, in contradiction with the determined distances of the largest HVC complexes. Clouds with sizes of a few kpc can form in the inner halo only in low-mass systems. We conclude that unless even slow rotation qualitatively changes the dynamics of a corona, thermal instability is unlikely to be a viable mechanism for formation of cold clouds around disc galaxies.

  20. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, I.; Sanna, N.; Gratton, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Desidera, S.; Claudi, R.; Sissa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 μm) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the velocity for both the star and the telluric lines. For this purpose, we constructed two suitable digital masks that include about 2000 stellar lines, and a similar number of telluric lines. The method is applied to various targets with different spectral type, from K2V to M8 stars. We reached different precisions mainly depending on the H-magnitudes: for H ˜ 5 we obtain an rms scatter of ˜ 10 m s-1, while for H ˜ 9 the standard deviation increases to ˜ 50 ÷ 80 m s-1. The corresponding theoretical error expectations are ˜ 4 m s-1 and 30 m s-1, respectively. Finally we provide the RVs measured with our procedure for the targets observed during GIANO Science Verification.

  1. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, I.; Sanna, N.; Gratton, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Desidera, S.; Claudi, R.; Sissa, E.

    2016-03-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 μm) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the velocity for both the star and the telluric lines. For this purpose, we constructed two suitable digital masks that include about 2000 stellar lines, and a similar number of telluric lines. The method is applied to various targets with different spectral type, from K2V to M8 stars. We reached different precisions mainly depending on the H-magnitudes: for H ˜ 5 we obtain an rms scatter of ˜ 10 m s-1, while for H ˜ 9 the standard deviation increases to ˜ 50 ÷ 80 m s-1. The corresponding theoretical error expectations are ˜ 4 m s-1 and 30 m s-1, respectively. Finally we provide the RVs measured with our procedure for the targets observed during GIANO Science Verification.

  2. MHF: MLAPM Halo Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Stuart P. D.; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    MHF is a Dark Matter halo finder that is based on the refinement grids of MLAPM. The grid structure of MLAPM adaptively refines around high-density regions with an automated refinement algorithm, thus naturally "surrounding" the Dark Matter halos, as they are simply manifestations of over-densities within (and exterior) to the underlying host halo. Using this grid structure, MHF restructures the hierarchy of nested isolated MLAPM grids into a "grid tree". The densest cell in the end of a tree branch marks center of a prospective Dark Matter halo. All gravitationally bound particles about this center are collected to obtain the final halo catalog. MHF automatically finds halos within halos within halos.

  3. Identifying Remote Halo Giants in High-Latitude Fields with Kepler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    This talk describes halo-field K2 proposals submitted for C6, and planned for C8, C10, and C12, to identify red giants at distances from the Galactic plane between 10 and 100 kpc. This complements KASC WG8 Galactic Archaeology proposals by identifying and characterizing very remote halo red giants, and also in contributing to MAST a grid of high-resolution spectral calculations for giants useful for determining temperatures, gravities, and abundances from optical spectroscopy. Unlike previous surveys, our targets are unbiased in metallicity, consisting of all EPIC stars with SDSS ugriz photometry, g-r from 0.6 to 1.1, proximity > 12" (if present) to minimize contamination, and proper motion < 11 mas to remove most foreground stars. Kepler magnitudes Kp are between 16 and 18.5, where we establish that K2 can detect p-mode oscillations of red giants and measure the frequency of maximum power νmax. We also show that for these minimally-reddened stars, the g-r color alone yields the effective temperature Teff to 100K for giants with metallicity [Fe/H] below -1. We then illustrate how [Fe/H] will be estimated from νmax from the dependence of red-giant luminosity on metallicity at a given g-r.Only about 3% of these targets will be halo giants. The remainder will be intervening dwarfs, which at these magnitudes will be more than 1 kpc from the Galactic plane and thus members of the old halo population. This sample is valuable in its own right, for problems as diverse as the nature of the thick disk - halo transition and the occurrence of flaring on cool dwarfs so old that any original global magnetic dynamo has died away.

  4. High velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Eric; Bregman, Joel N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Brinks, Elias

    1993-01-01

    Clouds of neutral hydrogen in our galaxy with the absolute value of v greater than 100 km/s cover approximately 10 percent of the sky to a limiting column density of 1 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -2). These high velocity clouds (HVCs) may dominate the kinetic energy of neutral hydrogen in non-circular motion, and are an important though poorly understood component of galactic gas. It has been suggested that the HVCs can be reproduced by a combination of three phenomena: a galactic fountain driven by disk supernovae which would account for most of the HVCs, material tidally torn from the Magellanic Clouds, and an outer arm complex which is associated with the large scale structure of the warped galactic disk. We sought to detect HVCs in external galaxies in order to test the galactic fountain model.

  5. Very high energy gamma rays from active galactic nuclei: Cascading on the cosmic background radiation fields and the formation of pair halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Coppi, P. S.; Voelk, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent high-energy gamma-ray observations (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) of blazar Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) show emission spectra with no clear upper energy cutoff. AGNs, considered to be possible sources for the observed flux of cosmic rays beyond 10(exp 19) eV, may well have emission extending into the very high energy (VHE), (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV) domain. Because VHE gamma-rays are absorbed by pair production on the intergalactic background radiation fields, much of this emission may not be directly visible. The electromagnetic cascades initiated by absorbed VHE gamma-rays, however, may be observable. Since, most probably, the velocities of (e(+), e(-)) pairs produced in a cascade are quickly isotropized by an ambient random magnetic field, extended 'halos' (R greater than 1 Mpc) of pairs will be formed around AGNs with VHE emission. The cascade radiation from these pair halos is emitted isotropically and should be observable at energies below a few TeV. The halo radiation can be distinguished by its characteristic variation in spectrum and intensity with angular distance from the central source. This variation depends weakly on the details of the central source model, e.g., the orientation and beaming/opening angle of an emitting jet. Limiting or determining the intensity of the pair halo can thus serve as a model-independent bound on or measure of the VHE power of AGNs. Next-generation Cherenkov telescopes may be able to image a pair halo.

  6. Neutron-capture element and Sc abundances in low- and high-alpha Galactic halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Fishlock, Cherie; Karakas, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    Nissen & Schuster (2010) identified two samples of Galactic halo stars with distinct kinematic and chemical properties. The "high-alpha" population is associated with the dissipative monolithic collapse of a proto-Galactic gas cloud while the "low-alpha" population was likely accreted from dwarf galaxies having experienced slower star formation rates. For a subset of these stars, we measured precise abundances of Sc, Zr, La, Ce, Nd and Eu. We find differences in the abundance ratios of [Sc/Fe], [Zr/Fe], and [La/Zr] between the low- and high-alpha groups. The most intriguing result is that the low-alpha stars appear to have higher [Eu/Fe] ratios than the high-alpha stars, in contrast to the expectation that Eu should follow the alpha elements. These data challenge the hypothesis that the high-alpha stars formed in regions only enriched by massive stars and that the low-alpha received additional enrichment from SNeIa and low-mass AGB stars. This work has three main consequences for galaxy halos: 1. The new Eu data could be explained by different IMFs for the two halo populations; 2. The low [alpha/Fe] ratios in some, and perhaps all, dwarf galaxies may be driven (in part of in whole) by different IMFs rather than SNeIa contributions; 3. These data may provide important new constraints on the origin of Eu.

  7. Si IV Column Densities Predicted from Non-equilibrium Ionization Simulations of Turbulent Mixing Layers and High-velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Shelton, Robin L.; Henley, David B.

    2015-10-01

    We present predictions of the Si iv ions in turbulent mixing layers (TMLs) between hot and cool gas and in cool high-velocity clouds (HVCs) that travel through a hot halo, complementing the C iv, N v, and O vi predictions in Kwak & Shelton, Kwak et al., and Henley et al. We find that the Si iv ions are most abundant in regions where the hot and cool gases first begin to mix or where the mixed gas has cooled significantly. The predicted column densities of high velocity Si iv and the predicted ratios of Si iv to C iv and O vi found on individual sightlines in our HVC simulations are in good agreement with observations of high velocity gas. Low velocity Si iv is also seen in the simulations, as a result of decelerated gas in the case of the HVC simulations and when looking along directions that pass perpendicular to the direction of motion in the TML simulations. The ratios of low velocity Si iv to C iv and O vi in the TML simulations are in good agreement with those recorded for Milky Way halo gas, while the ratio of Si iv to O vi from the decelerated gas in the HVC simulations is lower than that observed at normal velocity in the Milky Way halo. We attribute the shortfall of normal velocity Si iv to not having modeled the effects of photoionization and, following Henley et al., consider a composite model that includes decelerated HVC gas, supernova remnants, galactic fountain gas, and the effect of photoionization.

  8. WHAM Observations of Hα from High-Velocity Clouds: Are They Galactic or Extragalactic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufte, S. L.; Wilson, J. D.; Madsen, G. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2002-06-01

    It has been suggested that high-velocity clouds may be distributed throughout the Local Group and are therefore not in general associated with the Milky Way. With the aim of testing this hypothesis, we have made observations in the Hα line of high-velocity clouds selected as the most likely candidates for being at larger than average distances. We have found Hα emission from four out of five of the observed clouds, suggesting that the clouds under study are being illuminated by a Lyman continuum flux greater than that of the metagalactic ionizing radiation. Therefore, it appears likely that these clouds are in the Galactic halo and not distributed throughout the Local Group.

  9. MAGNIFICATION AS A PROBE OF DARK MATTER HALOS AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Van Waerbeke, L.; Ford, J.; Milkeraitis, M.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2010-11-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring the mass profile of dark matter halos by stacking the lensing magnification of distant background galaxies behind groups and clusters of galaxies. The main advantage of lensing magnification is that, unlike lensing shear, it relies on accurate photometric redshifts only and not on galaxy shapes, thus enabling the study of the dark matter distribution with unresolved source galaxies. We present a feasibility study, using a real population of z {>=} 2.5 Lyman break galaxies as source galaxies, and where, similar to galaxy-galaxy lensing, foreground lenses are stacked in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We find that there is an interesting new observational window for gravitational lensing as a probe of dark matter halos at high redshift, which does not require a measurement of galaxy shapes.

  10. QUANTIFYING KINEMATIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE MILKY WAY'S STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Xiangxiang; Zhao Gang; Luo Ali; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Kang, Xi; Liu, Chao; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Bullock, James S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Morrison, Heather; Rockosi, Constance

    2011-09-01

    We present and analyze the positions, distances, and radial velocities for over 4000 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the Milky Way's halo, drawn from SDSS DR8. We search for position-velocity substructure in these data, a signature of the hierarchical assembly of the stellar halo. Using a cumulative 'close pair distribution' as a statistic in the four-dimensional space of sky position, distance, and velocity, we quantify the presence of position-velocity substructure at high statistical significance among the BHB stars: pairs of BHB stars that are close in position on the sky tend to have more similar distances and radial velocities compared to a random sampling of these overall distributions. We make analogous mock observations of 11 numerical halo formation simulations, in which the stellar halo is entirely composed of disrupted satellite debris, and find a level of substructure comparable to that seen in the actually observed BHB star sample. This result quantitatively confirms the hierarchical build-up of the stellar halo through a signature in phase (position-velocity) space. In detail, the structure present in the BHB stars is somewhat less prominent than that seen in most simulated halos, quite possibly because BHB stars represent an older sub-population. BHB stars located beyond 20 kpc from the Galactic center exhibit stronger substructure than at r{sub gc} < 20 kpc.

  11. THE MASSIVE-BLACK-HOLE-VELOCITY-DISPERSION RELATION AND THE HALO BARYON FRACTION: A CASE FOR POSITIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph; Nusser, Adi E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.i

    2010-12-10

    Force balance considerations put a limit on the rate of active galactic nucleus radiation momentum output, L/c, capable of driving galactic superwinds and reproducing the observed M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion. We show that black holes cannot supply enough momentum in radiation to drive the gas out by pressure alone. Energy-driven winds give a M{sub BH}-{sigma} scaling favored by a recent analysis but also fall short energetically once cooling is incorporated. We propose that outflow triggering of star formation by enhancing the intercloud medium turbulent pressure and squeezing clouds can supply the necessary boost and suggest possible tests of this hypothesis. Our hypothesis simultaneously can account for the observed halo baryon fraction.

  12. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  13. On optical studies of high-velocity clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Burks, G. S.; Gibney, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    Lists of distant objects that can be used to study physical conditions in, and distances of, 21 cm (Oort) high-velocity clouds are presented. Recent published observations are used to compile positions, velocities, and distances of the clouds.

  14. Anisotropies at Ultra High Energies and the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfendale, Arnold

    1999-08-01

    A measure of consistency is appearing in measurements of the anisotropy of arrival directions above 1017 eV and these show a Galactic Plane Enhancement and a S-N excess, to about 3.1018 eV. The implication is that Galactic particles predominate here. At higher energies, where an Extragalactic origin is preferred, a contender for the `sources' is exotic dark matter particles. However, an analysis of the anisotropy at the highest energies, or, rather, the lack of it, makes this interpretation highly unlikely. Instead, `bottom-up' acceleration, in galaxy-systems is preferred; the likely mass mixture of the primaries, above 1018 eV, helps to explain why strong clustering of arrival is not observed.

  15. Current halo structures in high-current plasma experiments: {theta}-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, Yu. V.

    2007-03-15

    Experimental data elucidating mechanisms for halo formation in {theta}-pinch discharges are presented and discussed. The experiments were performed with different gases (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, and Ar) in a theta-pinch device with a porcelain vacuum chamber and an excitation coil 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. The stored energy, the current in the excitation coil, and the current half-period were W = 10 kJ, I = 400 kA, and T/2 = 14 {mu}s, respectively. It is found that the plasma rings (halos) surrounding the pinch core arise as a result of coaxial pinch stratification due to both the excitation of closed currents (inductons) inside the pinch and the radial convergence of the plasma current sheaths produced after the explosion of T-layers formed near the wall in the initial stage of the discharge. It is concluded that halo structures observed in pinches, tokamaks, and other high-current devices used in controlled fusion research have the same nature.

  16. High-velocity stars from the interaction of a globular cluster and a massive black hole binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragione, G.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2016-05-01

    High-velocity stars are usually thought to be the dynamical product of the interaction of binary systems with supermassive black holes. In this paper, we investigate a particular mechanism of production of high-velocity stars as due to the close interaction between a massive and orbitally decayed globular cluster and a supermassive black hole binary. The high velocity acquired by some stars of the cluster comes from combined effect of extraction of their gravitational binding energy and from the slingshot due to the interaction with the black hole binary. After the close interaction, stars could reach a velocity sufficient to travel in the halo and even overcome the galactic potential well, while some of them are just stripped from the globular cluster and start orbiting around the galactic centre.

  17. High and low velocity detonation in a highly insensitive explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, H. W.; Hayden, H. F.

    2014-05-01

    Low-velocity detonation (LVD) in a solid explosive from input shocks below the threshold for high-velocity detonation (HVD) had been previously reported for PBXN-109 in two gap tests with sample diameters of 36.5 and 73.0 mm. Similar phenomenon has now been observed for the highly insensitive PBXIH-140, whose critical diameter of ~100 mm required an even larger gap test with a sample diameter of 178 mm. When just exceeding the critical gap for HVD, LVD propagated at similar velocities as in PBXN-109 and would punch clean holes in a witness plate like HVD. For somewhat greater gaps, there was enough shock reaction to drive LVD at constant but reduced velocities as the input shock decreased to ~ ½ of critical. With a different formulation now exhibiting LVD, it may be more prevalent than previously realized. It is speculated to occur in various confinements when small percentages of easily detonable ingredients fail to initiate the remainder of less shock sensitive ingredients.

  18. Cold dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinski, John Joseph

    The dark halos arising in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmology are simulated to investigate the relationship between the structure and kinematics of dark halos and galaxies. Realistic cosmological initial conditions and tidal field boundary conditions are used in N-body simulations of the collapse of density peaks to form dark halos. The core radii of dark halos are no greater than the softening radius, rs = 1.4 kpc. The density profiles can be fit with an analytical Hernquist (1990) profile with an effective power law which varies between -1 in the center to -4 at large radii. The rotation curves of dark halos resemble the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies in the observed range, 1.5 approximately less than r approximately less than 30 kpc. The halos are strongly triaxial and very flat with (c/a) = 0.50 and (b/a) = 0.71. The distribution of ellipticities for dark halos reaches a maximum at epsilon = 0.5 in contrast to the distribution for elliptical galaxies which peaks at epsilon = 0.2 suggesting that ellipticals are much rounder than dark halos. Dark halos are generally flatter than their progenitor density peaks. The final shape and orientation of a dark halo are largely determined by tidal torquing and are sensitive to changes in the strength and orientation of a tidal field. Dark halos are pressure supported objects with negligible rotational support as indicated by the mean dimensionless spin, lamda = 0.042 +/- 0.024. The angular momentum vector tends to align with the true minor axis of dark halos. Elliptical galaxies have a similar behavior implied by the observation of the tendency for alignment of the rotation vector and the apparent minor axis. The origin of this behavior may be traced to the tendency for tidal torques to misalign with the major axis of a density peak. Tidal torques are found to isotropize the velocity ellipsoids of dark halos at large radii, contrary to the expectation of radially anisotropic velocity ellipsoids in cold collapse

  19. H ii REGIONS WITHIN A COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD. A NEARLY STARLESS DWARF GALAXY?

    SciTech Connect

    Bellazzini, M.; Magrini, L.; Mucciarelli, A.; Fraternali, F.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N.; Battaglia, G.; Testa, V.; Fumana, M.; Marchetti, A.; Correnti, M.

    2015-02-10

    Within the SECCO survey we identified a candidate stellar counterpart to the Ultra Compact High Velocity Cloud (UCHVC) HVC274.68+74.70-123 that was suggested by Adams et al. to be a possible mini halo within the Local Group of galaxies. The spectroscopic follow-up of the brightest sources within the candidate reveals the presence of two H ii regions whose radial velocity is compatible with a physical association with the UVHVC. The available data do not allow us to give a definite answer on the nature of the newly identified system. A few alternative hypotheses are discussed. However, the most likely possibility is that we have found a new faint dwarf galaxy residing in the Virgo cluster of galaxies, which we name SECCO 1. Independently of its actual distance, SECCO 1 displays a ratio of neutral hydrogen mass to V luminosity of M{sub H} {sub I}/L{sub V}≳20, by far the largest among local dwarfs. Hence, it appears to be a nearly starless galaxy and it may be an example of the missing links between normal dwarfs and the dark mini halos that are predicted to exist in large numbers according to the currently accepted cosmological model.

  20. The chosen few: the low-mass haloes that host faint galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-02-01

    Since reionization prevents star formation in most haloes less massive than 3 × 109 M⊙, dwarf galaxies only populate a fraction of existing dark matter haloes. We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations of the Local Group to study the discriminating factors for galaxy formation in the early Universe and connect them to the present-day properties of galaxies and haloes. A combination of selection effects related to reionization, and the subsequent evolution of haloes in different environments, introduces strong biases between the population of haloes that host dwarf galaxies, and the total halo population. Haloes that host galaxies formed earlier and are more concentrated. In addition, haloes more affected by tidal stripping are more likely to host a galaxy for a given mass or maximum circular velocity, vmax, today. Consequently, satellite haloes are populated more frequently than field haloes, and satellite haloes of 108-109 M⊙ or vmax of 12-20 km s-1, compatible with stellar kinematics of Local Group dwarf spheroidals, have experienced a greater than average reduction in both mass and vmax after infall. They are on closer, more radial orbits with higher infall velocities and earlier infall times. Together, these effects make dwarf galaxies highly biased tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution.

  1. Is the misalignment of the Local Group velocity and the dipole generated by the 2MASS Redshift Survey typical in {lambda} cold dark matter and the halo model of galaxies?

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogdu, Pirin; Lahav, Ofer

    2009-08-15

    We predict the acceleration of the Local Group generated by the 2MASS Redshift Survey within the framework of {lambda} cold dark matter and the halo model of galaxies. We show that as the galaxy fluctuations derived from the halo model have more power on small scales compared with the mass fluctuations, the misalignment angle between the CMB velocity vector and the 2MASS Redshift Survey dipole is in reasonable agreement with the observed 21 deg. This statistical analysis suggests that it is not necessary to invoke a hypothetical nearby galaxy or a distant cluster to explain this misalignment.

  2. Mapping the dynamics of a giant Ly α halo at z = 4.1 with MUSE: the energetics of a large-scale AGN-driven outflow around a massive, high-redshift galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Vernet, J. D. R.; Smail, Ian; De Breuck, C.; Bacon, R.; Contini, T.; Richard, J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Urrutia, T.; Venemans, B.

    2015-05-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field unit spectroscopic observations of the ˜150 kpc Lyα halo around the z = 4.1 radio galaxy TN J1338-1942. This 9-h observation maps the full two-dimensional kinematics of the Lyα emission across the halo, which shows a velocity gradient of Δv ˜ 700 km s-1 across 150 kpc in projection, and also identified two absorption systems associated with the Lyα emission from the radio galaxy. Both absorbers have high covering fractions (˜1) spanning the full ˜150 × 80 kpc2 extent of the halo. The stronger and more blueshifted absorber (Δv ˜ -1200 km s-1 from the systemic) has dynamics that mirror that of the underlying halo emission and we suggest that this high column material (n(H I) ˜ 1019.4 cm-2), which is also seen in C IV absorption, represents an outflowing shell that has been driven by the active galactic nuclei (AGN) or the star formation within the galaxy. The weaker (n(H I) ˜ 1014 cm-2) and less blueshifted (Δv ˜ -500 km s-1) absorber most likely represents material in the cavity between the outflowing shell and the Lyα halo. We estimate that the mass in the shell must be ˜1010 M⊙ - a significant fraction of the interstellar medium from a galaxy at z = 4. The large scales of these coherent structures illustrate the potentially powerful influence of AGN feedback on the distribution and energetics of material in their surroundings. Indeed, the discovery of high-velocity (˜1000 km s-1), group-halo-scale (i.e. >150 kpc) and mass-loaded winds in the vicinity of the central radio source is in agreement with the requirements of models that invoke AGN-driven outflows to regulate star formation and black hole growth in massive galaxies.

  3. THE COSMIC HISTORY OF THE SPIN OF DARK MATTER HALOS WITHIN THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Trowland, Holly E.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-01-10

    We use N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the orientation and magnitude of dark matter halo angular momentum within the large-scale structure since z = 3. We look at the evolution of the alignment of halo spins with filaments and with each other, as well as the spin parameter, which is a measure of the magnitude of angular momentum. It was found that the angular momentum vectors of dark matter halos at high redshift have a weak tendency to be orthogonal to filaments and high-mass halos have a stronger orthogonal alignment than low-mass halos. Since z = 1, the spins of low-mass halos have become weakly aligned parallel to filaments, whereas high-mass halos kept their orthogonal alignment. This recent parallel alignment of low-mass halos casts doubt on tidal torque theory as the sole mechanism for the buildup of angular momentum. We see evidence for bulk flows and the broadening of filaments over time in the alignments of halo spin and velocities. We find a significant alignment of the spin of neighboring dark matter halos only at very small separations, r < 0.3 Mpc h {sup -1}, which is driven by substructure. A correlation of the spin parameter with halo mass is confirmed at high redshift.

  4. High-velocity tails on the velocity distribution of solar wind ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Berdichevsky, D.; Wilken, B.

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations of the solar wind using the SWICS instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft have shown the presence of high-velocity 'tails' on the velocity distribution of protons. Similar features have also been observed on the velocity distributions of helium and oxygen ions. Of the order of 1 percent of the solar wind density is involved in these tails, which are approximately exponential in shape and persist to V = V(B) + 10V(th) or beyond, where VB is the bulk velocity and V(th) the thermal velocity of the solar wind. This paper contains a preliminary description of the phenomenon. It is clear that it is ultimately connected with the passage of interplanetary shocks past the spacecraft and that particle acceleration at oblique shocks is involved.

  5. Cryogenic Testing of High-Velocity Spoke Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.; Park, HyeKyoung

    2014-12-01

    Spoke-loaded cavities are being investigated for the high-velocity regime. The relative compactness at low-frequency makes them attractive for applications requiring, or benefiting from, 4 K operation. Additionally, the large velocity acceptance makes them good candidates for the acceleration of high-velocity protons and ions. Here we present the results of cryogenic testing of a 325 MHz, β0= 0.82 single-spoke cavity and a 500 MHz, β0 = 1 double-spoke cavity.

  6. 46 CFR 153.353 - High velocity vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High velocity vents. 153.353 Section 153.353 Shipping... Systems § 153.353 High velocity vents. The discharge point of a B/3 or 4m venting system must be located..., unimpeded jet; (b) The jet has a minimum exit velocity of 30 m/sec (approx. 98.4 ft/sec); and (c) The...

  7. 46 CFR 153.353 - High velocity vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High velocity vents. 153.353 Section 153.353 Shipping... Systems § 153.353 High velocity vents. The discharge point of a B/3 or 4m venting system must be located..., unimpeded jet; (b) The jet has a minimum exit velocity of 30 m/sec (approx. 98.4 ft/sec); and (c) The...

  8. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  9. Punch valve development testing: Low and high velocity test results

    SciTech Connect

    Replogle, W.C.; Brandon, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    This is a report on the use of quasi-static tests to predict fundamental parameters for punch valve development. This report summarizes the results from low and high velocity tests performed with 0.63 and 0.38 cm diameter plungers, 5 cm long penetrating aluminium and composite targets. The low velocity tests, 0.025 m/s, were performed to understand the effects and interactions of plunger diameter plunger tip shape, target material, and target support on penetration energy and plunger functionality. High velocity tests, 75 m/s, were compared to low velocity results.

  10. Galactic hail: the origin of the high-velocity cloud complex C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraternali, F.; Marasco, A.; Armillotta, L.; Marinacci, F.

    2015-02-01

    High-velocity clouds consist of cold gas that appears to be raining down from the halo to the disc of the Milky Way. Over the past 50 years, two competing scenarios have attributed their origin either to gas accretion from outside the Galaxy or to circulation of gas from the Galactic disc powered by supernova feedback (galactic fountain). Here, we show that both mechanisms are simultaneously at work. We use a new galactic fountain model combined with high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We focus on the prototypical cloud complex C and show that it was produced by an explosion that occurred in the Cygnus-Outer spiral arm about 150 Myr ago. The ejected material has triggered the condensation of a large portion of the circumgalactic medium and caused its subsequent accretion on to the disc. This fountain-driven cooling of the lower Galactic corona provides the low-metallicity gas required by chemical evolution models of the Milky Way's disc.

  11. Masses of high-z galaxy hosting haloes from angular clustering and their evolution in the cold dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamana, Takashi; Yamada, Toru; Ouchi, Masami; Iwata, Ikuru; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2006-07-01

    We examine masses of hosting haloes of two photometrically selected high-z galaxy samples: the old passively evolving galaxies (OPEGs) at z ~ 1 and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 4 both taken from the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). The large survey area of the SXDS (1 deg2) allows us to measure the angular two-point correlation functions to a wide separation of >10 arcmin with a good statistical quality. We utilize the halo model prescription for estimating characteristic masses of hosting haloes from the measured large-scale clustering amplitudes. It is found that the hosting halo mass positively correlates with the luminosity of galaxies. Then, adopting the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) model, we compute the predictions for the mass evolution of the hosting haloes in the framework of the cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology in order to make an evolutionary link between the two galaxy samples at different redshifts and to identify their present-day descendants by letting their haloes evolve forward in time. It is found that, in the view of the mass evolution of hosting haloes in the CDM model, bright (i' <~ i'* + 1) LBGs are consistent with being the progenitor of the OPEGs, whereas it is less likely that the LBG population, as a whole, has evolved into the OPEG population. It is also found that the present-day descendants of both the bright LBGs and OPEGs are likely to be located in massive systems such as groups of galaxies or clusters of galaxies. Finally, we estimate the hosting halo mass of local early-type galaxy samples from the 2dF and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) based on the halo model, and it turns out that their expected characteristic mass of hosting haloes is in good agreement with the EPS predictions for the descendant's mass of both the bright LBGs and OPEGs. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. E-mail: hamanatk@cc.nao.ac.jp ‡ Hubble fellow.

  12. The Outer Halo -- Halo Origins and Mass of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Heather; Arabadjis, John; Dohm-Palmer, Robbie; Freeman, Ken; Harding, Paul; Mateo, Mario; Norris, John; Olszewski, Ed; Sneden, Chris

    2000-02-01

    Through our detection of distant halo stars, we are now well placed to map the regions of the Galactic halo where previously only satellite galaxies and a few globular clusters were known. Mapping this region is crucial for answering questions like: How and over what timescales was the Milky Way's stellar halo assembled? What is the total mass and shape of its dark halo? The Sagittarius dwarf has demonstrated that at least some of the stellar halo was accreted. But, HOW MUCH of the halo was accreted? Our previous efforts have proven that the Washington photometric system, in conjuction with spectroscopy, is capable of efficiently and unambiguously identifying halo stars out to 100 kpc or more. We require followup spectroscopy to map velocity substructure, which is more likely visible in the outer halo because of the long dynamical timescales, and to identify the rare objects in the extreme outer halo which will constrain the shape and size of its dark halo. We are applying for 4m/RCSP time at both CTIO and KPNO to observe faint outer-halo giant and BHB candidates.

  13. Star Streams in Triaxial Isochrone Potentials with Sub-halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.

    2015-07-01

    The velocity, position, and action variable evolutions of a tidal stream drawn out of a star cluster in a triaxial isochrone potential, containing a sub-halo population, reproduces many of the orbital effects of more general cosmological halos but allows for the easy calculation of orbital actions. We employ a spherical shell code, which we show accurately reproduces the results of a tree gravity code for a collisionless star cluster. Streams from clusters on high eccentricity orbits, e≳ 0.6, can spread out so much that the amount of material at high enough surface density to stand out on the sky may be only a few percent of the stream’s total mass. Low eccentricity streams remain more spatially coherent, but sub-halos both broaden the stream and displace the centerline with details depending on the orbits allowed within the potential. Overall, the majority of stream particles have changes in their total actions of only 1%-2%, leaving the mean stream relatively undisturbed. A halo with 1% of the mass in sub-halos typically spreads the velocity distribution about a factor of two wider than would be expected for a smooth halo. Strong density variations, “gaps,” along with mean velocity offsets, are clearly detected in low eccentricity streams for even a 0.2% sub-halo mass fraction. Around one hundred velocity measurements per kiloparsec of stream will enable tests for the presence of a local sub-halo density as small as 0.2%-0.5% of the local mass density, with about 1% predicted for 30 kpc orbital radii streams.

  14. Optical Emission from High Velocity Clouds and the Nature of HVCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, B. J.; Vogel, S. N.; Williams, T. B.

    1999-12-01

    The nature and origin of the high-velocity clouds of neutral hydrogen remain controversial, and the distances of most HVCs are poorly constrained. Only the large northern HVC complexes M and A have upper distance limits, of <5 and 4--10 kpc, from absorption against halo stars (Danly et al 1993, van Woerden et al 1999). These HVCs have diffuse H-alpha emission of 80--200 milli-Rayleighs (mR) (Tufte, Reynolds & Haffner 1998). We report results from a search of 20 high velocity clouds for faint diffuse optical emission lines in H-alpha and [N II], using a Fabry-Perot at the Las Campanas 2.5-m telescope. A few small complexes are ``bright,'' with H-alpha emission from 100--400 mR and high [N II]/H-alpha. Many HVCs are very faint in H-alpha: HVCs from the Anticenter, Galactic Center Negative, and Extreme Positive complexes have H-alpha from <15 to 30 mR. We construct a simple model for the ionizing flux emergent from the galaxy, normalized by the northern ``bright'' HVCs with known distances and H-alpha fluxes. If the H-alpha from HVCs is produced by ionizing flux escaping from the Galaxy, the H-alpha flux can be used to infer distances for HVCs. The model places the very faint HVCs at distances of 20--60 kpc, in the outer Galactic halo. If H-alpha can be produced by other mechanisms, than these distances could be lower limits. Independent of the model or mechanism, the HVCs that are very faint in H-alpha should be much farther away than the nearby ``bright'' HVCs. The faint HVCs are too far away to be produced by a Galactic fountain, and represent a significant amount of gas accreting onto the Galaxy. This work has been supported by a Carnegie Barbara McClintock Fellowship.

  15. High-resolution HI and CO observations of high-latitude intermediate-velocity clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhser, T.; Kerp, J.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Winkel, B.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) are HI halo clouds that are likely related to a Galactic fountain process. In-falling IVCs are candidates for the re-accretion of matter onto the Milky Way. Aims: We study the evolution of IVCs at the disk-halo interface, focussing on the transition from atomic to molecular IVCs. We compare an atomic IVC to a molecular IVC and characterise their structural differences in order to investigate how molecular IVCs form high above the Galactic plane. Methods: With high-resolution HI observations of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and 12CO(1 → 0) and 13CO(1 → 0) observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope, we analyse the small-scale structures within the two clouds. By correlating HI and far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission from the Planck satellite, the distribution of molecular hydrogen (H2) is estimated. We conduct a detailed comparison of the HI, FIR, and CO data and study variations of the XCO conversion factor. Results: The atomic IVC does not disclose detectable CO emission. The atomic small-scale structure, as revealed by the high-resolution HI data, shows low peak HI column densities and low HI fluxes as compared to the molecular IVC. The molecular IVC exhibits a rich molecular structure and most of the CO emission is observed at the eastern edge of the cloud. There is observational evidence that the molecular IVC is in a transient and, thus, non-equilibrium phase. The average XCO factor is close to the canonical value of the Milky Way disk. Conclusions: We propose that the two IVCs represent different states in a gradual transition from atomic to molecular clouds. The molecular IVC appears to be more condensed allowing the formation of H2 and CO in shielded regions all over the cloud. Ram pressure may accumulate gas and thus facilitate the formation of H2. We show evidence that the atomic IVC will evolve also into a molecular IVC in a few Myr. The reduced datacubes are only available at the CDS via

  16. ARE NEWLY DISCOVERED H I HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS MINIHALOS IN THE LOCAL GROUP?

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Kent, Brian R. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: bkent@nrao.edu

    2010-01-01

    A set of H I sources extracted from the north Galactic polar region by the ongoing ALFALFA survey has properties that are consistent with the interpretation that they are associated with isolated minihalos in the outskirts of the Local Group (LG). Unlike objects detected by previous surveys, such as the compact high-velocity clouds of Braun and Burton, the H I clouds found by ALFALFA do not violate any structural requirements or halo scaling laws of the {lambda}CDM structure paradigm, nor would they have been detected by extant H I surveys of nearby galaxy groups other than the LG. At a distance of d Mpc, their H I masses range between 5 x 10{sup 4} d {sup 2} and 10{sup 6} d {sup 2} M {sub sun} and their H I radii between <0.4d and 1.6d kpc. If they are parts of gravitationally bound halos, the total masses would be on the order of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M {sub sun}, their baryonic content would be significantly smaller than the cosmic fraction of 0.16 and present in a ionized gas phase of mass well exceeding that of the neutral phase. This study does not however prove that the minihalo interpretation is unique. Among possible alternatives would be that the clouds are shreds of the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream.

  17. High Velocity Absorption during Eta Car B's Periastron Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Krister E.; Groh, J. H.; Hillier, J.; Gull, Theodore R.; Owocki, S. P.; Okazaki, A. T.; Damineli, A.; Teodoro, M.; Weigelt, G.; Hartman, H.

    2010-01-01

    Eta Car is one of the most luminous massive stars in the Galaxy, with repeated eruptions with a 5.5 year periodicity. These events are caused by the periastron passage of a massive companion in an eccentric orbit. We report the VLT/CRIRES detection of a strong high-velocity, (<1900 km/s) , broad absorption wing in He I at 10833 A during the 2009.0 periastron passage. Previous observations during the 2003.5 event have shown evidence of such high-velocity absorption in the He I 10833 transition, allowing us to conclude that the high-velocity gas is crossing the line-of-sight toward Eta Car over a time period of approximately 2 months. Our analysis of HST/STlS archival data with observations of high velocity absorption in the ultraviolet Si IV and C IV resonance lines, confirm the presence of a high-velocity material during the spectroscopic low state. The observations provide direct detection of high-velocity material flowing from the wind-wind collision zone around the binary system, and we discuss the implications of the presence of high-velocity gas in Eta Car during periastron

  18. The Shape of Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, Robert Paul

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing our current knowledge of dark matter (DM) in spiral galaxies (Chapter 1), I present a new method of deriving the shape of these dark halos (Chapter 2). Such information, if obtained for a large number of systems, can provide important boundary conditions for theories of the formation of galaxies (Chapter 5). The halo-shape determination method relies on the comparison of model predictions of the thickness of the gas layer with observations of this flaring. Calculating the model gas layer widths from the observed gaseous velocity dispersion and the potential due to the total mass distribution of the galaxy we learn the following: (a) beyond the optical disk the thickness of the gas layer is sensitive to the shape of the DM halo, (b) the thickness of the gas layer is proportional to the ratio of the gaseous velocity dispersion and the rotation speed, (c) the self-gravity of the gas contributes significantly to the vertical force, (d) the derived shape of the DM halo is independent of the dark matter's radial density distribution, and is independent of the mass-to-light ratio of the stellar disk (f). In Chapter 3 I present a new method (usable for inclinations larger than 60^circ) to determine the thickness of the gas layer of spiral galaxies from high resolution H sc I observations. I use VLA H sc I observations of the almost edge-on Scd galaxy NGC 4244 to determine the gaseous velocity dispersion, and the flaring and rotation curves. From the Keplerian decline of the rotation curve beyond the stellar disks it follows that the dark-to-luminous mass ratio is at most two and a half. Combining the model predictions for the radial variation of the thickness of the gas layer with the measured flaring curve I find that the dark matter halo of NGC 4244 is highly flattened. The best fit occurs for a halo with an E8 shape (with a mass one-eight of an E0 halo), while the uncertainty (E5-E9) is dominated by the errors in the gaseous velocity dispersion: a round

  19. Milky Way halo gas kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of high resolution, short wavelength absorption data taken by IUE toward high latitude O and B stars are presented in a discussion of the large scale kinematic properties of Milky Way Halo gas. An analysis of these data demonstrates that: (1) the obsrved absorption widths (FWHM) of Si II are very large, ranging up to 150 Km/s for the most distant halo star; this is much larger than is generally appreciated from optical data; (2) the absorption is observed to be systematically negative in radial velocity, indicating that cool material is, on the whole, flowing toward the disk of the galaxy; (3) there is some evidence for asymmetry between the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, in accordance with the HI 21 cm data toward the galactic poles; (4) low column density gas with highly negative radial LSR velocity (V less than -70 km/s) can be found toward stars beyond 1-3 kpc in the northern galactic hemisphere in all four quadrants of galactic longitude; and (5) only the profiles toward stars in the direction of known high velocity HI features show a clear two component structure.

  20. Estimating the dark matter halo mass of our Milky Way using dynamical tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cooper, Andrew P.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Lowing, Ben

    2015-10-01

    The mass of the dark matter halo of the Milky Way can be estimated by fitting analytical models to the phase-space distribution of dynamical tracers. We test this approach using realistic mock stellar haloes constructed from the Aquarius N-body simulations of dark matter haloes in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology. We extend the standard treatment to include a Navarro-Frenk-White potential and use a maximum likelihood method to recover the parameters describing the simulated haloes from the positions and velocities of their mock halo stars. We find that the estimate of halo mass is highly correlated with the estimate of halo concentration. The best-fitting halo masses within the virial radius, R200, are biased, ranging from a 40 per cent underestimate to a 5 per cent overestimate in the best case (when the tangential velocities of the tracers are included). There are several sources of bias. Deviations from dynamical equilibrium can potentially cause significant bias; deviations from spherical symmetry are relatively less important. Fits to stars at different galactocentric radii can give different mass estimates. By contrast, the model gives good constraints on the mass within the half-mass radius of tracers even when restricted to tracers within 60 kpc. The recovered velocity anisotropies of tracers, β, are biased systematically, but this does not affect other parameters if tangential velocity data are used as constraints.

  1. Accelerating the Discovery of Biologically Active Small Molecules Using a High-Throughput Yeast Halo Assay#

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Nadine C.; Tamble, Craig M.; Bock, Jonathan E.; Cotton, Naomi; White, Kimberly N.; Tenney, Karen; St. Onge, Robert P.; Proctor, Michael J.; Giaever, Guri; Davis, Ronald W.; Crews, Phillip; Holman, Theodore R.; Lokey, R. Scott

    2008-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a powerful model system for the study of basic eukaryotic cell biology, has been used increasingly as a screening tool for the identification of bioactive small molecules. We have developed a novel yeast toxicity screen that is easily automated and compatible with high-throughput screening robotics. The new screen is quantitative and allows inhibitory potencies to be determined, since the diffusion of the sample provides a concentration gradient and a corresponding toxicity halo. The efficacy of this new screen was illustrated by testing materials including 3,104 compounds from the NCI libraries, 167 marine sponge crude extracts, and 149 crude marine-derived fungal extracts. There were 46 active compounds among the NCI set. One very active extract was selected for bioactivity-guided fractionation resulting in the identification of crambescidin 800 as a potent antifungal agent. PMID:17291044

  2. HYBRID COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS WITH STREAM VELOCITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Mark L. A.; Scannapieco, Evan; Thacker, Robert J.

    2013-07-10

    In the early universe, substantial relative ''stream'' velocities between the gas and dark matter arise due to radiation pressure and persist after recombination. To assess the impact of these velocities on high-redshift structure formation, we carry out a suite of high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulations, which use smoothed particle hydrodynamic data sets as initial conditions, converted using a new tool developed for this work. These simulations resolve structures with masses as small as a few 100 M{sub Sun }, and we focus on the 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} ''mini-halos'' in which the first stars formed. At z Almost-Equal-To 17, the presence of stream velocities has only a minor effect on the number density of halos below 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, but it greatly suppresses gas accretion onto all halos and the dark matter structures around them. Stream velocities lead to significantly lower halo gas fractions, especially for Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} objects, an effect that is likely to depend on the orientation of a halo's accretion lanes. This reduction in gas density leads to colder, more compact radial profiles, and it substantially delays the redshift of collapse of the largest halos, leading to delayed star formation and possibly delayed reionization. These many differences suggest that future simulations of early cosmological structure formation should include stream velocities to properly predict gas evolution, star formation, and the epoch of reionization.

  3. HIGHLY IONIZED PLASMA IN THE HALO OF A LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXY NEAR z = 0.225

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Anand; Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart P. E-mail: savage@astro.wisc.ed

    2010-04-01

    We present analyses of the physical conditions in the z(O{sub VI})=0.22496 and z(O{sub VI})=0.22638 multiphase absorption systems detected in the ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope/STIS and FUSE spectra of the quasar H 1821+643 (m{sub V} = 14.2, z{sub em} = 0.297). Both absorbers are likely associated with the extended halo of a {approx}2L*{sub B} Sbc-Sc galaxy situated at a projected distance of {approx}116 h {sup -1}{sub 71} kpc from the sight line. The z = 0.22496 absorber is detected in C II, C III, C IV, O III, O VI, Si II, Si III, and H I (Ly alpha-Lytheta) at >3sigma significance. The components of Si III and Si II are narrow with implied temperatures of T {approx}< 3 x 10{sup 4} K. The low and intermediate ions in this absorber are consistent with an origin in a T {approx} 10{sup 4} K photoionized gas with [Si/H] and [C/H] of {approx}-0.6 dex. In contrast, the broader O VI absorption is likely produced in collisionally ionized plasma under nonequilibrium conditions. The z(O{sub VI})=0.22638 system has broad Ly alpha (BLA) and C III absorption offset by v = -53 km s{sup -1} from O VI. The H I and C III line widths for the BLA imply T = 1.1 x 10{sup 5} K. For non-equilibrium cooling we obtain [C/H] {approx}-1.5 dex and N(H) = 3.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} in the BLA. The O VI, offset from the BLA with no detected H I or C III, is likely collisionally ionized at T {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} K. From the observed multiphase properties and the proximity to a luminous galaxy, we propose that the z = 0.22496 absorber is an extragalactic analog of a highly ionized Galactic HVC, in which the O VI is produced in transition temperature plasma (T {approx} 10{sup 5} K) at the interface layers between the warm (T < 5 x 10{sup 4} K) HVC gas phase and the hot (T {approx}> 10{sup 6} K) coronal halo of the galaxy. The z = 0.22638 O VI-BLA absorber could be tracing a cooling condensing fragment in the nearby galaxy's hot gaseous halo.

  4. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2013-10-01

    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  5. Direct collapse black hole formation via high-velocity collisions of protogalaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Visbal, Eli; Kashiyama, Kazumi

    2015-10-01

    We propose high-velocity collisions of protogalaxies as a new pathway to form supermassive stars (SMSs) with masses of ˜105 M⊙ at high redshift (z > 10). When protogalaxies hosted by dark matter haloes with a virial temperature of ˜ 104 K collide with a relative velocity ≳ 200 km s-1, the gas is shock-heated to ˜106 K and subsequently cools isobarically via free-free emission and He+, He, and H line emission. Since the gas density ( ≳ 104 cm- 3) is high enough to destroy H2 molecules by collisional dissociation, the shocked gas never cools below ˜104 K. Once a gas cloud of ˜105 M⊙ reaches this temperature, it becomes gravitationally unstable and forms an SMS which will rapidly collapse into a supermassive black hole via general relativistic instability. We perform a simple analytic estimate of the number density of direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) formed through this scenario (calibrated with cosmological N-body simulations) and find nDCBH ˜ 10- 9 Mpc- 3 (comoving) by z = 10. This could potentially explain the abundance of bright high-z quasars.

  6. Artificial halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmke, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Judged by their frequency and beauty, ice halos easily rival rainbows as a prominent atmospheric optics phenomenon. This article presents experimental halo demonstrations of varying complexity. Using a single commercially available hexagonal glass prism, a variety of artificial halos can be simulated. The experiments include laser beam path analysis, a modified classic spinning prism experiment, and a novel Monte-Carlo machine for three-dimensional rotations. Each of these experiments emulates different conditions of certain halo displays, and in combination, they allow a thorough understanding of these striking phenomena.

  7. Response of polymer composites to high and low velocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, C. Y.; Mount, A.; Jang, B. Z.; Zee, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present investigation of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites' impact characteristics employed a drop tower for the low-velocity impact case and a novel, projectile instantaneous velocity-measuring sensor for high-velocity impact. Attention was given to the energy loss of projectiles in composites reinforced with polyethylene, kevlar, and graphite. Two distinct energy-loss mechanisms are noted, the first of which is due to the actual fracture process while the other is due to the generation of friction heat. The drop-tower impact-test results furnish the strain-rate dependence of the energy loss.

  8. Clouds Dominate the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    yet," he said. Earlier this year, data taken with the newly commissioned GBT demonstrated that rather than a diffuse mist or other ill-defined feature - as many astronomers had speculated - the halo was in fact made up of well-defined clouds. "The discovery of these clouds, each containing 50-to-100 solar masses of hydrogen and averaging about 100 light-years in diameter, challenged many of the prevailing theories about the structure and dynamics of the halo," said Lockman. The clouds were discovered about 25,000 light-years from Earth toward the center of our Galaxy. The latest findings show the clouds extend at least 5,000 light-years above and below the Galactic plane. Though the initial studies by Lockman revealed the presence of these clouds, the data were insufficient to conclusively show that they were present throughout the entire halo. These latest results provide valuable evidence that the earlier results were truly representative of the entire halo. "The richness and variety of this phenomenon continues to astound me," remarked Lockman. Lockman's new studies also confirm that these clouds travel along with the rest of the Galaxy, rotating about its center. These studies clearly rule out the possibility that so-called "high-velocity clouds" were responsible for what was detected initially. High-velocity clouds are vagabond clumps of intergalactic gas, possibly left over from the formation of the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. "One thing that is for certain is that these are not high-velocity clouds, this is an entirely separate phenomenon," said Lockman. According to the researcher, the ubiquitous nature and dynamics of these newly discovered clouds support the theory that they are condensing out of the hot gas that is lifted into the halo through supernova explosions. When a massive star dies, it produces a burst of cosmic rays and an enormous expanding bubble of gas at a temperature of several million degrees Celsius. Over time, this hot gas will

  9. Fluid shielding of high-velocity jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodykoontz, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental noise data for a nozzle exhaust system incorporating a thermal acoustic shield (TAS) are presented to show the effect of changes in geometric and flow parameters on attenuation of high-velocity jet exhaust noise in the flyover plane. The results are presented for a 10.00-cm-diameter primary conical nozzle with a TAS configuration consisting of a 2.59- or 5.07-cm-wide annular gap. Shield-stream exhaust velocity was varied from 157 to 248 m/sec to investigate the effect of velocity ratio. The results showed that increasing the annular gap width increases attenuation of high-frequency noise when comparisons are made on the same ideal thrust basis. Varying the velocity ratio had a minor effect on the noise characteristics of the nozzles investigated.

  10. The High Resolution Measurement of P and S Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Azuma, H.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic explorations, which give seismic velocity, such as seismic refraction method and the down hole - PS logging, are generally applied to the large - scale area. Typically, at these seismic explorations, the receivers spacing ranges from 1.0m to 20.0m and resolution which means a minimal area required to determine seismic velocity is 10 to 50m depending of the receivers spacing. On the other hand, recently, seismic exploration to the smaller area has been applied with increasing frequency. For the large-scale constructions which require severe safety, such as the power station, dam, tunnels, bridges, the rock physical properties in wide area of several hundred meter square, are necessary in order to assess the safety when those are built and an earthquake comes. However, field tests which give the physical properties are almost applied to the area of around 1 m square. In this case, the issue exists whether or not the small field test area is representative of the whole rock property in the site. For this issue, seismic explorations to the small area are adopted for the purpose of the comparison between seismic velocity in the field test area and in the whole site area. It is generally recognized that the accuracy of seismic velocity decrease with decreasing seismic measurement length and number of receivers. To achieve high accuracy with the seismic exploration to the smaller area, we should adjust the spacing closer between the receivers compared to the spacing used by the existing method, and increase the number of receivers. And also, by doing this, we can increase the resolution of velocity results. At first, before the investigation, we calculated the errors of velocity caused by picking error of the arrival time from slope of a straight line using the linear least squares method, based on the Theory of Errors. This method shows that we should use the high frequency seismic wave in order to achieve the increasing the accuracy with the short seismic

  11. Mapping the Galactic Halo. VIII. Quantifying Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; van Woerden, Hugo; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Frey, Lucy; Oravetz, Dan

    2009-06-01

    We have measured the amount of kinematic substructure in the Galactic halo using the final data set from the Spaghetti project, a pencil-beam high-latitude sky survey. Our sample contains 101 photometrically selected and spectroscopically confirmed giants with accurate distance, radial velocity, and metallicity information. We have developed a new clustering estimator: the "4distance" measure, which when applied to our data set leads to the identification of one group and seven pairs of clumped stars. The group, with six members, can confidently be matched to tidal debris of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Two pairs match the properties of known Virgo structures. Using models of the disruption of Sagittarius in Galactic potentials with different degrees of dark halo flattening, we show that this favors a spherical or prolate halo shape, as demonstrated by Newberg et al. using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. One additional pair can be linked to older Sagittarius debris. We find that 20% of the stars in the Spaghetti data set are in substructures. From comparison with random data sets, we derive a very conservative lower limit of 10% to the amount of substructure in the halo. However, comparison to numerical simulations shows that our results are also consistent with a halo entirely built up from disrupted satellites, provided that the dominating features are relatively broad due to early merging or relatively heavy progenitor satellites.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF DARK MATTER HALOS ON DYNAMICAL ESTIMATES OF BLACK HOLE MASS: 10 NEW MEASUREMENTS FOR HIGH-{sigma} EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rusli, S. P.; Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Fabricius, M.; Erwin, P.; Bender, R.; Nowak, N.; Lee, C. H.; Riffeser, A.; Sharp, R.

    2013-09-15

    Adaptive optics assisted SINFONI observations of the central regions of 10 early-type galaxies are presented. Based primarily on the SINFONI kinematics, 10 black hole (BH) masses occupying the high-mass regime of the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation are derived using three-integral Schwarzschild models. The effect of dark matter (DM) inclusion on the BH mass is explored. The omission of a DM halo in the model results in a higher stellar mass-to-light ratio, especially when extensive kinematic data are used in the model. However, when the diameter of the sphere of influence-computed using the BH mass derived without a dark halo-is at least 10 times the point-spread function FWHM during the observations, it is safe to exclude a DM component in the dynamical modeling, i.e., the change in BH mass is negligible. When the spatial resolution is marginal, restricting the mass-to-light ratio to the right value returns the correct M{sub BH} although a dark halo is not present in the model. Compared to the M{sub BH}-{sigma} and M{sub BH}-L relations of McConnell et al., the 10 BHs are all more massive than expected from the luminosities and 7 BH masses are higher than expected from the stellar velocity dispersions of the host bulges. Using new fitted relations, which include the 10 galaxies, we find that the space density of the most massive BHs (M{sub BH} {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) estimated from the M{sub BH}-L relation is higher than the estimate based on the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation and the latter is higher than model predictions based on quasar counts, each by about an order of magnitude.

  13. Are Compact High-Velocity Clouds The Missing Local Group Satellites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebel, E. K.; Braun, R.; Burton, W. B.

    2000-05-01

    In contrast to high-velocity cloud complexes, isolated compact high-velocity clouds (CHVCs) are plausibly at distances of 0.5 to 1 Mpc, show infall motion with respect to the Local Group barycenter, are rotationally supported and dark-matter dominated. Are CHVCs the missing Local Group satellites predicted by hierarchical clustering scenarios? Are they proto-galactic gas clouds or do they contain stars as well? A failure to detect stars would be a very interesting result in itself: the first discovery of pure HI/dark matter halos prior to star formation, i.e., the most basic of galaxy building blocks. A detection of stars will help to refine the HI distances, augment the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function, and open the way to the study of the stellar populations of a new, very dark type of dwarf galaxy. We present results from a targeted multi-color survey for stars in radio-preselected CHVCs with the Mosaic imagers at NOAO. Our findings seem to indicate the detection of the red giant branch of an old stellar population, but contamination by distant starburst galaxies plays a role as well.

  14. Interferometry on diffuse surfaces in high-velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronin, A.; Gupta, V.

    1993-08-01

    An interferometer is presented which is capable of measuring the free-surface velocities and displacements of both specular and diffuse surfaces. The setup utilizes a previously used principle of producing a virtual image of one mirror at the same distance from the photodiode as the second mirror of the interferometer, albeit with considerable simplification. It is shown that use of a He-Ne laser of only 5-mW power can produce high contrast displacement fringes from surfaces of materials with nonuniform microstructure, including composites. Substrates of carbon-carbon composites and polycrystalline alumina with nonuniform microstructure on the scale of 5-10 μm, and with peak velocities up to 150 m/s were considered. An experimental strategy which allows one to covert the optical setup to either a velocity or a displacement interferometer is also discussed. It is further shown that use of a fast photodiode and a high-speed digitizer with a 5-ps rise time provides a time resolution of 0.2 ns for recording the displacement fringes, and allows measuring free surface velocities up to 800 m/s. This is demonstrated by measuring such transient surface velocities with rise times of 1 ns on a specular Si surface. In all the experiments reported here, the surface velocities were produced by the reflection of a stress wave, which in turn was generated on the back surface of the substrate, using a Nd:YAG laser pulse.

  15. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  16. Orbital Transfer Vehicle Engine Technology High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    High speed, high efficiency head rise multistage pumps require continuous passage diffusing crossovers to effectively convey the pumped fluid from the exit of one impeller to the inlet of the next impeller. On Rocketdyne's Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), the MK49-F, a three stage high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump, utilizes a 6.23 velocity ratio diffusing crossover. This velocity ratio approaches the diffusion limits for stable and efficient flow over the operating conditions required by the OTV system. The design of the high velocity ratio diffusing crossover was based on advanced analytical techniques anchored by previous tests of stationary two-dimensional diffusers with steady flow. To secure the design and the analytical techniques, tests were required with the unsteady whirling characteristics produced by an impeller. A tester was designed and fabricated using a 2.85 times scale model of the MK49-F turbopumps first stage, including the inducer, impeller, and the diffusing crossover. Water and air tests were completed to evaluate the large scale turbulence, non-uniform velocity, and non-steady velocity on the pump and crossover head and efficiency. Suction performance tests from 80 percent to 124 percent of design flow were completed in water to assess these pump characteristics. Pump and diffuser performance from the water and air tests were compared with the actual MK49-F test data in liquid hydrogen.

  17. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies. PMID:26317711

  18. 3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ožbolt, Joško; İrhan, Barış; Ruta, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    An explicit three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.

  19. Pierce Prize Lecture: High Velocity Clouds: Cosmological and Galactic Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembach, K.

    2001-12-01

    The Milky Way and its surrounding environs contain gas moving at high velocities with respect to the Sun. For the past half century, most of the information available for these high velocity clouds (HVCs) has come from H I 21cm surveys. Improvements in these surveys have recently led to the idea that some of the high velocity H I clouds may be located outside the Milky Way within the Local Group. Such a hypothesis is testable by various means, but the neutral gas content of the clouds tells only half of a much more complex story. In this talk I will present new information about the ionized gas within HVCs, their impact on the gaseous atmosphere of the Galaxy, and their relevance to the cosmic web of hot gas that may contain a significant fraction of the baryonic material in the low-redshift universe.

  20. Space-quality data from balloon-borne telescopes: The High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Jason; Dobke, Benjamin; Booth, Jeffrey; Massey, Richard; Liewer, Kurt; Smith, Roger; Amara, Adam; Aldrich, Jack; Berge, Joel; Bezawada, Naidu; Brugarolas, Paul; Clark, Paul; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Ellis, Richard; Frenk, Carlos; Gallie, Angus; Heavens, Alan; Henry, David; Jullo, Eric; Kitching, Thomas; Lanzi, James; Lilly, Simon; Lunney, David; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morris, David; Paine, Christopher; Peacock, John; Pellegrino, Sergio; Pittock, Roger; Pool, Peter; Refregier, Alexandre; Seiffert, Michael; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Alexandra; Stuchlik, David; Taylor, Andy; Teplitz, Harry; Ali Vanderveld, R.; Wu, James

    2012-10-01

    We present a method for attaining sub-arcsecond pointing stability during sub-orbital balloon flights, as designed for in the High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO) concept. The pointing method presented here has the potential to perform near-space quality optical astronomical imaging at ˜1-2% of the cost of space-based missions. We also discuss an architecture that can achieve sufficient thermo-mechanical stability to match the pointing stability. This concept is motivated by advances in the development and testing of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights which promise to allow observation campaigns lasting more than three months. The design incorporates a multi-stage pointing architecture comprising: a gondola coarse azimuth control system, a multi-axis nested gimbal frame structure with arcsecond stability, a telescope de-rotator to eliminate field rotation, and a fine guidance stage consisting of both a telescope mounted angular rate sensor and guide CCDs in the focal plane to drive a Fast-Steering Mirror. We discuss the results of pointing tests together with a preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis required for sub-arcsecond pointing at high altitude. Possible future applications in the areas of wide-field surveys and exoplanet searches are also discussed.

  1. High-dispersion Spectrum of the Halo Planetary Nebula DdDm 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Hyung, Siek; Lee, Seong-Jae; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Tajitsu, Akito

    2009-11-01

    Using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) at the Subaru Telescope, we secured the high-resolution line spectra in the 3600-7500 Å wavelength range of the Galactic halo planetary nebula DdDm 1. We also analyzed the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph data in the 1200-6730 Å wavelength range. The diagnostic results indicate the electron temperatures of T epsilon~ 11,000-14,000 K and the electron number densities of N epsilon~ 2000-10,500 cm-3. In spite of high gaseous temperatures, we have not detected high excitation lines, e.g., He II. We derived abundance based on the ionic concentration of permitted and forbidden lines and the photoionization model. A comparison of the ionic concentrations from forbidden lines to recombination lines shows the abundance discrepancy between them. We tested various possibilities, e.g., temperature fluctuation and high-density blob components, to explain the discrepancy. The high-density components or density fluctuation might be partly responsible for the discrepancy. DdDm 1 shows a low carbon abundance that corresponds to metal-poor stars, [Fe/H] <=-1. Assuming a distance of 10 kpc to DdDm 1, theoretical models suggest that the central star has T effsime 39,000 K and Lsime 2000-3000 L sun. The relatively high gas temperatures appear to be caused by very low heavy elemental abundances or insufficient coolants in the shell gas. Its progenitor, born in an extremely carbon-poor environment as an initial mass of about 0.9 M sun, had probably experienced only the first dredge-up. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Prop. ID S05B-178S (M. Otsuka).

  2. HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTRUM OF THE HALO PLANETARY NEBULA DdDm 1

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Hyung, Siek; Lee, Seong-Jae; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Tajitsu, Akito

    2009-11-01

    Using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) at the Subaru Telescope, we secured the high-resolution line spectra in the 3600-7500 A wavelength range of the Galactic halo planetary nebula DdDm 1. We also analyzed the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph data in the 1200-6730 A wavelength range. The diagnostic results indicate the electron temperatures of T {sub e}psilonapprox 11,000-14,000 K and the electron number densities of N {sub e}psilonapprox 2000-10,500 cm{sup -3}. In spite of high gaseous temperatures, we have not detected high excitation lines, e.g., He II. We derived abundance based on the ionic concentration of permitted and forbidden lines and the photoionization model. A comparison of the ionic concentrations from forbidden lines to recombination lines shows the abundance discrepancy between them. We tested various possibilities, e.g., temperature fluctuation and high-density blob components, to explain the discrepancy. The high-density components or density fluctuation might be partly responsible for the discrepancy. DdDm 1 shows a low carbon abundance that corresponds to metal-poor stars, [Fe/H] <=-1. Assuming a distance of 10 kpc to DdDm 1, theoretical models suggest that the central star has T {sub eff}approx = 39,000 K and Lapprox = 2000-3000 L {sub sun}. The relatively high gas temperatures appear to be caused by very low heavy elemental abundances or insufficient coolants in the shell gas. Its progenitor, born in an extremely carbon-poor environment as an initial mass of about 0.9 M {sub sun}, had probably experienced only the first dredge-up.

  3. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  4. Renormalized halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of renormalization in models of halo biasing. Building on work of McDonald, we show that Eulerian biasing is only consistent with renormalization if non-local terms and higher-derivative contributions are included in the biasing model. We explicitly determine the complete list of required bias parameters for Gaussian initial conditions, up to quartic order in the dark matter density contrast and at leading order in derivatives. At quadratic order, this means including the gravitational tidal tensor, while at cubic order the velocity potential appears as an independent degree of freedom. Our study naturally leads to an effective theory of biasing in which the halo density is written as a double expansion in fluctuations and spatial derivatives. We show that the bias expansion can be organized in terms of Galileon operators which aren't renormalized at leading order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss how the renormalized bias parameters impact the statistics of halos.

  5. Inferring Gravitational Potentials from Mass Densities in Cluster-sized Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Stark, Alejo; Gifford, Daniel; Kern, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    We use N-body simulations to quantify how the escape velocity in cluster-sized halos maps to the gravitational potential in a ΛCDM universe. Using spherical density-potential pairs and the Poisson equation, we find that the matter density inferred gravitational potential profile predicts the escape velocity profile to within a few percent accuracy for group and cluster-sized halos (10{}13\\lt {M}200\\lt {10}15 M {}ȯ , with respect to the critical density). The accuracy holds from just outside the core to beyond the virial radius. We show the importance of explicitly incorporating a cosmological constant when inferring the potential from the Poisson equation. We consider three density models and find that the Einasto and Gamma profiles provide a better joint estimate of the density and potential profiles than the Navarro, Frenk, and White profile, which fails to accurately represent the escape velocity. For individual halos, the 1σ scatter between the measured escape velocity and the density-inferred potential profile is small (<5%). Finally, while the sub-halos show 15% biases in their representation of the particle velocity dispersion profile, the sub-halo escape velocity profile matches the dark matter escape velocity profile to high accuracy with no evidence of velocity bias outside 0.4r 200.

  6. The First Distance Constraint on the Renegade High-velocity Cloud Complex WD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Sana, Hugues; Roman-Duval, Julia; Tumlinson, Jason; Zheng, Yong

    2016-09-01

    We present medium-resolution, near-ultraviolet Very Large Telescope/FLAMES observations of the star USNO-A0600-15865535. We adapt a standard method of stellar typing to our measurement of the shape of the Balmer ɛ absorption line to demonstrate that USNO-A0600-15865535 is a blue horizontal branch star, residing in the lower stellar halo at a distance of 4.4 kpc from the Sun. We measure the H & K lines of singly ionized calcium and find two isolated velocity components, one originating in the disk, and one associated with the high-velocity cloud complex WD. This detection demonstrated that complex WD is closer than ∼4.4 kpc and is the first distance constraint on the +100 km s‑1 Galactic complex of clouds. We find that complex WD is not in corotation with the Galactic disk, which has been assumed for decades. We examine a number of scenarios and find that the most likely scenario is that complex WD was ejected from the solar neighborhood and is only a few kiloparsecs from the Sun.

  7. Where Are the High-Velocity Clouds in Local Group Analogs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, D. J.; Barnes, David G.; Gibson, Brad K.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Freeman, Ken C.; Kilborn, Virginia A.

    2004-07-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are clouds of H I seen around the Milky Way with velocities inconsistent with Galactic rotation; they have unknown distances and masses and controversial origins. One possibility is that HVCs are associated with the small dark matter halos seen in models of galaxy formation and distributed at distances of 150 kpc to 1 Mpc. We report on our attempts to detect the analogs to such putative extragalactic clouds in three groups of galaxies similar to our own Local Group using the Australia Telescope National Facility Parkes Telescope and Compact Array. Eleven dwarf galaxies were found, but no H I clouds lacking stars were detected. Using the population of compact HVCs around the Milky Way as a template, we find that our nondetection of analogs implies that they must be clustered within 160 kpc of the Milky Way (and other galaxies) with an average H I mass <~4×105 Msolar at the 95% confidence level. This is in accordance with recent limits derived by other authors. If our groups are true analogs to the Local Group, then this makes the original Blitz et al. and Braun & Burton picture of HVCs residing out to 1 Mpc from the Milky Way extremely unlikely. The total H I mass in HVCs, <~108 Msolar, implies that there is not a large reservoir of neutral hydrogen waiting to be accreted onto the Milky Way. Any substantial reservoir of baryonic matter must be mostly ionized or condensed enough as to be undetectable.

  8. A mechanism for high wall-rock velocities in rockbursts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable evidence has been reported for wall-rock velocities during rockbursts in deep gold mines that are substantially greater than ground velocities associated with the primary seismic events. Whereas varied evidence suggests that slip across a fault at the source of an event generates nearby particle velocities of, at most, several m/s, numerous observations, in nearby damaged tunnels, for instance, imply wall-rock velocities of the order of 10 m/s and greater. The common observation of slab buckling or breakouts in the sidewalls of damaged excavations suggests that slab flexure may be the mechanism for causing high rock ejection velocities. Following its formation, a sidewall slab buckles, causing the flexure to increase until the stress generated by flexure reaches the limit 5 that can be supported by the sidewall rock. I assume here that S is the uniaxial compressive strength. Once the flexural stress exceeds S, presumably due to the additional load imposed by a nearby seismic event, the slab fractures and unflexes violently. The peak wall-rock velocity v thereby generated is given by v=(3 + 1-??2/2)1 2 S/?????E for rock of density ??, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ??. Typical values of these rock properties for the deep gold mines of South Africa yield v= 26 m/s and for especially strong quartzites encountered in these same mines, v> 50m/s. Even though this slab buckling process leads to remarkably high ejection velocities and violent damage in excavations, the energy released during this failure is only a tiny fraction of that released in the primary seismic event, typically of magnitude 2 or greater.

  9. HD 69686: A MYSTERIOUS HIGH VELOCITY B STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wenjin; Gies, D. R.; McSwain, M. V. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed

    2009-09-20

    We report on the discovery of a high velocity B star, HD 69686. We estimate its space velocity, distance, surface temperature, gravity, and age. With these data, we are able to reconstruct the trajectory of the star and to trace it back to its birthplace. We use evolutionary tracks for single stars to estimate that HD 69686 was born 73 Myr ago in the outer part of our Galaxy (r {approx} 12 kpc) at a position well below the Galactic plane (z {approx} -1.8 kpc), a very unusual birthplace for a B star. Along the star's projected path in the sky, we also find about 12 other stars having similar proper motions, and their photometry data suggest that they are located at the same distance as HD 69686 and probably have the same age. We speculate on the origin of this group by star formation in a high velocity cloud or as a Galactic merger fragment.

  10. A Search for High-Velocity Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, D. H.; Gies, D. R.

    2001-07-01

    We present an analysis of the kinematics of Be stars based upon Hipparcos proper motions and published radial velocities. We find approximately 23 of the 344 stars in our sample have peculiar space motions greater than 40 km s-1 and up to 102 km s-1. We argue that these high-velocity stars are the result of either a supernova that disrupted a binary or ejection by close encounters of binaries in young clusters. Be stars spun up by binary mass transfer will appear as high-velocity objects if there was significant mass loss during the supernova explosion of the initially more massive star, but the generally moderate peculiar velocities of Be X-ray binaries indicate that the progenitors lose most of their mass prior to the supernova (in accordance with model predictions). Binary formation models for Be stars predict that most systems bypass the supernova stage (and do not receive runaway velocities) to create ultimately Be+white dwarf binaries. The fraction of Be stars spun up by binary mass transfer remains unknown, since the post-mass transfer companions are difficult to detect.

  11. The Smith Cloud: High-Velocity Accretion and Dark Matter Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Smith Cloud is a massive system of metal-poor neutral and ionized gas (M gas gsim 2 × 106 M sun) that is presently moving at high velocity (V GSR≈ 300 km s-1) with respect to the Galaxy at a distance of 12 kpc from the Sun. The kinematics of the cloud's cometary tail indicates that the gas is in the process of accretion onto the Galaxy, as first discussed by Lockman et al. Here, we re-investigate the cloud's orbit by considering the possibility that the cloud is confined by a dark matter halo. This is required for the cloud to survive its passage through the Galactic corona. We consider three possible models for the dark matter halo (Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), Einasto, and Burkert) including the effects of tidal disruption and ram pressure stripping during the cloud's infall onto and passage through the Galactic disk. For the NFW and Einasto dark matter models, we are able to determine reasonable initial conditions for the Smith Cloud, although this is only marginally possible with the Burkert model. For all three models, the progenitor had an initial (gas+dark matter) mass that was an order-of-magnitude higher than inferred today. In agreement with Lockman et al., the cloud appears to have punched through the disk ≈70 Myr ago. For our most successful models, the baryon-to-dark matter ratio is fairly constant during an orbital period but drops by a factor of 2-5 after transiting the disk. The cloud appears to have only marginally survived its transit and is unlikely to retain its integrity during the next transit ≈ 30 Myr from now.

  12. On the Origin of the High Lithium Abundance in the Halo Star BD+23{\\ }3912

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyannis, C. P.; King, J. R.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    1996-09-01

    The Li abundance of the halo star BD+23{\\ }3912 ([Fe/H]=-1.5) lies a factor of 2-3 above the Spite plateau. This remarkable difference could reflect either less-than-average stellar Li depletion from a higher primordial Li abundance (as predicted by the Yale rotational stellar evolutionary models), which may have interesting implications for Big Bang nucleosynthesis, or the extraordinary action of Galactic Li production mechanisms (or both). We use our high resolution, high S/N Keck HIRES spectrum of BD+23{\\ }3912 to determine the s-process element abundances and (6) Li/(7) Li ratio in this star. These values serve as signatures for two possible Li production scenarios: {\\ }the (7) Be transport mechanism in AGB stars, and cosmic ray interactions with the ISM. The unremarkable abundances of Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, and Sm that we derive argue against a significant contribution to this star's excess Li from AGB production mechanisms carrying an s-process signature. Our conservative upper limit of (6) Li/(7) Li{<=}0.15 (compared to 0.25-0.50 expected from cosmic ray production) argues against cosmic ray + ISM interactions as the source for the excess Li, unless Li depletion from an even higher abundance has occurred with preferential (6) Li depletion. Highly speculative RGB production scenarios also seem unlikely given the normal Na and Al abundances we find and the normal C and O abundances determined by others. While the high Li abundance in BD+23{\\ }3912 is consistent with that expected from Yale rotational models having a lower-than-average initial angular momentum, future observations of ν-process elements (particularly (11) B) produced in supernovae should provide additional constraints on any enrichment scenarios seeking to explain the large Li abundance of this interesting star.

  13. Chemical abundances in a high-velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Xu, S.; Kunder, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2016-05-01

    Low-mass variable high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic center. Wide-area surveys such as APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities higher than 350 km s-1. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass RR Lyrae star that is located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~-400 km s-1. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derived abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allowed us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances combined suggest that the star was accelerated from the outskirts of the inner (or even outer) halo during many-body interactions. Other possible origins include the bulge itself, or the star might have been stripped from a stellar cluster or the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy when it merged with the Milky Way. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Electric rail gun projectile acceleration to high velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, D. P.; Mccormick, T. J.; Barber, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electric rail accelerators are being investigated for application in electric propulsion systems. Several electric propulsion applications require that the rail accelerator be capable of launching projectiles at velocities above 10 km/s. An experimental program was conducted to develop rail accelerator technology for high velocity projectile launch. Several 6 mm bore, 3 m long rail accelerators were fabricated. Projectiles with a mass of 0.2 g were accelerated by plasmas, carrying currents up to 150 kA. Experimental design and results are described. Results indicate that the accelerator performed as predicted for a fraction of the total projectile acceleration. The disparity between predicted and measured results are discussed.

  15. Mechanisms of beam-halo formation in high-intensity linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, C.L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    An rms-mismatched beam with space-charge forces can evolve rapidly, and during the course of evolution its emittance grows and a diffuse halo forms. The halo is of particular concern for long-term operation of linacs such as those envisioned for accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) because too much particle impingement on the accelerating structures would cause enough radioactivation to prohibit routine hands-on maintenance. Thus, halo suppression is a design consideration for these linacs. In this paper, the authors summarize both the physical processes associated with the rapid evolution of the rms-mismatched beam and a semianalytic formalism which was recently developed to account for them. They also provide representative results derived from the formalism.

  16. High-temperature polyimides prepared from 2,2-bis-[(2-halo-4-aminophenoxy)-phenyl]hexafluoropropane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    There are provided the aromatic diamines 2,2-bis-[(2-halo-4-aminophenoxy)-phenyl]hexafluoropropane, where the attached ortho halogen is preferably chlorine, and 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy)biphenyl, as novel monomers for polyimide polymerizations. The former, when reacted with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride, provides a polyimide having exceptional high-temperature performance. The latter diamine is a low-cost monomer for polyimide production.

  17. HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF GALACTIC HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS: FOUR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SIGHT LINES THROUGH COMPLEX C

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, J. Michael; Stevans, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Penton, Steven V.; Lockman, Felix J.; Arav, Nahum E-mail: matthew.stevans@colorado.edu E-mail: steven.penton@colorado.edu E-mail: arav@vt.edu

    2011-10-01

    We report ultraviolet spectra of Galactic high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in Complex C, taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), together with new 21 cm spectra from the Green Bank Telescope. The wide spectral coverage and higher signal-to-noise ratio, compared to previous HST spectra, provide better velocity definition of the HVC absorption, additional ionization species (including high ions), and improved abundances in this halo gas. Complex C has a metallicity of 10%-30% solar and a wide range of ions, suggesting dynamical and thermal interactions with hot gas in the Galactic halo. Spectra in the COS medium-resolution G130M (1133-1468 A) and G160M (1383-1796 A) gratings detect ultraviolet absorption lines from eight elements in low-ionization states (O I, N I, C II, S II, Si II, Al II, Fe II, P II) and three elements in intermediate- and high-ionization states (Si III, Si IV, C IV, N V). Our four active galactic nucleus sight lines toward Mrk 817, Mrk 290, Mrk 876, and PG 1259+593 have high-velocity H I and O VI column densities, log N{sub Hi}= 19.39-20.05 and log N{sub Ovi}= 13.58-14.10, with substantial amounts of kinematically associated photoionized gas. The high-ion abundance ratios are consistent with cooling interfaces between photoionized and collisionally ionized gas: N(C IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.3-0.5, N(Si IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.05-0.11, N(N V)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.07-0.13, and N(Si IV)/N(Si III) {approx}0.2.

  18. VELOCITY SPECTRUM FOR H I AT HIGH LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Chepurnov, A.; Lazarian, A.; Stanimirovic, S.; Heiles, Carl; Peek, J. E. G.

    2010-05-10

    In this paper, we present the results of the statistical analysis of high-latitude H I turbulence in the Milky Way. We have observed H I in the 21 cm line, obtained with the Arecibo{sup 3} L-Band Feed Array receiver at the Arecibo radio telescope. For recovering velocity statistics, we have used the velocity coordinate spectrum (VCS) technique. In our analysis, we have used direct fitting of the VCS model, as its asymptotic regimes are questionable for Arecibo's resolution, given the restrictions from thermal smoothing of the turbulent line. We have obtained a velocity spectral index of 3.87 {+-} 0.11, an injection scale of 140 {+-} 80 pc, and an H I cold phase temperature of 52 {+-} 11 K. The spectral index is steeper than the Kolmogorov index and can be interpreted as being due to shock-dominated turbulence.

  19. Extended Lyman α haloes around individual high-redshift galaxies revealed by MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisotzki, L.; Bacon, R.; Blaizot, J.; Brinchmann, J.; Herenz, E. C.; Schaye, J.; Bouché, N.; Cantalupo, S.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Caruana, J.; Courbot, J.-B.; Emsellem, E.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Leclercq, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Patrício, V.; Sandin, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Straka, L. A.; Urrutia, T.; Verhamme, A.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wendt, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission around individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts z = 3-6 in an ultradeep exposure of the Hubble Deep Field South obtained with MUSE on the ESO-VLT. The data reach a limiting surface brightness (1σ) of ~1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in azimuthally averaged radial profiles, an order of magnitude improvement over previous narrowband imaging. Our sample consists of 26 spectroscopically confirmed Lyα-emitting, but mostly continuum-faint (mAB ≳ 27) galaxies. In most objects the Lyα emission is considerably more extended than the UV continuum light. While five of the faintest galaxies in the sample show no significantly detected Lyα haloes, the derived upper limits suggest that this is due to insufficient S/N. Lyα haloes therefore appear to be ubiquitous even for low-mass (~ 108-109 M⊙) star-forming galaxies at z > 3. We decompose the Lyα emission of each object into a compact component tracing the UV continuum and an extended halo component, and infer sizes and luminosities of the haloes. The extended Lyα emission approximately follows an exponential surface brightness distribution with a scale length of a few kpc. While these haloes are thus quite modest in terms of their absolute sizes, they are larger by a factor of 5-15 than the corresponding rest-frame UV continuum sources as seen by HST. They are also much more extended, by a factor ~5, than Lyα haloes around low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Between ~40% and ≳90% of the observed Lyα flux comes from the extended halo component, with no obvious correlation of this fraction with either the absolute or the relative size of the Lyα halo. Our observations provide direct insights into the spatial distribution of at least partly neutral gas residing in the circumgalactic medium of low to intermediate mass galaxies at z > 3.

  20. On the long-tail solar wind electron velocity distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F.; Coplan, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the log-normal distribution in the description of the high-energy tail of the electron velocity distribution in the solar wind plasma is examined. Specifically, it is shown that the core-halo solar wind distribution function can be understood in terms of a simple phenomenological model of general applicability in which the core has a Maxwellian or normal distribution and the halo a log-normal distribution. In the presence of structures in the interplanetary medium capable of interacting with the electrons, the model predicts a transition at the highest velocities to a secondary halo distribution.

  1. Contributions to the Galactic halo from in-situ, kicked-out, and accreted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2016-08-01

    We report chemical abundances for a sample of 66 M giants with high S/N high-resolution spectroscopy in the inner halo of the Milky Way. The program giant stars have radial velocities that vary significantly from those expected for stars moving on uniform circular orbits in the Galactic disk. Thus, based on kinematics, we expect a sample dominated by halo stars. Abundances are derived for α-elements and neutron capture elements. By analyzing the multi-dimensional abundance space, the formation site of the halo giants - in-situ or accreted - can be assessed. Of particular interest are a class of stars that form in-situ, deep in the Milky Way's gravitational potential well, but are ``kicked out'' of the disk into the halo due to a perturbation event. We find: (1) our sample is dominated by accreted stars and (2) tentative evidence of a small kicked-out population in our Milky Way halo sample.

  2. Effect of velocity spread on operation of high power gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Levush, B.; Cai, S.Y.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Guss, W.C.; Basten, M.A.; Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of velocity spread on the operation of 140 GHz gyrotrons has been studied. The performance of two cavities, with low and high Q, has been examined experimentally and theoretically. The simulation code MAGY was modified to include the measured velocity distribution function and the measured pitch angle in order to compare the measured efficiencies with the predicted efficiencies. Based on measurements, the inferred velocity spread at a beam current of 40 A is given by {l_angle}{delta}{upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}}/{upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}}{r_angle}{sub RMS} = 15%. Simulations with this spread produced efficiencies lower than those measured. However, it was found that assuming {l_angle}{delta}{upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}}/{upsilon}{sub {perpendicular}}{r_angle}{sub RMS} = 10% for 40 A current and using the experimentally determined dependence of the spread on the current the calculated efficiencies agree well with the measured efficiencies for the low Q cavity. The efficiency of the low Q gyrotron at 40 A beam current is only 27%. For the same beam current and velocity spread the efficiency of the high Q gyrotron was predicted to be 40% which agrees well with the measured efficiency of 39%.

  3. The formation of discrete high velocity molecular features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dyson, J. E.

    1987-10-01

    Clumps embedded in a flowing diffuse medium will be dissipated before ram pressure accelerates them substantially. Molecular hydrogen can be accelerated to high speeds by passing through a slow shock leading a shell at the edge of a wind-driven bubble if the density in the ambient medium drops rapidly enough to allow the shell to accelerate subsequently. The shell will be subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which will drive transonic turbulence but will not initiate the formation of fragments having large density contrasts until the shell reaches sufficient speeds to become thermally unstable. The existence of high velocity discrete features in and the magnitude of the linewidth of the H2 emission from CRL 618 are explained with this acceleration mechanism. High velocity water masers may be formed in a similar fashion, but not Herbig-Haro objects.

  4. GALACTIC ARCHEOLOGY AND THE HIGH-REDSHIFT DETECTABILITY OF MILKY WAY HALO PROGENITOR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Okrochkov, Mikhail; Tumlinson, Jason

    2010-06-10

    Using a simple model of Milky Way halo formation and chemical evolution, we examine the criteria for observing Milky Way-like progenitor galaxies and the stellar populations within them with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We determine that Milky Way progenitors are visible in deep fields (AB = 30-31) up to z = 7 with low dust content and up to z = 9 with no dust content. These models allow us to determine the fraction of Milky Way halo stars formed in galaxies that should be visible with Near-Infrared Camera on JWST, as a function of metallicity. We show that galaxies in which Galactic halo stars of metallicity above [Fe/H] = -2.5 formed can be detected. Galaxies that form stars with higher metallicities should be visible in deep fields and can be studied by combining observations within the Galaxy as well as external galaxies. We find that halo stars with [Fe/H] <-2.8 formed in progenitor galaxies that are not visible to JWST and that examining their remnants within the Milky Way provides the only realistic prospect of studying these ancient stellar populations. The oldest visible stellar populations are shown to be centrally concentrated, with the stars that formed in visible galaxies at z > 3 residing preferentially within the central 10 kpc region of the Galaxy.

  5. High-speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinse, W. C.; van't Hof, P. G.; Cheng, L. K.; Scholtes, J. H. G.

    2007-01-01

    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI have influences on the velocity of the flyer. To investigate these parameters a Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) has been used. The light to and from the flyer is transported by a multimode fibre terminated with a GRIN-lens. By this method the velocity of very tiny objects (0.1 mm), can be measured. The velocity of flyer can be recorded with nanosecond resolution, depending on the Fabry-Perot etalon and the streak camera. With this equipment the influence of the dimensions of the exploding foil and the flyer on the velocity and the acceleration of the flyer are investigated. Also the integrity of the flyer during flight can be analyzed. To characterize the explosive material, to be used as driver explosive in EFI's, the initiation behaviour of the explosive has been investigated by taking pictures of the explosion with a high speed framing and streak camera. From these pictures the initiation distance and the detonation behaviour of the explosive has been analyzed. Normally, the driver explosive initiates the acceptor explosive (booster) by direct contact. This booster explosive is embedded in the main charge of the munitions. The combination of initiator, booster explosive and main charge explosive is called the detonation train. In this research the possibility of initiation of the booster by an intermediate flyer is investigated. This secondary flyer can be made of different materials, like aluminium, steel and polyester with different sizes. With the aid of the F-PVIS the acceleration of the secondary flyer is investigated. This reveals the influence of the thickness and density of the flyer on the acceleration and final velocity. Under certain

  6. High Velocity Forming of Magnesium and Titanium Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Revuelta, A.; Larkiola, J.; Korhonen, A. S.; Kanervo, K.

    2007-04-07

    Cold forming of magnesium and titanium is difficult due to their hexagonal crystal structure and limited number of available slip systems. However, high velocity deformation can be quite effective in increasing the forming limits. In this study, electromagnetic forming (EMF) of thin AZ31B-O magnesium and CP grade 1 titanium sheets were compared with normal deep drawing. Same dies were used in both forming processes. Finite element (FE) simulations were carried out to improve the EMF process parameters. Constitutive data was determined using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests (SHPB). To study formability, sample sheets were electromagnetically launched to the female die, using a flat spiral electromagnetic coil and aluminum driver sheets. Deep drawing tests were made by a laboratory press-machine.Results show that high velocity forming processes increase the formability of Magnesium and Titanium sheets although process parameters have to be carefully tuned to obtain good results.

  7. Gouge initiation in high-velocity rocket sled testing

    SciTech Connect

    Tachau, R.D.M.; Trucano, T.G.; Yew, C.H.

    1994-07-01

    A model is presented which describes the formation of surface damage ``gouging`` on the rails that guide rocket sleds. An unbalanced sled can randomly cause a very shallow-angle, oblique impact between the sled shoe and the rail. This damage phenomenon has also been observed in high-velocity guns where the projectile is analogous to the moving sled shoe and the gun barrel is analogous to the stationary rail. At sufficiently high velocity, the oblique impact will produce a thin hot layer of soft material on the contact surfaces. Under the action of a normal moving load, the soft layer lends itself to an anti-symmetric deformation and the formation of a ``hump`` in front of the moving load. A gouge is formed when this hump is overrun by the sled shoe. The phenomenon is simulated numerically using the CTH strong shock physics code, and the results are in good agreement with experimental observation.

  8. High Velocity Forming of Magnesium and Titanium Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelta, A.; Larkiola, J.; Korhonen, A. S.; Kanervo, K.

    2007-04-01

    Cold forming of magnesium and titanium is difficult due to their hexagonal crystal structure and limited number of available slip systems. However, high velocity deformation can be quite effective in increasing the forming limits. In this study, electromagnetic forming (EMF) of thin AZ31B-O magnesium and CP grade 1 titanium sheets were compared with normal deep drawing. Same dies were used in both forming processes. Finite element (FE) simulations were carried out to improve the EMF process parameters. Constitutive data was determined using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests (SHPB). To study formability, sample sheets were electromagnetically launched to the female die, using a flat spiral electromagnetic coil and aluminum driver sheets. Deep drawing tests were made by a laboratory press-machine. Results show that high velocity forming processes increase the formability of Magnesium and Titanium sheets although process parameters have to be carefully tuned to obtain good results.

  9. Galvanic porous silicon composites for high-velocity nanoenergetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Collin R; Apperson, Steven; Morris, Christopher J; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Currano, Luke J; Churaman, Wayne A; Stoldt, Conrad R

    2011-02-01

    Porous silicon (PS) films ∼65-95 μm thick composed of pores with diameters less than 3 nm were fabricated using a galvanic etching approach that does not require an external power supply. A highly reactive, nanoenergetic composite was then created by impregnating the nanoscale pores with the strong oxidizer, sodium perchlorate (NaClO(4)). The combustion propagation velocity of the energetic composite was measured using microfabricated diagnostic devices in conjunction with high-speed optical imaging up to 930000 frames per second. Combustion velocities averaging 3050 m/s were observed for PS films with specific surface areas of ∼840 m(2)/g and porosities of 65-67%. PMID:21182311

  10. MultiDark simulations: the story of dark matter halo concentrations and density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Prada, Francisco; Heß, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Predicting structural properties of dark matter haloes is one of the fundamental goals of modern cosmology. We use the suite of MultiDark cosmological simulations to study the evolution of dark matter halo density profiles, concentrations, and velocity anisotropies. We find that in order to understand the structure of dark matter haloes and to make 1-2 per cent accurate predictions for density profiles, one needs to realize that halo concentration is more complex than the ratio of the virial radius to the core radius in the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. For massive haloes, the average density profile is far from the NFW shape and the concentration is defined by both the core radius and the shape parameter α in the Einasto approximation. We show that haloes progress through three stages of evolution. They start as rare density peaks and experience fast and nearly radial infall that brings mass closer to the centre, producing a highly concentrated halo. Here, the halo concentration increases with increasing halo mass and the concentration is defined by the α parameter with a nearly constant core radius. Later haloes slide into the plateau regime where the accretion becomes less radial, but frequent mergers still affect even the central region. At this stage, the concentration does not depend on halo mass. Once the rate of accretion and merging slows down, haloes move into the domain of declining concentration-mass relation because new accretion piles up mass close to the virial radius while the core radius is staying constant. Accurate analytical fits are provided.

  11. IDENTIFYING STAR STREAMS IN THE MILKY WAY HALO

    SciTech Connect

    King, Charles III; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-05-01

    We develop statistical methods for identifying star streams in the halo of the Milky Way that exploit observed spatial and radial velocity distributions. Within a great circle, departures of the observed spatial distribution from random provide a measure of the likelihood of a potential star stream. Comparisons between the radial velocity distribution within a great circle and the radial velocity distribution of the entire sample also measure the statistical significance of potential streams. The radial velocities enable construction of a more powerful joint statistical test for identifying star streams in the Milky Way halo. Applying our method to halo stars in the Hypervelocity Star (HVS) survey, we detect the Sagittarius stream at high significance. Great circle counts and comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the Sagittarius stream comprises 10%-17% of the halo stars in the HVS sample. The population of blue stragglers and blue horizontal branch stars varies along the stream and is a potential probe of the distribution of stellar populations in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy prior to disruption.

  12. GCN: a gaseous Galactic halo stream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shoko

    2010-10-01

    We show that a string of HI clouds that form part of the high-velocity cloud complex known as GCN is a probable gaseous stream extending over more than 50° in the Galactic halo. The radial velocity gradient along the stream is used to deduce transverse velocities as a function of distance, enabling a family of orbits to be computed. We find that a direction of motion towards the Galactic disc coupled with a mid-stream distance of ~20kpc provides a good match to the observed sky positions and radial velocities of the HI clouds comprising the stream. With an estimated mass of 105Msolar, its progenitor is likely to be a dwarf galaxy. However, no stellar counterpart has been found amongst the currently known Galactic dwarf spheroidal galaxies or stellar streams and the exact origin of the stream is therefore currently unknown.

  13. Methods for Identifying Pair Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Brendan; Caputo, Regina; Atwood, William; Ritz, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The flux of very high energy gamma rays from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is attenuated via interactions with extragalactic background photons and is converted into e+e- pairs. With non-zero intergalactic magnetic fields, the electrons and positrons will deflect as they propagate and simultaneously lose energy by upscattering cosmic microwave background photons. "Pair halos," the visible consequences of these electromagnetic cascades, are faint and difficult to observe against their AGN counterparts. We investigate three methods for indirectly identifying pair halos, using a two-component approach to model the AGN core/halo image. We estimate each method's sensitivity by utilizing a new, detailed Monte Carlo pair-halo simulation.

  14. Experimental and numerical studies of high-velocity impact fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, M.E.; Grady, D.E.; Swegle, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    Developments are reported in both experimental and numerical capabilities for characterizing the debris spray produced in penetration events. We have performed a series of high-velocity experiments specifically designed to examine the fragmentation of the projectile during impact. High-strength, well-characterized steel spheres (6.35 mm diameter) were launched with a two-stage light-gas gun to velocities in the range of 3 to 5 km/s. Normal impact with PMMA plates, thicknesses of 0.6 to 11 mm, applied impulsive loads of various amplitudes and durations to the steel sphere. Multiple flash radiography diagnostics and recovery techniques were used to assess size, velocity, trajectory and statistics of the impact-induced fragment debris. Damage modes to the primary target plate (plastic) and to a secondary target plate (aluminum) were also evaluated. Dynamic fragmentation theories, based on energy-balance principles, were used to evaluate local material deformation and fracture state information from CTH, a three-dimensional Eulerian solid dynamics shock wave propagation code. The local fragment characterization of the material defines a weighted fragment size distribution, and the sum of these distributions provides a composite particle size distribution for the steel sphere. The calculated axial and radial velocity changes agree well with experimental data, and the calculated fragment sizes are in qualitative agreement with the radiographic data. A secondary effort involved the experimental and computational analyses of normal and oblique copper ball impacts on steel target plates. High-resolution radiography and witness plate diagnostics provided impact motion and statistical fragment size data. CTH simulations were performed to test computational models and numerical methods.

  15. New cluster members and halo stars of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Colin A.; Martell, Sarah L.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2015-10-01

    NGC 1851 is an intriguing Galactic globular cluster, with multiple stellar evolutionary sequences, light and heavy element abundance variations and indications of a surrounding stellar halo. We present the first results of a spectroscopic study of red giant stars within and outside of the tidal radius of this cluster. Our results identify nine probable new cluster members (inside the tidal radius) with heliocentric radial velocities consistent with that of NGC 1851. We also identify, based on their radial velocities, four probable extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ˜3.1 times the tidal radius, which are supportive of previous findings that NGC 1851 is surrounded by an extended stellar halo. Proper motions were available for 12 of these 13 stars and all are consistent with that of NGC 1851. Apart from the cluster members and cluster halo stars, our observed radial velocity distribution agrees with the expected distribution from a Besançon disc/N-body stellar halo Milky Way model generated by the GALAXIA code, suggesting that no other structures at different radial velocities are present in our field. The metallicities of these stars are estimated using equivalent width measurements of the near-infrared calcium triplet absorption lines and are found, within the limitations of this method, to be consistent with that of NGC 1851. In addition we recover 110 red giant cluster members from previous studies based on their radial velocities and identify three stars with unusually high radial velocities.

  16. High velocity compact clouds in the sagittarius C region

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Oka, Tomoharu; Matsumura, Shinji; Nagai, Makoto; Kamegai, Kazuhisa

    2014-03-01

    We report the detection of extremely broad emission toward two molecular clumps in the Galactic central molecular zone. We have mapped the Sagittarius C complex (–0.°61 < l < –0.°27, –0.°29 < b < 0.°04) in the HCN J = 4-3, {sup 13}CO J = 3-2, and H{sup 13}CN J = 1-0 lines with the ASTE 10 m and NRO 45 m telescopes, detecting bright emission with 80-120 km s{sup –1} velocity width (in full-width at zero intensity) toward CO–0.30–0.07 and CO–0.40–0.22, which are high velocity compact clouds (HVCCs) identified with our previous CO J = 3-2 survey. Our data reveal an interesting internal structure of CO–0.30–0.07 comprising a pair of high velocity lobes. The spatial-velocity structure of CO–0.40–0.22 can be also understood as a multiple velocity component, or a velocity gradient across the cloud. They are both located on the rims of two molecular shells of about 10 pc in radius. Kinetic energies of CO–0.30–0.07 and CO–0.40–0.22 are (0.8-2) × 10{sup 49} erg and (1-4) × 10{sup 49} erg, respectively. We propose several interpretations of their broad emission: collision between clouds associated with the shells, bipolar outflow, expansion driven by supernovae (SNe), and rotation around a dark massive object. These scenarios cannot be discriminated because of the insufficient angular resolution of our data, though the absence of a visible energy source associated with the HVCCs seems to favor the cloud-cloud collision scenario. Kinetic energies of the two molecular shells are 1 × 10{sup 51} erg and 0.7 × 10{sup 51} erg, which can be furnished by multiple SN or hypernova explosions in 2 × 10{sup 5} yr. These shells are candidates of molecular superbubbles created after past active star formation.

  17. Velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreth, Phillip A.; Ali, Mohd Y.; Fernandez, Erik J.; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2016-05-01

    The resonance-enhanced microjet actuator which was developed at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Florida State University is a fluidic-based device that produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet that flows into a cylindrical cavity with a single, 1-mm-diameter exhaust orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1-mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and two-component particle image velocimetry. These are the first direct measurements of the velocity fields produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations and the velocity field measurements. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces pulsed, supersonic jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s for roughly 60 % of their cycles. With high unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of ow control applications.

  18. Velocity measurements on highly turbulent free surface flow using ADV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, L.; Puertas, J.; Pena, L.

    2007-03-01

    The 3D instantaneous velocity recorded with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) in a highly turbulent free surface flow is analysed using several filters in order to eliminate the corrupted data from the sample. The filters used include the minimum/maximum threshold, the acceleration threshold, and the phase-space threshold. Following some ideas of the phase-space filter, a new method based on the 3D velocity cross-correlation is proposed and tested. A way of computing the constants of the acceleration threshold method is proposed, so no parameters need to be fixed by the user, which makes the filtering process simpler, more objective and more efficient. All the samples analysed are highly turbulent. Nevertheless, the turbulence intensity and the air entrainment vary widely in the flow under study, which produces data records of different quality depending on the measurement point. The performance of the filtering methods when applied to samples of different quality, and the effects of the filtering process in the mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and frequency spectra are discussed.

  19. Energy loss of heavy ions at high velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. U.; Ball, G. C.; Davies, J. A.; Davies, W. G.; Forster, J. S.; Geiger, J. S.; Geissel, H.; Ryabov, V. A.

    1994-05-01

    The slowing down of heavy ions by electronic stopping at high velocity is discussed. The ions are nearly fully stripped and have a well defined charge with relatively small fluctuations. Owing to the large charge of the ions, the classical Bohr formula applies instead of the Bethe formula, which is based on a quantum perturbation calculation. It is essential to include the Barkas effect in the description since it becomes quite large for heavy ions, especially in high-Z materials. In Lindhard's treatment [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 132 (1976) l], the Barkas correction is viewed as an effect of dynamic screening of the ion potential in the initial phase of a collision with an electron, which reduces the relative velocity and therefore enhances the cross section. With inclusion of this enhancement factor for all impact parameters, as evaluated by Jackson and McCarthy for distant collisions [Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 4131], the description reproduces within a few percent measurements for 15 MeV/u Br on Si, Ni, and Au and for 10 MeV/u Kr on Al, Ni, and Au. The procedure is shown also to apply at lower velocities near the stopping maximum, albeit with less accuracy. The straggling in energy loss has been analyzed for a measurement on Si and it is well described by a combination of about equal contributions from fluctuations in the number of violent collisions with single electrons (Bohr straggling) and from fluctuations in ion charge state.

  20. Ultrasonic Velocity and Texture of High RRR Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    S. R. Agnew; F. Zeng; G.R. Myneni

    2003-06-01

    Conventional assessments of the mechanical properties of rolled high RRR niobium plate material via tensile testing have revealed an unusually low apparent Young's moduli and yield strength in some annealed samples. These observations motivated a series of measurements of ultrasonic velocity, a dynamic assessment of the elastic moduli. In fact, the dynamic modulus is within the range of normal for all samples tested. However, there is a trend of increasing shear velocities for shear waves propagating through the sheet thickness and polarized in the sheet transverse direction. Careful analyses of the crystallographic texture using SEM-based electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) have revealed a subtle, but systematic change in the texture, which can explain the trend. It is further important to note that the change in texture is not observable from surface measurements using x-ray diffraction, but requires sectioning of the samples. Thus, measurements of ultrasonic velocity represent a non-destructive evaluation tool which is extremely sensitive to subtle changes in the texture of high RRR niobium. Finally, there are material lot variations, which are currently attributed to the effects of impurities, such as Ta and H.

  1. Low and high velocity impact response of thick hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, Clement; Ishai, Ori

    1993-01-01

    The effects of low and high velocity impact on thick hybrid composites (THC's) were experimentally compared. Test Beams consisted of CFRP skins which were bonded onto an interleaved syntactic foam core and cured at 177 C (350 F). The impactor tip for both cases was a 16 mm (0.625 inch) steel hemisphere. In spite of the order of magnitude difference in velocity ranges and impactor weights, similar relationships between impact energy, damage size, and residual strength were found. The dependence of the skin compressive strength on damage size agree well with analytical open hole models for composite laminates and may enable the prediction of ultimate performance for the damaged composite, based on visual inspection.

  2. Vortex shedding flowmeters for liquids at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vortex shedding flowmeter designs for flow measurements in liquid oxygen ducts on the space shuttle main engines have been tested in a high head water flow test facility. The results have shown that a vortex shedding element or vane spanning the duct can give a linear response to an average flow velocity of 46 m/s (150 ft/s) in a 1 1/2 inch nominal (41 mm actual) diameter duct while a vane partially spanning the duct can give a linear response to velocities exceeding 55 m/s (180 ft/s). The maximum pressure drops across the flow sensing elements extrapolate to less than 0.7 MPa (100 psi) at 56 m/s (184 ft/s) for liquid oxygen. The test results indicate that the vanes probably cannot be scaled up with pipe size, at least not linearly.

  3. Exploring the Hot Galactic Halo Using Shadows of High Latitude Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juda, M.; Petre, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to measure variations in the 1/4 keV emission from the galactic halo, using ROSAT (x-ray astronomy satellite) Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC) observations toward known enhancements in the absorbing column density along the line-of-sight out of the Galaxy. Target directions were selected to have a low total hydrogen column density but to also show significant gradients in the amount of absorbing material, as traced by Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 100 micron emission, on angular scales that would be contained within the PSPC field of view. In addition, we restricted the galactic latitude of the target directions to be greater than 60 degrees or less than -60 degrees in order to enable a cleaner separation of Galactic halo emission from that of the Galactic disk. The observations would also provide a measurement of the brightness of the emission from the Local Bubble.

  4. Analysis of high velocity impact on hybrid composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in the analysis of high velocity impact of composite blades are described, using a computerized capability which consists of coupling a composites mechanics code with the direct-time integration features of NASTRAN. The application of the capability to determine the linear dynamic response of an interply hybrid composite aircraft engine fan blade is described in detail. The results also show that the impact stresses reach sufficiently high magnitudes to cause failures in the impact region at early times of the impact event.

  5. Analysis of high velocity impact on hybrid composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the analysis of high velocity impact of composite blades using a computerized capability which consists of coupling a composites mechanics code with the direct-time integration features of NASTRAN. The application of the capability to determine the linear dynamic response of an intraply hybrid composite aircraft engine fan blade is described in detail. The predicted results agree with measured data. The results also show that the impact stresses reach sufficiently high magnitudes to cause failures in the impact region at early times of the impact event.

  6. Dark Matter annihilations in halos and high-redshift sources of reionization of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that annihilations in the homogeneous fluid of dark matter (DM) can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. However, the relevance of DM annihilations in halos for cosmological observables is still subject to debate, with previous works reaching different conclusions on this point. Also, all previous studies used a single type of parameterization for the astrophysical reionization, and included no astrophysical source for the heating of the intergalactic medium. In this work, we revisit these problems. When standard approaches are adopted, we find that the ionization fraction does exhibit a very particular (and potentially constraining) pattern, but the currently measurable τreio is left almost unchanged: in agreement with most of the previous literature, for plausible halo models we find that the modification of the signal with respect to the one coming from annihilations in the smooth background is tiny, below cosmic variance within currently allowed parameter space. However, if different and probably more realistic treatments of the astrophysical sources of reionization and heating are adopted, a more pronounced effect of the DM annihilation in halos is possible. We thus conclude that within currently adopted baseline models the impact of the virialised DM structures cannot be uncovered by CMB power spectra measurements, but a larger impact is possible if peculiar models are invoked for the redshift evolution of the DM annihilation signal or different assumptions are made for the astrophysical contributions. A better understanding (both theoretical and observational) of the reionization and temperature history of the universe, notably via the 21 cm signal, seems the most promising way for using halo formation as a tool in DM searches, improving over the sensitivity of current cosmological probes.

  7. A High-velocity Cloud Impact Forming a Supershell in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Geumsook; Koo, Bon-Chul; Kang, Ji-hyun; Gibson, Steven J.; Peek, J. E. G.; Douglas, Kevin A.; Korpela, Eric J.; Heiles, Carl E.

    2016-08-01

    Neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) gas in interstellar space is largely organized into filaments, loops, and shells, the most prominent of which are “supershells.” These gigantic structures, which require ≳ 3× {10}52 erg to form, are generally thought to be produced by either the explosion of multiple supernovae (SNe) in OB associations or, alternatively, by the impact of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) falling into the Galactic disk. Here, we report the detection of a kiloparsec (kpc)-size supershell in the outskirts of the Milky Way with the compact HVC 040 + 01‑282 (hereafter, CHVC040) at its geometrical center using the “Inner-Galaxy Arecibo L-band Feed Array” H i 21 cm survey data. The morphological and physical properties of both objects suggest that CHVC040, which is either a fragment of a nearby disrupted galaxy or a cloud that originated from an intergalactic accreting flow, collided with the disk ∼5 Myr ago to form the supershell. Our results show that some compact HVCs can survive their trip through the Galactic halo and inject energy and momentum into the Milky Way disk.

  8. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Smith High-Velocity Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gomez-Vargas, German A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use gamma-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant gamma-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (approximately 3 x 10 (sup -26) cubic centimeters per second) for dark matter masses less than or approximately 30 gigaelectronvolts annihilating via the B/B- bar oscillation or tau/antitau channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  9. A High-velocity Cloud Impact Forming a Supershell in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Geumsook; Koo, Bon-Chul; Kang, Ji-hyun; Gibson, Steven J.; Peek, J. E. G.; Douglas, Kevin A.; Korpela, Eric J.; Heiles, Carl E.

    2016-08-01

    Neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) gas in interstellar space is largely organized into filaments, loops, and shells, the most prominent of which are “supershells.” These gigantic structures, which require ≳ 3× {10}52 erg to form, are generally thought to be produced by either the explosion of multiple supernovae (SNe) in OB associations or, alternatively, by the impact of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) falling into the Galactic disk. Here, we report the detection of a kiloparsec (kpc)-size supershell in the outskirts of the Milky Way with the compact HVC 040 + 01‑282 (hereafter, CHVC040) at its geometrical center using the “Inner-Galaxy Arecibo L-band Feed Array” H i 21 cm survey data. The morphological and physical properties of both objects suggest that CHVC040, which is either a fragment of a nearby disrupted galaxy or a cloud that originated from an intergalactic accreting flow, collided with the disk ˜5 Myr ago to form the supershell. Our results show that some compact HVCs can survive their trip through the Galactic halo and inject energy and momentum into the Milky Way disk.

  10. Searching for dark matter annihilation in the Smith high-velocity cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2014-07-20

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use γ-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant γ-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (∼ 3 × 10{sup –26} cm{sup 3} s{sup –1}) for dark matter masses ≲ 30 GeV annihilating via the b b-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup –} channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  11. Modelling Galaxy Clustering: Halo Occupation Distribution versus Subhalo Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Behroozi, Peter S.; Zehavi, Idit; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Favole, Ginevra; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Weinberg, David H.; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    We model the luminosity-dependent projected and redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 Main galaxy sample, using the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model and the subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) model and its extension. All the models are built on the same high-resolution N-body simulations. We find that the HOD model generally provides the best performance in reproducing the clustering measurements in both projected and redshift spaces. The SHAM model with the same halo-galaxy relation for central and satellite galaxies (or distinct haloes and subhaloes), when including scatters, has a best-fitting χ2/dof around 2-3. We therefore extend the SHAM model to the subhalo clustering and abundance matching (SCAM) by allowing the central and satellite galaxies to have different galaxy-halo relations. We infer the corresponding halo/subhalo parameters by jointly fitting the galaxy 2PCFs and abundances and consider subhaloes selected based on three properties, the mass Macc at the time of accretion, the maximum circular velocity Vacc at the time of accretion, and the peak maximum circular velocity Vpeak over the history of the subhaloes. The three subhalo models work well for luminous galaxy samples (with luminosity above L★). For low-luminosity samples, the Vacc model stands out in reproducing the data, with the Vpeak model slightly worse, while the Macc model fails to fit the data. We discuss the implications of the modeling results.

  12. Modelling galaxy clustering: halo occupation distribution versus subhalo matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Behroozi, Peter S.; Zehavi, Idit; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Favole, Ginevra; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Weinberg, David H.; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    We model the luminosity-dependent projected and redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 Main galaxy sample, using the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model and the subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) model and its extension. All the models are built on the same high-resolution N-body simulations. We find that the HOD model generally provides the best performance in reproducing the clustering measurements in both projected and redshift spaces. The SHAM model with the same halo-galaxy relation for central and satellite galaxies (or distinct haloes and subhaloes), when including scatters, has a best-fitting χ2/dof around 2-3. We therefore extend the SHAM model to the subhalo clustering and abundance matching (SCAM) by allowing the central and satellite galaxies to have different galaxy-halo relations. We infer the corresponding halo/subhalo parameters by jointly fitting the galaxy 2PCFs and abundances and consider subhaloes selected based on three properties, the mass Macc at the time of accretion, the maximum circular velocity Vacc at the time of accretion, and the peak maximum circular velocity Vpeak over the history of the subhaloes. The three subhalo models work well for luminous galaxy samples (with luminosity above L*). For low-luminosity samples, the Vacc model stands out in reproducing the data, with the Vpeak model slightly worse, while the Macc model fails to fit the data. We discuss the implications of the modelling results.

  13. High-Velocity Clouds and Superbubbles in Nearby Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Eric

    1996-05-01

    The galactic fountain model predicts that energetic stellar winds and supernovae in OB associations produce superbubbles containing hot gas that breaks out of the Galactic disk, cools radiatively as it rises upward, and recombines and returns to the disk ballistically. The hot (T ~ 10^6 K) gas can be observed with X-ray telescopes, while the cool returning neutral hydrogen (H I) is detectable as 21 cm emission from high-velocity clouds (HVCs). In the Milky Way Galaxy, a combination of infalling material tidally torn from the Magellanic Clouds and a galactic fountain can explain the high-velocity clouds that cover about 10% of the sky down to a column density of 2 to 3 X 10^18 cm^-2. Sensitive H I observations of nearby disk galaxies were performed with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope to search for and measure the mass of HVCs in other galaxies. Ten of 14 galaxies have high-velocity wings that can be modeled as arising from a component of galactic gas with a velocity dispersion of 30 or 50 km s^-1. The HVC mass for the 10 galaxies ranges from 6 X 10^7 solar mass to 4 X 10^9 solar mass, which corresponds to 4 to 14% of the total H I in the galaxies. This is the first survey to search for HVCs in more than a few galaxies, and the results imply that Galactic HVCs are a disk-wide phenomenon with a characteristic distance of 10 to 20 kpc, containing a substantial fraction (~10%) of the neutral hydrogen in the Galaxy and much of the random kinetic energy in neutral gas. 21 cm synthesis imaging of UGC 12732 and NGC 5668, performed with the Very Large Array, confirmed the Arecibo results that the former does not have high-velocity gas while the latter does. Two components of high-velocity gas are present in NGC~5668; one may be from an accretion event, while the other is visible due to the increased H I velocity dispersion throughout the optical disk and may be galactic fountain gas. Neither of these components are visible in the observations of UGC 12732, and this galaxy

  14. Velocity Crossover Between Hydrous and Anhydrous Forsterite at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Jacobsen, S; Smyth, R; Holl, C; Frost, D; Duffy, T

    2010-01-01

    The elastic properties of hydrous forsterite, Mg{sub 2-x}SiO{sub 4}H{sub 2x}, are relevant to interpreting seismic velocity anomalies in the Earth's mantle. In this study, we used Brillouin scattering to determine the single-crystal elasticity of forsterite with 0.9(1) wt.% H{sub 2}O (x = 0.14) to 14 GPa. Aggregate bulk and shear moduli of hydrous forsterite increase with pressure at a greater rate than those of the corresponding anhydrous phase. Compared with anhydrous forsterite, we observe a 7% increase in the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (K{prime}{sub S0} = 4.50(5)), and a 25% increase in the pressure derivative of the shear modulus (G{prime}{sub 0} = 1.75(5)) for forsterite with near maximum possible water content. Using our results, we calculated the compressional, V{sub P}, and shear, V{sub S}, velocities of forsterite as a function of pressure at 300 K. Whereas V{sub P} and V{sub S} of hydrous forsterite are 0.6% and 0.4% slower than those of anhydrous forsterite at ambient pressure, velocity crossovers at {approx} 3-4 GPa result in higher hydrous forsterite velocities at pressures corresponding to depths below {approx} 120 km. At the pressure of the 410-km discontinuity, V{sub P} and V{sub S} of hydrous forsterite exceed those of anhydrous forsterite by 1.1(1)% and 1.9(1)%, respectively. This implies that incorporation of water could decrease the magnitude of the velocity contrast at 410-km depth between forsterite and wadsleyite. Although the effects of hydration on temperature derivatives of the elastic moduli of forsterite and wadsleyite are not yet known, from the current data we estimate that the presence of {approx} 0.4 wt.% H{sub 2}O in forsterite (at 60 mol%) could lower the P and S velocity contrast at 410-km depth to 3.8(4)% and 4.8(6)%, respectively. At high pressures, hydration also decreases the V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratio of forsterite, and lowers the maximum P wave azimuthal anisotropy and S wave splitting of forsterite.

  15. Statistics of substructures in dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.

    2012-03-01

    We study the amount and distribution of dark matter substructures within dark matter haloes, using a large set of high-resolution simulations ranging from group-size to cluster-size haloes, and carried out within a cosmological model consistent with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 7-year data. In particular, we study how the measured properties of subhaloes vary as a function of the parent halo mass, the physical properties of the parent halo and redshift. The fraction of halo mass in substructures increases with increasing mass: it is of the order of 5 per cent for haloes with M200˜ 1013 M⊙ and of the order of 10 per cent for the most massive haloes in our sample, with M200˜ 1015 M⊙. There is, however, a very large halo-to-halo scatter that can be explained only in part by a range of halo physical properties, e.g. concentration. At a given halo mass, less concentrated haloes contain significantly larger fractions of mass in substructures because of the reduced strength of tidal disruption. Most of the substructure mass is located at the outskirts of the parent haloes, in relatively few massive subhaloes. This mass segregation appears to become stronger at increasing redshift, and should reflect into a more significant mass segregation of the galaxy population at different cosmic epochs. When haloes are accreted on to larger structures, their mass is significantly reduced by tidal stripping. Haloes that are more massive at the time of accretion (these should host more luminous galaxies) are brought closer to the centre on shorter time-scales by dynamical friction, and therefore suffer a more significant stripping. The halo merger rate depends strongly on the environment with substructure in more massive haloes suffering more important mergers than their counterparts residing in less massive systems. This should translate into a different morphological mix for haloes of different mass.

  16. Velocity alignment leads to high persistence in confined cells.

    PubMed

    Camley, Brian A; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2014-06-01

    Many cell types display random motility on two-dimensional substrates but crawl persistently in a single direction when confined in a microchannel or on an adhesive micropattern. Does this imply that the motility mechanism of confined cells is fundamentally different from that of unconfined cells? We argue that both free- and confined-cell migration may be described by a generic model of cells as "velocity-aligning" active Brownian particles previously proposed to solve a completely separate problem in collective cell migration. Our model can be mapped to a diffusive escape over a barrier and analytically solved to determine the cell's orientation distribution and repolarization rate. In quasi-one-dimensional confinement, velocity-aligning cells maintain their direction for times that can be exponentially larger than their persistence time in the absence of confinement. Our results suggest an important connection between single- and collective-cell migration: high persistence in confined cells corresponds with fast alignment of velocity to cell-cell forces. PMID:25019812

  17. Production of high density molecular beams with wide velocity scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, L. S.; Woo, S. O.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Lyuksyutov, I. F.; Herschbach, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe modifications of a pulsed rotating supersonic beam source that improve performance, particularly increasing the beam density and sharpening the pulse profiles. As well as providing the familiar virtues of a supersonic molecular beam (high intensity, narrowed velocity distribution, and drastic cooling of rotation and vibration), the rotating source enables scanning the translational velocity over a wide range. Thereby, beams of any atom or molecule available as a gas can be slowed or speeded. Using Xe beams in the slowing mode, we have obtained lab speeds down to about 40 ± 5 m/s with density near 1011 cm-3 and in the speeding mode lab speeds up to about 660 m/s and density near 1014 cm-3. We discuss some congenial applications. Providing low lab speeds can markedly enhance experiments using electric or magnetic fields to deflect, steer, or further slow polar or paramagnetic molecules. The capability to scan molecular speeds facilitates merging velocities with a codirectional partner beam, enabling study of collisions at very low relative kinetic energies, without requiring either beam to be slow.

  18. Decision making in high-velocity environments: implications for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stepanovich, P L; Uhrig, J D

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare can be considered a high-velocity environment and, as such, can benefit from research conducted in other industries regarding strategic decision making. Strategic planning is not only relevant to firms in high-velocity environments, but is also important for high performance and survival. Specifically, decision-making speed seems to be instrumental in differentiating between high and low performers; fast decision makers outperform slow decision makers. This article outlines the differences between fast and slow decision makers, identifies five paralyses that can slow decision making in healthcare, and outlines the role of a planning department in circumventing these paralyses. Executives can use the proposed planning structure to improve both the speed and quality of strategic decisions. The structure uses planning facilitators to avoid the following five paralyses: 1. Analysis. Decision makers can no longer afford the luxury of lengthy, detailed analysis but must develop real-time systems that provide appropriate, timely information. 2. Alternatives. Many alternatives (beyond the traditional two or three) need to be considered and the alternatives must be evaluated simultaneously. 3. Group Think. Decision makers must avoid limited mind-sets and autocratic leadership styles by seeking out independent, knowledgeable counselors. 4. Process. Decision makers need to resolve conflicts through "consensus with qualification," as opposed to waiting for everyone to come on board. 5. Separation. Successful implementation requires a structured process that cuts across disciplines and levels. PMID:10537497

  19. The SEGUE K Giant Survey. III. Quantifying Galactic Halo Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Rockosi, Constance; Starkenburg, Else; Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5-125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position-velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (˜33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  20. Global properties of the HI high velocity sky. A statistical investigation based on the LAB survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Haud, U.

    2006-08-01

    Context.Since 1973, it has been known that some H i high velocity clouds (HVCs) have a core-envelope structure. Recent observations of compact HVCs confirm this, but more general investigations have been missing so far.Aims.We study the properties of all major HVC complexes from a sample compiled in 1991 by Wakker & van Woerden (WvW). Methods.We use the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn all sky 21-cm line survey and decompose the profiles into Gaussian components.Results.We find the WvW line widths and column densities to be underestimated by ~40%. In 1991, these line widths could not be measured directly, but had to be estimated with the help of higher resolution data. We find a well-defined multi-component structure for most of the HVC complexes. The cold HVC phase has lines with typical velocity dispersions of σ = 3 km s-1 and exists only within more extended broad line regions, typically with σ = 12 km s-1. The motions of the cores relative to the envelopes are characterized by Mach numbers M = (vcore-venvelope)/σenvelope ˜ 1.5. The center velocities of the cores within a HVC complex have typical dispersions of 20 km s-1. The well-defined two-component structure of some prominent HVC complexes in the outskirts of the Milky Way is remakable: Complex H lies approximately in the Galactic plane, and the most plausible distance estimate of R ˜ 33 kpc places it at the edge of the disk. The Magellanic Stream and the Leading Arm (complex EP) reach higher latitudes and are probably more distant, R ˜ 50 kpc. There might be some indications for an interaction between HVCs and disk gas at intermediate velocities. This is possible for complex H, M, C, WB, WD, WE, WC, R, G, GCP, and OA, but not for complex A, MS, ACVHV, EN, WA, and P. Conclusions.The line widths, determined by us, imply that estimates of HVC masses, as far as those derived from the WvW database are concerned, need to be scaled up by a factor 1.4. Correspondingly, guesses for the external pressure of a confining

  1. High-velocity cometary dust enters the atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricarico, P.

    2015-06-01

    When comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed nearby Mars in 2014, it offered an unprecedented opportunity to observe the interaction between the dust tail of the comet and the atmosphere of Mars. Here I provide an overview of a recent series of four articles reporting observations from three satellites fortuitously orbiting Mars at the appropriate time (MAVEN, MEX, and MRO). These observations reveal high-velocity ablation and ionization of metals from the comet, the diffusion and transport processes that operated in Mars' atmosphere, and the abundance of these metals in the comet.

  2. Resonant Orbits and the High Velocity Peaks toward the Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Evans, N. Wyn; Shen, Juntai

    2015-10-01

    We extract the resonant orbits from an N-body bar that is a good representation of the Milky Way, using the method recently introduced by Molloy et al. By decomposing the bar into its constituent orbit families, we show that they are intimately connected to the boxy-peanut shape of the density. We highlight the imprint due solely to resonant orbits on the kinematic landscape toward the Galactic center. The resonant orbits are shown to have distinct kinematic features and may be used to explain the cold velocity peak seen in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment commissioning data. We show that high velocity peaks are a natural consequence of the motions of stars in the 2:1 orbit family and that stars on other higher order resonances can contribute to the peaks. The locations of the peaks vary with bar angle and, with the tacit assumption that the observed peaks are due to the 2:1 family, we find that the locations of the high velocity peaks correspond to bar angles in the range {10}\\circ ≲ {θ }{bar}≲ 25^\\circ . However, some important questions about the nature of the peaks remain, such as their apparent absence in other surveys of the Bulge and the deviations from symmetry between equivalent fields in the north and south. We show that the absence of a peak in surveys at higher latitudes is likely due to the combination of a less prominent peak and a lower number density of bar supporting orbits at these latitudes.

  3. Identifying Remote Halo Giants in High-Latitude Fields with Kepler 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2016-08-01

    This work sketches how SDSS ugr colors and Kepler 2 in halo fields can identify red giants 50 - 100 kpc distant with minimal metallicity bias. For these mildly-reddened, metal-poor giants, (g-r)o yields the effective temperature T eff to 100 K. K2 can detect the p-mode oscillations of red giants and measure their frequency of maximum power νmax. This sets the luminosity L bol and thus the distance, plus an estimate of metallicity [Fe/H].

  4. High Velocity Impact Response of Composite Lattice Core Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhang, Guoqi; Wang, Shixun; Ma, Li; Wu, Linzhi

    2014-04-01

    In this research, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite sandwich structures with pyramidal lattice core subjected to high velocity impact ranging from 180 to 2,000 m/s have been investigated by experimental and numerical methods. Experiments using a two-stage light gas gun are conducted to investigate the impact process and to validate the finite element (FE) model. The energy absorption efficiency (EAE) in carbon fiber composite sandwich panels is compared with that of 304 stainless-steel and aluminum alloy lattice core sandwich structures. In a specific impact energy range, energy absorption efficiency in carbon fiber composite sandwich panels is higher than that of 304 stainless-steel sandwich panels and aluminum alloy sandwich panels owing to the big density of metal materials. Therefore, in addition to the multi-functional applications, carbon fiber composite sandwich panels have a potential advantage to substitute the metal sandwich panels as high velocity impact resistance structures under a specific impact energy range.

  5. High-velocity streams of dust originating from Saturn.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Sascha; Srama, Ralf; Horányi, Mihaly; Burton, Marcia; Helfert, Stefan; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Roy, Mou; Grün, Eberhard

    2005-01-20

    High-velocity submicrometre-sized dust particles expelled from the jovian system have been identified by dust detectors on board several spacecraft. On the basis of periodicities in the dust impact rate, Jupiter's moon Io was found to be the dominant source of the streams. The grains become positively charged within the plasma environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere, and gain energy from its co-rotational electric field. Outside the magnetosphere, the dynamics of the grains are governed by the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field that eventually forms the streams. A similar process was suggested for Saturn. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of bursts of high-velocity dust particles (> or = 100 km s(-1)) within approximately 70 million kilometres of Saturn. Most of the particles detected at large distances appear to originate from the outskirts of Saturn's outermost main ring. All bursts of dust impacts detected within 150 Saturn radii are characterized by impact directions markedly different from those measured between the bursts, and they clearly coincide with the spacecraft's traversals through streams of compressed solar wind. PMID:15662418

  6. Integral Field Unit Observations of NGC 891: Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George H.; Rand, Richard J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2006-08-01

    We present high and moderate spectral resolution spectroscopy of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) emission in the halo of NGC 891. The data were obtained with the SparsePak integral field unit at the WIYN Observatory. The wavelength coverage includes the [N II] λλ6548, 6583, Hα, and [S II] λλ6716, 6731 emission lines. Position-velocity (PV) diagrams, constructed using spectra extracted from four SparsePak pointings in the halo, are used to examine the kinematics of the DIG. Using two independent methods, a vertical gradient in azimuthal velocity is found to be present in the northeast quadrant of the halo, with magnitude approximately 15-18 km s-1 kpc-1, in agreement with results from H I observations. The kinematics of the DIG suggests that this gradient begins at approximately 1 kpc above the midplane. In another part of the halo, the southeast quadrant, the kinematics is markedly different and suggest rotation at about 175 km s-1, much slower than the disk but with no vertical gradient. We use an entirely ballistic model of disk-halo flow in an attempt to reproduce the kinematics observed in the northeast quadrant. Analysis shows that the velocity gradient predicted by the ballistic model is far too shallow. Based on intensity cuts made parallel to the major axis in the ballistic model and an Hα image of NGC 891 from the literature, we conclude that the DIG halo is much more centrally concentrated than the model, suggesting that hydrodynamics dominate over ballistic motion in shaping the density structure of the halo. Velocity dispersion measurements along the minor axis of NGC 891 seem to indicate a lack of radial motions in the halo, but the uncertainties do not allow us to set firm limits.

  7. High-Velocity H I Gas in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul

    1993-05-01

    Using the Hat Creek 85 foot telescope, we had carried out a survey of H I 21 cm emission lines toward all 103 known northern supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to find rapidly expanding SNR shells (Koo & Heiles 1991). We detected 15 SNRs that have associated high-velocity (HV) H I gas, most of which are quite likely the gas accelerated by the SN blast wave. Although the large beam-size (FWHM~ 30') of the 85 foot telescope prevented us to see the structure of the HV H I gas, the H I mass distribution in line-of-sight velocity suggested clumpy shell structures in several SNRs. In order to resolve the structure of the HV H I gas, we have been carrying out high-resolution H I 21 cm line observations using the Arecibo telescope and the VLA. We report preliminary results on two SNRs, CTB 80 and W51. In CTB 80, the VLA observations revealed fast moving H I clumps, which have a dense (n_H ~ 100 cm(-3) ) core surrounded by a relatively diffuse envelope. The clumps are small, 3 pc to 5 pc, and have velocities between +40 km s(-1) and +80 km s(-1) with respect to the systematic velocity of CTB 80. The clumps have relatively large momentum per unit volume, which implies that they have been swept-up at an early stage of the SNR evolution. By analyzing the Arecibo data, we found that the interstellar medium around CTB 80 is far from being uniform and homogeneous, which explains the peculiar morphology of CTB 80 in infrared and radio continuum. In W51, HV H I gas moving up to v_LSR>+150 km s(-1) has been detected. The H I distribution is elongated along the northwest-southeast direction, and the peak is very close to an X-ray bright region. We discuss the implications of our results in relation to the X-ray and the radio continuum morphology of W51. This work was supported in part by NON DIRECTED RESEARCH FUND, Korea Research Foundation, 1992.

  8. The Formation and Evolution of Young Low-mass Stars within Halos with High Concentration of Dark Matter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanellas, Jordi; Lopes, IlíDio

    2009-11-01

    The formation and evolution of low-mass stars within dense halos of dark matter (DM) leads to evolution scenarios quite different from the classical stellar evolution. As a result of our detailed numerical work, we describe these new scenarios for a range of DM densities on the host halo, for a range of scattering cross sections of the DM particles considered, and for stellar masses from 0.7 to 3 M sun. For the first time, we also computed the evolution of young low-mass stars in their Hayashi track in the pre-main-sequence phase and found that, for high DM densities, these stars stop their gravitational collapse before reaching the main sequence, in agreement with similar studies on first stars. Such stars remain indefinitely in an equilibrium state with lower effective temperatures (|ΔT eff|>103 K for a star of one solar mass), the annihilation of captured DM particles in their core being the only source of energy. In the case of lower DM densities, these protostars continue their collapse and progress through the main-sequence burning hydrogen at a lower rate. A star of 1 M sun will spend a time period greater than the current age of the universe consuming all the hydrogen in its core if it evolves in a halo with DM density ρχ = 109 GeV cm-3. We also show the strong dependence of the effective temperature and luminosity of these stars on the characteristics of the DM particles and how this can be used as an alternative method for DM research.

  9. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  10. Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totten, E. J.; Irwin, M. J.

    1996-04-01

    A byproduct of the APM high redshift quasar survey (Irwin et al. 1991) was the discovery of ~ 20 distant (20-100kpc) cool AGB carbon stars (all N-type) at high Galactic latitude. In August we used the INT+IDS to survey the rest of the high latitude SGC sky visible from La Palma and found 10 more similar carbon stars. Before this work there were only a handful of published faint high latitude cool carbon stars known (eg. Margon et al., 1984, Mould et al., 1985) and there has been speculation as to their origin (eg. Sanduleak, 1980, van den Bergh & Lafontaine, 1984). Intermediate age carbon stars (3 -- 7 Gyrs) seem unlikely to have formed in the halo in isolation from other star forming regions so how did they get there ? One possiblity that we are investigating, is that they arise from either the disruption of tidally captured dSph galaxies or are a manifestion of the long sought after optical component of the Magellanic Stream. Lack of proper motion rules out the possibility of them being dwarf carbon stars (eg. Warren et al., 1992); indeed no N-type carbon stars have been found to be dwarf carbon stars. Our optical spectroscopy confirms their carbon star type (they are indistinguishable from cool AGB carbon stars in nearby dwarf galaxies) and hence probable large distances. We are extending our survey to the NGC region, obtaining radial velocities and good S:N fluxed spectra for all the carbon stars. This will enable us to investigate their kinematics, true spatial distribution and hence their origin. Even, in the event that these objects are somehow an integral part of the Galactic halo, then their velocities and large distances will enable direct studies of the velocity ellipsoid and rotation of the outer halo (eg. Green et al., 1994).

  11. A model for ductile metal friction at high velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R. J.; Germann, T. C.

    We describe a meso-macro scale model for the frictional force at ductile metal interfaces for high velocities and large compressions. The model incorporates the micro-mesoscopic growth and refinement of material microstructure in a highly strained region at the sliding interface and incorporates both rate dependent plasticity and thermal conduction. The model compares favorably with recent large scale (1.8 billion atom) simulations to 50 ns of 3-dimensional polycrystalline 13-50 nm grain size Al-Al interfaces at pressures of 15 GPa using the SPaSM NonEquilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation code. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. The support of the LANL ASC-PEM program is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Lyman-Alpha Observations of High Radial Velocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    H I LYMAN -ALPHA (LY-A) IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LINES EMITTED BY PLASMA IN THE TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 7000 TO 10 TO THE FIFTH POWER K IN LATE-TYPE STARS. IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE TOTAL RADIATIVE LOSS RATE, AND IT PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN DETERMINING THE ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE AND IN FLUORESCING OTHER UV LINES. YET IT IS ALSO THE LEAST STUDIED MAJOR LINE IN THE FAR UV, BECAUSE MOST OF THE LINE FLUX IS ABSORBED BY THE ISM ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT AND BECAUSE IT IS STRONGLY COMTAMINATED BY THE GEOCORONAL BACKGROUND. A KNOWLEDGE OF THE Ly-A PROFILE IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR STUDIES OF DEUTERIUM IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. BY OBSERVING HIGH RADIAL VELOCITY STARS WE WILL OBTAIN FOR THE FIRST TIME HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRA OF THE CORE OF A STELLAR H I LYMAN-A EMISSION LINE PROFILE.

  13. Compressional velocity measurements for a highly fractured lunar anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sondergeld, C. H.; Granryd, L. A.; Spetzler, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The compressional wave (V sub p) velocities in three mutually perpendicular directions have been measured in lunar sample 60025,174, lunar anorthosite. V sub p measurements were made at ambient temperature and pressure and a new technique was developed to measure the velocities because of the tremendous acoustic wave attenuation of the lunar sample. The measured velocities were all less than 1 km/sec and displayed up to a 21% departure from the mean value of the three directions. The velocities agree with seismic wave velocities determined for the lunar surface at the collection site.

  14. High Velocity Horizontal Motions at the Edge of Sunspot Penumbrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenaar-Daggett, Hermance J.; Shine, R.

    2010-05-01

    The outer edges of sunspot penumbrae have long been noted as a region of interesting dynamics including formation of MMFs, extensions and retractions of the penumbral tips, fast moving (2-3 km/s) bright features dubbed"streakers", and localized regions of high speed downflows interpreted as Evershed "sinks". Using 30s cadence movies of high spatial resolution G band and Ca II H images taken by the Hinode SOT/FPP instrument from 5-7 Jan 2007, we have been investigating the penumbra around a sunspot in AR 10933. In addition to the expected phenomena, we also see occasional small dark crescent-shaped features with high horizontal velocities (6.5 km/s) in G band movies. These appear to be emitted from penumbral tips. They travel about 1.5 Mm developing a bright wake that evolves into a slower moving (1-2 km/s) bright feature. In some cases, there may be an earlier outward propagating disturbance within the penumbra. We have also analyzed available Fe 6302 Stokes V images to obtain information on the magnetic field. Although only lower resolution 6302 images made with a slower cadence are available for these particular data sets, we can establish that the features have the opposite magnetic polarity of the sunspot. This observation may be in agreement with simulations showing that a horizontal flux tube develops crests that move outward with a velocity as large as 10 km/s. This work was supported by NASA contract NNM07AA01C.

  15. Robustness of waves with a high phase velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Necas, A.

    2016-03-01

    Norman Rostoker pioneered research of (1) plasma-driven accelerators and (2) beam-driven fusion reactors. The collective acceleration, coined by Veksler, advocates to drive above-ionization plasma waves by an electron beam to accelerate ions. The research on this, among others, by the Rostoker group incubated the idea that eventually led to the birth of the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), by which a large and robust accelerating collective fields may be generated in plasma in which plasma remains robust and undisrupted. Besides the emergence of LWFA, the Rostoker research spawned our lessons learned on the importance of adiabatic acceleration of ions in collective accelerators, including the recent rebirth in laser-driven ion acceleration efforts in a smooth adiabatic fashion by a variety of ingenious methods. Following Rostoker's research in (2), the beam-driven Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) has accomplished breakthroughs in recent years. The beam-driven kinetic plasma instabilities have been found to drive the reactivity of deuteron-deuteron fusion beyond the thermonuclear yield in C-2U plasma that Rostoker started. This remarkable result in FRCs as well as the above mentioned LWFA may be understood with the aid of the newly introduced idea of the "robustness hypothesis of waves with a high phase velocity". It posits that when the wave driven by a particle beam (or laser pulse) has a high phase velocity, its amplitude is high without disrupting the supporting bulk plasma. This hypothesis may guide us into more robust and efficient fusion reactors and more compact accelerators.

  16. Bar Instability in Disk-Halo Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the exponential growth rate of a bar in a stellar disk is substantially greater when the disk is embedded in a live halo than in a rigid one having the same mass distribution. We also find that the vigor of the instability in disk-halo systems varies with the shape of the halo velocity ellipsoid. Disks in rigid halos that are massive enough to be stable by the usual criteria, quickly form bars in isotropic halos and much greater halo mass is needed to avoid a strong bar; thus stability criteria derived for disks in rigid halos do not apply when the halo is responsive. The study presented here is of an idealized family of models with near uniform central rotation and that lack an extended halo; we present more realistic models with extended halos in a companion paper. The puzzle presented by the absence of strong bars in some galaxies having gently rising inner rotation curves is compounded by the results presented here.

  17. Asymmetric velocity anisotropies in remnants of collisionless mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. E-mail: hansen@dark-cosmology.dk

    2012-07-01

    Dark matter haloes in cosmological N-body simulations are affected by processes such as mergers, accretion and the gravitational interaction with baryonic matter. Typically the analysis of dark matter haloes is performed in spherical or elliptical bins and the velocity distributions are often assumed to be constant within those bins. However, the velocity anisotropy, which describes differences between the radial and tangential velocity dispersion, has recently been show to have a strong dependence on direction in the triaxial halos formed in cosmological simulations. In this study we derive properties of particles in cones parallel or perpendicular to the collision axis of merger remnants. We find that the velocity anisotropy has a strong dependence on direction. The finding that the direction-dependence of the velocity anisotropy of a halo depends on the merger history, explains the existence of such trends in cosmological simulations. It also explains why a large diversity is seen in the velocity anisotropy profiles in the outer parts of high-resolution simulations of cosmological haloes.

  18. Magnetized collisionless shock studies using high velocity plasmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Thomas; Intrator, Thomas; Gao, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    Magnetized collisionless shocks are ubiquitous throughout the cosmos and are observed to accelerate particles to relativistic velocities, amplify magnetic fields, transport energy, and create non-thermal distributions. They exhibit transitional scale lengths much shorter than the collisional mean free path and are mediated by collective interactions rather than Coulomb collisions. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) leverages advances in Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid formation and acceleration to produce highly supersonic and super-Alfvènic supercritical shocks with pre-existing magnetic field at perpendicular, parallel or oblique angles to the direction of propagation. Adjustable shock speed, density, and magnetic field provide unique access to a range of parameter space relevant to a variety of naturally occurring shocks. This effort examines experimentally, analytically, and numerically the physics of collisionless shock formation, structure, and kinetic effects in a laboratory setting and draw comparisons between experimental data and astronomical observations. Approved for Public Release: LA-UR-12-22886

  19. The acceleration of high-velocity clouds in supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, C. F.; Cowie, L. L.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Interstellar clouds passed by blast waves emanating from supernova explosions will be accelerated by the ram pressure of the expanding interior shocked gas. We present numerical and analytical solutions for cloud acceleration in this environment, comparing the results with recent observations of faint, high-velocity (greater than 100 km/sec) filaments observed in Cygnus and Vela. Photons from the conductive interface between the clouds and the surrounding medium can provide the ionizing flux necessary for observable optical emission. Several predictions are made, the most important of which is that fast clouds of neutral hydrogen with column densities of about 10 quintillion per sq cm should be observable in 21 cm studies of SNRs.

  20. Spherically symmetric high-velocity plasma expansions into background gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, T.-H.; Borovsky, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spherically symmetric plasmas with high expansion velocities have been produced by irradiating targets with eight beams from the Helios CO2 laser in the presence of gases at various pressures. Attention was given to the properties of the target-emitted ions in order to obtain information about the ion-acceleration mechanisms in plasma expansions. Photoionization of the ambient gases by the soft X-ray emission from the laser-irradiated targets produced background plasmas, permitting plasma counterstreaming experiments to be performed in spherical geometry. Successful laser-target coupling in the presence of back-ground gases is obtained; modification of the ion acceleration in accordance with isothermal-expansion models is observed; and an absence of collective coupling between collisionless counterstreaming plasmas is found.

  1. Stetson Revisited: Identifying High-Velocity Early-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.

    1999-02-01

    Our current knowledge of the local blue horizontal branch (BHB) and other high-velocity early-type stars largely depends upon Stetson's survey (in the 1980s) that was based on the SAO catalog. He selected the stars by their reduced proper motion as a function of spectral type. We argue that it is worth repeating Stetson's work using a more recent proper motion source such as the PPM catalog (published 1991) which (inter alia) contains many more stars with spectral types than the SAO. A photometric program is described (using the 0.9-m telescope at full moon) to observe the candidate stars (mostly with V<=10 mag.) and so identify the interesting stars (BHB, RR Lyrae, SW Phoenicis variables, Blue stragglers) that may be expected among them. The new data would materially improve our knowledge of the local space densities of these stars (Kinman 1998).

  2. Heterogeneous fragmentation of metallic liquid microsheet with high velocity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An-Min, He; Pei, Wang; Jian-Li, Shao

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of metallic liquid sheets with high velocity gradient. Dynamic fragmentation of the system involves the formation of a network of fragments due to the growth and coalescence of holes, decomposition of the network into filaments, and further breakup of the filaments into spherical clusters. The final size distribution of the fragmented clusters in the large volume limit is found to obey a bilinear exponential form, which is resulted from the heterogeneous breakup of quasi-cylindrical filaments. The main factors contributing to fragmentation heterogeneity are introduced, including strain rate inhomogeneity and matter distribution nonuniformity of fragments produced during decomposition of the network structure. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013A0201010 and 2015B0201039) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402032).

  3. Deployable Emergency Shutoff Device Blocks High-Velocity Fluid Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a device and method for blocking the flow of fluid from an open pipe. Motivated by the sea-bed oil-drilling catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, NASA innovators designed the device to plug, control, and meter the flow of gases and liquids. Anchored with friction fittings, spikes, or explosively activated fasteners, the device is well-suited for harsh environments and high fluid velocities and pressures. With the addition of instrumentation, it can also be used as a variable area flow metering valve that can be set based upon flow conditions. With robotic additions, this patent-pending innovation can be configured to crawl into a pipe then anchor and activate itself to block or control fluid flow.

  4. Introduction to High-Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadow, Rainer; Killinger, Andreas; Rauch, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    High-velocity suspension flame spraying (HVSFS) has been developed to thermally spray suspensions containing micron, submicron, and nanoparticles with hypersonic speed. For this purpose, the suspension is introduced directly into the combustion chamber of a modified HVOF torch. The aim in mind is to achieve dense coatings with a refined microstructure. Especially from nanostructured coatings superior physical properties are expected for many potential applications. Direct spraying of suspensions offers flexibility in combining and processing different materials. It is a cost-saving process and allows the allocation of entirely new application fields. The paper gives an overview of the HVSFS spray method and will present some actual results that have been achieved by spraying the nanooxide ceramic materials Al2O3, TiO2, 3YSZ, and Cr2O3.

  5. Distance limits to intermediate- and high-velocity clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, J. V.; Fox, A. J.; Keenan, F. P.

    2011-08-01

    We present optical spectra of 403 stars and quasi-stellar objects in order to obtain distance limits towards intermediate- and high-velocity clouds (IHVCs), including new Fibre-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) observations plus archival ELODIE, FEROS, High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) and Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) data. The non-detection of Ca II K interstellar (IS) absorption at a velocity of -130 to -60 km s-1 towards HDE 248894 (d˜ 3 kpc) and HDE 256725 (d˜ 8 kpc) in data at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 450 provides a new firm lower distance limit of 8 kpc for the anti-centre shell HVC. Similarly, the non-detection of Ca II K IS absorption towards HD 86248 at S/N ˜ 500 places a lower distance limit of 7.6 kpc for Complex EP, unsurprising since this feature is probably related to the Magellanic System. The lack of detection of Na I D at S/N = 35 towards Mrk 595 puts an improved upper limit for the Na I column density of log (NNaD <) 10.95 cm-2 towards this part of the Cohen Stream where Ca II was detected by Wakker et al. Absorption at ˜-40 km s-1 is detected in Na I D towards the Galactic star PG 0039+049 at S/N = 75, placing a firm upper distance limit of 1 kpc for the intermediate-velocity cloud south (IVS), where a tentative detection had previously been obtained by Centurión et al. Ca II K and Na I D absorption is detected at -53 km s-1 towards HD 93521, which confirms the upper distance limit of 2.4 kpc for part of the IV arch complex obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data by Danly. Towards HD 216411 in Complex H a non-detection in Na D towards gas with log(?) = 20.69 cm-2 puts a lower distance limit of 6.6 kpc towards this HVC complex. Additionally, Na I D absorption is detected at -43.7 km s-1 in the star HD 218915 at a distance of 5.0 kpc in gas in the same region of the sky as Complex H. Finally, the Na I/Ca II and Ca II/H I ratios of the current sample are found to lie

  6. Characterization of high velocity oxy-fuel combustion sprayed hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Haman, J D; Lucas, L C; Crawmer, D

    1995-02-01

    Bioceramic coatings, created by the high velocity oxy-fuel combustion spraying of hydroxyapatite (HA) powders onto commercially pure titanium, were characterized in order to determine whether this relatively new coating process can be successfully applied to bioceramic coatings of orthopaedic and dental implants. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize both the HA starting powders and coatings. A 12 wk immersion test was conducted and the resulting changes in the coatings were also characterized. Calcium ion release during dissolution was measured with flame atomic absorption during the first 6 weeks of the immersion study. A comparison of powder and coating X-ray diffraction patterns and lattice parameters revealed an HA-type coating with some loss in crystallinity. Fourier transform infrared results showed a partial loss of the OH- group during spraying, however the phosphate groups were still present. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a lamellar structure with very close coating-to-substrate apposition. The coatings experienced a loss of calcium during the immersion study, with the greatest release in calcium occurring during the first 6 days of the study. No significant structural or chemical changes were observed during the 12 wk immersion study. These results indicate that the high velocity oxy-fuel process can produce an HA-type coating; however, the process needs further optimization, specifically in the areas of coating-to-substrate bond strength and minimization of phases present other than HA, before it would be recommended for commercial use. PMID:7749000

  7. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  8. Probability density distribution of velocity differences at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praskovsky, Alexander A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent understanding of fine-scale turbulence structure in high Reynolds number flows is mostly based on Kolmogorov's original and revised models. The main finding of these models is that intrinsic characteristics of fine-scale fluctuations are universal ones at high Reynolds numbers, i.e., the functional behavior of any small-scale parameter is the same in all flows if the Reynolds number is high enough. The only large-scale quantity that directly affects small-scale fluctuations is the energy flux through a cascade. In dynamical equilibrium between large- and small-scale motions, this flux is equal to the mean rate of energy dissipation epsilon. The pdd of velocity difference is a very important characteristic for both the basic understanding of fully developed turbulence and engineering problems. Hence, it is important to test the findings: (1) the functional behavior of the tails of the probability density distribution (pdd) represented by P(delta(u)) is proportional to exp(-b(r) absolute value of delta(u)/sigma(sub delta(u))) and (2) the logarithmic decrement b(r) scales as b(r) is proportional to r(sup 0.15) when separation r lies in the inertial subrange in high Reynolds number laboratory shear flows.

  9. Laboratory investigations involving high-velocity oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Koontz, Steven L.; Visentine, James T.; Cross, Jon B.

    1989-01-01

    Facilities for measuring material reactive characteristics have been under development for several years and span the atom energy range from thermal to 5 eV, the orbital collision energy. One of the high-atom energy facilities (The High Intensity/Energy Atomic Oxygen Source) capable of simulating the reactive part of LEO is described, along with results of beam characterization and preliminary material studies. The oxygen atom beam source was a continuous wave plasma produced by focusing a high-power CO2 laser through a lens system into a rare gas/molecular oxygen mixture chamber at elevated temperature. Material samples were exposed to the high velocity beam through an external feedthrough. The facility showed good stability in continued operation for more than 100 hours, producing fluences of 10 to the 21st to 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Reaction efficiencies and surface morphology have been measured for several materials at energies of 1.5 and 2.8 eV, matching with data generated from previous space flights. Activation energies for carbon and Kapton as measured in this facility were 800 cal/mole.

  10. DO HOT HALOS AROUND GALAXIES CONTAIN THE MISSING BARYONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N. E-mail: jbregman@umich.ed

    2010-05-01

    Galaxies are missing most of their baryons, and many models predict these baryons lie in a hot halo around galaxies. We establish observationally motivated constraints on the mass and radii of these halos using a variety of independent arguments. First, the observed dispersion measure of pulsars in the Large Magellanic Cloud allows us to constrain the hot halo around the Milky Way: if it obeys the standard Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW) profile, it must contain less than 4%-5% of the missing baryons from the Galaxy. This is similar to other upper limits on the Galactic hot halo, such as the soft X-ray background and the pressure around high-velocity clouds. Second, we note that the X-ray surface brightness of hot halos with NFW profiles around large isolated galaxies is high enough that such emission should be observed, unless their halos contain less than 10%-25% of their missing baryons. Third, we place constraints on the column density of hot halos using nondetections of O VII absorption along active galactic nucleus (AGN) sightlines: in general they must contain less than 70% of the missing baryons or extend to no more than 40 kpc. Flattening the density profile of galactic hot halos weakens the surface brightness constraint so that a typical L{sub *} galaxy may hold half its missing baryons in its halo, but the O VII constraint remains unchanged, and around the Milky Way a flattened profile may only hold 6%-13% of the missing baryons from the Galaxy ((2-4) x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}). We also show that AGN and supernovae at low to moderate redshift-the theoretical sources of winds responsible for driving out the missing baryons-do not produce the expected correlations with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship and, therefore, are insufficient to explain the missing baryons from galaxies. We conclude that most of missing baryons from galaxies do not lie in hot halos around the galaxies, and that the missing baryons never fell into the potential wells of

  11. Fault gouge rheology under confined, high-velocity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reches, Z.; Madden, A. S.; Chen, X.

    2012-12-01

    We recently developed the experimental capability to investigate the shear properties of fine-grain gouge under confined conditions and high-velocity. The experimental system includes a rotary apparatus that can apply large displacements of tens of meters, slip velocity of 0.001- 2.0 m/s, and normal stress of 35 MPa (Reches and Lockner, 2010). The key new component is a Confined ROtary Cell (CROC) that can shear a gouge layer either dry or under pore-pressure. The pore pressure is controlled by two syringe pumps. CROC includes a ring-shape gouge chamber of 62.5 mm inner diameter, 81.25 mm outer diameter, and up to 3 mm thick gouge sample. The lower, rotating part of CROC contains the sample chamber, and the upper, stationary part includes the loading, hollow cylinder and setting for temperature, and dilation measurements, and pore-pressure control. Each side of the gouge chamber has two pairs of industrial, spring-energized, self-lubricating, teflon-graphite seals, built for particle media and can work at temperature up to 250 ded C. The space between each of the two sets of seals is pressurized by nitrogen. This design generates 'zero-differential pressure' on the inner seal (which is in contact with the gouge powder), and prevents gouge leaks. For the preliminary dry experiments, we used ~2.0 mm thick layers of room-dry kaolinite powder. Total displacements were on the order of meters and normal stress up to 4 MPa. The initial shear was accommodated by multiple internal slip surfaces within the kaolinite layer accommodated as oriented Riedel shear structures. Later, the shear was localized within a thin, plate-parallel Y-surface. The kaolinite layer was compacted at a quasi-asymptotic rate, and displayed a steady-state friction coefficient of ~ 0.5 with no clear dependence on slip velocity up to 0.15 m/s. Further experiments with loose quartz sand (grain size ~ 125 micron) included both dry runs and pore-pressure (distilled water) controlled runs. The sand was

  12. Entrainment in High-Velocity, High Temperature Plasma Jets Part I: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Fincke, J.R.; Crawford, D.M.; Snyder, S.C.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.; Williamson, R.L.

    2002-03-27

    The development of a high-velocity, high-temperature argon plasma jet issuing into air has been investigated. In particular the entrainment of the surrounding air, its effect on the temperature and velocity profiles and the subsequent mixing and dissociation of oxygen has been examined in detail. The total concentration of oxygen and the velocity and temperature profiles in the jet were obtained from an enthalpy probe. High-resolution Thomson scattering provided an independent measure of plasma velocity and temperature, validating enthalpy probe measurements and providing non-intrusive measurements near the nozzle exit. The concentration of atomic oxygen was obtained from two-photon Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Molecular oxygen concentration and temperature was obtained from Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). It was found that both the incompleteness of mixing at the molecular scale and the rate of oxygen dissociation and recombination effects jet behavior.

  13. High-density aerogels with ultralow sound velocity: Microstructure is a key parameter determining the sound velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ai; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Yang; Yu, Qiujie; Shen, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Aerogels are more and more regarded as a new state of matter nowadays because of its diverse chemical compositions and unique properties which could fill the gap between condensed matter and gas-state matter. Among the properties, the ultralow sound velocity in the aerogels (lower than that in the air) is of great interests. J. Fricke's group studied many kinds of aerogels with different compositions and found that the sound velocity was mainly influenced by the density. Thus they obtained the lowest sound velocity result (~ 100 m/s) in a low-density silica aerogel medium (~ 0.05 g.cm-3) . Here we studied the acoustical properties of the aerogels with the similar high density (about 1.3 g.cm-3) but different skeleton structure (nano-, micro- or nano-/micro- structured) by adjusting the phase separation mode. The sound velocities of all the aerogels are below 300 m.s-1, among which micro-/nano- structured aerogel exhibits lowest longitudinal wave velocity (below 80 m.s-1) . Further structural studies indicated that the hierarchical arrangement of microstructure is the key parameter determining the sound velocity besides the density. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51102184, 51172163), National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program, 2013AA031801) and National Science and Technology Support Program (2013BAJ01B01).

  14. Process gases for high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Creffield, G.K.; Chapman, I.F.; Cole, M.A.; Page, W.J.; McDonough, T.

    1994-12-31

    The importance of fuel and other process gases for high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying and especially the delivery of them to the point of use is well recognized. Problems associated with the supply of liquid fuel gases, at the high flow rates and pressures required by this process, have been addressed. Considerable development work has gone into designing an appropriate liquid withdrawal and vaporizer system for propylene, which overcomes these previous difficulties and enables users to maintain adequate fuel gas flow rates in order to ensure optimum operating conditions for the production of high quality coatings. A feature of the thermal spray process is that the temperature of the workpiece is kept low, typically below 150 C, in order to reduce residual stresses in the coating and to protect heat sensitive substrates. Traditionally this has been by compressed air, however, improved cooling has been achieved using carbon dioxide. Specially designed equipment is now available which provides and directs a cold mixture of carbon dioxide gas and solid particles (snow) via suitable nozzles, on the workpiece. The position of the cooling stream can be varied, depending on the application. These developments emphasize the importance now attached to providing dedicated gas installation packages for HVOF.

  15. Numerical Investigation of High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleby, M.; Hossainpour, S.

    2012-12-01

    High-velocity suspension flame spraying (HVSFS) has recently developed as a possible alternative to conventional HVOF-spraying employing liquid suspensions instead of dry powder feedstock enables the use of nanoparticles. From the fluid dynamics point of view, the HVSFS system is complex and involves three-phase (gas, liquid and solid particles) turbulent flow, heat transfer, evaporation of the suspension solvent, chemical reactions of main fuel (propane) and suspension solvent (ethanol) and supersonic/subsonic flow transitions. Computational fluid dynamic techniques were carried out to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The realizable k-ɛ turbulence model was used to account for the effect of turbulence. The HVSFS process involves two combustion reactions. A primary combustion process is the premixed oxygen-propane reaction and secondary process is the non-premixed oxygen-gaseous ethanol reaction. For each reaction, one step global reaction, which takes dissociations and intermediate reactions into account, was derived from the equilibrium chemistry code developed by Gordon and McBride and eddy dissipation model was used to calculate the rate of reactions based on the transport equations for all species (10 species) mass fractions. Droplets were tracked in the continuum in a Lagrangian approach. In this paper, flow field inside and outside the gun simulated to provide clear and complete insight about the HVSFS processes. Moreover, the effect of some operative parameters (oxy-fuel flow rate, ethanol flow rate, droplets injection velocity and droplets size) on the gas flow field along the centerline and droplets evaporation behavior was discussed.

  16. THE CASE FOR THE DUAL HALO OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Carollo, Daniela; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Ken C. E-mail: lee@pa.msu.edu E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au; and others

    2012-02-10

    Carollo et al. have recently resolved the stellar population of the Milky Way halo into at least two distinct components, an inner halo and an outer halo. This result has been criticized by Schoenrich et al., who claim that the retrograde signature associated with the outer halo is due to the adoption of faulty distances. We refute this claim, and demonstrate that the Schoenrich et al. photometric distances are themselves flawed because they adopted an incorrect main-sequence absolute magnitude relationship from the work of Ivezic et al. When compared to the recommended relation from Ivezic et al., which is tied to a Milky Way globular cluster distance scale and accounts for age and metallicity effects, the relation adopted by Schoenrich et al. yields up to 18% shorter distances for stars near the main-sequence turnoff (TO). Use of the correct relationship yields agreement between the distances assigned by Carollo et al. and Ivezic et al. for low-metallicity dwarfs to within 6%-10%. Schoenrich et al. also point out that intermediate-gravity stars (3.5 {<=}log g < 4.0) with colors redder than the TO region are likely misclassified, with which we concur. We implement a new procedure to reassign luminosity classifications for the TO stars that require it. New derivations of the rotational behavior demonstrate that the retrograde signature and high velocity dispersion of the outer-halo population remain. We summarize additional lines of evidence for a dual halo, including a test of the retrograde signature based on proper motions alone, and conclude that the preponderance of evidence strongly rejects the single-halo interpretation.

  17. Structure in the motions of the fastest halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, P.; Helmi, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Spagna, A.

    2005-08-01

    We analyzed the catalog published by Beers et al. (2000, ApJ, 119, 2866) of 2106 non-kinematically selected metal poor stars in the solar neighborhood, with the goal of quantifying the amount of substructure in the motions of the fastest halo stars. We computed the two-point velocity correlation function for a subsample of halo stars within 1-2 kpc of the Sun, and found statistical evidence of substructure with a similar amplitude to that predicted by high resolution CDM simulations. The signal is due to a small kinematic group whose dynamical properties are compared to the stellar "stream" previously discovered by Helmi et al. (1999). If real, this high velocity moving group would provide further support for the idea that substructures remain as fossils from the formation of the Galaxy as expected in the CDM scenario.

  18. H I observations of an Ultra-Compact High-Velocity Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüns, C.; Westmeier, T.

    2004-10-01

    We present H I observations of the compact high-velocity cloud HVC289+33+251 that was discovered by Putman et al. (\\cite{putman}). Observations with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope demonstrate that this cloud is still unresolved by the 9 arcmin beam of the Effelsberg telescope. The cloud shows a small line width of Δ vFWHM = 4.9 km s-1 providing an upper limit to the kinetic temperature of the H I gas of Tk ≤532 K. The total observed flux indicates an H I mass of M(H I) = 5.66×104 M⊙ [d/150 kpc]2. Follow-up H I observations using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) resolve HVC289+33+251 into 5 condensations that are embedded in a common H I envelope. The HVC shows a faint tail, indicating an ongoing ram-pressure interaction with an ambient low-density medium. A FWHM diameter of ǎrtheta = 4.4 arcmin makes this HVC the by far most compact HVC known till now. The observed parameters suggest that pressure stabilization by an ambient medium is rather unlikely. At a distance of 150 kpc, the virial mass is by a factor of 5.6 higher than the observed gas mass - consistent with HVC289+33+251 being one of the ``missing'' dark matter mini halos that were predicted by cosmological ΛCDM simulations (e.g. Klypin et al. \\cite{klypin}; Moore et al. \\cite{moore}). Comparable clouds in other groups of galaxies or even around the Milky Way are not detectable with the resolution and sensitivity of present surveys.

  19. Collisions between Dark Matter Confined High Velocity Clouds and Magnetized Galactic Disks: The Smith Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galyardt, Jason; Shelton, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy’s population of High Velocity Clouds (HVCs) may include a subpopulation that is confined by dark matter minihalos and falling toward the Galactic disk. We present the first magnetohydrodynamic simulational study of dark-matter-dominated HVCs colliding with a weakly magnetized galactic disk. Our HVCs have baryonic masses of 5 × 106M⊙ and dark matter minihalo masses of 0, 3 × 108, or 1 × 109 M⊙. They are modeled on the Smith Cloud, which is said to have collided with the disk 70 Myr ago. We find that, in all cases, the cloud’s collision with the galactic disk creates a hole in the disk, completely disperses the cloud, and forms a bubble-shaped structure on the far side of the disk. In contrast, when present, the dark matter minihalo continues unimpeded along its trajectory. Later, as the minihalo passes through the bubble structure and galactic halo, it accretes up to 6.0 × 105 M⊙ in baryonic material, depending on the strengths of the magnetic field and minihalo gravity. These simulations suggest that if the Smith Cloud is associated with a dark matter minihalo and collided with the Galactic disk, the minihalo has accreted the observed gas. However, if the Smith Cloud is dark-matter-free, it is on its first approach toward the disk. These simulations also suggest that the dark matter is most concentrated either at the head of the cloud or near the cloud, depending upon the strength of the magnetic field, a point that could inform indirect dark matter searches.

  20. MODELING THE X-RAYS RESULTING FROM HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R. L.; Kwak, K.; Henley, D. B. E-mail: kkwak@physast.uga.edu

    2012-06-01

    With the goal of understanding why X-rays have been reported near some high-velocity clouds, we perform detailed three-dimensional hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of clouds interacting with environmental gas like that in the Galaxy's thick disk/halo or the Magellanic Stream. We examine two scenarios. In the first, clouds travel fast enough to shock heat warm environmental gas. In this scenario, the X-ray productivity depends strongly on the speed of the cloud and the radiative cooling rate. In order to shock heat environmental gas to temperatures of {>=}10{sup 6} K, cloud speeds of {>=}300 km s{sup -1} are required. If cooling is quenched, then the shock-heated ambient gas is X-ray emissive, producing bright X-rays in the 1/4 keV band and some X-rays in the 3/4 keV band due to O VII and other ions. If, in contrast, the radiative cooling rate is similar to that of collisional ionizational equilibrium plasma with solar abundances, then the shocked gas is only mildly bright and for only about 1 Myr. The predicted count rates for the non-radiative case are bright enough to explain the count rate observed with XMM-Newton toward a Magellanic Stream cloud and some enhancement in the ROSAT 1/4 keV count rate toward Complex C, while the predicted count rates for the fully radiative case are not. In the second scenario, the clouds travel through and mix with hot ambient gas. The mixed zone can contain hot gas, but the hot portion of the mixed gas is not as bright as those from the shock-heating scenario.

  1. The kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of the milky way halo

    SciTech Connect

    Birnboim, Yuval; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-06-01

    We calculate the expected imprint of the ionized gas in the Milky-Way halo on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) through the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. Unlike other Galactic foregrounds, the halo kSZ signature covers the full sky, generates anisotropies on large angular scales, is not accompanied by spectral distortions, and could therefore be confused with primordial CMB anisotropies. We construct theoretical models for various halo components, including smooth diffuse gas, filaments of cold inflowing gas and high velocity clouds. We find that the kSZ effect for all components is above the sensitivity of the Planck satellite, over a range of angular scales. However, the typical halo contribution is well below the cosmic variance noise in the primordial CMB power spectrum. High velocity clouds could dominate the halo contribution and better observational data is required to mask them out. We derive expected kSZ maps based on existing data from tracers of the halo gas distribution, such as 21cm maps of neutral hydrogen and H{sub α} maps of recombining gas. The cross-correlation of these maps with the WMAP5 data does not yield any statistically significant signal.

  2. Spectroscopy of New High Proper Motion Stars in the Northern Sky. I. New Nearby Stars, New High-Velocity Stars, and an Enhanced Classification Scheme for M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.

    2003-03-01

    We define an enhanced spectral classification scheme for M dwarf stars and use it to derive spectral classification of 104 northern stars with proper motions larger than 0.5" yr-1 that we discovered in a survey of high proper motion stars at low Galactic latitudes. The final tally is as follows: 54 M dwarfs, 25 sdK and sdM subdwarfs, 14 esdK and esdM extreme subdwarfs, and 11 DA and DC white dwarfs. Among the most interesting cases, we find one star to be the coolest subdwarf ever reported (LSR 2036+5059, with spectral type sdM7.5), a new M9.0 dwarf only about 6 pc distant (LSR 1835+3259), and a new M6.5 dwarf only 7 pc from the Sun (LSR 2124+4003). Spectroscopic distances suggests that 27 of the M dwarfs, three of the white dwarfs, and one of the subdwarfs (LSR 2036+5059) are within 25 pc of the Sun, making them excellent candidates for inclusion in the solar neighborhood census. Estimated sky-projected velocities suggest that most of our subdwarfs and extreme subdwarfs have halo kinematics. We find that several white dwarfs and non-metal-poor M dwarfs also have kinematics consistent with the halo, and we briefly discuss their possible origin.

  3. WHAM Observations of Ionized Gas in High-Velocity Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. L.; Tufte, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    We have used the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM) spectrometer to study the C complex of high-velocity interstellar clouds. High-velocity clouds (HVCs) have been well-studied in the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen and are thought to be located in the galactic halo, but their origins and role in galactic evolution are unknown. We study Hα emission, which gives us information about the ionized hydrogen content of the clouds, and other emission lines that allow us to investigate the temperature, density and other conditions in the clouds. The C complex has been studied extensively using ultraviolet absorption spectra from the FUSE and STIS instruments. By combining this information with our emission line data from the same sightlines, we can gain insight into the metallicity and other physical properties of the clouds. Our sightlines include PG1259+593, Mrk 817, Mrk 279, and PG1351+640. We measured Hα emission between 0.051 and 0.106 R in these directions. We placed 3σ upper limits on our nondetections of emission from [SII] λ 6716, [NII] λ 6583, and [OIII] λ 5007 for all of the sightlines. We find a hydrogen ionizing flux of 1.1 x 105 to 2.2 x 105 photons cm-2. Our observations imply a hydrogen ionization fraction of 0.40 to 0.72, an electron density of 0.006 to 0.25 cm-3, and temperature upper limits of 10,000 to 20,000 K, with Mrk 817 possibly as low as 6,000 K. Our results are consistent with previous metallicity calculations of 0.10 to 0.26 solar. Such a small amount of heavy elements suggests an extragalactic origin for the C complex. We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation through grant AST 02-06349, from a Research Corporation Cottrell College Science Award, and from the John S. Rogers Science Research Program at Lewis & Clark College.

  4. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. I. Photos of ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, M.; Beccari, G.; Battaglia, G.; Martin, N.; Testa, V.; Ibata, R.; Correnti, M.; Cusano, F.; Sani, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present an imaging survey that searches for the stellar counterparts of recently discovered ultra-compact high-velocity H i clouds (UCHVC). It has been proposed that these clouds are candidate mini-haloes in the Local Group and its surroundings within a distance range of 0.25-2.0 Mpc. Using the Large Binocular Telescope we obtained wide-field (≃ 23' × 23') g- and r-band images of the twenty-five most promising and most compact clouds amongst the fifty-nine that have been identified. Careful visual inspection of all the images does not reveal any stellar counterpart that even slightly resembles Leo P, the only local dwarf galaxy that was found as a counterpart to a previously detected high-velocity cloud. Only a possible distant (D> 3.0 Mpc) counterpart to HVC274.68+74.70-123 has been identified in our images. The point source photometry in the central 17.3' × 7.7' chips reaches r ≤ 26.5 and is expected to contain most of the stellar counterparts to the UCHVCs. However, no obvious stellar over-density is detected in any of our fields, in marked contrast to our comparison Leo P field, in which the dwarf galaxy is detected at a >30σ-significance level. Only HVC352.45+59.06+263 may be associated with a weak over-density, whose nature cannot be ascertained with our data. Sensitivity tests show that our survey would have detected any dwarf galaxy dominated by an old stellar population, with an integrated absolute magnitude of MV ≤ - 8.0 and a half-light radius of rh ≤ 300 pc that lies within 1.5 Mpc of us, thereby confirming that it is unlikely that the observed UCHVCs are associated with the stellar counterparts typical of known Local Group dwarf galaxies. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration amongst institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica

  5. High velocity properties of the dynamic frictional force between ductile metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Hollan, Brad L; Germann, Timothy C; Ravelo, Ramon J

    2010-01-01

    The high velocity properties of the tangential frictional force between ductile metal interfaces seen in large-scale NonEquilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulations are characterized by interesting scaling behavior. In many cases a power law decrease in the frictional force with increasing velocity is observed at high velocities. We discuss the velocity dependence of the high velocity branch of the tangential force in terms of structural transformation and ultimate transition, at the highest velocities, to confined fluid behavior characterized by a critical strain rate. The particular case of an Al/Al interface is discussed.

  6. Photonic systems for high precision radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    I will discuss new instrumentation and techniques designed to maximize the Doppler radial velocity (RV) measurement precision of next generation exoplanet discovery instruments. These systems include a novel wavelength calibration device based on an all-fiber fabry-perot interferometer, a compact and efficient optical fiber image scrambler based on a single high-index ball lens, and a unique optical fiber mode mixer. These systems have been developed specifically to overcome three technological hurdles that have classically hindered high precision RV measurements in both the optical and near-infrared (NIR), namely: lack of available wavelength calibration sources, inadequate decoupling of the spectrograph from variable telescope illumination, and speckle-induced noise due to mode interference in optical fibers. The instrumentation presented here will be applied to the Habitable-zone Planet Finder, a NIR RV instrument designed to detect rocky planets orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby M-dwarfs, and represents a critical technological step towards the detection of potentially habitable Earth-like planets. While primarily focused in the NIR, many of these systems will be adapted to future optical RV instruments as well, such as NASA's new Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrometer for the WIYN telescope.

  7. The inner structure of ΛCDM haloes - II. Halo mass profiles and low surface brightness galaxy rotation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, E.; Navarro, J. F.; Power, C.; Jenkins, A.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Springel, V.; Stadel, J.; Quinn, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    We use a set of high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations to investigate the inner mass profile of galaxy-sized cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. These simulations extend the numerical convergence study presented in Paper I of this series, and demonstrate that the mass profile of CDM galaxy haloes can be robustly estimated beyond a minimum converged radius of order rconv~ 1h-1 kpc in our highest-resolution runs. The density profiles of simulated haloes become progressively shallower from the virial radius inwards, and show no sign of approaching a well-defined power law near the centre. At rconv, the density profile is steeper than expected from the formula proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White, which has a ρ~r-1 cusp, but significantly shallower than the steeply divergent ρ~r-1.5 cusp proposed by Moore et al. We perform a direct comparison of the spherically averaged dark matter circular velocity profiles with Hα rotation curves of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We find that most galaxies in the sample (about 70 per cent) have rotation curves that are consistent with the structure of CDM haloes. Of the remainder, 20 per cent have rotation curves which cannot be fit by any smooth fitting function with few free parameters, and 10 per cent are inconsistent with CDM haloes. However, the latter consist mostly of rotation curves that do not extend to large enough radii to accurately determine their shapes and maximum velocities. We conclude that the inner structure of CDM haloes is not manifestly inconsistent with the rotation curves of LSB galaxies.

  8. Oxygen Abundances in Low- and High-α Field Halo Stars and the Discovery of Two Field Stars Born in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.; Chanamé, J.

    2012-10-01

    Oxygen abundances of 67 dwarf stars in the metallicity range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4 are derived from a non-LTE analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. These stars have precise atmospheric parameters measured by Nissen and Schuster, who find that they separate into three groups based on their kinematics and α-element (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) abundances: thick disk, highhalo, and low-α halo. We find the oxygen abundance trends of thick-disk and highhalo stars very similar. The low-α stars show a larger star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe] at a given [Fe/H] and have systematically lower oxygen abundances compared to the other two groups. Thus, we find the behavior of oxygen abundances in these groups of stars similar to that of the α elements. We use previously published oxygen abundance data of disk and very metal-poor halo stars to present an overall view (-2.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.3) of oxygen abundance trends of stars in the solar neighborhood. Two field halo dwarf stars stand out in their O and Na abundances. Both G53-41 and G150-40 have very low oxygen and very high sodium abundances, which are key signatures of the abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster (GC) stars. Therefore, they are likely field halo stars born in GCs. If true, we estimate that at least 3% ± 2% of the local field metal-poor star population was born in GCs.

  9. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN LOW- AND HIGH-{alpha} FIELD HALO STARS AND THE DISCOVERY OF TWO FIELD STARS BORN IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-10-01

    Oxygen abundances of 67 dwarf stars in the metallicity range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4 are derived from a non-LTE analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. These stars have precise atmospheric parameters measured by Nissen and Schuster, who find that they separate into three groups based on their kinematics and {alpha}-element (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) abundances: thick disk, high-{alpha} halo, and low-{alpha} halo. We find the oxygen abundance trends of thick-disk and high-{alpha} halo stars very similar. The low-{alpha} stars show a larger star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe] at a given [Fe/H] and have systematically lower oxygen abundances compared to the other two groups. Thus, we find the behavior of oxygen abundances in these groups of stars similar to that of the {alpha} elements. We use previously published oxygen abundance data of disk and very metal-poor halo stars to present an overall view (-2.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.3) of oxygen abundance trends of stars in the solar neighborhood. Two field halo dwarf stars stand out in their O and Na abundances. Both G53-41 and G150-40 have very low oxygen and very high sodium abundances, which are key signatures of the abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster (GC) stars. Therefore, they are likely field halo stars born in GCs. If true, we estimate that at least 3% {+-} 2% of the local field metal-poor star population was born in GCs.

  10. High velocity vortex channeling in vicinal YBCO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Puica, I.; Lang, W.; Durrell, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We report on electrical transport measurements at high current densities on optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films grown on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates. Data were collected by using a pulsed-current technique in a four-probe arrangement, allowing to extend the current–voltage characteristics to high supercritical current densities (up to 24 MA cm−2) and high electric fields (more than 20 V/cm), in the superconducting state at temperatures between 30 and 80 K. The electric measurements were performed on tracks perpendicular to the vicinal step direction, such that the current crossed between ab planes, under magnetic field rotated in the plane defined by the crystallographic c axis and the current density. At magnetic field orientation parallel to the cuprate layers, evidence for the sliding motion along the ab planes (vortex channeling) was found. The signature of vortex channeling appeared to get enhanced with increasing electric field, due to the peculiar depinning features in the kinked vortex range. They give rise to a current–voltage characteristics steeper than in the more off-plane rectilinear vortex orientations, in the electric field range below approximately 1 V/cm. Roughly above this value, the high vortex channeling velocities (up to 8.6 km/s) could be ascribed to the flux flow, although the signature of ohmic transport appeared to be altered by unavoidable macroscopic self-heating and hot-electron-like effects. PMID:23482832

  11. High velocity vortex channeling in vicinal YBCO thin films.

    PubMed

    Puica, I; Lang, W; Durrell, J H

    2012-09-01

    We report on electrical transport measurements at high current densities on optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films grown on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates. Data were collected by using a pulsed-current technique in a four-probe arrangement, allowing to extend the current-voltage characteristics to high supercritical current densities (up to 24 MA cm(-2)) and high electric fields (more than 20 V/cm), in the superconducting state at temperatures between 30 and 80 K. The electric measurements were performed on tracks perpendicular to the vicinal step direction, such that the current crossed between ab planes, under magnetic field rotated in the plane defined by the crystallographic c axis and the current density. At magnetic field orientation parallel to the cuprate layers, evidence for the sliding motion along the ab planes (vortex channeling) was found. The signature of vortex channeling appeared to get enhanced with increasing electric field, due to the peculiar depinning features in the kinked vortex range. They give rise to a current-voltage characteristics steeper than in the more off-plane rectilinear vortex orientations, in the electric field range below approximately 1 V/cm. Roughly above this value, the high vortex channeling velocities (up to 8.6 km/s) could be ascribed to the flux flow, although the signature of ohmic transport appeared to be altered by unavoidable macroscopic self-heating and hot-electron-like effects. PMID:23482832

  12. Magnetized Collisionless Shock Studies Using High Velocity Plasmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Thomas; Intrator, T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetized collisionless shocks are ubiquitous throughout the cosmos and are observed to accelerate particles to relativistic velocities, amplify magnetic fields, transport energy, and create non-thermal distributions. They exhibit transitional scale lengths much shorter than the collisional mean free path and are mediated by collective interactions rather than Coulomb collisions. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) leverages advances in Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid formation and acceleration to produce highly supersonic and super-Alfvénic supercritical shocks with pre-existing magnetic field at perpendicular, parallel or oblique angles to the direction of propagation. Adjustable shock speed, density, and magnetic field provide unique access to a range of parameter space relevant to a variety of naturally occurring shocks. This effort examines experimentally, analytically, and numerically the physics of collisionless shock formation, structure, and kinetic effects in a laboratory setting and draw comparisons between experimental data and astronomical observations. Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and National Nuclear Security Administration under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369 Approved for Public Release: LA-UR-12-22886

  13. Magnetized collisionless shock studies using high velocity plasmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T.; Intrator, T.; Gao, K.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetized collisionless shocks are ubiquitous throughout the cosmos and are observed to accelerate particles to relativistic velocities, amplify magnetic fields, transport energy, and create non-thermal distributions. They exhibit transitional scale lengths much shorter than the collisional mean free path and are mediated by collective interactions rather than Coulomb collisions. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) leverages advances in Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid formation and acceleration to produce highly supersonic and super-Alfvènic supercritical shocks with pre-existing magnetic field at perpendicular, parallel or oblique angles to the direction of propagation. Adjustable shock speed, density, and magnetic field provide unique access to a range of parameter space relevant to a variety of naturally occurring shocks. This effort examines experimentally, analytically, and numerically the physics of collisionless shock formation, structure, and kinetic effects in a laboratory setting and draw comparisons between experimental data and astronomical observations. Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and National Nuclear Security Administration under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369 Approved for Public Release: LA-UR-12-22886

  14. Spectroscopy of High Velocity Compact Toroids on CTIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Nick; Horton, Robert; Klauser, Ruth; Hwang, David

    2010-11-01

    High density toroidal plasmas can reach speeds exceeding 200 km/s using coaxial accelerators such as CTIX at UC Davis. Applications of these compact toroids (CTs) include the fueling of next generation tokamaks and stellarators. An important CT diagnostic is to monitor atomic line radiation from CT ions. In this investigation we develop a reliable method of measuring a broad range (40 nm) of the CT spectrum from multiple positions. Our system employs fiber-optic cables to transmit the signal to a spectrometer operating in the 300-1300 nm range. A gated, intensified, CCD camera surveys the CT emission spectrum at a fixed time over a range of wavelengths. Additionally, a photomultiplier is used to investigate the time dependence of particular wavelengths of interest (monochrometer mode). Such measurements enable the study of CT temperature, density, impurity content, and CT velocity. The fiber-optic system will first be used to survey the emission spectrum of CTIX in typical operation, and to identify candidate lines for monochrometer operation.

  15. A study of high-velocity combustion wire molybdenum coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, S. C.; Calla, Eklavya

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, coatings manufactured using the high-velocity combustion wire (HVCW) spray process have been studied. Molybdenum coatings were prepared in this study, and wavelength dispersive x-ray analysis (WDX) investigations were carried out to ascertain the oxygen content of the coating and its distribution. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the coating was also carried out to determine the phases present in the coating. Based on the above data, the authors explain the HVCW-sprayed molybdenum coating microstructure properties. These coatings were also sprayed using a modified aircap design. The parameters varied for the molybdenum coatings by HVCW and were (1) the distance of the substrate from the spray gun and (2) the wire feed rate of the gun. The wear test and coefficient of friction measurements were also carried out for the coatings. Air plasma spraying of Mo-25% NiCrBSi coatings was carried out, and these coatings were further checked for wear friction properties.

  16. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ∼ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  17. A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and ~100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-09-01

    Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here, we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of σ ={47}-6+8 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which implies a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}(\\lt {r}1/2)={0.7}-0.2+0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ within its deprojected half-light radius of {r}1/2=4.6+/- 0.2 {kpc}. The mass-to-light ratio is M/{L}I(\\lt {r}1/2)={48}-14+21 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , and the dark matter fraction is 98% within {r}1/2. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has {94}-20+25 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are “failed” galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous objects. We estimate the total dark halo mass of Dragonfly 44 by comparing the amount of dark matter within r=4.6 {kpc} to enclosed mass profiles of NFW halos. The enclosed mass suggests a total mass of ˜ {10}12 {M}ȯ , similar to the mass of the Milky Way. The existence of nearly dark objects with this mass is unexpected, as galaxy formation is thought to be maximally efficient in this regime.

  18. Highly thermo-halo-alkali-stable β-1,4-endoxylanase from a novel polyextremophilic strain of Bacillus halodurans.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Syal, Poonam; Satyanarayana, T

    2013-05-01

    A novel bacterial isolate, capable of producing extracellular highly thermostable, halo-alkali-stable and cellulase-free xylanase, was isolated from soil and identified as Bacillus halodurans TSPV1 by polyphasic approach. The Plackett-Burman design identified wheat bran, lactose, tryptone and NaCl as the factors that significantly affect xylanase production, and thus, these were optimized by response surface methodology. The data analysis suggested that optimum levels of wheat bran (15-20 g L(-1)), lactose (1.0-1.5 g L(-1)), tryptone (2-2.5 g L(-1)) and NaCl (7.0-8.0 g L(-1)) support 6.75-fold higher xylanase production than that in the un-optimized medium. The xylanase is optimally active at 90 °C and pH 10, and stable for 4 h at 90 °C (T 1/2 60 h) over a broad range of NaCl concentrations (0-29 %). This is the first report on the isolation of polyextremophilic B. halodurans strain that produces thermo-halo-alkali-stable xylanase in submerged fermentation. This enzyme efficiently saccharifies agro residues like wheat bran and corncobs. Fifty-six percent of hemicellulose of wheat bran could be hydrolyzed by xylanase (100 U g(-1) substrate) along with cellulase (22 U FPase and 50 U CMCase g(-1)). The xylanase, being thermo-alkali stable and cellulase free, can find applications in pre-bleaching of paper pulps and hydrolysis of xylan in agricultural residues. PMID:22932960

  19. Nonintrusive, multipoint velocity measurements in high-pressure combustion flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M.; Davis, S.; Kessler, W.; Legner, H.; Mcmanus, K.; Mulhall, P.; Parker, T.; Sonnenfroh, D.

    1993-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical effort was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of OH Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity distributions in supersonic combustion gases. The experiments were conducted in the underexpanded exhaust flow from a 6.8 atm, 2400 K, H2-O2-N2 burner exhausting into the atmosphere. In order to quantify the effects of in-plane variations of the gas thermodynamic properties on the measurement accuracy, a set of detailed measurements of the OH (1,0) band collisional broadening and shifting in H2-air gases was produced. The effect of pulse-to-pulse variations in the dye laser bandshape was also examined in detail and a modification was developed which increased in the single pulse bandwidth, thereby increasing the intraimage velocity dynamic range as well as reducing the sensitivity of the velocity measurement to the gas property variations. Single point and imaging measurements of the velocity field in the exhaust flowfield were compared with 2D, finite-rate kinetics simulations of the flowfield. Relative velocity accuracies of +/- 50 m/s out of 1600 m/s were achieved in time-averaged imaging measurements of the flow over an order of magnitude variation in pressure and a factor of two variation in temperature.

  20. Two high resolution velocity vector analyzers for cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S.

    1975-01-01

    Two new methods are described to measure velocities and angles of incidence of charged cosmic dust particles with precisions of about 1% and 1 deg, respectively. Both methods employ four one-dimensional position-sensitive detectors in series. The first method utilizes a charge-dividing technique while the second utilizes a time-of-flight technique for determining the position of a particle inside the instrument. The velocity vectors are measured although mechanical interaction between the particle and the instrument is completely avoided. Applications to cosmic dust composition and collection experiments are discussed. The range of radii of measurable particles is from about 0.01 to 100 microns at velocities from 1 to 80 km/sec.

  1. The Outer Halo Metallicity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MA, ZHIBO; Morrison, H.; Harding, P.; Xue, X.; Rix, H.; Rockosi, C.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y.; Cudworth, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new determination of the metallicity distribution function in the Milky Way halo, based on an in situ sample of more than 5000 K giants from SDSS/SEGUE. We have also measured the metallicity gradient in the halo, using our sample which stretches from 5 kpc to more than 100 kpc from the galactic center. The halo metallicity gradient has been a controversial topic in recent studies, but our in-situ study overcomes the problems caused in these studies by their extrapolations from local samples to the distant halo. We also describe our extensive checks of the log g and [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters pipeline, using globular and open cluster stars and SEGUE stars with follow-up high-resolution analysis. In addition, we present a new Bayesian estimate of distances to the K giants, which avoids the distance bias introduced by the red giant branch luminosity function.

  2. Contrast Between 1992 and 1997 High Latitude Spring Haloe Observations of Lower Stratospheric HCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    HCl measurements from HALOE in the northern hemisphere during mid-May 1997 revealed vortex fragments in which the chlorine reservoir partitioning was strongly pushed toward HCl (approx. 90% HCl, approx. 10% ClONO2), similar to partitioning previously observed in the Antarctic vortex region. In contrast, observations of ClONO2 and HCl in the northern polar spring, 1992, and in other years, show these species established the balance typical for gas phase photochemical reactions in this region (approx. 60% HCl, approx. 40% ClONO2). Annually, chlorine reservoirs in the winter lower stratosphere polar vortex are converted to chlorine radicals via heterogeneous reactions on particle surfaces at very cold temperatures (less than about 200 K). As temperatures warm in spring, the heterogeneous processes become insignificant compared with gas phase reactions, and the chlorine reservoirs are reformed. Measurements through the northern winter/spring in 1992 show rapid formation of ClONO2, followed by steady loss of ClONO2 and increasing HCl. Although ClONO2 measurements are not available for 1997, the HCl increase in 1997 is observed to be much more rapid and the eventual HCl mixing ratio is about 50% greater than that of 1992. The observations are examined through comparison with the Goddard three-dimensional chemistry and transport model. This model utilizes winds and temperatures from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System and a complete integration scheme for stratospheric photochemistry. Analysis of the evolution of HCl and ClONO2 shows that the observed difference in the overall rate of HCl formation is explained by the sensitivity of the gas-phase chemistry to the ozone mixing ratio and the temperature. The results show that the model accurately simulates HCl and ClONO2 evolution during these two winters. Model validity is further supported by comparisons with O3 and reactive nitrogen species NO and NO2. This analysis provides a sensitive test of

  3. High Proper Motion Stars. III. Radial Velocities of 24 Late-Type Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. C.; De Robertis, M. M.

    1998-11-01

    We report 27 radial velocity measurements for 24 stars, all with annual proper motions larger than 1". For 17 of these, no velocities have previously been published. We identify a few stars that may be spectroscopic binaries and a sdK star of spectacularly high space velocity.

  4. PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH-VELOCITY PULSE-JET FILTER, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the performance of a high-velocity pulse-jet filter. Such filtration has distinct advantages over low-velocity filtration in that the equipment required to clean a gas stream is reduced in size and initial cost as velocity increases. Althoug...

  5. PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH-VELOCITY PULSE-JET FILTER, III

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a continuing study of the performance of a high-velocity pulse-jet filter. Such filtration has distinct advantages over low-velocity filtration in that the equipment required to clean a gas stream is reduced in size and initial cost as filtration veloc...

  6. Treatment Protocol for High Velocity/High Energy Gunshot Injuries to the Face

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Micha; Leiser, Yoav; Emodi, Omri; Krausz, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Major causes of facial combat injuries include blasts, high-velocity/high-energy missiles, and low-velocity missiles. High-velocity bullets fired from assault rifles encompass special ballistic properties, creating a transient cavitation space with a small entrance wound and a much larger exit wound. There is no dispute regarding the fact that primary emergency treatment of ballistic injuries to the face commences in accordance with the current advanced trauma life support (ATLS) recommendations; the main areas in which disputes do exist concern the question of the timing, sequence, and modes of surgical treatment. The aim of the present study is to present the treatment outcome of high-velocity/high-energy gunshot injuries to the face, using a protocol based on the experience of a single level I trauma center. A group of 23 injured combat soldiers who sustained bullet and shrapnel injuries to the maxillofacial region during a 3-week regional military conflict were evaluated in this study. Nine patients met the inclusion criteria (high-velocity/high-energy injuries) and were included in the study. According to our protocol, upon arrival patients underwent endotracheal intubation and were hemodynamically stabilized in the shock-trauma unit and underwent total-body computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction of the head and neck and computed tomography angiography. All patients underwent maxillofacial surgery upon the day of arrival according to the protocol we present. In view of our treatment outcomes, results, and low complication rates, we conclude that strict adherence to a well-founded and structured treatment protocol based on clinical experience is mandatory in providing efficient, appropriate, and successful treatment to a relatively large group of patients who sustain various degrees of maxillofacial injuries during a short period of time. PMID:23449809

  7. Treatment protocol for high velocity/high energy gunshot injuries to the face.

    PubMed

    Peled, Micha; Leiser, Yoav; Emodi, Omri; Krausz, Amir

    2012-03-01

    Major causes of facial combat injuries include blasts, high-velocity/high-energy missiles, and low-velocity missiles. High-velocity bullets fired from assault rifles encompass special ballistic properties, creating a transient cavitation space with a small entrance wound and a much larger exit wound. There is no dispute regarding the fact that primary emergency treatment of ballistic injuries to the face commences in accordance with the current advanced trauma life support (ATLS) recommendations; the main areas in which disputes do exist concern the question of the timing, sequence, and modes of surgical treatment. The aim of the present study is to present the treatment outcome of high-velocity/high-energy gunshot injuries to the face, using a protocol based on the experience of a single level I trauma center. A group of 23 injured combat soldiers who sustained bullet and shrapnel injuries to the maxillofacial region during a 3-week regional military conflict were evaluated in this study. Nine patients met the inclusion criteria (high-velocity/high-energy injuries) and were included in the study. According to our protocol, upon arrival patients underwent endotracheal intubation and were hemodynamically stabilized in the shock-trauma unit and underwent total-body computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction of the head and neck and computed tomography angiography. All patients underwent maxillofacial surgery upon the day of arrival according to the protocol we present. In view of our treatment outcomes, results, and low complication rates, we conclude that strict adherence to a well-founded and structured treatment protocol based on clinical experience is mandatory in providing efficient, appropriate, and successful treatment to a relatively large group of patients who sustain various degrees of maxillofacial injuries during a short period of time. PMID:23449809

  8. High velocity sliding at polycrystalline ductile metal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Milhans, J. L.; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of large scale 3-dimensional NonEquilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulations for Al-Al and Al-Ta interfaces for sliding velocities in the range 20-4000 m/s at pressures of 15 GPa. System sizes include 8 M, 26 M and 138 M atoms for times to 40 ns. We discuss polycrystalline samples with initial grain sizes of 13 nm and 20 nm. For velocities above a size dependent critical velocity, vc, the frictional force per unit area agrees with single crystal simulations. For velocities below vc, the polycrystalline interfaces evolve to a new steady state grain size distribution characterized by very large plastic deformation with larger grain sizes, time dependent coarsening and refinement, a graded size distribution in the direction normal to the sliding interface, and significantly larger frictional forces per unit area compared to similar single crystal sliding interfaces. We also find that for the Al-Ta interface the frictional properties are determined by the weaker Al material. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. The support of the LANL ASC-PEM program is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Feldmann, Herman F.; Paisley, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

  10. Armchair cartography - A map of the Galactic halo based on observations of local, metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Zhen, Chen

    1990-01-01

    The velocity distribution of metal-poor halo stars in the solar neighborhood is studied to extract data on the global spatial and kinematic properties of the Galactic stellar halo. A global model of the solar neighborhood stars is constructed from observed positions and three-dimensional velocity of local, metal-poor halo stars in terms of a discrete sum of orbits. The characteristics of the reconstructed halo are examined and used to study the evolution of the halo subsystems.

  11. Synthesis of highly enantioenriched 3,4-dihydroquinolin-2-ones by 6-exo-trig radical cyclizations of axially chiral α-halo-ortho-alkenyl anilides

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, David B.; Geib, Steven J.; Curran, Dennis P.

    2009-01-01

    Radical cyclizations (Bu3SnH, Et3B/air, rt) of racemic α-halo-ortho-alkenyl anilides provide 3,4-dihydroquinolin-2-ones in high yield. Cyclizations of enantioenriched precursors occur in similarly high yields and with transfer of axial chirality to the new stereocenter of the products with exceptionally high fidelity (often > 95%). Single and tandem cyclizations of α-halo-ortho-alkenyl anilides bearing an additional substituent on the α-carbon occur with high chirality transfer and high diastereoselectivity. Straightforward models are proposed to interpret both the chirality transfer and diastereoselectivity aspects. These first examples of an approach for axial chiral transfer from a reactive species in the amide to an acceptor suggest broad potential for extension both within and beyond radical reactions. PMID:19799432

  12. High Precision Measurement of Stellar Radial Velocity Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype instrument for measurement of stellar radial velocity variations to a precision of a few meters per second is discussed. The instrument will be used to study low amplitude stellar non-radial oscillations, to search for binary systems with large mass ratios, and ultimately to search for extrasolar planetary systems. The instrument uses a stable Fabry-Perot etalon, in reflection, to impose a set of fixed reference absorption lines on the stellar spectrum before it enters the coude spectrograph of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope. The spectrum is recorded on the Octicon detector, which consists of eight Reticon arrays placed end to end. Radial velocity variations of the star are detected by measuring the shift of the stellar lines with respect the artificial Fabry-Perot lines, and correcting for the known motions in the solar system.

  13. High-Velocity Jets in Recurrent Nova Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi

    2003-04-01

    Very fast bipolar mass outflows are suggested from emission-line profiles during the early stage of outbursts in the recurrent nova U Sco. The ejection velocity reaches 5000 or 6000 km s-1 at the optical peak and gradually decreases in time. Such properties have not been reproduced so far in nova theories. We propose a jet-shaped mass outflow as a mechanism of acceleration up to several thousand kilometers per second. The mass flow is accelerated where the jet is shaped, which is deep inside the region where the spherically symmetric winds would be accelerated. The terminal jet velocity depends sensitively on the white dwarf mass but weakly on other parameters.

  14. Present-day Galactic Evolution: Low-metallicity, Warm, Ionized Gas Inflow Associated with High-velocity Cloud Complex A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Duncan, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin Hα Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s-1 in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full Hα intensity map of Complex A across (\\mathit {l, b}) = (124{^\\circ }, 18{^\\circ }) to (171°, 53°) and deep targeted observations in Hα, [S II] λ6716, [N II] λ6584, and [O I] λ6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The Hα data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 106 M ⊙. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn & Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 104 K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

  15. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  16. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Schachtschneider, R.; Gebler, A.

    2013-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal. Here we present preliminary results of the data processing. From the calibration maneuvers we have been able to correct the data for most of the plane generated signal. High frequency noise, probably associated with the plane engines, has been filtered out. Along profile data are compared with the Italian aeromagnetic grid as provided by the last version of the WDMAM (World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map).

  17. ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS AS MINIHALOS AND DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Faerman, Yakov; Sternberg, Amiel; McKee, Christopher F.

    2013-11-10

    We present dark matter minihalo models for the Ultra-Compact, High-Velocity H I Clouds (UCHVCs) recently discovered in the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We assume gravitational confinement of 10{sup 4} K H I gas by flat-cored dark-matter subhalos within the Local Group. We show that for flat cores, typical (median) tidally stripped cosmological subhalos at redshift z = 0 have dark-matter masses of ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} within the central 300 pc (independent of total halo mass), consistent with the 'Strigari mass scale' observed in low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. Flat-cored subhalos also resolve the mass discrepancy between simulated and observed satellites around the Milky Way. For the UCHVCs, we calculate the photoionization-limited hydrostatic gas profiles for any distance-dependent total observed H I mass and predict the associated (projected) H I half-mass radii, assuming the clouds are embedded in distant (d ∼> 300 kpc) and unstripped subhalos. For a typical UCHVC (0.9 Jy km s{sup –1}), we predict physical H I half-mass radii of 0.18 to 0.35 kpc (or angular sizes of 0.'6 to 2.'1) for distances ranging from 300 kpc to 2 Mpc. As a consistency check, we model the gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo T, for which there is a well-resolved H I column density profile and a known distance (420 kpc). For Leo T, we find that a subhalo with M{sub 300} = 8 (± 0.2) × 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉} best fits the observed H I profile. We derive an upper limit of P{sub HIM} ∼< 150 cm{sup –3} K for the pressure of any enveloping hot intergalactic medium gas at the distance of Leo T. Our analysis suggests that some of the UCHVCs may in fact constitute a population of 21 cm-selected but optically faint dwarf galaxies in the Local Group.

  18. Kinematically Detected Halo Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Martin C.

    Clues to the origins and evolution of our Galaxy can be found in the kinematics of stars around us. Remnants of accreted satellite galaxies produce over-densities in velocity-space, which can remain coherent for much longer than spatial over-densities. This chapter reviews a number of studies that have hunted for these accretion relics, both in the nearby solar-neighborhood and the more-distant stellar halo. Many observational surveys have driven this field forwards, from early work with the Hipparcos mission, to contemporary surveys like RAVE and SDSS. This active field continues to flourish, providing many new discoveries, and will be revolutionized as the Gaia mission delivers precise proper motions for a billion stars in our Galaxy.

  19. Constraining the Cosmic Ray Electron Distribution and the Halo Dark Matter from the High Energy Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, R.; Wright, E. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present an independent estimate of the high latitude (|b|>20 deg) contribution to the E>30 MeV gamma-ray background from Galactic nucleon-nucleon, electron bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton processes. In particular, the inverse Compton contribution has been estimated for different cosmic ray electron distributions and after factoring in the anisotropy in the interstellar radiation field and the anisotropic Klein-Nishina scattering cross section. We find that the emission from the inverse Compton process when the anisotropy in the radiation field is included can be higher by up to 50% when compared to estimates that adopt an isotropic radiation field. Simulated inverse Compton maps with a cosmic ray electron distribution represented by a ``pill box'' extending up to a distance of 5 kpc above the Galactic plane provide better fits to the EGRET intensity maps suggesting that the cosmic ray halo may be larger than previously thought. Fitting for the Galactic components of gamma-ray emission confirms the existence of an isotropic component with an intensity that can be represented by the form 27.7*(E/MeV)-2.16 ph m-2 s-1 sr-1 MeV-1, in excellent agreement with previous estimates. The spectrum of the isotropic component further argues strongly in favor of unresolved gamma-ray blazars being the source of this emission. Introduction of an anisotropic component improves the quality of the fits. However, this component, which could potentially arise from the dark matter in the Galactic halo, is not well characterized by a single power law which might be associated with any single dark matter candidate. It has an intensity of about a third of the isotropic background above E > 100 MeV at the level of 3*10-2 ph m-2 s-1 sr-1. The best fit power law spectrum to this component has a photon index of -1.7. Based on the intensity and spectrum of the anisotropic component we derive upper limits of 109Msun for the mass of cold, baryonic gas within the solar circle and a primordial

  20. Theoretical analysis of the ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter for measurements of high flow velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabin, Jozef

    1987-07-01

    A geometric approach is used to analyze the ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter for measurements of flow velocities that are high but yet much smaller than the ultrasound velocity. The approach is based on the calculation of the transit time difference between the ultrasonic waves that are reflected from a moving particle at its various positions. Beam divergence is taken into account, and each path of the ultrasonic wave propagation is approximated by two rectilinear components. It is shown that the Doppler frequency shift is influenced not only by the suspended particle velocity, but also by the mean flow velocity of the fluid. This influence is of second order in the flow velocity.

  1. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOEpatents

    Halcomb, Danny L.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1990-10-16

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  2. Nucleosynthesis Modes in The High-Entropy Wind of Type II Supernovae: Comparison of Calculations With Halo-Star Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Pfeiffer, B.; Cowan, J. J.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Truran, J. W.

    2009-03-01

    While the high-entropy wind (HEW) of Type II supernovae remains one of the more promising sites for the rapid neutron-capture (r-) process, hydrodynamic simulations have yet to reproduce the astrophysical conditions under which the latter occurs. We have performed large-scale network calculations within an extended parameter range of the HEW, seeking to identify or to constrain the necessary conditions for a full reproduction of all r-process residuals N r,sun = N sun-N s,sun by comparing the results with recent astronomical observations. A superposition of weighted entropy trajectories results in an excellent reproduction of the overall N r,sun pattern beyond Sn. For the lighter elements, from the Fe group via Sr-Y-Zr to Ag, our HEW calculations indicate a transition from the need for clearly different sources (conditions/sites) to a possible co-production with r-process elements, provided a range of entropies are contributing. This explains recent halo-star observations of a clear noncorrelation of Zn and Ge and a weak correlation of Sr-Zr with heavier r-process elements. Moreover, new observational data on Ru and Pd also seem to confirm a partial correlation with Sr as well as the main r-process elements (e.g., Eu).

  3. FORMATION OF COMPACT STELLAR CLUSTERS BY HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY OUTFLOWS. III. OBSERVABILITY AND CONNECTION TO HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2011-12-01

    The early universe hosted a large population of low-mass virialized 'minihalos', that were not massive enough to form stars on their own. While most minihalos were photoevaporated by ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies, these galaxies also drove large outflows, which in some cases would have reached the minihalos in advance of ionization fronts. In the previous papers in this series, we carried out high-resolution, three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations of outflow-minihalo interactions that included non-equilibrium chemistry, radiative cooling, and turbulent mixing. We found that, for a fiducial set of parameters, minihalos were transformed into dense, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Here we conduct a suite of simulations that follow these interactions over a wide range of parameters including minihalo mass, minihalo formation redshift, outflow energy, outflow redshift, distance, concentration, and spin. In almost all cases, the shocked minihalos form molecules through non-equilibrium reactions and then cool rapidly to become compact, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Furthermore, we show that the unique properties of these clusters make them a prime target for direct study with the next generation of telescopes, and that there are many reasons to suspect that their low-redshift counterparts are the observed population of halo globular clusters.

  4. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  5. Cold dark matter. 2: Spatial and velocity statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We examine high-resolution gravitational N-body simulations of the omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) model in order to determine whether there is any normalization of the initial density fluctuation spectrum that yields acceptable results for galaxy clustering and velocities. Dense dark matter halos in the evolved mass distribution are identified with luminous galaxies; the most massive halos are also considered as sites for galaxy groups, with a range of possibilities explored for the group mass-to-light ratios. We verify the earlier conclusions of White et al. (1987) for the low-amplitude (high-bias) CDM model-the galaxy correlation function is marginally acceptable but that there are too many galaxies. We also show that the peak biasing method does not accurately reproduce the results obtained using dense halos identified in the simulations themselves. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) anisotropy implies a higher normalization, resulting in problems with excessive pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion unless a strong velocity bias is present. Although we confirm the strong velocity bias of halos reported by Couchman & Carlberg (1992), we show that the galaxy motions are still too large on small scales. We find no amplitude for which the CDM model can reconcile simultaneously and galaxy correlation function, the low pairwise velocity dispersion, and the richness distribution of groups and clusters. With the normalization implied by COBE, the CDM spectrum has too much power on small scales if omega = 1.

  6. The influence of slip velocity and temperature on permeability during and after high-velocity fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, W.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Tadai, O.; Hirose, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid transport properties in fault zones play an important role in dynamic processes during large earthquakes. If the permeability in a fault zone is low, high pore-fluid pressures caused by thermal pressurization (Sibson, 1973) or shear-induced compaction (Blanpied et al., 1992) can lead to an apparent reduction of fault strength. Changes in porosity and permeability of fault rocks within a fault zone during earthquakes and the subsequent progressive recovery of these properties may have a large influence on earthquake recurrence (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). A rotary shear apparatus was used to investigate changes of fluid transport properties in a fault zone by real-time measurement of gas flow rates during and after shearing of hollow sandstone and granite cylinders at various slip rates. Our apparatus measures permeability parallel to the slip plane in both the slip zone and wall rocks. In all cases, permeability decreased rapidly with an increase of friction, but recovered soon after slip, reaching a steady state within several tens of minutes. The rate of reduction of permeability increased with increasing slip velocity. Permeability did not recover to pre-slip levels after low-velocity tests but recovered to exceed them after high-velocity tests. Frictional heating of gases at the slip surface increased gas viscosity, which increased gas flow rate to produce an apparent permeability increase. The irreversible permeability changes of the low-velocity tests were caused by gouge formation due to wearing and smoothing of the slip surface. The increase of permeability after high-velocity tests was caused by mesoscale fracturing in response to rapid temperature rise. Changes of pore fluid viscosity contributed more to changes of flow rate than did permeability changes caused by shear deformation, although test results from different rocks and pore fluids might be different. References Blanpied, M.L., Lockner, D.A., Byerlee, J.D., 1992. An earthquake mechanism

  7. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    stars. A maximum of 0.4 dex depletion is set by the observed dispersion and 6Li/7Li depletion ratio, and a minimum of 0.2 dex depletion is required by both the presence of highly overdepleted halo stars and consistency with the solar and open cluster 7Li data. The cosmological implications of these bounds on the primordial abundance of 7Li are discussed. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  8. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  9. A Comprehensive Archival Search for Counterparts to Ultra-compact High-Velocity Clouds: Five Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, D. J.; Crnojević, D.; Bennet, P.; Willman, B.; Hargis, J.; Strader, J.; Olszewski, E.; Tollerud, E. J.; Simon, J. D.; Caldwell, N.; Guhathakurta, P.; James, B. L.; Koposov, S.; McLeod, B.; Morrell, N.; Peacock, M.; Salinas, R.; Seth, A. C.; Stark, D. P.; Toloba, E.

    2015-06-01

    We report five Local Volume dwarf galaxies (two of which are presented here for the first time) uncovered during a comprehensive archival search for optical counterparts to ultra-compact high-velocity clouds (UCHVCs). The UCHVC population of HI clouds are thought to be candidate gas-rich, low-mass halos at the edge of the Local Group and beyond, but no comprehensive search for stellar counterparts to these systems has been presented. Careful visual inspection of all publicly available optical and ultraviolet imaging at the position of the UCHVCs revealed six blue, diffuse counterparts with a morphology consistent with a faint dwarf galaxy beyond the Local Group. Optical spectroscopy of all six candidate dwarf counterparts show that five have an Hα-derived velocity consistent with the coincident HI cloud, confirming their association; the sixth diffuse counterpart is likely a background object. The size and luminosity of the UCHVC dwarfs is consistent with other known Local Volume dwarf irregular galaxies. The gas fraction ({{M}HI}/{{M}star}) of the five dwarfs are generally consistent with that of dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Volume, although ALFALFA-Dw1 (associated with ALFALFA UCHVC HVC274.68+74.70-123) has a very high {{M}HI}/{{M}star} ˜ 40. Despite the heterogenous nature of our search, we demonstrate that the current dwarf companions to UCHVCs are at the edge of detectability due to their low surface brightness, and that deeper searches are likely to find more stellar systems. If more sensitive searches do not reveal further stellar counterparts to UCHVCs, then the dearth of such systems around the Local Group may be in conflict with ΛCDM simulations.

  10. A Comprehensive Archival Search for Counterparts to Ultra-Compact High Velocity Clouds: Five Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojevic, Denija; Sand, David J.

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of five Local Volume dwarf galaxies uncovered during a comprehensive archival search for optical counterparts to ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs). The UCHVC population of HI clouds are thought to be candidate gas-rich, low mass halos at the edge of the Local Group and beyond, but no comprehensive search for stellar counterparts to these systems has been presented. Careful visual inspection of all publicly available optical and ultraviolet imaging at the position of the UCHVCs revealed six blue, diffuse counterparts with a morphology consistent with a faint dwarf galaxy beyond the Local Group. Optical spectroscopy of all six candidate dwarf counterparts show that five have an Halpha-derived velocity consistent with the coincident HI cloud, confirming their association; the sixth diffuse counterpart is likely a background object. The size and luminosity of the UCHVC dwarfs is consistent with other known Local Volume dwarf irregular galaxies. The gas fraction (M_HI/M_star) of the five dwarfs are generally consistent with that of dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Volume, although ALFALFA-Dw1 (associated with ALFALFA UCHVC HVC274.68+74.70-123) has a very high M_HI/M_star~40. Despite the heterogenous nature of our search, we demonstrate that the current dwarf companions to UCHVCs are at the edge of detectability due to their low surface brightness, and that deeper searches are likely to find more stellar systems. If more sensitive searches do not reveal further stellar counterparts to UCHVCs, then the dearth of such systems around the Local Group may be in conflict with LambdaCDM simulations.

  11. "Invisible" Galactic Halos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugt, Karel Vander

    1993-01-01

    Develops a simple core-halo model of a galaxy that exhibits the main features of observed rotation curves and quantitatively illustrates the need to postulate halos of dark matter. Uses only elementary mechanics. (Author/MVL)

  12. The kinematics of globular clusters systems in the outer halos of the Aquarius simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veljanoski, J.; Helmi, A.

    2016-07-01

    Stellar halos and globular cluster (GC) systems contain valuable information regarding the assembly history of their host galaxies. Motivated by the detection of a significant rotation signal in the outer halo GC system of M 31, we investigate the likelihood of detecting such a rotation signal in projection, using cosmological simulations. To this end we select subsets of tagged particles in the halos of the Aquarius simulations to represent mock GC systems, and analyse their kinematics. We find that GC systems can exhibit a non-negligible rotation signal provided the associated stellar halo also has a net angular momentum. The ability to detect this rotation signal is highly dependent on the viewing perspective, and the probability of seeing a signal larger than that measured in M 31 ranges from 10% to 90% for the different halos in the Aquarius suite. High values are found from a perspective such that the projected angular momentum of the GC system is within ≲40 deg of the rotation axis determined via the projected positions and line-of-sight velocities of the GCs. Furthermore, the true 3D angular momentum of the outer stellar halo is relatively well aligned, within 35 deg, with that of the mock GC systems. We argue that the net angular momentum in the mock GC systems arises naturally when the majority of the material is accreted from a preferred direction, namely along the dominant dark matter filament of the large-scale structure that the halos are embedded in. This, together with the favourable edge-on view of M 31's disk suggests that it is not a coincidence that a large rotation signal has been measured for its outer halo GC system.

  13. Evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites in the Common Surface-density Dark Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Yusuke; Chiba, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the growth histories of dark matter halos associated with dwarf satellites in Local Group galaxies and the resultant evolution of the baryonic component. Our model is based on the recently proposed property that the mean surface density of a dark halo inside a radius at maximum circular velocity {V}{{\\max }} is universal over a large range of {V}{{\\max }}. Given that a surface density of 20 M ⊙ pc‑2 well explains dwarf satellites in the Milky Way and Andromeda, we find that the evolution of the dark halo in this common surface-density scale is characterized by the rapid increase of the halo mass assembled by the redshift {z}{{TT}} of the tidal truncation by its host halo, at early epochs of {z}{{TT}}≳ 6 or {V}{{\\max }}≲ 22 km s‑1. This mass growth of the halo is slow at lower {z}{{TT}} or larger {V}{{\\max }}. Taking into account the baryon content in this dark halo evolution, under the influence of the ionizing background radiation, we find that the dwarf satellites are divided into roughly two families: those with {V}{{\\max }}≲ 22 km s‑1 having high star formation efficiency and those with larger {V}{{\\max }} having less efficient star formation. This semianalytical model is in agreement with the high-resolution numerical simulation for galaxy formation and with the observed star formation histories for Fornax and Leo II. This suggests that the evolution of a dark halo may play a key role in understanding star formation histories in dwarf satellites.

  14. Detection of a second high-velocity component in the highly ionized wind from PG 1211+143

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pounds, Ken; Lobban, Andrew; Reeves, James; Vaughan, Simon

    2016-04-01

    An extended XMM-Newton observation of the luminous narrow line Seyfert galaxy PG1211+143 in 2014 has revealed a more complex highly ionized, high-velocity outflow. The detection of previously unresolved spectral structure in Fe K absorption finds a second outflow velocity component of the highly ionized wind, with an outflow velocity of v ˜ 0.066 ± 0.003c, in addition to a still higher velocity outflow of v ˜ 0.129 ± 0.002c consistent with that first seen in 2001. We note that chaotic accretion, consisting of many prograde and retrograde events, offers an intriguing explanation of the dual velocity wind. In that context the persisting outflow velocities could relate to physically distinct orientations of the inner accretion flow, with prograde accretion yielding a higher launch velocity than retrograde accretion in a ratio close to that observed.

  15. The Formation and Evolution of Stripped Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jessica; Tuan, Austin Zong; Lee, Christoph; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    We implement a model to describe the density profiles of stripped dark matter halos. Our model generalizes the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) distribution to allow for more flexibility in the slope of the outer halo. We find that the density distributions of stripped halos tend to have outer slopes steeper than assumed by the NFW distribution. We also examine the relationship between severity of stripping and halo shape, spin parameter and concentration, and find that highly stripped halos are more spheroidal, have lower spin parameters, and have higher concentrations compared to less stripped halos.

  16. ARE HIGH VELOCITY PEAKS IN THE MILKY WAY BULGE DUE TO THE BAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Shen, Juntai; Rich, R. Michael; Kunder, Andrea; Mao, Shude

    2014-04-10

    Recently the commissioning APOGEE observations of the Galactic bulge reported that a significant fraction of stars (∼10%) are in a cold (σ{sub V} ≈ 30 km s{sup –1}) high velocity peak (Galactocentric radial velocity ≈200 km s{sup –1}). These stars are speculated to reflect the stellar orbits in the Galactic bar. In this study, we use two N-body models of a Milky Way-like disk galaxy with different bar strengths to critically examine this possibility. The general trends of the Galactocentric radial velocity distribution in observations and simulations are similar, but neither our models nor the BRAVA data reveal a statistically significant cold high velocity peak. A Monte Carlo test further suggests that it is possible for a spurious high velocity peak to appear if there are only a limited number of stars observed. Thus, the reported cold high velocity peak, even if it is real, is unlikely due to stars on the bar-supporting orbits. Our models do predict an excess of stars with high radial velocity, but not in a distinct peak. In the distance-velocity diagram, the high velocity particles in different fields exist at a similar distance ∼8.5 ± 1 kpc away from the Sun. This result may be explained by geometric intersections between the line-of-sight and the particle orbits; high velocity stars naturally exist approximately at the tangent point, without constituting a distinct peak. We further demonstrate that even without the presence of a bar structure, particle motions in an axisymmetric disk can also exhibit an excess of high velocity stars.

  17. Extremely high energy hadron and gamma-ray families(3). Core structure of the halo of superfamily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamashita, S.; Ohsawa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Shibuya, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the core structure seen in the halo of Mini-Andromeda 3(M.A.3), which was observed in the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber, is presented. On the assumption that lateral distribution of darkness of the core is exponential type, i.e., D=D0exp(-R/r0), subtraction of D from halo darkness is performed until the cores are gone. The same quantity on cores obtained by this way are summarized. The analysis is preliminary and is going to be developed.

  18. Bolometric luminosities and colors for K and M dwarfs and the subluminous stars of the halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, Jesse L.

    1989-09-01

    The H-R diagrams of dM, sdK, and sdM proper-motion stars are examined. A method for integrating energy distributions using discrete weights is proposed. The bolometric corrections are assessed at various wavelengths and a method for obtaining luminosities even if a star lacks IR data is presented. The color-luminosity diagrams suggest that high-velocity, low-metallicity stars of the halo are subluminous. It is found that the apparent cutoff in the halo is a bolometric magnitude of about 12 m.

  19. The local density of halo giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Heather L.

    1993-01-01

    A new estimate of the local density of halo giants - 36 +/- 7 with M(V) less than 0.5 per cu kpc - is presented. This number is derived from an objective-prism survey for nearby metal-weak stars, and so is free from many of the assumptions needed to derive the local halo density in the traditional way, from high proper motion surveys. This number agrees well with estimates of the local density of halo horizontal-branch stars, but is approximately a factor of 2 smaller than the density derived by Bahcall and Casertano (1986). This may be due to the inclusion of some thick disk stars in their proper-motion selected sample. The halo density derived from giants can be expressed as a disk-to-halo ratio of 850:1 (+/- 35 percent). Using these results, a simple model is built to predict numbers of halo giants in specified directions in the Galaxy. It is shown that it performs much better than the Bahcall-Soniera model, in the specific case of halo giants. The surface brightness due to the halo at the solar radius is calculated to be 27.7 V magnitudes per sq arcsec, if the Galaxy was viewed from the outside, edge-on, thus raising the possibility of detecting light from halo field stars in other galaxies similar to our own.

  20. PAHs in the halo of NGC 5529

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, J. A.; Kennedy, H.; Parkin, T.; Madden, S.

    2007-11-01

    We present sensitive ISO λ 6.7~μm observations of the edge-on galaxy, NGC 5529, finding an extensive MIR halo around NGC 5529. The emission is dominated by PAHs in this band. The PAH halo has an exponential scale height of 3.7 kpc but can still be detected as far as ≈10 kpc from the plane to the limits of the high dynamic range (1770/1) data. This is the most extensive PAH halo yet detected in a normal galaxy. This halo shows substructure and the PAHs likely originate from some type of disk outflow. PAHs are long-lived in a halo environment and therefore continuous replenishment from the disk is not required (unless halo PAHs are also being destroyed or removed), consistent with the current low SFR of the galaxy. The PAHs correlate spatially with halo Hα emission, previously observed by Miller & Veilleux (2003, ApJS, 148, 383); both components are likely excited/ionized by in-disk photons that are leaking into the halo. The presence of halo gas may be related to the environment of NGC 5529 which contains at least 17 galaxies in a small group of which NGC 5529 is the dominant member. Of these, we have identified two new companions from the SDSS.

  1. HALOGEN: Approximate synthetic halo catalog generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila Perez, Santiago; Murray, Steven

    2015-05-01

    HALOGEN generates approximate synthetic halo catalogs. Written in C, it decomposes the problem of generating cosmological tracer distributions (eg. halos) into four steps: generating an approximate density field, generating the required number of tracers from a CDF over mass, placing the tracers on field particles according to a bias scheme dependent on local density, and assigning velocities to the tracers based on velocities of local particles. It also implements a default set of four models for these steps. HALOGEN uses 2LPTic (ascl:1201.005) and CUTE (ascl:1505.016); the software is flexible and can be adapted to varying cosmologies and simulation specifications.

  2. Adiabatic Halo Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzani, A.; Turchetti, G.; Benedetti, C.; Rambaldi, S.; Servizi, G.

    2005-06-08

    In a high intensity circular accelerator the synchrotron dynamics introduces a slow modulation in the betatronic tune due to the space-charge tune depression. When the transverse motion is non-linear due to the presence of multipolar effects, resonance islands move in the phase space and change their amplitude. This effect introduces the trapping and detrapping phenomenon and a slow diffusion in the phase space. We apply the neo-adiabatic theory to describe this diffusion mechanism that can contribute to halo formation.

  3. The Black Hole-Dark Matter Halo Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Bassem M.; Saliba, Charbel; Abi Akl, Maya; Chahine, Gilbert

    2015-04-01

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass-bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe.

  4. The GHOSTS survey - II. The diversity of halo colour and metallicity profiles of massive disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Bailin, Jeremy; de Jong, Roelof S.; Holwerda, Benne; Streich, David; Silverstein, Grace

    2016-04-01

    We study the stellar halo colour properties of six nearby massive highly inclined disc galaxies using Hubble space telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 observations in both F606W and F814W filters from the GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks, and Star clusters) survey. The observed fields probe the stellar outskirts out to projected distances of ˜50-70 kpc from their galactic centre along the minor axis. The 50 per cent completeness levels of the colour-magnitude diagrams are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). We find that all galaxies have extended stellar haloes out to ˜50 kpc and two out to ˜70 kpc. We determined the halo colour distribution and colour profile for each galaxy using the median colours of stars in the RGB. Within each galaxy, we find variations in the median colours as a function of radius which likely indicates population variations, reflecting that their outskirts were built from several small accreted objects. We find that half of the galaxies (NGC 0891, NGC 4565, and NGC 7814) present a clear negative colour gradient in their haloes, reflecting a declining metallicity; the other have no significant colour or population gradient. In addition, notwithstanding the modest sample size of galaxies, there is no strong correlation between their halo colour/metallicity or gradient with galaxy's properties such as rotational velocity or stellar mass. The diversity in halo colour profiles observed in the GHOSTS galaxies qualitatively supports the predicted galaxy-to-galaxy scatter in halo stellar properties, a consequence of the stochasticity inherent in the assembling history of galaxies.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SEGUE K giant survey. III. Galactic halo (Janesh+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, W.; Morrison, H. L.; Ma, Z.; Rockosi, C.; Starkenburg, E.; Xue, X. X.; Rix, H.-W.; Harding, P.; Beers, T. C.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y. S.; Schneider, D. P.

    2016-03-01

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5-125kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) project. Using a position-velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (~33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity. (2 data files).

  6. Ultrafine particle size distribution during high velocity impact of high density metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Bonora, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    In the event of high-energy penetrator impact, people involved in battlefield scenarios are exposed to the additional hazard stemming from ultrafine metallic particles, i.e. exposure, inhalation, and respiration of aerolized metals. In order to have reliable quantitative measurement of the aerosol particles generated under controlled impact conditions, an experimental set-up was designed to perform impact tests with light gas-gun in chamber. During the impact events, aerosol particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured with a one-second time resolution. In this study preliminary results relative to high purity copper projectile impact at different velocities are presented.

  7. Hohlraum Designs for High Velocity Implosions on NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N B; Hicks, D G; Callahan, D A; Olson, R E; Schneider, M S; Thomas, C A; Robey, H F; Celliers, P M; Kline, J K; Dixit, S N; Michel, P A; Jones, O S; Clark, D S; Ralph, J E; Doeppner, T; MacKinnon, A J; Haan, S W; Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Edwards, M J; Macgowan, B J; Lindl, J D; Atherton, L J

    2011-10-19

    In this paper, we compare experimental shock and capsule trajectories to design calculations using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA. The measured trajectories from surrogate ignition targets are consistent with reducing the x-ray flux on the capsule by about 85%. A new method of extracting the radiation temperature as seen by the capsule from x-ray intensity and image data shows that about half of the apparent 15% flux deficit in the data with respect to the simulations can be explained by HYDRA overestimating the x-ray flux on the capsule. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) point-design target is designed to reach a peak fuel-layer velocity of 370 km/s by ablating 90% of its plastic (CH) ablator. The 192-beam National Ignition Facility laser drives a gold hohlraum to a radiation temperature (T{sub RAD}) of 300 eV with a 20 ns-long, 420 TW, 1.3 MJ laser pulse. The hohlraum x-rays couple to the CH ablator in order to apply the required pressure to the outside of the capsule. In this paper, we compare experimental measurements of the hohlraum T{sub RAD} and the implosion trajectory with design calculations using the code hydra. The measured radial positions of the leading shock wave and the unablated shell are consistent with simulations in which the x-ray flux on the capsule is artificially reduced by 85%. We describe a new method of inferring the T{sub RAD} seen by the capsule from time-dependent x-ray intensity data and static x-ray images. This analysis shows that hydra overestimates the x-ray flux incident on the capsule by {approx}8%.

  8. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  9. STEALTH GALAXIES IN THE HALO OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, James S.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tollerud, Erik J.; Wolf, Joe

    2010-07-10

    We predict that there is a population of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies orbiting within the halo of the Milky Way (MW) that have surface brightnesses low enough to have escaped detection in star-count surveys. The overall count of stealth galaxies is sensitive to the presence (or lack) of a low-mass threshold in galaxy formation. These systems have luminosities and stellar velocity dispersions that are similar to those of known ultrafaint dwarf galaxies but they have more extended stellar distributions (half-light radii greater than about 100 pc) because they inhabit dark subhalos that are slightly less massive than their higher surface brightness counterparts. As a result, the typical peak surface brightness is fainter than 30 mag arcsec{sup -2}. One implication is that the inferred common mass scale for MW dwarfs may be an artifact of selection bias. If there is no sharp threshold in galaxy formation at low halo mass, then ultrafaint galaxies like Segue 1 represent the high-mass, early-forming tail of a much larger population of objects that could number in the hundreds and have typical peak circular velocities of about 8 km s{sup -1} and masses within 300 pc of about 5 million solar masses. Alternatively, if we impose a low-mass threshold in galaxy formation in order to explain the unexpectedly high densities of the ultrafaint dwarfs, then we expect only a handful of stealth galaxies in the halo of the MW. A complete census of these objects will require deeper sky surveys, 30 m class follow-up telescopes, and more refined methods to identify extended, self-bound groupings of stars in the halo.

  10. Haloes seen in UVIS reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Bradley, E. T.; Colwell, J. E.; Sremcevic, M.

    2012-12-01

    UVIS SOI reflectance spectra show bright 'haloes' around the locations of some of the strongest resonances in Saturn's A ring (Esposito etal 2005). UV spectra constrain the size and composition of the icy ring particles (Bradley etal 2010, 2012). We investigate the Janus 4:3, 5:3, 6:5 and Mimas 5:3 inner Lindblad resonances as well as at the Mimas 5:3 vertical resonance (bending wave location). Models of ring particle regolith evolution (Elliott and Esposito 2010) indicate the deeper regolith is made of older and purer ice. The strong resonances can cause streamline crowding (Lewis and Stewart 2005) which damps the interparticle velocity, allowing temporary clumps to grow, which in turn increase the velocity, eroding the clumps and releasing smaller particles and regolith (see the predator-prey model of Esposito etal 2012). This cyclic behavior, driven by the resonant perturbation from the moon, can yield collision velocities at particular azimuths greater than 1m/sec, sufficient to erode the aggregates (Blum 2006), exposing older, purer materials. Thus, the radial location of the strongest resonances can be where we find both large aggregates and disrupted fragments, in a balance maintained by the periodic moon forcing. If this stirring exposes older, and purer ice, the velocity threshold for eroding the aggregates can explain why only the strongest Lindblad resonances show haloes. Diffusion can explain the morphology of these haloes, although they are not well-resolved spatially by UVIS. Spectra determine the relative contributions of particle size and purity at these locations, for comparison to estimates from the regolith evolution models.

  11. High spatial range velocity measurements in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, C. M.; Gnanamanickam, E. P.; Atkinson, C.; Buchmann, N. A.; Hutchins, N.; Soria, J.; Marusic, I.

    2014-02-01

    Here, we detail and analyse a multi-resolution particle image velocity measurement that resolves the wide range of scales prevalent in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers (up to Reτ ≈ 20 000). A unique configuration is utilised, where an array of eight high resolution cameras at two magnification levels are used simultaneously to obtain a large field of view, while still resolving the smaller scales prevalent in the flow. Additionally, a highly magnified field of view targeted at the near wall region is employed to capture the viscous sublayer and logarithmic region, with a spatial resolution of a few viscous length scales. Flow statistics from these measurements show good agreement with prior, well resolved hot-wire anemometry measurements. Analysis shows that the instantaneous wall shear stress can be reliably computed, which is historically known to be challenging in boundary layers. A statistical assessment of the wall shear stress shows good agreement with existing correlations, prior experimental and direct numerical simulation data, extending this view to much higher Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, conditional analysis using multiple magnification levels is detailed, to study near-wall events associated with high skin friction fluctuations and their associated overlaying structures in the log region. Results definitively show that the passage of very large-scale positive (or negative) velocity fluctuations are associated with increased (or reduced) small-scale variance in wall shear stress fluctuations.

  12. High-velocity, high-excitation neutral carbon in a cloud in the Vela supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Edward B.; Wallerstein, George

    1995-01-01

    HD 72089 is situated behind the Vela supernova remnant, and the interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of this star are remarkable for two reasons. First, there are six distinct velocity components that span the (heliocentric) velocity range -60 to +121 km/s in the lines of Na I and Ca II. Second, two of the components at high velocity, one at +85 km/s and another at +121.5 km/s, have densities that are large enough to produce observable lines from neutral carbon. The gas moving at +121.5 km/s has such a large pressure that the excited fine-structure levels of the ground electronic state of C I are collisionally populated nearly in proportion to their level degeneracies. This high-velocity gas exhibits unusually low column densities of Mg I and Na I, compared to that of C I. We propose that the +121.5 km/s component represents gas that has cooled and recombined in a zone that follows a shock driven into a cloud by the very recent passage of a supernova blast wave. A representative preshock density of n(sub H) approximately = 13/cc and velocity v(sub s) = 100 km/s is indicated by the strength of diffuse (O III) emission lines seen in directions very near HD 72089. The strong collisional population of excited C I and apparent absence of excited levels of O I give a most favorable fit to the conditions 1000 less than n(sub H) less than 2900/cc over a temperature range 300 less than T less than 1000 K. The fact that the compression is not substantially more than this indicates that the preshock gas may have had an embedded, transverse magnetic field with a strength B greater than or approximately = 1 micro-G. The large dynamical pressure of the supernova blast wave that would be needed to create the cloud shock that we describe implies that the energy of the supernova was 8 x 10(exp 51) ergs, if the Vela remnant is 500 pc away. We can bring this value much closer to typical supernova energies E less than or approximately = 10(exp 51) ergs if the distance to the

  13. The scale-dependence of halo assembly bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Tomomi; Hearin, Andrew P.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Leauthaud, Alexie

    2016-05-01

    The two-point clustering of dark matter haloes is influenced by halo properties besides mass, a phenomenon referred to as halo assembly bias. Using the depth of the gravitational potential well, Vmax, as our secondary halo property, in this paper, we present the first study of the scale-dependence of assembly bias. In the large-scale linear regime, r ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc, our findings are in keeping with previous results. In particular, at the low-mass end (haloes with high Vmax show stronger large-scale clustering relative to haloes with low Vmax of the same mass; this trend weakens and reverses for Mvir ≳ Mcoll. In the non-linear regime, assembly bias in low-mass haloes exhibits a pronounced scale-dependent `bump' at 500 kpc h-1-5 Mpc h-1. This feature weakens and eventually vanishes for haloes of higher mass. We show that this scale-dependent signature can primarily be attributed to a special subpopulation of ejected haloes, defined as present-day host haloes that were previously members of a higher mass halo at some point in their past history. A corollary of our results is that galaxy clustering on scales of r ˜ 1-2 Mpc h-1 can be impacted by up to ˜15 per cent by the choice of the halo property used in the halo model, even for stellar mass-limited samples.

  14. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES

    DOEpatents

    Scott, F.R.; Josephson, V.

    1960-02-01

    >A device for producing a high-energy ionized gas region comprises an evacuated tapered insulating vessel and a substantially hemispherical insulating cap hermetically affixed to the large end of the vessel, an annular electrode having a diameter equal to and supported in the interior wall of the vessel at the large end and having a conductive portion inside the vessel, a second electrode supported at the small end of the vessel, means connected to the vessel for introducing a selected gas therein, a source of high potential having two poles. means for connecting one pole of the high potential source to the annular electrode, and means for connecting the other pole of the potential source to the second electrode.

  15. Globular Cluster Orbits from HST Proper Motions: Constraining the Formation and Mass of the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. Tony; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Deason, Alis J.; Bellini, Andrea; Besla, Gurtina; Watkins, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The globular cluster (GC) system of the Milky Way (MW) provides important information on the MW's present structure and past evolution. GCs in the halo are particularly useful tracers; because of their long dynamical timescales, their orbits retain imprints of their origin or accretion history. Full 3D motions are required to calculate past orbits. While most GCs have known line of sight velocities, accurate proper motion (PM) measurements are currently available for only a few halo GCs. Our goal is to create the first high-quality PM database for halo GCs. We have identified suitable 1st-epoch data in the HST Archive for 20 halo GCs at 10-100 kpc from the Galactic Center. We are in the process of obtaining the necessary 2nd-epoch data to determine absolute PMs of the target GCs through our HST program GO-14235. We will use the same advanced astrometric techniques that allowed us to measure the PMs of M31 and Leo I. Previous studies of the halo GC system based on e.g., stellar populations, metallicities, RR Lyrae properties, and structural properties have revealed a dichotomy between old and young halo GCs. This may reflect distinct formation scenarios (in situ vs. accreted). Orbit calculations based on our PMs will directly test this. The PMs will also yield the best handle yet on the velocity anisotropy profile of any tracer population in the halo. This will resolve the mass-anisotropy degeneracy to provide an improved estimate of the MW mass, which is at present poorly known. In summary, our project will deliver the first accurate PMs for halo GCs, and will significantly increase our understanding of the formation, evolution, and mass of the MW.

  16. Jupiter's Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow.

    A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended, toroidal 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces which can push small grains out of the ring plane. Halo material is present across this entire image, implying that it reaches more than 27,000 km above the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. In order to accentuate faint features in the image, different brightnesses are shown through color, with the brightest

  17. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  18. Thin Shell, High Velocity, High-Foot ICF Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doeppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Macphee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.

    2014-10-01

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing ICF capsule ablators that are 175 μm in thickness, 10% thinner than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the High-Foot and most of the National Ignition Campaigns. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Early results have shown good repeatability, with little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot-spot, and >1/2 the yield coming from α-particle self-heating. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. The Diagnostic Value of Halo and Reversed Halo Signs for Invasive Mold Infections in Compromised Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadou, Sarah P.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Marom, Edith M.

    2011-01-01

    The halo sign is a CT finding of ground-glass opacity surrounding a pulmonary nodule or mass. The reversed halo sign is a focal rounded area of ground-glass opacity surrounded by a crescent or complete ring of consolidation. In severely immunocompromised patients, these signs are highly suggestive of early infection by an angioinvasive fungus. The halo sign and reversed halo sign are most commonly associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and pulmonary mucormycosis, respectively. Many other infections and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic and inflammatory processes, may also manifest with pulmonary nodules associated with either sign. Although nonspecific, both signs can be useful for preemptive initiation of antifungal therapy in the appropriate clinical setting. This review aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of the halo sign and reversed halo sign in immunocompromised hosts and describes the wide spectrum of diseases associated with them. PMID:21467021

  20. Ultra Low Velocity Zone existence in the high shear velocity region beneath Cocos Plate, Central America, and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Garnero, E.; Shim, S. H. D.; Zhao, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lowermost mantle beneath subduction is typically characterized by higher than average shear wave speeds, often with the presence of one or more D" discontinuities. These regions are considered the cooler parts of the convective cycle, in contrast to warmer zones of convective return flow, namely, the vicinity of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). Ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) have been long characterized as related to elevated temperature (and/or chemistry) of LLSVP regions. However, some past work has suggested evidence for ULVZ in the presumed cooler regions. In this study we investigate the region beneath the Cocos Plate, Central America, and the Carribbean for ULVZ using high quality broadband Transportable Array data from EarthScope's USArray for the presence of ULVZs. We utilize an ScS-stripping technique that combines a precursor and postcursor to ScS that arise from ULVZ structure, if present. The precursor is a reflection off the top of the ULVZ, while the postcursor is a core-reflection with an added reverberation between the ULVZ top and the core-mantle boundary (CMB). We collected data from deep South American earthquakes recorded in North America and stack data in geographic bins. We find clear evidence for a ULVZ beneath the Gulf of Mexico, but the rest of the study area appears to lack any significant structure. The structure we find is of the order of 100 km wide. The ULVZ properties will be constrained by comparison to predictions from synthetic seismograms. We explore hypotheses for the origin of a ULVZ in a high shear velocity region. These include mineralogical heterogeneities that convective currents have collected; notable possibilities are accumulated melts from subducted materials, such as ocean crust basalts and banded-iron formation. If water can be transported by subducted slabs to the deep mantle, it can significantly decrease the melting temperature of mantle materials and cause such anomalies. A ULVZ a relatively cold

  1. Halo Orbit Mission Correction Maneuvers Using Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, M.; Serban, R.; Petzold, L.; Koon, W.; Ross, S.; Marsden, J.; Wilson, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of the required trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM) for a halo orbit space mission to compensate for the launch velocity errors introduced by inaccuracies of the launch vehicle.

  2. Modelling galaxy clustering: halo occupation distribution versus subhalo matching

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Behroozi, Peter S.; Zehavi, Idit; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Favole, Ginevra; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Weinberg, David H.; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We model the luminosity-dependent projected and redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 Main galaxy sample, using the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model and the subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) model and its extension. All the models are built on the same high-resolution N-body simulations. We find that the HOD model generally provides the best performance in reproducing the clustering measurements in both projected and redshift spaces. The SHAM model with the same halo–galaxy relation for central and satellite galaxies (or distinct haloes and subhaloes), when including scatters, has a best-fitting χ2/dof around 2–3. We therefore extend the SHAM model to the subhalo clustering and abundance matching (SCAM) by allowing the central and satellite galaxies to have different galaxy–halo relations. We infer the corresponding halo/subhalo parameters by jointly fitting the galaxy 2PCFs and abundances and consider subhaloes selected based on three properties, the mass Macc at the time of accretion, the maximum circular velocity Vacc at the time of accretion, and the peak maximum circular velocity Vpeak over the history of the subhaloes. The three subhalo models work well for luminous galaxy samples (with luminosity above L*). For low-luminosity samples, the Vacc model stands out in reproducing the data, with the Vpeak model slightly worse, while the Macc model fails to fit the data. We discuss the implications of the modelling results. PMID:27279784

  3. The doubloon models of dark haloes and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.; An, J.; Bowden, A.; Williams, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    A family of spherical halo models with flat circular velocity curves is presented. This includes models in which the rotation curve has a finite central value but declines outwards (like the Jaffe model). It includes models in which the rotation curve is rising in the inner parts, but flattens asymptotically (like the Binney model). The family encompasses models with both finite and singular (cuspy) density profiles. The self-consistent distribution function depending on binding energy E and angular momentum L is derived and the kinematical properties of the models discussed. These really describe the properties of the total matter (both luminous and dark). For comparison with observations, it is better to consider tracer populations of stars. These can be used to represent elliptical galaxies or the spheroidal components of spiral galaxies. Accordingly, we study the properties of tracers with power-law or Einasto profiles moving in the doubloon potential. Under the assumption of spherical alignment, we provide a simple way to solve the Jeans equations for the velocity dispersions. This choice of alignment is supported by observations on the stellar halo of the Milky Way. Power-law tracers have prolate spheroidal velocity ellipsoids everywhere. However, this is not the case for Einasto tracers, for which the velocity ellipsoids change from prolate to oblate spheroidal near the pole. Asymptotic forms of the velocity distributions close to the escape speed are also derived, with an eye to application to the high-velocity stars in the Milky Way. Power-law tracers have power-law or Maxwellian velocity distributions tails, whereas Einasto tracers have superexponential cut-offs.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Sound Velocity in High-Strength Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Ryuji; Yoneyama, Keiichi; Ogasawara, Futoshi; Ueno, Masashi; Okuda, Yuichi; Yamanaka, Atsuhiko

    2003-08-01

    Longitudinal sound velocity in unidirectional hybrid composites or high-strength fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) was measured along the fiber axis over a wide temperature range (from 77 K to 420 K). We investigated two kinds of high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which are known to have negative thermal expansion coefficients and high thermal conductivities along the fiber axis. Both FRPs had very high sound velocities of about 9000 m/s at low temperatures and their temperature dependences were very strong. Sound velocity monotonically decreased with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of sound velocity was much stronger in Dyneema-FRP than in Zylon-FRP.

  5. Search for the Galactic Disk and Halo Components in the Arrival Directions of High-Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitsky, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The arrival directions of 40 neutrino events with energies ≳100 TeV, observed by the IceCube experiment, are studied. Their distribution in the Galactic latitude and in the angular distance to the Galactic Center allow searching for the Milky-Way disk and halo-related components, respectively. No statistically significant evidence for the disk component is found, though even 100% disk origin of the flux is allowed at the 90% confidence level. Contrary, the Galactic Center-Anticenter dipole anisotropy, specific for dark-matter decays (annihilation) or for interactions of cosmic rays with the extended halo of the circumgalactic gas, is clearly favored over the isotropic distribution (the probability of fluctuation of the isotropic signal is ~2%).

  6. Gas-rich and gas-poor structures through the stream velocity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina; Naoz, Smadar; Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Using adiabatic high-resolution numerical simulations, we quantify the effect of the streaming motion of baryons with respect to dark matter at the time of recombination on structure formation and evolution. Formally a second-order effect, the baryonic stream velocity has proven to have significant impact on dark matter halo abundance, as well as on the gas content and morphology of small galaxy clusters. In this work, we study the impact of stream velocity on the formation and gas content of haloes with masses up to 109 M⊙, an order of magnitude larger than previous studies. We find that the non-zero stream velocity has a sizable impact on the number density of haloes with masses ≲ few × 107 M⊙ up to z = 10, the final redshift of our simulations. Furthermore, the gas stream velocity induces a suppression of the gas fraction in haloes, which at z = 10 is ˜10 per cent for objects with M ˜ 107 M⊙, as well as a flattening of the gas density profiles in the inner regions of haloes. We further identify and study the formation, in the context of a non-zero stream velocity, of moderately long lived gas-dominated structures at intermediate redshifts 10 < z < 20, which Naoz and Narayan have recently proposed as potential progenitors of globular clusters.

  7. Gas-rich and gas poor structures through the stream velocity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina; Naoz, Smadar; Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Using adiabatic high-resolution numerical simulations we quantify the effect of the streaming motion of baryons with respect to dark matter at the time of recombination on structure formation and evolution. Formally a second order effect, the baryonic stream velocity has proven to have significant impact on dark matter halo abundance, as well as on the gas content and morphology of small galaxy clusters. In this work, we study the impact of stream velocity on the formation and gas content of haloes with masses up to 109M⊙, an order of magnitude larger than previous studies. We find that the non-zero stream velocity has a sizable impact on the number density of haloes with masses ≲ few× 107M⊙ up to z = 10, the final redshift of our simulations. Furthermore, the gas stream velocity induces a suppression of the gas fraction in haloes, which at z=10 is ˜10% for objects with M ˜ 107M⊙, as well as a flattening of the gas density profiles in the inner regions of haloes. We further identify and study the formation, in the context of a non-zero stream velocity, of moderately long lived gas dominated structures at intermediate redshifts 10 < z < 20, which Naoz and Narayan have recently proposed as potential progenitors of globular clusters.

  8. MAGNETIC METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES

    DOEpatents

    Josephson, V.

    1960-01-26

    A device is described for producing high-energy plasmas comprising a tapered shock tube of dielectric material and having a closed small end, an exceedingly low-inductance coll supported about and axially aligned with the small end of the tapered tube. an elongated multiturn coil supported upon the remninder of the exterior wall of the shock tube. a potential source and switch connected in series with the low-inductance coil, a potential source and switch connected in series with the elongated coil, means for hermetically sealing the large end of the tube, means for purging the tube of gases, and means for admitting a selected gas into the shock tube.

  9. Variables Affecting Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of High-Velocity Flyer Plate Impact Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, Deepak S; Trabia, Mohamed; O'Toole, Brendan; Hixson, Robert S

    2014-01-23

    This paper describes our work to characterize the variables affecting the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the LS-DYNA package for simulating high-velocity flyer plate impact experiments. LS-DYNA simulations are compared with one-dimensional experimental data of an oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper flyer plate impacting another plate of the same material. The comparison is made by measuring the velocity of a point on the back surface of the impact plate using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique.

  10. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  11. ASSEMBLY OF THE OUTER GALACTIC STELLAR HALO IN THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Murante, Giuseppe; Curir, Anna; Poglio, Eva; Villalobos, Alvaro E-mail: curir@oato.inaf.i E-mail: villalobos@oats.inaf.i

    2010-06-20

    We provide a set of numerical N-body simulations for studying the formation of the outer Milky Ways' stellar halo through accretion events. After simulating minor mergers of prograde and retrograde orbiting satellite halos with a dark matter main halo, we analyze the signal left by satellite stars in the rotation velocity distribution. The aim is to explore the orbital conditions where a retrograde signal in the outer part of the halo can be obtained, in order to give a possible explanation of the observed rotational properties of the Milky Way stellar halo. Our results show that, for satellites more massive than {approx}1/40 of the main halo, the dynamical friction has a fundamental role in assembling the final velocity distributions resulting from different orbits and that retrograde satellites moving on low-inclination orbits deposit more stars in the outer halo regions and therefore can produce the counter-rotating behavior observed in the outer Milky Way halo.

  12. X Persei: The X-Ray Halo and Spectrum of a High-Latitude X-Ray Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Smith, Randall

    2004-01-01

    The observations were completed on February 25,2003. Although the source was in the FOV for 31.4 ksec, only 18.2 ksec of data were usable due to a strong flare in the first part of the observations. We have extracted the X-ray halo from the good portion of the data, and were then faced with the problem of calibrating the far-off-axis point spread function, which is needed only for X-ray halo analysis; the same problem affected Chandra halo observations. We used data from 3C273, MCG 6-30-15, LMC X-1, and Her X-1 to measure the PSF, and found that it is reasonably well fit with a power law of the form PSF(theta) = A theta^-G, where A = 0.0034 arcmin^-2, and G = 3.05 for energies between 1-4 keV. This suggests there are fewer large dust grains along the When fitting the spectrum of X Persei, we found NH = 3e21 cm^-2, as expected. However, the X-ray halo (using a Mathis, Rumpl, Nordsieck 1977 dust model) required at most a column density of 1.4+/-0.1 e21 cm^-2; other models required sightline to X Per than would have been expected. In addition, a smoothly distributed dust model fit the observations better than a single cloud model, also against our expectations. We are in the process of writing a paper to be submitted to ApJ with these results, and will also present them at the 2004 HEAD meeting in New Orleans.

  13. Corrosion inhibitor selection for arctic and subsea high-velocity flowlines

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, J.A.

    2000-03-01

    Qualifying corrosion inhibitors for use in high-velocity multiphase flowlines in arctic or subsea environments is discussed. The criteria include high-velocity flow loop corrosion tests, pumpability through 0.125-in. (0.318-cm) capillary at low temperatures, compatibility with nylon 11, emulsion tendency testing, and partitioning characteristics. Laboratory and field data show the importance of using these criteria for inhibitor selection.

  14. CELFE/NASTRAN Code for the Analysis of Structures Subjected to High Velocity Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    CELFE (Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element)/NASTRAN Code three-dimensional finite element code has the capability for analyzing of structures subjected to high velocity impact. The local response is predicted by CELFE and, for large problems, the far-field impact response is predicted by NASTRAN. The coupling of the CELFE code with NASTRAN (CELFE/NASTRAN code) and the application of the code to selected three-dimensional high velocity impact problems are described.

  15. The Case for the Dual Halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Ivezic, Zeljko; An, Deokkeun; Chiba, Masashi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Ken C.; Lee, Young Sun; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Fiorentin, Paola Re; Sivarani, Thirupathi; /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Astrophys. /Kentucky U.

    2011-04-01

    Based on an analysis of the local kinematics of SDSS DR7 calibration stars, Carollo et al. have resolved the stellar population of the Milky Way halo into at least two components. This result has recently been criticized by Schoenrich et al., who claim that the retrograde signature associated with the outer halo is due to the adoption of faulty distances. We refute this claim, and demonstrate that the Schoenrich et al. photometric distances are themselves flawed because they adopted an incorrect main-sequence absolute magnitude relationship from the work of Ivezic et al.. When compared to the recommended relation from Ivezic et al., which is tied to a Milky Way globular cluster distance scale and accounts for age and metallicity effects, the incorrect relation adopted by Schoenrich et al. yields, on average, 18% shorter distances (independent of metallicity) for stars near the main-sequence turnoff (TO). When the correct relationship is used, the distances assigned by Carollo et al. and Ivezic et al. for low-metallicity dwarfs agree to within 6-10%, depending on the color range considered. We have also compared the Carollo et al. distances with the distances derived from the calibrated isochrones of An et al., and find a similar level of agreement for low-metallicity dwarfs. Schoenrich et al. also point out that stars of intermediate gravity (3.5 {<=} log g < 4.0, based on spectroscopic determinations) are likely misclassified, at least for colors significantly redder than the TO region, with which we concur. We implement a new procedure to reassign luminosity classifications for the TO stars that require it. New derivations of the rotational behavior for the Carollo et al. stars that are most likely associated with the outer halo demonstrate that, when either a sample of exclusively dwarf stars or the full sample of dwarf, TO, and subgiant/giant stars is used, the retrograde signature and high velocity dispersion of the outer-halo population remains, with values

  16. Moderate Velocity Ball Impact of a Mock High-Explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, Jevan; Rae, Philip; Clements, Bradford E.

    2012-06-05

    Modeling of thermal and mechanical events in high-explosive materials is complicated by the composite nature of the material, which experiences viscoelastic and plastic deformations and sustains damage in the form of microcracks that can dominate its overall behavior. A mechanical event of interest is projectile interaction with the material, which leads to extreme local deformation and adiabatic heating, which can potentially lead to adverse outcomes in an energetic material. Simulations of such an event predicted large local temperature rises near the path of a spherical projectile, but these were experimentally unconfirmed and hence potentially non-physical. This work concerns the experimental verification of local temperatures both at the surface and in the wake of a spherical projectile penetrating a mock (unreactive) high-explosive at {approx}700 m/s. Fast response thermocouples were embedded radially in a mid-plane of a cylindrical target, which was bonded around the thermocouples with epoxy and recorded by an oscilloscope through a low-pass filter with a bandwidth of 500 Hz. A peak temperature rise of 70 K was measured both at the equator of the projectile and in its wake, in good agreement with the temperature predicted in the minimally distorted elements at those locations by a finite element model in ABAQUS employing the ViscoSCRAM constitutive model. Further work is needed to elucidate the extreme temperature rises in material undergoing crushing or fragmentation, which is difficult to predict with meshed finite element methods due to element distortion, and also challenging to quantify experimentally.

  17. Distribution Function in the Center of the Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ding; He, Ping

    N-body simulations of dark matter halos show that the density profiles of the halos behave as ρ(r) ∝ r-α(r), where the density logarithmic slope α ≃ 1-1.5 in the center and α ≃ 3-4 in the outer parts of the halos. However, some observations are not in agreement with simulations in the very central region of the halos. The simulations also show that the velocity dispersion anisotropy parameter β ≈ 0 in the inner part of the halo and the so-called pseudo-phase-space density ρ/σ3 behaves as a power law in radius r. With these results in mind, we study the distribution function and the pseudo-phase-space density ρ/σ3 of the center of dark matter halos and find that they are closely related.

  18. High resolution Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography in northern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilai; Wu, Jianping; Fang, Lihua

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomographic results in northern North China. The data are from 190 broad-band and 10 very broad-band stations of the North China Seismic Array and 50 permanent stations nearby. All available teleseismic vertical component time-series are used to extract the phase velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave by interstation method. Tomographic maps are obtained at periods of 10, 15, 25 and 60 s with a grid spacing of 0.25°× 0.25°. The short-period phase velocity maps show good correlation with the geological and tectonic features. To be specific, lower velocities correspond to North China Basin and depression area whereas higher velocities are associated with Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts. At 25 s, there are obvious low-velocity anomalies in Jizhong depression and Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, indicating that ascendant low velocity channel may be formed beneath these areas and induce the velocity difference in the upper crust. The phase velocity map at 60 s reflects the upper-mantle information in the study area. High-velocity anomalies are observed at Yanshan blocks north to Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, suggesting that the materials are stable beneath these areas or the asthenosphere is at deeper location. Low-velocity anomalies are mainly south to the seismic belt, implying the asthenosphere is shallower and the materials are transformed by the open stretching rift trending NNE, resulting in many NNE-directed fault belts. These structural differences at depth may be controlled by the fault activity and strong tectonic movements.

  19. THE SPHERICALIZATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS BY GALAXY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Abadi, Mario G.; Navarro, Julio F. E-mail: mario@oac.uncor.ed

    2010-09-01

    Cosmological simulations indicate that cold dark matter (CDM) halos should be triaxial. Validating this theoretical prediction is, however, less than straightforward because the assembly of galaxies is expected to modify halo shapes and to render them more axisymmetric. We use a suite of N-body simulations to quantitatively investigate the effect of the growth of a central disk galaxy on the shape of triaxial dark matter halos. In most circumstances, the halo responds to the presence of the disk by becoming more spherical. The net effect depends weakly on the timescale of the disk assembly but noticeably on the orientation of the disk relative to the halo principal axes, and it is maximal when the disk symmetry axis is aligned with the major axis of the halo. The effect depends most sensitively on the overall gravitational importance of the disk. Our results indicate that exponential disks whose contribution peaks at less than {approx}50% of their circular velocity are unable to noticeably modify the shape of the gravitational potential of their surrounding halos. Many dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies are expected to be in this regime, and therefore their detailed kinematics could be used to probe halo triaxiality, one of the basic predictions of the CDM paradigm. We argue that the complex disk kinematics of the dwarf galaxy NGC 2976 might be the reflection of a triaxial halo. Such signatures of halo triaxiality should be common in galaxies where the luminous component is subdominant.

  20. High-resolution shallow-seismic experiments in sand. Part 2: Velocities in shallow unconsolidated sand

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, R.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.

    1998-07-01

    The authors conducted a shallow high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction experiment on a sandy beach. The depth of investigation was about 2 m. They interpret the data using the Hertz-Mindlin contact theory combined with Gassmann`s equation. These were used to obtain the vertical velocity profile. Then the profile was computed from seismic data using the turning-rays approximation. The normal moveout (NMO) velocity at the depth of 2 m matches the velocity profile. As a result, they developed a method to invert measured velocity from first arrivals, i.e., velocity versus distance into velocity versus depth using only one adjustable parameter. This parameter contains all the information about the internal structure and elasticity of the sand. The lowest velocity observed was about 40 m/s. It is noteworthy that the theoretical lower bound for velocity in dry sand with air is as low as 13 m/s. The authors find that modeling sand as a quartz sphere pack does not quantitatively agree with the measured data. However, the theoretical functional form proves to be useful for the inversion.

  1. Behavior of luminous matter in the head-on encounter of two ultralight BEC dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F. S.; González, J. A.; Cruz-Pérez, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Within the context of ultralight Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter, we analyze the head-on encounters of two structures. These structures are made of a BEC component, which is a ground-state equilibrium solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson (GPP) system, together with a component of luminous matter. The evolution of the condensate dark matter is carried out by solving the time-dependent GPP equations, whereas the luminous matter is modeled with particles interacting gravitationally on top of the BEC dark matter halos. We track the evolution of frontal encounters for various values of the collision velocity and analyze the high-velocity regime showing solitonic behavior of the BEC halos and that of slow velocities producing a single final structure. We measure the relative velocity of the dark matter with respect to the luminous matter after the encounters in the solitonic case and track the evolution of luminous matter in the case of merger.

  2. A ''LIGHT'', CENTRALLY CONCENTRATED MILKY WAY HALO?

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkov, Valery; Pillepich, Annalisa; Deason, Alis J.; Madau, Piero; Rockosi, Constance M.; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-08-20

    We discuss a novel approach to ''weighing'' the Milky Way (MW) dark matter halo, one that combines the latest samples of halo stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with state of the art numerical simulations of MW analogs. The fully cosmological runs employed in the present study include ''Eris'', one of the highest resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of a M{sub vir} = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} late-type spiral, and the dark-matter-only M{sub vir} = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} ''Via Lactea II'' (VLII) simulation. Eris provides an excellent laboratory for creating mock SDSS samples of tracer halo stars, and we successfully compare their density, velocity anisotropy, and radial velocity dispersion profiles with the observational data. Most mock SDSS realizations show the same ''cold veil'' recently observed in the distant stellar halo of the MW, with tracers as cold as {sigma}{sub los} Almost-Equal-To 50 km s{sup -1} between 100 and 150 kpc. Controlled experiments based on the integration of the spherical Jeans equation as well as a particle tagging technique applied to VLII show that a ''heavy'' M{sub vir} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} realistic host produces a poor fit to the kinematic SDSS data. We argue that these results offer added evidence for a ''light'', centrally concentrated MW halo.

  3. The Dependence of Subhalo Abundance on Halo Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Williamson, Marc; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical structure formation implies that the number of subhalos within a dark matter halo depends not only on halo mass, but also on the formation history of the halo. This dependence on the formation history, which is highly correlated with halo concentration, can account for the super-Poissonian scatter in subhalo occupation at a fixed halo mass that has been previously measured in simulations. Here we propose a model to predict the subhalo abundance function for individual host halos that incorporates both halo mass and concentration. We combine results of cosmological simulations with a new suite of zoom-in simulations of Milky Way-mass halos to calibrate our model. We show that the model can successfully reproduce the mean and the scatter of subhalo occupation in these simulations. The implications of this correlation between subhalo abundance and halo concentration are further investigated. We also discuss cases in which inferences about halo properties can be affected if this correlation between subhalo abundance and halo concentration is ignored; in these cases, our model would give a more accurate inference. We propose that with future deep surveys, satellite occupation in the low-mass regime can be used to verify the existence of halo assembly bias.

  4. The high-force region of the force-velocity relation in frog skinned muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lou, F; Sun, Y B

    1993-07-01

    The force-velocity relation has been studied during calcium-induced contracture of chemically skinned fibres from the semitendinosus muscle of Rana temporaria with special interest focused on the high-load region. The force-velocity curve was hyperbolic at low and intermediate loads but departed below the hyperbola as the load exceeded about 80% of the isometric force (P0). The force intercept (P*0) of the hyperbola derived from force-velocity data truncated at 0.78 P0 was higher than P0 (P*0/P0 = 1.14 +/- 0.04). At submaximum Ca2+ concentration, where the isometric force of the fibre was 65-75% of the maximum value, the force-velocity data still departed below the hyperbola at high loads (P*0/P0 = 1.09 +/- 0.04). The departure of the force-velocity data from the hyperbola at high force was also found at high ionic strength (250 mM), but not at low ionic strength (150 mM) (P*0/P0 = 1.09 +/- 0.03 and 0.98 +/- 0.03, respectively). The force-velocity relations derived under different experimental conditions could be fitted well by a modified version of Hill's (1938) hyperbolic equation (Edman 1988) using similar numerical values of k1 and k2 in the latter equation. The results indicate that the force-velocity relation in skinned muscle fibres is biphasic, and that the two curvatures, as in intact muscle fibres, are closely related to one another. Furthermore the evidence supports the hypothesis that the altered shape of the force-velocity relation at high loads is not related to the force level per se but rather to the speed of shortening of the contractile system (Edman 1992). PMID:8213180

  5. Ablative accelerative of small particles to high velocity by focused laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goela, J. S.; Green, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of ablatively accelerating small particles to extremely high velocities using focused laser radiation are reported. The effects of particle size, melt, and breakup due to shear and compressive and centrifugal forces as well as particle stability in the beam are included. Ultimate velocities are limited by available laser sources, but velocities exceeding 10 to the 7th cm/sec appear possible. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into particle kinetic energy may exceed 10 to the 7th.

  6. High Velocity Impact Interaction of Metal Particles with Porous Heterogeneous Materials with an Inorganic Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazunov, A. A.; Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanasyeva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Burkin, V. V.; Rogaev, K. S.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Khabibulin, M. V.; Yugov, N. T.

    2016-03-01

    A computational-experimental investigation of stress-strain state and fracture of a porous heterogeneous material with an inorganic matrix, used as a thermal barrier coating of flying vehicles, under conditions of a high-velocity impact by a spherical steel projectile imitating a meteorite particle is discussed. Ballistic tests are performed at the velocities about 2.5 km/s. Numerical modeling of the high-velocity impact is described within the framework of a porous elastoplastic model including fracture and different phase states of the materials. The calculations are performed using the Euler and Lagrange numerical techniques for the velocities up to 10 km/s in a complete-space problem statement.

  7. Ultrafine particle size distribution during high velocity impact of high density metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Bonora, Nicola

    2011-06-01

    In the event of kinetic energy penetrator impact, survival personnel is exposed to the additional hazard stemming from ultrafine metallic particles, i.e. exposure, inhalation, and respiration of aerolized metals. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes. In order to have reliable quantitative measure of the aerosol particles generated under controlled impact conditions, an experimental set-up has been developed. Both non penetrating and penetrating impacts tests have been designed and performed with light gas-gun in chamber. During the impact, size distribution, total concentration and chemical composition of ultrafine particles have been measured and correlated with impact parameters (such as energy and velocity). In order to avoid measurement contamination, as a result of undesired participating materials, target and projectile have been made of the same metal and tests have been performed in clean environmental chamber. In this study the results relative to high purity copper are presented.

  8. Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Flow Resistance for Streams of High Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelchuk, V. L.

    1943-01-01

    Problems of hydraulic flow resistance and heat transfer for streams with velocities comparable with acoustic have present great importance for various fields of technical science. Especially, they have great importance for the field of heat transfer in designing and constructing boilers.of the "Velox" type. In this article a description of experiments and their results as regards definition of the laws of heat transfer in differential form for high velocity air streams inside smooth tubes are given.

  9. Mixed convection in turbulent film boiling on a vertical ellipsoid under high and low velocity liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-Ping

    2011-04-01

    The theoretical study researched into heat transfer of turbulent film boiling on an isothermal ellipsoid under high and low velocity liquid. The flowing velocity of the saturated liquid at the boundary layer is determined by potential flow theory. The larger the eccentricity parameter is the smaller the mean Nusselt number will be. Besides, for the cases of turbulent film boiling under the flowing liquid, the increase in the Froude number will bring out an increase in the mean Nusselt number.

  10. Planar near-nozzle velocity measurements during a single high-pressure fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüßler, Raimund; Gürtler, Johannes; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of modern Diesel engines, the high-pressure fuel injections have to be optimized. This requires continuous, time-resolved measurements of the fuel velocity distribution during multiple complete injection cycles, which can provide a deeper understanding of the injection process. However, fuel velocity measurements at high-pressure injection nozzles are a challenging task due to the high velocities of up to 300 m/s, the short injection durations in the range and the high fuel droplet density especially near the nozzle exit. In order to solve these challenges, a fast imaging Doppler global velocimeter with laser frequency modulation (2D-FM-DGV) incorporating a high-speed camera is presented. As a result, continuous planar velocity field measurements are performed with a measurement rate of 200 kHz in the near-nozzle region of a high-pressure Diesel injection. The injection system is operated under atmospheric surrounding conditions with injection pressures up to 1400 bar thereby reaching fuel velocities up to 380 m/s. The measurements over multiple entire injection cycles resolved the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the fuel velocity, which occur especially for low injection pressures. Furthermore, a sudden setback of the velocity at the beginning of the injection is identified for various injection pressures. In conclusion, the fast measurement system enables the investigation of the complete temporal behavior of single injection cycles or a series of it. Since this eliminates the necessity of phase-locked measurements, the proposed measurement approach provides new insights for the analysis of high-pressure injections regarding unsteady phenomena.

  11. Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-García, C.; Popmintchev, T.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Plaja, L.; Becker, A.; Jaron-Becker, A.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the role of group-velocity matching (GVM) in the macroscopic build up of the high-harmonic signal generated in gas targets at high pressures. A definition of the walk-off length, associated with GVM, in the non-perturbative intensity regime of high-harmonic generation is given. Semiclassical predictions based on this definition are in excellent agreement with full quantum simulations. We demonstrate that group velocity matching is a relevant factor in high harmonic generation and the isolation of attosecond pulses driven by long wavelength lasers and preferentially selects contributions from the short quantum trajectories.

  12. The stability of stellar discs in Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurin, Denis; Springel, Volker

    2015-09-01

    We employ an improved methodology to insert live stellar discs into high-resolution dark matter simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes, allowing us to investigate the fate of thin stellar discs in the tumultuous environment of cold dark matter structures. We study a set of eight different haloes, drawn from the Aquarius simulation project, in which stellar discs are adiabatically grown with a prescribed structure, and then allowed to self-consistently evolve. The initial velocity distribution is set-up in very good equilibrium with the help of the GALIC code. We find that the residual triaxiality of the haloes leads to significant disc tumbling, qualitatively confirming earlier work. We show that the disc turning motion is unaffected by structural properties of the galaxies such as the presence or absence of a bulge or bar. In typical Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes, we expect an average turning of the discs by about 40°between z = 1 and 0, over the course of 7.6 Gyr. We also investigate the impact of the discs on substructures, and conversely, the disc heating rate caused by the dark matter halo substructures. The presence of discs reduces the central subhalo abundance by a about a factor of 2, due to an increased evaporation rate by gravitational shocks from disc passages. We find that substructures are important for heating the outer parts of stellar discs but do not appear to significantly affect their inner parts.

  13. DIFFUSE Ly{alpha} EMITTING HALOS: A GENERIC PROPERTY OF HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steidel, Charles C.; Bogosavljevic, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Erb, Dawn K.; Pettini, Max

    2011-08-01

    Using a sample of 92 UV continuum-selected, spectroscopically identified galaxies with (z) = 2.65, all of which have been imaged in the Ly{alpha} line with extremely deep narrow-band imaging, we examine galaxy Ly{alpha} emission profiles to very faint surface brightness limits. The galaxy sample is representative of spectroscopic samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at similar redshifts in terms of apparent magnitude, UV luminosity, inferred extinction, and star formation rate and was assembled without regard to Ly{alpha} emission properties. Approximately 45% (55%) of the galaxy spectra have Ly{alpha} appearing in net absorption (emission), with {approx_equal} 20% satisfying commonly used criteria for the identification of 'Ly{alpha} emitters' (LAEs; W{sub 0}(Ly{alpha}) {>=} 20 A). We use extremely deep stacks of rest-UV continuum and continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha} images to show that all sub-samples exhibit diffuse Ly{alpha} emission to radii of at least 10'' ({approx}80 physical kpc). The characteristic exponential scale lengths for Ly{alpha} line emission exceed that of the {lambda}{sub 0} = 1220 A UV continuum light by factors of {approx}5-10. The surface brightness profiles of Ly{alpha} emission are strongly suppressed relative to the UV continuum light in the inner few kpc, by amounts that are tightly correlated with the galaxies' observed spectral morphology; however, all galaxy sub-subsamples, including that of galaxies for which Ly{alpha} appears in net absorption in the spectra, exhibit qualitatively similar diffuse Ly{alpha} emission halos. Accounting for the extended Ly{alpha} emission halos, which generally would not be detected in the slit spectra of individual objects or with typical narrow-band Ly{alpha} imaging, increases the total Ly{alpha} flux (and rest equivalent width W{sub 0}(Ly{alpha})) by an average factor of {approx}5, and by a much larger factor for the 80% of LBGs not classified as LAEs. We argue that most, if not all, of the observed

  14. Development of a high-velocity free-flight launcher : the Ames light-gas gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charters, A C; Denardo, B Pat; Rossow, Vernon J

    1955-01-01

    Recent interest in long-range missiles has stimulated a search for new experimental techniques which can reproduce in the laboratory the high temperatures and Mach numbers associated with the missiles' flight. One promising possibility lies in free-flight testing of laboratory models which are flown at the full velocity of the missile. In this type of test, temperatures are approximated and aerodynamic heating of the model is representative of that experienced by the missile in high-velocity flight. A prime requirement of the free-flight test technique is a device which had the capacity for launching models at the velocities desired. In response to thie need, a gun firing light models at velocities up to 15,000 feet per second has been developed at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The design of this gun, the analysis of its performance, and the results of the initial firing trials are described in this paper. The firing trials showed that the measured velocities and pressures agreed well with the predicted values. Also, the erosion of the launch tube was very small for the eleven rounds fired. The performance of the gun suggests that it will prove to be a satisfactory launcher for high-velocity free-flight tests. However, it should be mentioned that only the gross performance has been evaluated so far, and, consequently, the operation of the gun must be investigated in further detail before its performance can be reliably predicted over its full operating range.

  15. High Precision UTDR Measurements by Sonic Velocity Compensation with Reference Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Sam; Kallioinen, Mari; Mänttäri, Mika; Tuuva, Tuure

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasonic sensor design with sonic velocity compensation is developed to improve the accuracy of distance measurement in membrane modules. High accuracy real-time distance measurements are needed in membrane fouling and compaction studies. The benefits of the sonic velocity compensation with a reference transducer are compared to the sonic velocity calculated with the measured temperature and pressure using the model by Belogol'skii, Sekoyan et al. In the experiments the temperature was changed from 25 to 60 °C at pressures of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 MPa. The set measurement distance was 17.8 mm. Distance measurements with sonic velocity compensation were over ten times more accurate than the ones calculated based on the model. Using the reference transducer measured sonic velocity, the standard deviations for the distance measurements varied from 0.6 to 2.0 μm, while using the calculated sonic velocity the standard deviations were 21–39 μm. In industrial liquors, not only the temperature and the pressure, which were studied in this paper, but also the properties of the filtered solution, such as solute concentration, density, viscosity, etc., may vary greatly, leading to inaccuracy in the use of the Belogol'skii, Sekoyan et al. model. Therefore, calibration of the sonic velocity with reference transducers is needed for accurate distance measurements. PMID:24991939

  16. High precision UTDR measurements by sonic velocity compensation with reference transducer.

    PubMed

    Stade, Sam; Kallioinen, Mari; Mänttäri, Mika; Tuuva, Tuure

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasonic sensor design with sonic velocity compensation is developed to improve the accuracy of distance measurement in membrane modules. High accuracy real-time distance measurements are needed in membrane fouling and compaction studies. The benefits of the sonic velocity compensation with a reference transducer are compared to the sonic velocity calculated with the measured temperature and pressure using the model by Belogol'skii, Sekoyan et al. In the experiments the temperature was changed from 25 to 60 °C at pressures of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 MPa. The set measurement distance was 17.8 mm. Distance measurements with sonic velocity compensation were over ten times more accurate than the ones calculated based on the model. Using the reference transducer measured sonic velocity, the standard deviations for the distance measurements varied from 0.6 to 2.0 µm, while using the calculated sonic velocity the standard deviations were 21-39 µm. In industrial liquors, not only the temperature and the pressure, which were studied in this paper, but also the properties of the filtered solution, such as solute concentration, density, viscosity, etc., may vary greatly, leading to inaccuracy in the use of the Belogol'skii, Sekoyan et al. model. Therefore, calibration of the sonic velocity with reference transducers is needed for accurate distance measurements. PMID:24991939

  17. The outer regions of the giant Virgo galaxy M 87 Kinematic separation of stellar halo and intracluster light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, Alessia; Arnaboldi, Magda; Gerhard, Ortwin; Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present a spectroscopic study of a sample of 287 planetary nebulas (PNs) around the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) M 87 in Virgo A, of which 211 are located between 40 kpc and 150 kpc from the galaxy centre. With these data we can distinguish the stellar halo from the co-spatial intracluster light (ICL) and study both components separately. Methods: We obtained PN velocities with a high resolution FLAMES/VLT survey targeting eight fields in a total area of ~0.4 deg2. We identified PNs from their narrow and symmetric redshifted λ5007 Å [OIII] emission line, the presence of the second λ4959 Å [OIII] emission line, and the absence of significant continuum. We implement a robust technique to measure the halo velocity dispersion from the projected phase-space to identify PNs associated with the M 87 halo and ICL. Using photometric magnitudes, we construct PN luminosity functions (PNLFs), which are complete down to m5007 = 28.8. Results: The velocity distribution of the spectroscopically confirmed PNs is bimodal, containing a narrow component centred on the systemic velocity of the BCG and an off-centred broader component, which we identify as halo and ICL, respectively. We find that 243 PNs are part of the velocity distribution of the M 87 halo, while the remaining subsample of 44 PNs are intracluster PNs (ICPNs). Halo and ICPNs have different spatial distributions: the number density of halo PNs follow the galaxy's surface brightness profile, whereas the ICPNs are characterised by a shallower power-law profile, IICL ∝ Rγ with γ in the range [-0.34, -0.04 ]. No evidence is found for an asymmetry in the halo and ICPN density distributions when the NW and SE fields are studied separately. A study of the composite PN number density profile confirms the superposition of different PN populations associated with the M 87 halo and the ICL, characterised by different PN specific numbers α. We derive αhalo = 1.06 × 10-8NPN L⊙,bol-1 and αICL = 2.72 × 10

  18. A census of stellar mass in ten massive haloes at z ~ 1 from the GCLASS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Burg, R. F. J.; Muzzin, A.; Hoekstra, H.; Wilson, G.; Lidman, C.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study the stellar mass content of massive haloes in the redshift range 0.86 < z < 1.34, by measuring (1) the stellar mass in the central galaxy versus total dynamical halo mass; (2) the total stellar mass (including satellites) versus total halo mass; and (3) the radial stellar mass and number density profiles for the ensemble halo. Methods: We use a Ks-band selected catalogue for the 10 clusters in the Gemini Cluster Astrophysics Spectroscopic Survey (GCLASS), with photometric redshifts and stellar masses measured from 11-band SED fitting. Combining the photometric catalogues with the deep spectroscopic component of GCLASS, we correct the cluster galaxy sample for interlopers. We also perform a dynamical analysis of the cluster galaxies to estimate the halo mass M200 for each cluster based on a measurement of its velocity dispersion. Results: (1) We find that the central galaxy stellar mass fraction decreases with total halo mass and that this is in reasonable, quantitative agreement with measurements from abundance matching studies at z ~ 1. (2) The total stellar mass fractions of these systems decrease with halo mass, indicating that lower mass systems are more efficient at transforming baryons into stars. We find the total stellar mass to be a good proxy for total halo mass, with a small intrinsic scatter. When we compare these results from GCLASS with literature measurements, we find that the stellar mass fraction at fixed halo mass shows no significant evolution in the range 0 < z < 1. (3) We measure a relatively high NFW concentration parameter cg ~ 7 for the stellar mass distribution in these clusters, and debate a possible scenario for explaining the evolution of the stellar mass distribution from the GCLASS sample to their likely descendants at lower redshift. Conclusions: The stellar mass measurements in the z ~ 1 haloes provided by GCLASS puts constraints on the stellar mass assembly history of clusters observed in the local Universe. A simple

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-04-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about -180 km s{sup -1}) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s{sup -1}. Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s{sup -1}, clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfven waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 {mu}G while for the clouds they are about 4 {mu}G. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  20. Kinematics of Baryons Cycling Through Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.

    2015-01-01

    In a modern view of galaxy evolution, the baryon cycle is key to understanding the observed global properties of galaxies. Red galaxies passively evolve due to quenching of their star formation, whereas blue galaxies actively evolve, presumably due to a replenishing gas supply. Signatures of the baryon cycle such as IGM accretion, minor mergers, and stellar-driven outflows and fountains are best probed in gaseous halos, i.e., the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We study the spatial and kinematic distribution of the low-ionization metal-enriched CGM with QSO absorption lines for a population of 182 galaxies in the MgII Absorber-Galaxy Catalog (MAGIICAT). We present our findings detailing how the extent and patchiness of the CGM depends on MgII absorption strength, and galaxy luminosity and color. For the first time, we placed the kinematics of 39 MgII absorbers with high-resolution spectra in the context of their host galaxy color, redshift, and orientation. By examining the velocity dispersions of absorbers, we find possible effects of quenching on red galaxies where the velocity dispersions decrease over 2 Gyrs time and are smaller at larger radii. The velocity dispersions for blue galaxies remain constant over time and radius and possibly indicate a sustained flow of baryons feeding star formation. Blue, face-on galaxies probed along the minor axis show the largest velocity dispersions to very high significance. This result provides the strongest direct evidence to date for galactic-scale outflows which, for this orientation, are pointing nearly towards the observer. We discuss how our results place observational constraints on simulations which are just now beginning to accurately model the baryon cycle and its role in galaxy evolution.

  1. Sound velocity of high-strength polymer with negative thermal expansion coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Ueno, M.; Okuda, Y.; Burmistrov, S.; Yamanaka, A.

    2003-05-01

    Sound velocities of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) were measured along the fiber axis at temperatures between 360 and 77 K. We used two kinds of the high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which have negative thermal expansion coefficients. They also have high thermal conductivities and high resistances for flash over voltage, and are expected as new materials for coil bobbins or spacers at cryogenic temperatures. They have very large sound velocities of about 9000 (m/s) at 77 K, which are 4.5 times larger than that of the ordinary polyethylene fiber.

  2. A simple approach for determining detonation velocity of high explosive at any loading density.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2005-05-20

    A simple empirical relationship is introduced between detonation velocity at any loading density and chemical composition of high explosive as well as its gas phase heat of formation, which is calculated by group additivity rules. The present work may be applied to any explosive that contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen with no difficulties. The new correlation can easily be applied for determining detonation velocity of explosives with loading densities less than 1g/cm3 as well as greater than 1g/cm3. Calculated detonation velocities by this procedure for both pure and explosive formulations show good agreement with respect to measured detonation velocity over a wide range of loading density. PMID:15885403

  3. Variation of wave velocity and porosity of sandstone after high temperature heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Zhang, ·Weiqiang; Su, Tianming; Zhu, Shuyun

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the variations of mass, porosity, and wave velocity of sandstone after high temperature heating. The range of temperature to which the sandstone specimens have been exposed is 25-850°C, in a heating furnace. It has been shown that below 300°C, porosity and wave velocity change very little. Above 300°C, there is a rapid increase in porosity, but the wave velocity decreases significantly. The results of thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) suggest that a series of changes occurred between 400 and 600°C in sandstone could be responsible for the different patterns of variation in porosity and wave velocity.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of density and sound velocity of liquid Fe-C at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, Y.; Terasaki, H. G.; Urakawa, S.; Kuwabara, S.; Takubo, Y.; Katayama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismological and experimental studies show that the Earth's outer core is approximately 10% less dense than molten iron at the core pressure and temperature conditions, implying that some light elements exist in the core. The effect of light elements on density and bulk modulus of liquid iron is necessary for estimating of these core compositions. Sound velocity of liquid iron alloys is also important for identifying light elements in the core by comparison with observed seismic data. In this study, we have measured density and sound velocity of liquid Fe-C at SPring-8 beamline BL22XU using a DIA-type cubic anvil press (SMAP-I). Density was measured using X-ray absorption method (Katayama et al., 1993). We newly installed sound velocity measurement system using pulse-echo overlapping method (Higo et al., 2009) in this beamline. P-wave signals with a frequency of 35-37 MHz were generated and received by LiNbO3 transducer. Buffer rod and backing plated were adopted single-crystal sapphire. The sample length at high pressure and high temperature were measured from absorption contrast between sample and sapphire. We measured velocity and density of liquid Fe-C between 1.1-2.8 GPa and 1480-1740 K. Obtained density and velocity of Fe-C was found to increase with pressure. In contrast, the effect of temperature on density and velocity was negative. The relationship between these two properties will be discussed.

  5. New Halo White Dwarf Candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Warren R.; Williams, Kurtis A.; von Hippel, Ted; Harris, Hugh C.

    2016-08-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 57 faint (g = 19 - 22) high proper motion white dwarfs identified through repeat imaging of ≈3100 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint by Munn et al. (2014). We use ugriz and JH photometry to perform a model atmosphere analysis, and identify ten ultracool white dwarfs with Teff < 4000 K, including the coolest pure H atmosphere white dwarf currently known, J1657+2638, with Teff = 3550 ± 100K. The majority of the objects with cooling ages larger than 9 Gyr display thick disc kinematics and constrain the age of the thick disc to ≥11 Gyr. There are four white dwarfs in our sample with large tangential velocities (vtan > 120 km s-1) and UVW velocities that are more consistent with the halo than the Galactic disc. For typical 0.6M⊙ white dwarfs, the cooling ages for these halo candidates range from 2.3 to 8.5 Gyr. However, the total main-sequence + white dwarf cooling ages of these stars would be consistent with the Galactic halo if they are slightly undermassive. Given the magnitude limits of the current large scale surveys, many of the coolest and oldest white dwarfs remain undiscovered in the solar neighborhood, but upcoming surveys such as GAIA and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should find many of these elusive thick disc and halo white dwarfs.

  6. Discovery of High-Velocity Gas in Absorption Associated with the Supernova Remnant W28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Adam M.; Wallerstein, G.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of high-velocity interstellar absorption components observed toward the star CD-23 13777, an O-type supergiant located behind the supernova remnant W28. The interstellar Na I and Ca II profiles in this direction comprise numerous absorption components with velocities ranging from -150 km s-1 to +140 km s-1. The presence of gas at both high positive and high negative velocities indicates that the line of sight to CD-23 13777 probes both sides of the expanding shell of the remnant. The strongest interstellar absorption occurs at a velocity of +7.5 km s-1, consistent with the velocities of several nearby OH (1720 MHz) masers, which themselves are indicative of shock interactions between the supernova remnant and an adjacent molecular cloud. Moreover, the CD-23 13777 sight line passes very near a source of both GeV and TeV gamma rays, which likely result from collisions between high-energy particles, accelerated by the remnant, and the dense molecular gas in its vicinity. The identification of this line of sight as an exquisite probe of the interaction between the supernova remnant and the ambient molecular cloud paves the way for future observations in the UV and visible, which will enable a more detailed understanding of the physical conditions in the shocked gas and yield elemental abundances that can be used to study the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium by the supernova explosion.

  7. Estimating hurricane vertical velocity from Doppler radar for high-resolution hurricane model initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    A mesoscale vorticity method derives the hurricane inner-core vertical velocity from the vorticity variations in space and in time estimated from a deep layer of wind measurements obtained from Doppler radar. The vorticity method derives the hurricane inner core vertical velocity and thus, the divergent wind based on the mesoscale vorticity equation. The inner-core divergent wind inferred dynamically and rotational wind estimated from radar data form the total horizontal wind which is dynamically balanced with the derived vertical velocity. The derived high-resolution balance wind field is suitable for high resolution hurricane models initialization. The vorticity method is tested using a high-resolution non-hydrostatic hurricane model with radar data from Hurricane Danny which made landfall along the Alabama coast in 1997. Numerical experiments with a high resolution non-hydrostatic hurricane model show positive radar data impacts on track and intensity forecasts, in particular, substantial improvements on the hurricane inner core velocity field, can be obtained with the vertical velocity and thus inner-core divergent wind inferred from the mesoscale vorticity method.

  8. A high velocity impact experiment of micro-scale ice particles using laser-driven system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hyeonju; Kim, Jungwook; Yoh, Jack J.

    2014-11-01

    A jet engine for high speed air breathing propulsion is subject to continuous wear as a result of impacts of micro-scale ice particles during a flight in the atmosphere. The inlet duct and compressor blades are exposed to on-coming frozen moisture particles that may result in the surface damage and significantly shorten the designed lifetime of the aircraft. Under such prolonged high-speed impact loading, the performance parameters such as flight instability and power loss of a jet engine can be significantly degraded. In this work, a laser-driven system was designed to accelerate micro-scale ice particles to the velocity up to Mach 2 using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam at 100-600 mJ with 1064 nm wavelength and 9 ns pulse duration. The high speed images (Phantom v711) and double exposure shadowgraphs were used to calculate the average velocity of ice particles and their deceleration. Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measurements were also utilized for the analysis of free surface velocity of a metal foil in order to understand the interfacial dynamics between the impacting particles and accepting metal target. The velocity of our ice particles is sufficiently fast for studying the effect of moisture particle collision on an air-breathing duct of high speed aircraft, and thus the results can provide insight into how minute space debris or micrometeorites cause damage to the orbiting spacecraft at large.

  9. Temporary Network Development Capability in High Velocity Environments: A Dynamic Capability Study of Disaster Relief Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, William Ross

    2010-01-01

    Organizations involved in crisis relief after a natural disaster face the multifaceted challenge of significantly changing needs of their various stakeholders, limited, ambiguous and even incorrect information, and highly compressed time limitations. Yet the performance of these organization in these high velocity environments is critical for the…

  10. CONTINUED ASSESSMENT OF A HIGH-VELOCITY FABRIC FILTRATION SYSTEM USED TO CONTROL FLY ASH EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a full-scale investigation of the performance of a variety of filter media, to provide technical and economic information under high-velocity conditions (high gas/cloth ratio). The fly ash emission studies demonstrated that woven fiberglass fabrics and...

  11. Experimental verification of vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Santoro, Gilbert J.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective has been the experimental verification of the corrosive vapor deposition theory in high-temperature, high-velocity environments. Towards this end a Mach 0.3 burner-rig appartus was built to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded (mostly Na salts) combustion gases on the internally cooled cylindrical collector. Deposition experiments are underway.

  12. The bulge-halo conspiracy in massive elliptical galaxies: implications for the stellar initial mass function and halo response to baryonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Treu, Tommaso

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that massive elliptical galaxies have total mass density profiles within an effective radius that can be approximated as ρ_tot∝ r^{-γ^', with mean slope <γ'> = 2.08 ± 0.03 and scatter σ _{γ ^' } }=0.16± 0.02. The small scatter of the slope (known as the bulge-halo conspiracy) is not generic in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) based models and therefore contains information about the galaxy formation process. We compute the distribution of γ' for ΛCDM-based models that reproduce the observed correlations between stellar mass, velocity dispersion, and effective radius of early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The models have a range of stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) and dark halo responses to galaxy formation. The observed distribution of γ' is well reproduced by a model with cosmologically motivated but uncontracted dark matter haloes, and a Salpeter-type IMF. Other models are on average ruled out by the data, even though they may happen in individual cases. Models with adiabatic halo contraction (and lighter IMFs) predict too small values of γ'. Models with halo expansion, or mass-follows-light predict too high values of γ'. Our study shows that the non-homologous structure of massive early-type galaxies can be precisely reproduced by ΛCDM models if the IMF is not universal and if mechanisms, such as feedback from active galactic nuclei, or dynamical friction, effectively on average counterbalance the contraction of the halo expected as a result of baryonic cooling.

  13. Efficient and reproducible high resolution spiral myocardial phase velocity mapping of the entire cardiac cycle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three-directional phase velocity mapping (PVM) is capable of measuring longitudinal, radial and circumferential regional myocardial velocities. Current techniques use Cartesian k-space coverage and navigator-gated high spatial and high temporal resolution acquisitions are long. In addition, prospective ECG-gating means that analysis of the full cardiac cycle is not possible. The aim of this study is to develop a high temporal and high spatial resolution PVM technique using efficient spiral k-space coverage and retrospective ECG-gating. Detailed analysis of regional motion over the entire cardiac cycle, including atrial systole for the first time using MR, is presented in 10 healthy volunteers together with a comprehensive assessment of reproducibility. Methods A navigator-gated high temporal (21 ms) and spatial (1.4 × 1.4 mm) resolution spiral PVM sequence was developed, acquiring three-directional velocities in 53 heartbeats (100% respiratory-gating efficiency). Basal, mid and apical short-axis slices were acquired in 10 healthy volunteers on two occasions. Regional and transmural early systolic, early diastolic and atrial systolic peak longitudinal, radial and circumferential velocities were measured, together with the times to those peaks (TTPs). Reproducibilities were determined as mean ± SD of the signed differences between measurements made from acquisitions performed on the two days. Results All slices were acquired in all volunteers on both occasions with good image quality. The high temporal resolution allowed consistent detection of fine features of motion, while the high spatial resolution allowed the detection of statistically significant regional and transmural differences in motion. Colour plots showing the regional variations in velocity over the entire cardiac cycle enable rapid interpretation of the regional motion within any given slice. The reproducibility of peak velocities was high with the reproducibility of early

  14. SHORT-DURATION LENSING EVENTS. I. WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS? FREE-FLOATING LOW-MASS OBJECTS? OR HIGH-VELOCITY STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2012-08-01

    Short-duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than 1 AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the solar system's Oort Cloud. They can have masses larger than Jupiter's or smaller than Pluto's. Lensing therefore has a unique potential to expand our understanding of planetary systems. A particular advantage of lensing is that it can provide precision measurements of system parameters, including the masses of and projected separation between star and planet. We demonstrate how the parameters can be extracted and show that a great deal can be learned. For example, it is remarkable that the gravitational mass of nearby free-floating planet-mass lenses can be measured by complementing observations of a photometric event with deep images that detect the planet itself. A fraction of short events may be caused by high-velocity stars located within a kiloparsec. Many high-velocity lenses are likely to be neutron stars that received large natal kicks. Other high-speed stars may be members of the halo population. Still others may be hypervelocity stars that have been ejected from the Galactic center, or runaway stars escaped from close binaries, possibly including the progenitor binaries of Type Ia supernovae.

  15. Impact pressures of turbulent high-velocity jets plunging in pools with flat bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, P. A.; Bollaert, E. F. R.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic pressures created by the impact of high-velocity turbulent jets plunging in a water pool with flat bottom were investigated. Pressure fluctuations were sampled at 1 kHz at the jet outlet and at the pool bottom using piezo-resistive pressure transducers, jet velocities of up to 30 m/s and pool depth to jet diameter ratios from 2.8 to 11.4. The high-velocity jets entrain air in the pool in conditions similar to prototype applications at water release structures of dams. The intermittent character of plunge pool flows was investigated for shallow and deep pools, based on high order moments and time correlations. Maximum intermittency was observed for pool depths at 5.6 jet diameters, which approximate the core development length. Wall pressure skewness was shown to allow identifying the zone of influence of downward and upward moving currents.

  16. A Numerical Study on Gas Phase Dynamics of High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Jae-Sang; Park, Sun-Kyu; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2008-08-01

    The high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray is used for a particulate deposition process in which micro-sized particles are propelled and heated in a supersonic combusting gas stream. It is characterized by high gas velocity and high density and is being used in an increasing variety of coating applications, such as ceramic and composite coatings, to improve wear and abrasion resistance. The particle temperature and velocity are two of the most important parameters in HVOF thermal spraying, which affect the quality of the coatings. To understand the particle dynamics, it is necessary to study, first, the thermal flow characteristics in the HVOF system. In this study, a numerical analysis is performed to predict the gas dynamic behaviors, and the effect of the geometrical parameter is studied to optimize the nozzle design.

  17. High Resolution Interseismic Velocity Model of the San Andreas Fault From GPS and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    We recover the interseismic deformation along the entire San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) at a spatial resolution of 200 meters by combining InSAR and GPS observations using a dislocation model. Previous efforts to compare 17 different GPS-derived strain rate models of the SAFS shows that GPS data alone cannot uniquely resolve the rapid velocity gradients near faults, which are critical for understanding the along-strike variations in stress accumulation rate and associated earthquake hazard. To improve the near-fault velocity resolution, we integrate new GPS observations with InSAR observations, initially from ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite launched by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) ascending data (spanning 2006.5-2010), using a remove/restore approach. More than 1100 interferograms were processed with the newly developed InSAR processing software GMTSAR. The integration uses a dislocation-based velocity model to interpolate the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) velocity at the full resolution of the InSAR data in radar coordinates. The residual between the model and InSAR LOS velocity are stacked and high-pass filtered, then added back to the model. This LOS velocity map covers almost entire San Andreas Fault System (see Figure 1) from Maacama Fault to the north to the Superstition Hills Fault to the south. The average standard deviation of the LOS velocity model ranges from 2 to 4 mm/yr. Our initial results show previously unknown details in along-strike variations in surface fault creep. Moreover, the high resolution velocity field can resolve asperities in these "creeping" sections that are important for understanding moment accumulation rates and seismic hazards. We find that much of the high resolution velocity signal is related to non-tectonic processes (e.g., ground subsidence and uplift) sometimes very close to the fault zone. The near-fault deformation signal extracted from this velocity map can provide tighter constraints on fault slip rates and

  18. High-velocity Clouds in the Galactic All Sky Survey. I. Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, V. A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Murphy, T.; Pisano, D. J.; Kummerfeld, J. K.; Curran, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    We present a catalog of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) from the Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS) of southern sky neutral hydrogen, which has 57 mK sensitivity and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution and was obtained with the Parkes Telescope. Our catalog has been derived from the stray-radiation-corrected second release of GASS. We describe the data and our method of identifying HVCs and analyze the overall properties of the GASS population. We catalog a total of 1693 HVCs at declinations <0°, including 1111 positive velocity HVCs and 582 negative velocity HVCs. Our catalog also includes 295 anomalous velocity clouds (AVCs). The cloud line-widths of our HVC population have a median FWHM of ~19 km s-1, which is lower than that found in previous surveys. The completeness of our catalog is above 95% based on comparison with the HIPASS catalog of HVCs upon which we improve by an order of magnitude in spectral resolution. We find 758 new HVCs and AVCs with no HIPASS counterpart. The GASS catalog will shed unprecedented light on the distribution and kinematic structure of southern sky HVCs, as well as delve further into the cloud populations that make up the anomalous velocity gas of the Milky Way.

  19. HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS IN THE GALACTIC ALL SKY SURVEY. I. CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, V. A.; Kummerfeld, J. K.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Murphy, T.; Pisano, D. J.; Curran, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    We present a catalog of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) from the Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS) of southern sky neutral hydrogen, which has 57 mK sensitivity and 1 km s{sup –1} velocity resolution and was obtained with the Parkes Telescope. Our catalog has been derived from the stray-radiation-corrected second release of GASS. We describe the data and our method of identifying HVCs and analyze the overall properties of the GASS population. We catalog a total of 1693 HVCs at declinations <0°, including 1111 positive velocity HVCs and 582 negative velocity HVCs. Our catalog also includes 295 anomalous velocity clouds (AVCs). The cloud line-widths of our HVC population have a median FWHM of ∼19 km s{sup –1}, which is lower than that found in previous surveys. The completeness of our catalog is above 95% based on comparison with the HIPASS catalog of HVCs upon which we improve by an order of magnitude in spectral resolution. We find 758 new HVCs and AVCs with no HIPASS counterpart. The GASS catalog will shed unprecedented light on the distribution and kinematic structure of southern sky HVCs, as well as delve further into the cloud populations that make up the anomalous velocity gas of the Milky Way.

  20. Isolated Bacterial Spores at High-velocity Survive Surface Impacts in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Daniel; Barney, Brandon

    We present experiments in which bacterial spores were found to survive being accelerated in vacuum to velocities in the range 30-120 m/s and impacted on a dense target. In these experiments, spores of Bacillus subtilis spores were charged using electrospray at atmospheric pressure, dried, and then introduced into high vacuum. Through choice of skimmers and beam tubes, different velocity ranges were achieved. An image-charge detector observed the charged spores, providing total charge and velocity. The spores then impacted a glass target within a collection vessel. After the experiment, the collection vessel contents were extracted and cultured. Several positive and negative controls were used, including the use of antibiotic-resistant spores and antibiotic-containing (rifampicin) agar for culturing. These impact velocities are of particular interest for possible transport of bacterial spores from Mars to Phobos, and may have implications for planetary protection in a Phobos sample return mission. In addition, bacteria may reach similar velocities during a spacecraft crash (e.g., within components, or from spacecraft to surface materials during impact, etc.), raising concerns about forward contamination. The velocities of interest to transport of life between planets (panspermia) are somewhat higher, but these results complement shock-based experiments and contribute to the general discussion of impact survivability of organisms.

  1. Jet Velocity Profile Effects on Spray Characteristics of Impinging Jets at High Reynolds and Weber Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Neil S.; Kulkarni, Varun; Sojka, Paul E.

    2014-11-01

    While like-on-like doublet impinging jet atomization has been extensively studied in the literature, there is poor agreement between experimentally observed spray characteristics and theoretical predictions (Ryan et al. 1995, Anderson et al. 2006). Recent works (Bremond and Villermaux 2006, Choo and Kang 2007) have introduced a non-uniform jet velocity profile, which lead to a deviation from the standard assumptions for the sheet velocity and the sheet thickness parameter. These works have assumed a parabolic profile to serve as another limit to the traditional uniform jet velocity profile assumption. Incorporating a non-uniform jet velocity profile results in the sheet velocity and the sheet thickness parameter depending on the sheet azimuthal angle. In this work, the 1/7th power-law turbulent velocity profile is assumed to provide a closer match to the flow behavior of jets at high Reynolds and Weber numbers, which correspond to the impact wave regime. Predictions for the maximum wavelength, sheet breakup length, ligament diameter, and drop diameter are compared with experimental observations. The results demonstrate better agreement between experimentally measured values and predictions, compared to previous models. U.S. Army Research Office under the Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.

  2. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, Stuart Davis; Germann, Timothy C; Jensen, Niels G

    2010-01-01

    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

  3. Sound Velocities and Validity of Birch's Law for Ultra-High Pressure Metals and Ionic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, L.; Boness, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent detection of super-Earths has expanded interest in ultra-high pressure, temperature minerals and elements to help constrain the composition and physical properties of the interiors of these large planets. To understand Earth's interior, Birch's Law and velocity-density systematics has long been important. Recent published DAC experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several metallic elements, including iron, and ionic solids shocked into the ultra-high pressure, temperature fluid state and make comparisons to the recent DAC data.

  4. Experimental verification of corrosive vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to predict deposition rates is required to facilitate modelling of high temperature corrosion by fused salt condensates in turbine engines. A corrosive salt vapor deposition theory based on multicomponent chemically frozen boundary layers (CFBL) has been successfully verified by high velocity burner rig experiments. The experiments involved internally air-impingement cooled, both rotating full and stationary segmented cylindrical collectors located in the crossflow of sodium-seeded combustion gases. Excellent agreement is found between the CFBL theory an the experimental measurements for both the absolute amounts of Na2SO4 deposition rates and the behavior of deposition rate with respect to collector temperature, mass flowrate (velocity) and Na concentration.

  5. High-velocity drag friction in granular media near the jamming point.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Yuka; Okumura, Ko

    2014-04-11

    Drag friction that acts on a disk in a two-dimensional granular medium is studied at high packing fractions. We concentrate on a high-velocity region, in which the dynamic component of the force, obtained as an average of a strongly fluctuating force, clearly scales with velocity squared. We find that the total force composed of dynamic and static components, as well as its fluctuation, diverges with practically the same exponent as the packing fraction approaches the jamming point. To explain the critical behavior, we propose a simple theory equipped with a diverging length scale, which agrees well with the data and elucidates physical pictures for the divergence. PMID:24766018

  6. Determination of minority-carrier lifetime and surface recombination velocity with high spacial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, M.; Actor, G.; Gatos, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the electron beam induced current in conjunction with high-resolution scanning makes it possible to evaluate the minority-carrier lifetime three dimensionally in the bulk and the surface recombination velocity two dimensionally, with a high spacial resolution. The analysis is based on the concept of the effective excitation strength of the carriers which takes into consideration all possible recombination sources. Two-dimensional mapping of the surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon diodes is presented as well as a three-dimensional mapping of the changes in the minority-carrier lifetime in ion-implanted silicon.

  7. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.; Fritz, I.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1984-04-19

    In a field-effect transistor comprising a semiconductor having therein a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship, there is provided an improvement wherein said semiconductor is a superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers comprising a first direct gap semiconductor material which in bulk form has a certain bandgap and a curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field which has a maximum electron velocity at a certain electric field, the barrier layers comprising a second semiconductor material having a bandgap wider than that of said first semiconductor material, wherein the layer thicknesses of said quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice having a curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field which has a maximum electron velocity at a certain electric field, and wherein the thicknesses of said quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field whereby, at applied electric fields higher than that at which the maximum electron velocity occurs in said first material when in bulk form, the electron velocities are higher in said superlattice than they are in said first semiconductor material in bulk form.

  8. Frictional strength of wet- and dry- talc gouge in high-velocity shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Reches, Z.; Elwood Madden, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The strength of the creeping segment of the San Andres fault may be controlled by the distinct weakness and stability of talc (Moore & Rymer, 2007). We analyze talc frictional strength at high slip-velocity of 0.002 - 0.66 m/s, long slip-distances of 0.01 m to 33 m, and normal stresses up to 4.1 MPa. This analysis bridges the gap between nucleation stage of low velocity/distance, and the frictional behavior during large earthquakes. We tested wet and dry samples of pure talc gouge in a confined rotary cell, and continuously monitored the slip-velocity, stresses, dilation and temperature. We run 29 experiments of single and stepped velocities to obtain 243 values of quasi-static frictional coefficients. Dry talc gouge showed distinct slip-strengthening: friction coefficient of µ ~0.4 at short slip-distances of D < 0.1 m, and it increased systematically to µ ~0.8 at slip-distances of D = 0.1- 1 m; at D > 1 m, the frictional strength saturated at µ= 0.8 - 1 level. Wet talc gouge (16-20% water) displayed low frictional strength of µ= 0.1-0.3, in agreement with published triaxial tests. The stepped-velocity runs revealed a consistent velocity-strengthening trend. For a velocity jump from V1 to V2, we used VD = (µ2 -µ1)/ln (V2/V1), and found that on average VD = 0.06 and 0.03 for dry and wet talc, respectively, and for slip distances shorter than 1 m. Microstructural analysis of post-shearing wet talc gouge revealed extreme slip localization to a principal-slip-zone of a few microns, and significant shear compaction of 10-30%. In contrast, dry talc gouge exhibited distributed shear in a wide zone and systematic shear dilation (10-50%). We propose slip along weak interlayer talc plates and thermal-pressurization as the possible weakening mechanisms for wet talc. The development of distributed secondary fault network along with substantial grain crushing is responsible for slip-strengthening in dry condition. Fig. 1. Friction maps of talc gouge as function of slip

  9. Tokamak halo currents

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2013-08-15

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components. Two discordant constraints are central to the theory: (1) Halo currents must produce the magnetic field distribution required to maintain plasma force balance—a distribution that depends on the two angular coordinates of a torus. (2) Halo currents must flow along the magnetic field lines in the plasma, which implies a dependence on a linear combination of the two angular coordinates—only one angular coordinate is free. The physics basis of these two constraints is explained as is their application to the calculation of the properties of halo currents, such as their broad toroidal spectrum. Existing codes could be used to (1) provide detailed comparisons with experiments to validate that the critical elements of physics are adequately included, (2) allow more complete predictions for future machines such as ITER, and (3) design shunts and resistive elements to ensure halo currents follow paths that are the least damaging to the machine. The physics of halo currents implies that it may be possible to feedback stabilize resistive wall modes beyond the ideal-wall limit.

  10. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2012-05-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive elliptical galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' Multiplication-Sign 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of {approx}20-70 pixel{sup -1} in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive elliptical galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} > 150 km s{sup -1}, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by {approx}50%, and only a weak correlation between {sigma}{sub *} and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of elliptical galaxies that are {approx} an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 R{sub e} , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high {alpha}-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive elliptical galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.

  11. Analysis of group-velocity dispersion of high-frequency Rayleigh waves for near-surface applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile using the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves. Most MASW researchers mainly apply Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity dispersion for S-wave velocity estimation with a few exceptions applying Rayleigh-wave group-velocity dispersion. Herein, we first compare sensitivities of fundamental surface-wave phase velocities with group velocities with three four-layer models including a low-velocity layer or a high-velocity layer. Then synthetic data are simulated by a finite difference method. Images of group-velocity dispersive energy of the synthetic data are generated using the Multiple Filter Analysis (MFA) method. Finally we invert a high-frequency surface-wave group-velocity dispersion curve of a real-world example. Results demonstrate that (1) the sensitivities of group velocities are higher than those of phase velocities and usable frequency ranges are wider than that of phase velocities, which is very helpful in improving inversion stability because for a stable inversion system, small changes in phase velocities do not result in a large fluctuation in inverted S-wave velocities; (2) group-velocity dispersive energy can be measured using single-trace data if Rayleigh-wave fundamental-mode energy is dominant, which suggests that the number of shots required in data acquisition can be dramatically reduced and the horizontal resolution can be greatly improved using analysis of group-velocity dispersion; and (3) the suspension logging results of the real-world example demonstrate that inversion of group velocities generated by the MFA method can successfully estimate near-surface S-wave velocities. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. The radial velocity technique and the discovery of exoplanets as seen by high school students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro; Gusev, Anatoly; Pugacheva, Galina; Martin, Inacio; Lyra, Cassia

    2012-07-01

    Presently, the existence of more than 750 exoplanets has been confirmed. The radial velocity technique has proven to be the most effective means to detect planets orbiting other stars. In this technique, which is based on the Doppler effect, the observation of the displacement of spectral lines is used to infer the presence of exoplanets orbiting distant stars. Despite the apparent complexity of this technique, high-school students not only can understand its basic principles, but also create simple programs and software to represent and simulate changes in the radial velocity of a star. Thus, as an extracurricular activity, high-school students developed a simple computer program using the C programming language to simulate the influence of a planet orbiting a star in order to obtain radial velocity curves. The radial velocity curve depends on the masses of the star and planet, and orbital parameters such as orbital period, semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination, argument of periapsis, longitude of the ascending node and mean anomaly. The software allows the variation of these parameters so that the influence of any planet (or system of planets) in orbit of a star can be simulated and the corresponding changes in the radial velocity be observed. For comparison purposes, the radial velocity curve of the Sun under the influence of Jupiter and Saturn are compared with the radial velocity curves of other stars with known exoplanets. This activity became a multidisciplinary study of an interesting physical phenomenon. To obtain the desired results, the students had to learn new concepts and use different tools, which was very rewarding to them.

  13. Inferring the high velocity of landslides in Valles Marineris on Mars from morphological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Paolo; De Blasio, Fabio Vittorio; Di Bastiano, Camilla; Bozzano, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The flow characteristics and velocities of three landslides in Valles Marineris on Mars are investigated using detailed morphological analyses of high-resolution images and dynamical calculations based on the run-up and curvature of the landslide deposits. The morphologies of the landslides are described, especially concerning those characteristics that can provide information on the dynamics and velocity. The long runout and estimated high velocities, often exceeding 100 m/s, confirm a low basal friction experienced by these landslides. Because subaqueous landslides on Earth exhibit reduced friction, we explore the scenario of sub-lacustrine failures, but find little support to this hypothesis. The environmental conditions that better explain the low friction and the presence of longitudinal furrows suggest an aerial environment with a basal soft and naturally lubricating medium on which friction diminished gradually; in this perspective, ice is the most promising candidate.

  14. Relationship between structures of sprite streamers and inhomogeneity of preceding halos captured by high-speed camera during a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Kudo, T.; Shima, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Inoue, T.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Kammae, T.; Yair, Y.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Ahrns, J.; Yukman, P.; Warner, T. A.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Li, J.; Lu, G.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between diffuse glows such as elves and sprite halos and subsequent discrete structure of sprite streamers is considered to be one of the keys to solve the mechanism causing a large variation of sprite structures. However, it's not easy to image at high frame rate both the diffuse and discrete structures simultaneously, since it requires high sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. To capture the real spatial structure of TLEs without influence of atmospheric absorption, spacecraft would be the best solution. However, since the imaging observation from space is mostly made for TLEs appeared near the horizon, the range from spacecraft to TLEs becomes large, such as few thousand km, resulting in low spatial resolution. The aircraft can approach thunderstorm up to a few hundred km or less and can carry heavy high-speed cameras with huge size data memories. In the period of June 27 - July 10, 2011, a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign, in support of NHK Cosmic Shore project, was carried with two jet airplanes under collaboration between NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) and universities. On 8 nights out of 16 standing-by, the jets took off from the airport near Denver, Colorado, and an airborne high speed camera captured over 40 TLE events at a frame rate of 8300 /sec. Here we introduce the time development of sprite streamers and the both large and fine structures of preceding halos showing inhomogeneity, suggesting a mechanism to cause the large variation of sprite types, such as crown like sprites.

  15. First high resolution P wave velocity structure beneath Tenerife Island, (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; Ivan, Koulakov; Ibañez Jesus, M.; Valenti, Sallarès.

    2010-05-01

    3D velocity structure distribution has been imaged for first time using high resolution traveltime seismic tomography of the active volcano of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). It is located in the Atlantic Ocean. In this island is situated the Teide stratovolcano (3718 m high) that is part of the Cañadas-Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. Las Cañadas is a caldera system more than 20 kilometers wide where at least four distinct caldera processes have been identified. Evidence for many explosive eruptions in the volcanic complex has been found; the last noticeable explosive eruption (sub-plinean) occurred at Montaña Blanca around 2000 years ago. During the last 300 years, six effusive eruptions have been reported, the last of which took place at Chinyero Volcano on 18 November 1909. In January 2007, a seismic active experiment was carried out as part of the TOM-TEIDEVS project. About 6850 air gun shots were fired on the sea and recorded on a dense local seismic land network consisting of 150 independent (three component) seismic stations. The good quality of the recorded data allowed identifying P-wave arrivals up to offsets of 30-40 km obtaining more than 63000 traveltimes used in the tomographic inversion. The images have been obtained using ATOM-3D code (Koulakov, 2009). This code uses ray bending algorithms in the ray tracing for the forward modelling and in the inversion step it uses gradient methods. The velocity models show a very heterogeneous upper crust that is usual in similar volcanic environment. The tomographic images points out the no-existence of a magmatic chamber near to the surface and below Pico Teide. The ancient Las Cañadas caldera borders are clearly imaged featuring relatively high seismic velocity. Moreover, we have found a big low velocity anomaly in the northwest dorsal of the island. The last eruption took place in 1909 in this area. Furthermore, in the southeast another low velocity anomaly has been imaged. Several resolution

  16. The Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    2016-05-01

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean (λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large (λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  17. Probing the gaseous halo of galaxies through non-thermal emission from AGN-driven outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    Feedback from outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) can affect the distribution and properties of the gaseous haloes of galaxies. We study the hydrodynamics and non-thermal emission from the forward outflow shock produced by an AGN-driven outflow. We consider a few possible profiles for the halo gas density, self-consistently constrained by the halo mass, redshift and the disc baryonic concentration of the galaxy. We show that the outflow velocity levels off at ˜ 103 km s- 1 within the scale of the galaxy disc. Typically, the outflow can reach the virial radius around the time when the AGN shuts off. We show that the outflows are energy-driven, consistent with observations and recent theoretical findings. The outflow shock lights up the haloes of massive galaxies across a broad wavelength range. For Milky Way mass haloes, radio observations by the Jansky Very Large Array and the Square Kilometre Array and infrared/optical observations by the James Webb Space Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope can detect the emission signal of angular size ˜8 arcsec from galaxies out to redshift z ˜ 5. Millimetre observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are sensitive to non-thermal emission of angular size ˜18 arcsec from galaxies at redshift z ≲ 1, while X-ray observations by Chandra, XMM-Newton and the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics are limited to local galaxies (z ≲ 0.1) with an emission angular size of ˜2 arcmin. Overall, the extended non-thermal emission provides a new way of probing the gaseous haloes of galaxies at high redshifts.

  18. MULTIPLE HIGH-VELOCITY SiO MASER FEATURES FROM THE HIGH-MASS PROTOSTAR W51 NORTH

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Se-Hyung; Kim, Jaeheon; Byun, Do-Young E-mail: jhkim@kasi.re.kr

    2011-02-01

    We present the detection of multiple high-velocity silicon monoxide (SiO v = 1, 2, J = 1-0) maser features in the high-mass protostar W51 North which are distributed over an exceedingly large velocity range from 105 to 230 km s{sup -1}. The SiO v = 1, J = 1-0 maser emission shows 3-5 narrow components which span a velocity range from 154 to 230 km s{sup -1} according to observational epochs. The SiO v = 2, J = 1-0 maser also shows 3-5 narrow components that do not correspond to the SiO v = 1 maser and span a velocity range from 105 to 154 km s{sup -1}. The multiple maser components show significant changes on very short timescales (<1 month) from epoch to epoch. We suggest that the high-velocity SiO masers may be emanated from massive star-forming activity of the W51 North protostar as SiO maser jets and will be a good probe of the earliest evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation via an accretion model. Further high angular resolution observations will be required for confirmation.

  19. Sound Velocities of Fe-C and Fe-Si alloying liquids at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Z.; Han, J.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical and geochemical observations suggest light elements such as S, Si, C, O, H, etc., are likely present in the Earth's outer core and the molten cores of other terrestrial planets and moons including Mercury, Mars, Earth's Moon, and Ganymede. In order to constrain the abundances of light elements in planetary cores, it is crucial to determine the density and sound velocity of Fe-light element alloying liquids under core conditions. In this study, sound velocities of Fe-rich liquids were determined by combining the ultrasonic measurements with synchrotron X-ray radiography and diffraction techniques under high-pressure and temperature conditions from 1 to 6 GPa and 1573 to 1973 K. An Fe-C composition (Fe-5wt%C) and four Fe-Si compositions (Fe-10wt%Si, Fe-17wt%Si, Fe-25wt%Si, and FeSi) were studied. Compared to our previous results on the velocity of Fe and Fe-S liquids at high pressures (Jing et al., 2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 396, 78-87), the presence of both C and Si increases the velocity of liquid Fe, in contrast to the effect of S. The measured velocities of Fe-C and Fe-Si liquids increase with compression and decrease slightly with increasing temperature. Combined with 1-atm density data in the literature, the high-pressure velocity data provide tight constraints on the equations of state and thermodynamic properties such as the adiabatic temperature gradient for Fe-C and Fe-Si liquids. We will discuss these results with implications to planetary cores.

  20. Preservation of Cognitive Performance with Age during Exertional Heat Stress under Low and High Air Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Wright Beatty, Heather E.; Keillor, Jocelyn M.; Hardcastle, Stephen G.; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be at greater risk for occupational injuries given their reduced capacity to dissipate heat, leading to greater thermal strain and potentially cognitive decrements. Purpose. To examine the effects of age and increased air velocity, during exercise in humid heat, on information processing and attention. Methods. Nine young (24 ± 1 years) and 9 older (59 ± 1 years) males cycled 4 × 15 min (separated by 15 min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (low) and 3.0 (high) m·s−1 air velocity wearing coveralls. At rest, immediately following exercise (end exercise), and after the final recovery, participants performed an abbreviated paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT, 2 sec pace). Results. PASAT numbers of correct responses at end exercise were similar for young (low = 49 ± 3; high = 51 ± 3) and older (low = 46 ± 5; high = 47 ± 4) males and across air velocity conditions, and when scored relative to age norms. Psychological sweating, or an increased sweat rate with the administration of the PASAT, was observed in both age groups in the high condition. Conclusion. No significant decrements in attention and speeded information processing were observed, with age or altered air velocity, following intermittent exercise in humid heat. PMID:25874223

  1. Ballistics and the management of ureteral injuries from high velocity missiles.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, R E

    1977-12-01

    The management of 21 patients with 22 ureteral injuries from high velocity missiles is described and 6 cases are reported in detail. Ballistics should be considered in all wounds of violence. Débridement, internal stents, proximal diversion and thorough drainage are advocated. PMID:926271

  2. ASSESSMENT OF A HIGH-VELOCITY FABRIC FILTRATION SYSTEM USED TO CONTROL FLY ASH EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a full-scale investigation (following a pilot plant study) of applying high-velocity fabric filtration to coal-fired boiler fly ash control. Two filter systems were applied separately to two 60,000 lb steam/hr coal-fired boilers. Performance evaluated ...

  3. Dynamics of beam halo in mismatched beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Garnett, R.W.; Gray, E.R.; Ryne, R.D.; Wang, T.S.

    1996-09-01

    High-power proton linacs for nuclear materials transmutation and production, and new accelerator-driven neutron spallation sources must be designed to control beam-halo formation, which leads to beam loss. The study of particle-core models is leading to a better understanding of the causes and characteristics of beam halo produced by space-charge forces in rms mismatched beams. Detailed studies of the models have resulted in predictions of the dependence of the maximum amplitude of halo particles on a mismatch parameter and on the space-charge tune-depression ratio. Scaling formulas have been derived which will provide guidance for choosing the aperture radius to contain the halo without loss.

  4. Galaxy Formation in Triaxial Halos: Black Hole-Bulge-Dark Halo Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zant, Amr A.; Shlosman, Isaac; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Frank, Juhan

    2003-06-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes (SBHs) show correlations with bulge properties in disk and elliptical galaxies. We study the formation of galactic structure within flat-core, mildly triaxial halos and show that these correlations can be understood within the framework of a baryonic component modifying the orbital structure in the underlying potential. In particular, we find that terminal properties of bulges and their central SBHs are constrained by the destruction of box orbits in the harmonic cores of dark halos and the emergence of progressively less eccentric loop orbits there. SBH masses, M•, should exhibit a tighter correlation with bulge velocity dispersions, σB, than with bulge masses, MB, in accord with observations, if there is a significant scatter in the MH-σH relation for the halo. In the context of this model the observed M•-σB relation implies that halos should exhibit a Faber-Jackson type relationship between their masses and velocity dispersions. The most important prediction of our model is that halo properties determine the bulge and SBH parameters. The model also has important implications for galactic morphology and the process of disk formation.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Fly-by Encounters between Milky Way-sized Dark Matter Halos in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jeonghwan; Yun, Kiyun; Kim, Juhan; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2015-08-01

    We present a statistical analysis of gravitational interactions between two Milky Way-sized halos (0.3 - 2.0 MMW) by performing cosmological N-body simulations. We take the total energy (E12) of two halos as the classifier of the halo pairs into mergers (E12 < 0) and flyby encounters (E12 > 0). The relative velocity distribution of galaxy pairs in clusters show that, regardless of redshift, the mean relative velocity is as high as ~600 km s-1 with a long high-velocity tail (up to ~ 1500 km s-1). The mean relative velocity in fields is, regardless of redshift, ~ 300 km s-1 with relatively narrow spread (100 ~ 500 km s-1). This leads to the flyby fraction in clusters being as high as the merger fraction and to the flyby fractions in fields being lower than the merger fraction. On the other hand, the statistics of the redshift evolution show that the number of flybys is, regardless of the environment, comparable to that of mergers at z ~ 1, yet N(flyby)/N(merger) decreases till z ~ 0. It is concluded that the flyby interactions have played a critical role in evolution of Milky Way-sized galaxies, particularly in clusters and at high redshift (z ~ 1).

  6. Estimation of friction velocity from the wind-wave spectrum at extremely high wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagaki, N.; Komori, S.; Suzuki, N.

    2016-05-01

    The equilibrium range of wind-waves at normal and extremely high wind speeds was investigated experimentally using a high-speed wind-wave tank together with field measurements at normal wind speeds. Water level fluctuations at normal and extremely high wind speeds were measured with resistance-type wave gauges, and the wind-wave spectrum and significant phase velocity were calculated. The equilibrium range constant was estimated from the wind-wave spectrum and showed the strong relationship with inverse wave age at normal and extremely high wind speeds. Using the strong relation between the equilibrium range constant and inverse wave age, a new method for estimating the wind speed at 10-m height (U 10) and friction velocity (u*) was proposed. The results suggest that U 10 and u* can be estimated from wave measurements alone at extremely high wind speeds in oceans under tropical cyclones.

  7. Ultraviolet Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Used to Measure Velocity in High-Speed Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular Rayleigh scattering offers a means to measure gas flow parameters including density, temperature, and velocity. No seeding of the flow is necessary. The Rayleigh scattered power is proportional to the gas density, the spectral width is related to the gas temperature, and the shift in the frequency of the spectral peak is proportional to one component of the fluid velocity. Velocity measurements based on Rayleigh scattering are more suitable for high-speed flow, where the bulk fluid velocity is on the order of, or larger than, the molecular thermal velocities. Use of ultraviolet wavelengths for Rayleigh scattering diagnostics is attractive for two reasons. First, the Rayleigh scattering cross section is proportional to the inverse 4th power of the wavelength. And second, the reflectivity of metallic surfaces is generally less than it is at longer wavelengths. This is of particular interest in confined flow situations, such as in small wind tunnels and aircraft engine components, where the stray laser light scattered from the windows and internal surfaces in the test facility limits the application of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. In this work at the NASA Lewis Research Center, molecular Rayleigh scattering of the 266-nm fourth harmonic of a pulsed, injection seeded Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttriumaluminum- garnet) laser was used to measure velocity in a supersonic free air jet with a 9.3- mm exit diameter. The frequency of the Rayleigh scattered light was analyzed with a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static imaging mode, with the images recorded on a cooled, high-quantum-efficiency charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera. In addition, some unshifted light from the same laser pulse was imaged through the interferometer to generate a reference. Data were obtained with single laser pulses at velocities up to Mach 1.3. The measured velocities were in good agreement with velocities calculated from isentropic flow relations. Our conclusion from

  8. Probing dark energy models with extreme pairwise velocities of galaxy clusters from the DEUS-FUR simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillot, Vincent R.; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann

    2015-06-01

    Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model predictions. Halo catalogues from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogues from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results, we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwise velocities significantly deviates from that of a Gaussian, moreover it carries an imprint of the underlying cosmology. We find the Bullet Cluster probability to be two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, thus easing the tension with the ΛCDM model. Finally, the comparison of the inferred probabilities for the different DEUS-FUR cosmologies suggests that observations of extreme interacting clusters can provide constraints on dark energy models complementary to standard cosmological tests.

  9. Alfven's critical ionization velocity observed in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Brenning, N.; Lundin, D.

    2012-09-15

    Azimuthally rotating dense plasma structures, spokes, have recently been detected in several high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) devices used for thin film deposition and surface treatment, and are thought to be important for plasma buildup, energizing of electrons, as well as cross-B transport of charged particles. In this work, the drift velocities of these spokes are shown to be strongly correlated with the critical ionization velocity, CIV, proposed by Alfven. It is proposed as the most promising approach in combining the CIV and HiPIMS research fields is to focus on the role of spokes in the process of electron energization.

  10. The edge of the M 87 halo and the kinematics of the diffuse light in the Virgo cluster core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, M.; Arnaboldi, M.; Das, P.; Gerhard, O.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ciardullo, R.; Feldmeier, J. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Jacoby, G. H.; Murante, G.

    2009-08-01

    Aims: We study the kinematics and dynamics of the extreme outer halo of M 87, the central galaxy in the Virgo cluster, and its transition to the intracluster light (ICL). Methods: We present high resolution FLAMES/VLT spectroscopy of intracluster planetary nebula (PN) candidates, targeting three new fields in the Virgo cluster core with surface brightness down to μB = 28.5. Based on the projected phase space information (sky positions and line-of-sight velocities) we separate galaxy and cluster components in the confirmed PN sample. We then use the spherical Jeans equation and the total gravitational potential as traced by the X-ray emission to derive the orbital distribution in the outer stellar halo of M 87. We determine the luminosity-specific PN number for the M 87 halo and the ICL from the photometric PN catalogs and sampled luminosities, and discuss the origin of the ICL in Virgo based on its measured PN velocities. Results: We confirm a further 12 PNs in Virgo, five of which are bound to the halo of M 87, and the remainder are true intracluster planetary nebulas (ICPNs). The M 87 PNs are confined to the extended stellar envelope of M 87, within a projected radius of ~160 kpc, while the ICPNs are scattered across the whole surveyed region between M 87 and M 86, supporting a truncation of M 87's luminous outer halo at a 2σ level. The line-of-sight velocity distribution of the M 87 PNs at projected radii of 60 kpc and 144 kpc shows (i) no evidence for rotation of the halo along the photometric major axis; and (ii) that the velocity dispersion decreases in the outer halo, down to σ_last = 78±25 km s-1 at 144 kpc. The Jeans model for the M 87 halo stars fits the observed line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile only if the stellar orbits are strongly radially anisotropic (β ≃ 0.4 at r ≃ 10 kpc increasing to 0.8 at the outer edge), and if additionally the stellar halo is truncated at ≃ 150 kpc average elliptical radius. The α-parameters for the M 87

  11. Portable conduction velocity experiments using earthworms for the college and high school neuroscience teaching laboratory.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kyle M; Gage, Gregory J; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C

    2014-03-01

    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction velocities that can be easily measured by manipulating electrode placement and the tactile stimulus. Here, we present a portable and robust experimental setup that allows students to perform conduction velocity measurements within a 30-min to 1-h laboratory session. Our improvement over this well-known preparation is the combination of behaviorally relevant tactile stimuli (avoiding electrical stimulation) with the invention of minimal, low-cost, and portable equipment. We tested these experiments during workshops in both a high school and college classroom environment and found positive learning outcomes when we compared pre- and posttests taken by the students. PMID:24585472

  12. Group velocity locked vector dissipative solitons in a high repetition rate fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiyang; Li, Lei; Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Wu, Zhichao; Xu, Zhilin; Tang, Dingyuan; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming

    2016-08-01

    Vectorial nature of dissipative solitons (DSs) with high repetition rate is studied for the first time in a normal-dispersion fiber laser. Despite the fact that the formed DSs are strongly chirped and the repetition rate is greater than 100 MHz, polarization locked and polarization rotating group velocity locked vector DSs can be formed under 129.3 MHz fundamental mode-locking and 258.6 MHz harmonic mode-locking of the fiber laser, respectively. The two orthogonally polarized components of these vector DSs possess distinctly different central wavelengths and travel together at the same group velocity in the laser cavity, resulting in a gradual spectral edge and small steps on the optical spectrum, which can be considered as an auxiliary indicator of the group velocity locked vector DSs. Moreover, numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and further reveal the impact of the net cavity birefringence on the properties of the formed vector DSs. PMID:27505834

  13. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Dynamic Measurement of Velocity Fluctuations in High Speed Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Panda, Jayanta; Elam, Kristie A.

    2001-01-01

    A flow diagnostic technique based on the molecular Rayleigh scattering of laser light is used to obtain dynamic density and velocity data in a high speed flow. The technique is based on analyzing the Rayleigh scattered light with a Fabry-Perot interferometer used in the static, imaging mode. An analysis is presented that established a lower bound for measurement uncertainty of about 20 m/sec for individual velocity measurements obtained in a 100 microsecond time interval. Software and hardware interfaces were developed to allow computer control of all aspects of the experiment and data acquisition. The signals from three photomultiplier tubes were simultaneously recorded using photon counting at a 10 kHz sampling rate and 10 second recording periods. Density and velocity data, including distribution functions and power spectra, taken in a Mach 0.8 free jet, are presented.

  14. The Effects of Drag and Tidal Forces on the Orbits of High-Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Alexandre; Benjamin, R. A.

    2013-06-01

    Over the past several years, orbital constraints have been obtained for several high velocity cloud complexes surrounding the Milky Way: Complex GCP (Smith Cloud), Complex A, Complex H, Complex GCN, and the Magellanic Stream. We summarize what is known about the orbits of these clouds and and discuss how well each of these complexes fits a balistic trajectory, and discuss how the length of a complex across the sky is related to the inital "fragmentation" and velocity dispersion of the clouds. We then introduce gas drag into the simulation of the orbits of these complexes. We present analytical tests of our numerical method and characterize the departure of the clouds from the ballistic trajectory as a function of drag parameters (ambient gas density and velocity and cloud column density). Using the results of these simulations we comment on the survivability and ultimate fate of HVC in the context of the different models of drag forces.

  15. Relationship between the upper mantle high velocity seismic lid and the continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Keith; Tilmann, Frederik

    2009-04-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary corresponds to the base of the "rigid" plates - the depth at which heat transport changes from advection in the convecting deeper upper mantle to conduction in the shallow upper mantle. Although this boundary is a fundamental feature of the Earth, mapping it has been difficult because it does not correspond to a sharp change in temperature or composition. Various definitions of the lithosphere and asthenosphere are based on the analysis of different types of geophysical and geological observations. The depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary determined from these different observations often shows little agreement when they are applied to the same region because the geophysical and geological observations (i.e., seismic velocity, strain rate, electrical resistivity, chemical depletion, etc.) are proxies for the change in rheological properties rather than a direct measure of the rheological properties. In this paper, we focus on the seismic mapping of the upper mantle high velocity lid and low velocity zone and its relationship to the lithosphere and asthenosphere. We have two goals: (a) to examine the differences in how teleseismic body-wave travel-time tomography and surface-wave tomography image upper mantle seismic structure; and (b) to summarise how upper mantle seismic velocity structure can be related to the structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Surface-wave tomography provides reasonably good depth resolution, especially when higher modes are included in the analysis, but lateral resolution is limited by the horizontal wavelength of the long-period surface waves used to constrain upper mantle velocity structure. Teleseismic body-wave tomography has poor depth resolution in the upper mantle, particularly when no strong lateral contrasts are present. If station terms are used, features with large lateral extent and gradual boundaries are attenuated in the tomographic image. Body-wave models are not

  16. High-Velocity Resistance Exercise Protocols in Older Women: Effects on Cardiovascular Response

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rodrigo P.; Novaes, Jefferson; Oliveira, Ricardo J.; Gentil, Paulo; Wagner, Dale; Bottaro, Martim

    2007-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y) performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP). All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP) involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5) or 15 (DP15) seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05) with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women. Key pointsThe assessment of cardiovascular responses to high-velocity resistance exercise in older individuals is very important for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in elderly population.Discontinuous protocol decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (HR x SBP) during the performance of dynamic high-velocity resistance exercise in older women.The decrease in RPP (~ 8.5%) during the discontinuous protocol has clinical implications when developing high-velocity resistance exercise strategies for elderly individuals. PMID:24149492

  17. Nanomechanics of HaloTag tethers.

    PubMed

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M

    2013-08-28

    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ∼2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a 4-fold increase, from 131 to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice as sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether. PMID:23909704

  18. Beam halo studies in LEHIPA DTL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Pande, R.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) project at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) consists of a 20 MeV, 30 mA proton linac. The accelerator comprises of a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL). In such high intensity accelerators, beam halos are of concern as they not only cause an increase in emittance, but also lead to beam loss and radio activation. We have studied the effect of beam mismatch at the DTL input on halo formation and propagation. The particle core model is used to excite the three envelope eigen modes; the quadrupole mode, the fast mode and the slow mode by giving input beam mismatch. These modes get damped as the beam progresses through the DTL. The damping mechanism is clearly Landau damping and leads to increase in rms emittance of the beam. The evolution of these modes and the corresponding increase in beam emittance and maximum beam extent, as the beam propagates through the DTL, has been studied for different space charge tunes. The halo parameter based on the definition of Allen and Wangler has been calculated. It is seen that beam halos are very important for LEHIPA DTL, even at 20 MeV and leads to emittance and beam size increase and also to beam loss in some cases. The longitudinal halo is present even without mismatch and transverse halos arise in the presence of beam mismatch.

  19. EFFECT OF DARK MATTER HALO SUBSTRUCTURES ON GALAXY ROTATION CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Nirupam

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of halo substructures on galaxy rotation curves is investigated using a simple model of dark matter clustering. A dark matter halo density profile is developed based only on the scale-free nature of clustering that leads to a statistically self-similar distribution of the substructures at the galactic scale. A semi-analytical method is used to derive rotation curves for such a clumpy dark matter density profile. It is found that the halo substructures significantly affect the galaxy velocity field. Based on the fractal geometry of the halo, this self-consistent model predicts a Navarro-Frenk-White-like rotation curve and a scale-free power spectrum of the rotation velocity fluctuations.

  20. Halo vest instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  1. Method and apparatus for optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, John Stuart; Milner, Thomas Edward; Chen, Zhongping

    1999-01-01

    Optical Doppler tomography permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media. The tomography system combines Doppler velocimetry with high spatial resolution of partially coherent optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics and tissue structures with high spatial resolutions of the order of 2 to 10 microns is achieved in biological systems. The backscattered interference signals derived from the interferometer may be analyzed either through power spectrum determination to obtain the position and velocity of each particle in the fluid flow sample at each pixel, or the interference spectral density may be analyzed at each frequency in the spectrum to obtain the positions and velocities of the particles in a cross-section to which the interference spectral density corresponds. The realized resolutions of optical Doppler tomography allows noninvasive in vivo imaging of both blood microcirculation and tissue structure surrounding the vessel which has significance for biomedical research and clinical applications.

  2. On the Continuing Formation of the Andromeda Galaxy: Detection of H I Clouds in the M31 Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, David A.; Braun, Robert; Walterbos, René A. M.; Corbelli, Edvige; Lockman, Felix J.; Murphy, Edward; Maddalena, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Green Bank Telescope 21 cm observations have revealed a faint, yet extensive H I cloud population surrounding the Andromeda galaxy (M31). The newfound objects are likely analogs to the high-velocity H I clouds seen around the Milky Way. At least 20 discrete features are detected within 50 kpc of the M31 disk, with radial velocities that are comparable to those of outer disk rotation. In addition, a filamentary ``halo'' component of at least 30 kpc extent is concentrated at the M31 systemic velocity. Some of the discrete features are organized into elongated systems with velocity continuity, suggestive of tidal streams. The discrete population can be characterized by a steep power-law distribution of number versus H I mass in the range between 105 and 107 Msolar. The velocity line width of discrete clouds is correlated with the cloud H I mass such that if the clouds are gravitationally bound this implies a dark matter to H I mass ratio of ~100:1. Possible origins for the discrete and halo M31 features include a LoGroup ``cooling flow,'' tidal debris from recent mergers or interactions, and the gaseous counterparts of low-mass dark matter halos.

  3. The frequency and distribution of high-velocity gas in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency and distribution of high-velocity gas in the Galaxy using UV absorption line measurements from archival high-dispersion IUE spectra and to identify particularly interesting regions for future study. Approximately 500 spectra have been examined. The study began with the creation of a database of all 0 and B stars with b less than or = to 30 deg observed with IUE at high dispersion over its 18-year lifetime. The original database of 2500 unique objects was reduced to 1200 objects which had optimal exposures available. The next task was to determine the distances of these stars so the high-velocity structures could be mapped in the Galaxy. Spectroscopic distances were calculated for each star for which photometry was available. The photometry was acquired for each star using the SIMBAD database. Preference was given to the ubvy system where available; otherwise the UBV system was used.

  4. Hypersonic velocity measurement using Brillouin scattering technique. Application to water under high pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Decremps, Frederic; Datchi, Frederic; Polian, Alain

    2006-12-22

    This paper presents recent improvement on sound velocity measurements under extreme conditions, illustrated by the hypersonic sound velocity measurements of water up to 723 K and 9 GPa using Brillouin scattering technique. Because water at high pressure and high temperature is chemically very aggressive, these experiments have been carried out using a specific experimental set-up. The present data should be useful to better constrain the water equation of state at high density. This new development brings high-quality elastic data in a large pressure/temperature domain, which may afterwards benefit the understanding of many other fields as nonlinear acoustics, underwater sound, or physical acoustics from a more general point of view. PMID:16797640

  5. Design and test of a superconducting structure for high-velocity ions

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Kennedy, W.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Following the successful development of a niobium coaxial half-wave structure we have designed, built and tested a new half-wave geometry: the spoke resonator. This geometry is better suited for high frequency resonators and for the acceleration of high velocity ions. The prototype cavity is a 2-gap structure resonating at 855 MHz, and optimized for particle velocity of 0.30 c. It is easier to manufacture than the coaxial half-wave resonator and the geometry can be straightforwardly extended to multigap designs. Rf-tests have been performed on this cavity both prior to and after high temperature annealing. An accelerating gradient of 7.2 MV/m (cw) and 7.8 MV/m (pulsed) was observed at 4.2 K. After annealing, a low power Q{sub 0} of 1.2 {times}10{sup 8} was observed with small Q degradation due to field emission at high accelerating fields.

  6. Design and test of a superconducting structure for high-velocity ions

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Kennedy, W.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1992-10-01

    Following the successful development of a niobium coaxial half-wave structure we have designed, built and tested a new half-wave geometry: the spoke resonator. This geometry is better suited for high frequency resonators and for the acceleration of high velocity ions. The prototype cavity is a 2-gap structure resonating at 855 MHz, and optimized for particle velocity of 0.30 c. It is easier to manufacture than the coaxial half-wave resonator and the geometry can be straightforwardly extended to multigap designs. Rf-tests have been performed on this cavity both prior to and after high temperature annealing. An accelerating gradient of 7.2 MV/m (cw) and 7.8 MV/m (pulsed) was observed at 4.2 K. After annealing, a low power Q{sub 0} of 1.2 {times}10{sup 8} was observed with small Q degradation due to field emission at high accelerating fields.

  7. The high-velocity outflow in the proto-planetary nebula Hen 3-1475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, A.; García-Lario, P.; Manchado, A.; Bobrowsky, M.; Estalella, R.

    2003-04-01

    The proto-planetary nebula Hen 3-1475 shows a remarkable highly collimated optical jet with an S-shaped string of three pairs of knots and extremely high velocities. We present here a detailed analysis of the overall morphology, kinematic structure and the excitation conditions of these knots based on deep ground-based high dispersion spectroscopy complemented with high spatial resolution spectroscopy obtained with STIS onboard HST, and WFPC2 [N II] images. The spectra obtained show double-peaked, extremely wide emission line profiles, and a decrease of the radial velocities with distance to the source in a step-like fashion. We find that the emission line ratios observed in the intermediate knots are consistent with a spectrum arising from the recombination region of a shock wave with shock velocities ranging from 100 to 150 km s-1. We propose that the ejection velocity is varying as a function of time with a quasi-periodic variability (with timescale of the order of 100 years) and the direction of ejection is also varying with a precession period of the order of 1500 years. Some slowing down with distance along the axis of the Hen 3-1475 jet may be due to the entrainment process and/or to the enviromental drag. This scenario is supported by geometric and kinematic evidence: firstly, the decrease of the radial velocities along the Hen 3-1475 jet in a step like fashion; secondly, the kinematic structure observed in the knots; thirdly, the point-symmetric morphology together with the high proper motions shown by several knots; and finally the fact that the shock velocity predicted from the observed spectra of the shocked knots is much slower than the velocities at which these knots move outwards with respect to the central source. Based on observations made during service time with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope operated on La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de

  8. High-Velocity Absorption Features in FUSE Spectra of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Iping, R. C.; Gull, T. R.; Vieira, G.

    2002-12-01

    Numerous broad (200 to 1000 km/sec) features in the FUSE spectrum (905-1187 A) of eta Carinae are identified as absorption by a forest of high-velocity narrow lines formed in the expanding circumstellar envelope. These features were previously thought to be P-Cygni lines arising in the wind of the central star. The features span a heliocentric velocity range of -140 to -580 km/sec and are seen prominently in low-ionization ground-state transitions (e.g. N I 1134-35, Fe II 1145-42, 1133, 1127-22, P II 1153, C I 1158) in addition to C III] 1176 A. The high-velocity components of the FUSE transitions have depths about 50% below the continuum. The identifications are consistent with the complex velocity structures seen in ground- and excited-state transitions of Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, V II, etc observed in STIS/E230H spectra (see accompanying posters by Gull, Vieira, and Danks). The origin of other broad features of similar width and depth in the FUSE spectrum, but without low-velocity ISM absorption, are unidentified. However, they are suspected of being absorption of singly-ionized iron-peak elements (e.g. Fe II, V II, Cr II) out of excited levels 1,000 to 20,000 cmE-1 above the ground state. The high-velocity features seen in Fe II 1145 are also present in Fe II 1608 (STIS/E140M), but are highly saturated in the latter. Since these transitions have nearly identical log (flambda) (1.998 vs. 2.080), the differences in the profiles are attributable to the different aperture sizes used (30x30 arcsec for FUSE, 0.2x0.2 arcsec for STIS/E140M). The high-velocity gas appears to be very patchy or has a small covering factor near the central star. Eta Carinae has been observed several times by FUSE over the past three years. The FUSE flux levels and spectral features in eta Car are essentially unchanged over the 2000 March to June 2002 period, establishing a baseline far-UV spectrum in advance of the predicted spectroscopic miniumum in 2003.

  9. High-Velocity Absorption Features in FUSE Spectra of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Iping, R. C.; Gull, T. R.; Vieira, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous broad (200 to 1000 km/sec) features in the FUSE spectrum (905-1187 A) of eta Carinae are identified as absorption by a forest of high-velocity narrow lines formed in the expanding circumstellar envelope. These features were previously thought to be P-Cygni lines arising in the wind of the central star. The features span a heliocentric velocity range of -140 to -580 km/sec and are seen prominently in low-ionization ground-state transitions (e.g. N I 1134-35, Fe II 1145-42, 1133, 1127- 22, P II 1153, C I 1158) in addition to C III] 1176 A. The high-velocity components of the FUSE transitions have depths about 50% below the continuum. The identifications are consistent with the complex velocity structures seen in ground- and excited-state transitions of Mg I, Mg 11, Fe II, V II, etc observed in STIS/E230H spectra. The origin of other broad features of similar width and depth in the FUSE spectrum, but without low-velocity ISM absorption, are unidentified. However, they are suspected of being absorption of singly-ionized iron-peak elements (e.g. Fe II, V II, Cr II) out of excited levels 1,000 to 20,000 cmE-l above the ground state. The high-velocity features seen in Fe II 1145 are also present in Fe II 1608 (STIS/E140M), but are highly saturated in the latter. Since these transitions have nearly identical log (flambda) (1.998 vs. 2.080), the differences in the profiles are attributable to the different aperture sizes used (30 x 30 arcsec for FUSE, 0.2 x 0.2 arcsec for STIS/E140M). The high-velocity gas appears to be very patchy or has a small covering factor near the central star. Eta Carinae has been observed several times by FUSE over the past three years. The FUSE flux levels and spectral features in eta Car are essentially unchanged over the 2000 March to June 2002 period, establishing a baseline far-UV spectrum in advance of the predicted spectroscopic minimum in 2003.

  10. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  11. Massive black holes in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, C. G.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    In the present attempt to resolve the problems posed by the composition of dark halos and the heating of stellar disks, under the assumption that galaxy halos are composed of massive black holes, it is noted that the black holes must have masses of the order of one million solar masses. The heating mechanism proposed yields predictions for the dependence of the velocity dispersion on time, and for the shape of the velocity ellipsoid, which are in good agreement with observations. Attention is given to the constraints set by dynamical friction causing black holes to spiral to the Galactic center, by the possible presence of dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and by the accretion of interstellar gas by the black holes that produce luminous objects in the Galaxy.

  12. Linking the Halo to its Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, N.

    The Galactic halo is unlikely built up from galaxy populations similar to the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) in the Local Group, but it is possible that the halo was formed by accreted dwarf galaxies that had much larger mass and higher star formation rates such as the Saggitarius dSph. Cosmological simulations show that dSph galaxies formed via hierarchical clustering of numerous smaller building blocks. Stars formed at the galaxy centre tend to form from metal-rich infall gas, which builds up the metallicity gradients. Infalling gas has larger rotational velocity and smaller velocity dispersion due to the dissipative processes, resulting the two distinct old stellar populations of different chemical and kinematic properties, which are recently discovered in the Sculptor dSph galaxy.

  13. Evidence for a Very Low-column Density Hole in the Galactic Halo in the Direction of the High Latitude Molecular Cloud MBM 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Galeazzi, M.; Ursino, E.

    2016-01-01

    Shadow observations are the only way to observe emission from the galactic halo (GH) and/or the circumgalactic medium (CGM) free of any foreground contamination from local hot bubble (LHB) and solar wind charge exchange (SWCX). We analyzed data from a shadow observation in the direction of the high latitude, neutral hydrogen cloud MBM 16 with Suzaku. We found that all emission can be accounted for by foreground emission from LHB and SWCX, plus power-law emission associated with unresolved point sources. The GH/CGM in the direction of MBM 16 is negligible or inexistent in our observation, with upper limits on the emission measure of 9× {10}-4 pc cm-6 (90% C.L.-solar metallicity), at the lowest end of current estimates.

  14. Streptococcus mutans biofilm transient viscoelastic fluid behaviour during high-velocity microsprays.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, S; Johnston, D A; Rmaile, A; Gottenbos, B; De Jager, M; Aspiras, M; Starke, E M; Ward, M T; Stoodley, P

    2016-06-01

    Using high-speed imaging we assessed Streptococcus mutans biofilm-fluid interactions during exposure to a 60-ms microspray burst with a maximum exit velocity of 51m/s. S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown for 72h on 10mm-length glass slides pre-conditioned with porcine gastric mucin. Biofilm stiffness was measured by performing uniaxial-compression tests. We developed an in-vitro interproximal model which allowed the parallel insertion of two biofilm-colonized slides separated by a distance of 1mm and enabled high-speed imaging of the removal process at the surface. S. mutans biofilms were exposed to either a water microspray or an air-only microburst. High-speed videos provided further insight into the mechanical behaviour of biofilms as complex liquids and into high-shear fluid-biofilm interaction. We documented biofilms extremely transient fluid behaviour when exposed to the high-velocity microsprays. The presence of time-dependent recoil and residual deformation confirmed the pivotal role of viscoelasticity in biofilm removal. The air-only microburst was effective enough to remove some of the biofilm but created a smaller clearance zone underlying the importance of water and the air-water interface of drops moving over the solid surface in the removal process. Confocal and COMSTAT analysis showed the high-velocity water microspray caused up to a 99.9% reduction in biofilm thickness, biomass and area coverage, within the impact area. PMID:26771168

  15. Cosmological simulations of decaying dark matter: implications for small-scale structure of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Peter, Annika H. G.; Strigari, Louis E.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Arant, Bryan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Rocha, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    We present a set of N-body simulations of a class of models in which an unstable dark matter particle decays into a stable dark matter particle and a non-interacting light particle with decay lifetime comparable to the Hubble time. We study the effects of the recoil kick velocity (Vk) received by the stable dark matter on the structures of dark matter haloes ranging from galaxy-cluster to Milky Way-mass scales. For Milky Way-mass haloes, we use high-resolution, zoom-in simulations to explore the effects of decays on Galactic substructure. In general, haloes with circular velocities comparable to the magnitude of kick velocity are most strongly affected by decays. We show that models with lifetimes Γ-1 ˜ H_0^{-1} and recoil speeds Vk ˜ 20-40 km s-1 can significantly reduce both the abundance of Galactic subhaloes and their internal densities. We find that decaying dark matter models that do not violate current astrophysical constraints can significantly mitigate both the `missing satellites problem' and the more recent `too big to fail problem'. These decaying models predict significant time evolution of haloes, and this implies that at high redshifts decaying models exhibit the similar sequence of structure formation as cold dark matter. Thus, decaying dark matter models are significantly less constrained by high-redshift phenomena than warm dark matter models. We conclude that models of decaying dark matter make predictions that are relevant for the interpretation of small galaxies observations in the Local Group and can be tested as well as by forthcoming large-scale surveys.

  16. Halo abundance matching: accuracy and conditions for numerical convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Heß, Steffen; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Accurate predictions of the abundance and clustering of dark matter haloes play a key role in testing the standard cosmological model. Here, we investigate the accuracy of one of the leading methods of connecting the simulated dark matter haloes with observed galaxies- the halo abundance matching (HAM) technique. We show how to choose the optimal values of the mass and force resolution in large volume N-body simulations so that they provide accurate estimates for correlation functions and circular velocities for haloes and their subhaloes - crucial ingredients of the HAM method. At the 10 per cent accuracy, results converge for ˜50 particles for haloes and ˜150 particles for progenitors of subhaloes. In order to achieve this level of accuracy a number of conditions should be satisfied. The force resolution for the smallest resolved (sub)haloes should be in the range (0.1-0.3)rs, where rs is the scale radius of (sub)haloes. The number of particles for progenitors of subhaloes should be ˜150. We also demonstrate that the two-body scattering plays a minor role for the accuracy of N-body simulations thanks to the relatively small number of crossing-times of dark matter in haloes, and the limited force resolution of cosmological simulations.

  17. Study on the radiation property of high temperature gas relation with flight altitude and velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Weihua; Xu, Hang; Xiang, Jingbo; Song, Jiangtao

    2013-08-01

    While flying in the aerosphere at high speed, it will form shock wave around the noddle of flight vehicle. The radiation of hot air behind shock wave is a major factor responsible for the infrared signature of the vehicle, and has an important influence on the infrared detection system mounted in it. Calculating the infrared radiation of high temperature gas is significant for selecting an optimal detection band and improving detection capability of the IR system. In this paper, focused on the high-speed flight in typical altitude, the line-by-line method was adopted to calculate the radiation properties of high temperature gas around the noddle of the vehicle to study the relationship with the flight altitude and velocity. At first, based on the flight altitude, the related parameters of the flow, such as pressure, temperature and density, were calculated using the standard atmosphere model. Then, the parameters of the air which had passed through the shock wave were calculated according to the shock wave theory. At last, the line-by-line method had been used to calculate the radiant absorption coefficient of high temperature gas in different velocity and flight altitude. The results of calculation show that in the same velocity, the average absorption coefficient of high temperature gas is smaller while the higher flight altitude; in the same flight altitude, the coefficient is bigger while the higher velocity. And so, while flying in low altitude with high speed, the radiation of the hot air should be taken into consideration more carefully for infrared system design.

  18. On projectile fragmentation at high-velocity perforation of a thin bumper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkov, N. N.; Stepanov, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    By means of 3D numerical simulations, we study the statistical properties of the fragments cloud formed during high-velocity impact of a spherical projectile on a mesh bumper. We present a quantitative description of the projectile fragmentation, and study the nature of the transition from the damage to the fragmentation of the projectile when the impact velocity varies. A distinctive feature of the present work is that the calculations are carried out by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method applied to the equations of mechanics of deformable solids (MDS). We describe the materials behavior by the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and the Johnson-Cook model for the yield strength. The maximum principal stress spall model is used as the fracture model. It is shown that the simulation results of fragmentation based on the MDS equations by the SPH method are qualitatively consistent with the results obtained earlier on the basis of the molecular dynamics and discrete element models. It is found that the power-law distribution exponent does not depend on energy imparted to the projectile during the high-velocity impact. At the same time, our calculations show that the critical impact velocity, the power-law exponent and other critical exponents depend on the fracture criterion.

  19. High-Velocity HCO Emission Associated with the DR21 Molecular Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garden, R. P.; Carlstrom, J. E.

    1996-03-01

    The spatial and velocity distribution of HCO(+) J = 1-0 line emission from the DR 21 young stellar outflow is investigated with the Hat Creek millimeter interferometer. It is argued that the HCO(+) emission arises from two spatially distinct components: low-velocity clumps bordering the central DR 21 compact H II region, and extended high-velocity gas associated with the DR 21 outflow lobes. The high-velocity HCO(+) emission associated with the outflow lobes exhibits a remarkable spatial correlation with the distribution of shock-excited H2 line emission and is most likely formed by the compression and acceleration of ambient gas on interaction with a powerful young stellar wind. It is argued that the observed spatial correlation between HCO(+) and H2 line emission results from two interrelated effects: a small enhancement in the fractional abundance of HCO(+) in the shocked gas, and the more favorable conditions for excitation of the HCO(+) ion in the warm dense gas that comprises the outflow lobes. It is suggested that the DR 21 outflow source is one of the largest, most massive and energetic young stellar outflows discovered to date.

  20. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  1. HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC VELOCITY AND ATTENUATION MODELS OF THE CAUCASUS-CASPIAN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Sandvol, E

    2007-07-10

    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Crustal and upper mantle velocities show great heterogeneity in this region and regional phases display variations in both amplitudes and travel time. Furthermore, due to a lack of quality data, the region has largely been unexplored in terms of the detailed lithospheric seismic structure. A unified high-resolution 3D velocity and attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle will be developed and calibrated. This model will use new data from 23 new broadband stations in the region analyzed with a comprehensive set of techniques. Velocity models of the crust and upper mantle will be developed using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface waves. The surface wave modeling will use both event-based methods and ambient noise tomography. Regional phase (Pg, Pn, Sn, and Lg) Q model(s) will be constructed using the new data in combination with existing data sets. The results of the analysis (both attenuation and velocity modeling) will be validated using modeling of regional phases, calibration with selected events, and comparison with previous work. Preliminary analyses of receiver functions show considerable variability across the region. All results will be integrated into the KnowledgeBase.

  2. Study of olivine-rich dark halo crater - Beaumont L in Mare Nectaris using high resolution remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Chauhan, Prakash; Rajawat, A. S.; Kumar, A. S. Kiran

    2015-05-01

    Study of dark-haloed craters (DHCs) can provide important information about the geology, mineralogy and evolution of certain hidden mare deposits known as cryptomare. Some DHCs have been identified in the Mare Nectaris region of the near side of the Moon. Beaumont L represents one such DHC situated on the western flank of the Nectaris basin. Moon Mineralogical Mapper (M3) images were used to investigate the composition of DHCs. Morphological investigations have been carried out using Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera images. The morphological details captured by TMC and LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images provide evidence that Beaumont-L is of impact origin and do not show evidence of a volcanic origin. The compositional analysis using M3 data indicates the presence of an olivine rich cryptomare unit excavated due to the Beaumont L impact. Our study also confirms that the band I feature in the reflectance spectra of Beaumont L is completely attributable to olivine deposits without contribution from any type of glass/melt deposits. The presence of olivine in Beaumont L suggests either excavation of olivine-rich cryptomare or a subsurface mafic pluton.

  3. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  4. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si iiλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe ii]λ7155 and [Ni ii]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  5. MODELING HIGH-VELOCITY QSO ABSORBERS WITH PHOTOIONIZED MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC DISK WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Behar, Ehud

    2010-11-10

    We extend our modeling of the ionization structure of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-disk winds, previously applied to Seyfert galaxies, to a population of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) of much lower X-ray-to-UV flux ratios, i.e., smaller {alpha}{sub ox} index, motivated by UV/X-ray ionized absorbers with extremely high outflow velocities in UV-luminous QSOs. We demonstrate that magnetically driven winds ionized by a spectrum with {alpha}{sub ox} {approx_equal} -2 can produce the charge states responsible for C IV and Fe XXV/Fe XXVI absorption in wind regions with corresponding maximum velocities of v(C IV) {approx_lt}0.1c and v(Fe XXV) {approx_lt} 0.6c (where c is the speed of light) and column densities N {sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23}-10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}, in general agreement with observations. In contrast to the conventional radiation-driven wind models, high-velocity flows are always present in our MHD-driven winds but manifest in the absorption spectra only for {alpha}{sub ox} {approx_lt} -2, as larger {alpha}{sub ox} values ionize the wind completely out to radii too large to demonstrate the presence of these high velocities. We thus predict increasing velocities of these ionized absorbers with decreasing (steeper) {alpha}{sub ox}, a quantity that emerges as the defining parameter in the kinematics of the active galactic nucleus UV/X-ray absorbers.

  6. Chemical reactions induced by high-velocity molecular impacts: challenges for closed-source mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of upper atmosphere composition using closed-source neutral mass spectrometers (e.g., Cassini INMS, MAVEN NGIMS) is subject to error due to chemical reactions caused by the high-velocity impacts of neutral molecules on the source surfaces. In addition to species traditionally considered "surface reactive" (e.g., O, N) it is likely that many or all impacting molecules are vibrationally excited to the point that chemical changes can occur. Dissociation, fragmentation, formation of radicals and ions, and other reactions likely obscure analysis of the native atmospheric composition, particularly of organic compounds. Existing techniques are not capable of recreating the relevant impact chemistry in the lab. We report on the development of a new capability allowing reactions of high-velocity neutrals impacting surfaces to be characterized directly. Molecules introduced into a vacuum chamber are impacted at several km/s by the surface of a high-speed rotor. These molecules subsequently impact multiple times on other surfaces within the vacuum chamber until they are thermalized, after which they are cryogenically collected and analyzed. Reaction pathways and thermodynamics for volatile compounds are then determined. We will present current results on this project, including data from low- and mid-range velocity experiments. This type of information is critical to clarify prior flight results and plan for future missions. Finally, we present a new type of inlet intended to significantly reduce fragmentation for impact velocities typical of a fly-by mission. Theoretical analysis indicates that this new inlet may reduce fragmentation by more than an order of magnitude for any encounter velocity.

  7. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si iiλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe ii]λ7155 and [Ni ii]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  8. Thin shell, high velocity inertial confinement fusion implosions on the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Barrios, M A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; MacPhee, A G; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Celliers, P; Cerjan, C J; Church, J A; Dixit, S; Dylla-Spears, R; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Knauer, J; Kohut, T; Kozioziemski, B; Kritcher, A; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N B; Merrill, F E; Moody, J D; Nagel, S R; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Ralph, J E; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M B; Shaughnessy, D; Spears, B K; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-04-10

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165  μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating. PMID:25910132

  9. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μ m in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1 /2 the neutron yield coming from α -particle self-heating.

  10. Measuring densities of high-velocity metallic sprays using piezoelectric sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, C. E.; Proud, W. G.

    2007-12-12

    Recent research efforts in large-scale hydrodynamic experiments have concentrated on the possibility of using piezoelectric sensors to study the evolution of ejecta. Ejecta are small (<100 m diameter) particulates that are ejected at high velocity (>1 km s{sup -1}) from a shocked surface. This paper investigates whether Dynasen PZT piezoelectric sensors are reliable and robust enough to measure accurate time-resolved stresses and densities in high-velocity metallic sprays. The sprays are assumed to have similar characteristics to ejecta sprays, and are generated by a gas gun and in a safe and reproducible manner. A complimentary diagnostic technique, utilising high-speed photography and fast x-radiography, measures the densities of the sprays independently, allowing the accuracy of the sensors to be assessed. The Dynasen sensors have been shown to perform relatively well in spray environments. Their accuracy can be improved by taking their mechanical impedance characteristics into account.

  11. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R.P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-06

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Earlier results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  12. Spectroscopic Observations of SN 2012fr: A Luminous, Normal Type Ia Supernova with Early High-velocity Features and a Late Velocity Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Jha, S. W.; McCully, C.; Filippenko, A. V.; Anderson, J. P.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; de Jaeger, T.; Forster, F.; Gal-Yam, A.; Le Guillou, L.; Maguire, K.; Maund, J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Pignata, G.; Smartt, S.; Spyromilio, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taddia, F.; Valenti, S.; Bayliss, D. D. R.; Bessell, M.; Blanc, G. A.; Carson, D. J.; Clubb, K. I.; de Burgh-Day, C.; Desjardins, T. D.; Fang, J. J.; Fox, O. D.; Gates, E. L.; Ho, I.-T.; Keller, S.; Kelly, P. L.; Lidman, C.; Loaring, N. S.; Mould, J. R.; Owers, M.; Ozbilgen, S.; Pei, L.; Pickering, T.; Pracy, M. B.; Rich, J. A.; Schaefer, B. E.; Scott, N.; Stritzinger, M.; Vogt, F. P. A.; Zhou, G.

    2013-06-01

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II λ6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity "photospheric" component. This Si II λ6355 HVF fades by phase -5 subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of ~12,000 km s-1 until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v ≈ 12,000 km s-1 with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v ≈ 31,000 km s-1 two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the "shallow silicon" and "core-normal" subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the "low velocity gradient" group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  13. Characterization and calibration of the EOIM-III flight mass spectrometer in a high velocity oxygen atom beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Cross, J. B.; Hunton, D.; Lan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Calibration and characterization of the quadrupole mass spectrometer component of the Evaluation of Oxygen Effects on Materials III (EOIM-III) space-flight experiment are reported in this paper. A high-velocity atom beam system was used to characterize the response of the flight mass spectrometer to high velocity oxygen atoms as well as the reaction/scattering products formed when the atom beam struck a surface. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water were observed to form in the mass spectrometer whenever high velocity oxygen atoms were present. The major gaseous products formed from high-velocity atom-beam polymer reactions were easily detected and identified.

  14. High frequency radar measurements of friction velocity in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Lorelle Annise

    The purpose of this dissertation research is to determine the utility of using a multi-frequency high frequency (BF) radar operating at decameter wavelengths to obtain estimates of the friction velocity in the sea and to relate these estimates to measurements obtained on the air side of the interface. This is accomplished through the detection of changes in the phase velocity of surface gravity waves induced by flow in the water. In situ measurements of this sort are difficult to obtain due to the harsh environment which exists at the air-sea interface, and are usually restricted to point measurements obtained at moored instrument platforms or onboard ships. The use of the HF radar to obtain such information bypasses these difficulties and provides synoptic coverage in near real time. In this work, the Levenberg-Marquardt method of non-linear least squares is used to determine the near surface current profile based on a theoretical model of the effect of the current on the phase velocity of a surface gravity wave. The results of this analysis are compared to in situ measurements of wind velocity and calculations of friction velocity obtained by the Innovative Coastal-ocean Observing Network group as part of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) Ocean Observing System Upper-water-column Science Experiment over Monterey Bay, California. In particular, a comparison is made with the Flux buoy measurements and calculations of the Boundary Layer Studies Group of the Naval Postgraduate School and the MBARI M1 buoy measurements. In addition, several methods to determine the variance in the HF data are tested to ensure data quality, and the adequacy of the HF frequencies for friction velocity retrieval are evaluated. The results show that our estimates of the friction velocity compare well with in situ measurements during moderate wind conditions, in excess of about 5 m/s and less than about 12 m/s. Further evaluation of the present method for obtaining

  15. IX Ophiuchi: A High-Velocity Star Near a Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, G. H.

    2005-08-01

    The molecular cloud Barnard 59 is probably an outlier of the Upper Sco/ρ Oph complex. B59 contains several T Tauri stars (TTSs), but outside its northwestern edge are three other Hα-emission objects whose nature has been unclear: IX, KK, and V359 Oph. This paper is a discussion of all three and of a nearby Be star (HD 154851), based largely on Keck HIRES spectrograms obtained in 2004. KK Oph is a close (1.6") double. The brighter component is an HAeBe star, and the fainter is a K-type TTS. The complex BVR variations of the unresolved pair require both components to be variable. V359 Oph is a conventional TTS. Thus, these pre-main-sequence stars continue to be recognizable as such well outside the boundary of their parent cloud. IX Oph is quite different. Its absorption spectrum is about type G, with many peculiarities: all lines are narrow but abnormally weak, with structures that depend on ion and excitation level and that vary in detail from month to month. It could be a spectroscopic binary of small amplitude. Hα and Hβ are the only prominent emission lines. They are broad, with variable central reversals. However, the most unusual characteristic of IX Oph is the very high (heliocentric) radial velocity: about -310 km s-1, common to all spectrograms, and very different from the radial velocity of B59, about -7 km s-1. There is no detectable Li I λ6707 line. There is reason to believe that IX Oph is actually a background object, only aligned with B59. Several conceivable interpretations are discussed: (1) It is unlikely that it is a high-velocity ejectee from the Upper Sco or Upper Cen-Lup associations (the lack of detectable λ6707 shows that it is not the product of a very recent event, and the proper motion points in the wrong direction) or that it was born in or ejected from one of the distant high-velocity CO clouds at this longitude (l=357deg). (2) A stronger possibility is that it is simply a metal-poor high-velocity G- or K-type giant (but such stars

  16. Quasi-static and multi-site high velocity impact response of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Lakshya

    Understanding of low and high velocity transverse impact of laminated fiber reinforced composites is of interest in military, aerospace, marine and civilian structures. Recent advances in the field of numerical simulation provide a means of predicting the performance characteristics of layered materials for impact protection. The overall objective of this work is to investigate the behavior of laminated composites which include both thermoplastic and thermoset systems subjected to quasi-static, low and high velocity impact; both from an experimental and numerical modeling view point. To analyze this problem, a series of quasi-static, low and high velocity impact tests have been performed on laminated composite plates namely E-glass/polypropylene, S2-glass/epoxy and carbon/polyphenylene sulphide. To analyze the perforation mechanism, ballistic limit and damage evolution, an explicit three-dimensional finite element code LS-DYNA is used. Selecting proper material models and contact definition is one of the major criteria for obtaining accurate numerical simulation. Material model 162 (MAT 162), a progressive failure model based on modified Hashin's criteria and continuum damage mechanics (CDM) has been assigned to predict failure of the laminate. This approach is used because during transverse impact, a composite laminate undergoes progressive damage. The laminate and the projectile are meshed using brick elements with single integration points. The impact velocity ranges from 180 to 400 m s -1. This work focuses on three main aspects; (i) To obtain static and dynamic material properties to incorporate into the finite element model and predict the ballistic limit of a composite laminate based on the information from quasi-static punch shear test; (ii) To understand penetration, material erosion, ballistic limit and delamination mechanisms for single and multi-site high velocity (or ballistic) impact of composite laminates; (iii) To investigate the different failure

  17. Development for sound velocity and density measurements of liquid metal at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H.; Nishida, K.; Urakawa, S.; Uesugi, K.; Takubo, Y.; Kuwabara, S.; Nakatsuka, A.; Hoshino, M.; Kono, Y.; Higo, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2012-12-01

    Sound velocity and density of liquid Fe-alloys under high pressure is quite important physical property to estimate the amount of light elements in the terrestrial core from the seismic data. Here, we have developed the system for simultaneous measurement of sound velocity and density combined with X-ray tomography technique at high pressure and temperature. High pressure experiments were performed using 80-ton uni-axial press (Urakawa et al. 2010) installed at X-ray computed micro-tomography (CT) beamline (BL20B2), SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. High pressure was generated using opposed-type cupped anvils. We measured the sound velocity and density of solid FeSi at room temperature and those of solid and liquid Ni-S at high temperature. Experimental pressure was obtained from the volume of h-BN. CT measurement was carried out by rotating the press from 0 to 180o with 0.2-0.3o steps. Monochromatized X-ray of 51 keV was used. Density was determined by using X-ray absorption method based on the X-ray radiograph image. The sample thickness for the X-ray path can be directly obtained from the CT data. This is a big advantage for CT measurement. Sound velocity was measured using pulse-echo overlapping ultrasonic method. P-wave signals were generated and detected by LiNbO3 transducer attached backside of the anvil. We have successfully observed both P-wave and S-wave signals up to 1.5 GPa and 1673 K. We detected change of signal intensity and shape corresponding to melting of Ni-S sample.

  18. PARAMETERS FOR QUANTIFYING BEAM HALO

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. ALLEN; T.P. WANGLER

    2001-06-01

    Two different parameters for the quantitative description of beam halo are introduced, both based on moments of the particle distribution. One parameter is a measure of spatial halo formation and has been defined previously by Wangler and Crandall [3], termed the profile parameter. The second parameter relies on kinematic invariants to quantify halo formation in phase space; we call it the halo parameter. The profile parameter can be computed from experimental beam profile data. The halo parameter provides a theoretically more complete description of halo in phase space, but is difficult to obtain experimentally.

  19. Real-time dynamics of high-velocity micro-particle impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex; Kooi, Steve; Maznev, Alex A.; Tang, Shengchang; Olsen, Bradley D.; Nelson, Keith A.

    High-velocity micro-particle impact is important for many areas of science and technology, from space exploration to the development of novel drug delivery platforms. We present real-time observations of supersonic micro-particle impacts using multi-frame imaging. In an all optical laser-induced projectile impact test, a monolayer of micro-particles is placed on a transparent substrate coated with a laser absorbing polymer layer. Ablation of a laser-irradiated polymer region accelerates the micro-particles into free space with speeds up to 1.0 km/s. The particles are monitored during the impact on the target with an ultrahigh-speed multi-frame camera that can record up to 16 images with time resolution as short as 3 ns. In particular, we investigated the high-velocity impact deformation response of poly(urethane urea) (PUU) elastomers to further the fundamental understanding of the molecular influence on dynamical behaviors of PUUs. We show the dynamic-stiffening response of the PUUs and demonstrate the significance of segmental dynamics in the response. We also present movies capturing individual particle impact and penetration in gels, and discuss the observed dynamics. The results will provide an impetus for modeling high-velocity microscale impact responses and high strain rate deformation in polymers, gels, and other materials.

  20. High-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity structure at Newberry Volcano, Oregon Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Achauer, U.; Evans, J.R.; Stauber, D.A.

    1988-09-10

    Compressional wave velocity structure is determined for the upper crust beneath Newberry Volcano, central Oregon, using a high-resolution active-source seismic-tomography method. Newberry Volcano is a bimodal shield volcano east of the axis of the Cascade Range. It is associated both with the Cascade Range and with northwest migrating silicic volcanism in southeast Oregon. High-frequency (approx.7 Hz) crustal phases, nominally Pg and a midcrustal reflected phase, travel upward through a target volume beneath Newberry Volcano to a dense array of 120 seismographs. This arrangement is limited by station spacing to 1- to 2-km resolution in the upper 5 to 6 km of the crust beneath the volcano's summit caldera. The experiment tests the hypothesis that Cascade Range volcanoes are underlain only by small magma chambers. A small low-velocity anomaly delineated abosut 3 km below the summit caldera supports this hypothesis for Newberry Volcano and is interpreted as a possible magma chamber of a few to a few tens of km/sup 3/ in volume. A ring-shaped high-velocity anomaly nearer the surface coincides with the inner mapped ring fractures of the caldera. It also coincides with a circular gravity high, and we interpret it as largely subsolidus silicic cone sheets. The presence of this anomaly and of silicic vents along the ring fractures suggests that the fractures are a likely eruption path between the small magma chamber and the surface.

  1. Residual Stresses in High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Metallic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Terry C. Totemeier; Richard N. Wright; W. David Swank

    2004-06-01

    X-ray based residual stress measurements were made on type 316 stainless steel and Fe3A1 coatings that were high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed onto low-carbon and stainless steel substrates. Nominal coating thicknesses varied from 250 to 1500 mm. The effect of HVOF spray particle velocity on residual stress and deposition efficiency was assessed by preparing coatings at three different torch chamber pressures. The effect of substrate thickness on residual stress was determined by spraying coatings onto thick (6.4 mm) and thin (1.4 mm) substrates. Residual stresses were compressive for both coating materials and increased in magnitude with spray velocity. For coatings applied to thick substrates, near-surface residual stresses were essentially constant with increasing coating thickness. Difference in thermal expansion coefficient between low-carbon and stainless steels led to a 180 MPa difference in residual stress for Fe3A1 coatings. Deposition efficiency for both materials is maximized at an intermediate (~600 m/s) velocity. Considerations for X-ray measurement of residual stresses in HVOF coatings are also presented.

  2. Nonlinear free vibrations of centrifugally stiffened uniform beams at high angular velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhoucha, F.; Rechak, S.; Duigou, L.; Cadou, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the bending nonlinear free vibrations of a centrifugally stiffened beam with uniform cross-section and constant angular velocity. The nonlinear intrinsic equations of motion used here are geometrically exact and specific to beams exhibiting large amplitude displacements and rotations associated with small strains. Based on the Timoshenko beam model, these equations are derived from Hamilton's principle, in which the warping is considered. All coupling terms are considered including Coriolis terms. The studied beams are isotropic with clamped-free boundary conditions. By combining the Galerkin method with the harmonic balance method, the equations of motion are converted into a quadratic function treated with a continuation method: the Asymptotic Numerical Method, where the generalized displacement vector is presented as a series expansion. While analysing the effect of the angular velocity, we determine the amplitude versus frequency variations which are plotted as backbone curves. Considering the first lagging and flapping modes, the changes in beam behaviour from hardening to softening are investigated and identified as a function of the angular velocity and the effect of shear. Particular attention is paid to high angular velocities for both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams and the natural frequencies so obtained are compared with the results available in the literature.

  3. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility lasera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H.-S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Field, J. E.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hatarik, R.; Merrill, F. E.; Nagel, S. R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Town, R. P. J.; Sayre, D. B.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. H.

    2015-05-01

    By increasing the velocity in "high foot" implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity ( v ), we find that for shots with primary yield >1 × 1015 neutrons, the total yield ˜ v 9.4 . This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating (˜ v 5.9 ) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  4. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H.-S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; and others

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, the total yield ∼ v{sup 9.4}. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating (∼v{sup 5.9}) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  5. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Field, J. E.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hatarik, R.; Merrill, F. E.; Nagel, S. R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Town, R. P. J.; Sayre, D. B.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. H.

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v⁹˙⁴. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v⁵˙⁹) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  6. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; et al

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), andmore » the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v⁹˙⁴. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v⁵˙⁹) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.« less

  7. Electrical method and apparatus for impelling the extruded ejection of high-velocity material jets

    DOEpatents

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus (10, 40) for producing high-velocity material jets provided. An electric current pulse generator (14, 42) is attached to an end of a coaxial two-conductor transmission line (16, 44) having an outer cylindrical conductor (18), an inner cylindrical conductor (20), and a solid plastic or ceramic insulator (21) therebetween. A coxial, thin-walled metal structure (22, 30) is conductively joined to the two conductors (18, 20) of the transmission line (16, 44). An electrical current pulse applies magnetic pressure to and possibly explosively vaporizes metal structure (22), thereby collapsing it and impelling the extruded ejection of a high-velocity material jet therefrom. The jet is comprised of the metal of the structure (22), together with the material that comprises any covering layers (32, 34) disposed on the structure. An electric current pulse generator of the explosively driven magnetic flux compression type or variety (42) may be advantageously used in the practice of this invention.

  8. The Guitar nebula - A bow shock from a slow-spin, high-velocity neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, James M.; Romani, Roger W.; Lundgren, Scott C.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery is reported of a prominent nebula produced by the motion of a high-velocity pulsar, PSR 2224 + 65, through partially neutral gas. The pulsar's transverse speed of over about 800 km/s makes it arguably the fastest known star in the Galaxy and guarantees that it will ultimately escape the Galactic potential well. A deep H-alpha image reveals a bright head and a giant limb-brightened 'body' whose variable width suggests that the ambient interstellar gas has density variations on length scales less than 0.1 pc. Thermalization of shock energy occurs at a rate of about 0.01 times the pulsar's spindown loss rate. These observations provide some insights into the likelihood of finding shocks around other pulsars and the use of nebulae to find high-velocity neutron stars either not acting as pulsars or with their radiation beamed away from the earth.

  9. The detection of high-velocity outflows from M8E-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, George F.; Allen, Mark; Beer, Reinhard; Dekany, Richard; Huntress, Wesley

    1988-01-01

    A high-resolution (0.059/cm) M band (4.6 micron) spectrum of the embedded young stellar object M8E-IR is presented and discussed. The spectrum shows strong absorption to large blueshifts in the rotational lines of the fundamental vibrational band, v = 1-0, of CO. The absorption is interpreted as being due to gas near to, and flowing from, the central object. The outflowing gas is warm (95-330 K) and consists of discrete velocity components with the very high velocities of 90, 130, 150, and 160 km/s. On the basis of a simple model, it is estimated that the observed outflows are less than 100 yr old.

  10. A three-dimensional Eulerian method for the numerical simulation of high-velocity impact problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-Yu; Liu, Kai-Xin; Chen, Qian-Yi

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper, a three-dimensional (3D) Eulerian technique for the 3D numerical simulation of high-velocity impact problems is proposed. In the Eulerian framework, a complete 3D conservation element and solution element scheme for conservative hyperbolic governing equations with source terms is given. A modified ghost fluid method is proposed for the treatment of the boundary conditions. Numerical simulations of the Taylor bar problem and the ricochet phenomenon of a sphere impacting a plate target at an angle of 60° are carried out. The numerical results are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental observations. It is proved that our computational technique is feasible for analyzing 3D high-velocity impact problems.

  11. HALOE Science Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris

    1998-01-01

    This cooperative agreement has investigated a number of spectroscopic problems of interest to the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). The types of studies performed are in two parts, namely, those that involve the testing and characterization of correlation spectrometers and those that provide basic molecular spectroscopic information. In addition, some solar studies were performed with the calibration data returned by HALOE from orbit. In order to accomplish this a software package was written as part of this cooperative agreement. The HALOE spectroscopic instrument package was used in various tests of the HALOE flight instrument. These included the spectral response test, the early stages of the gas response test and various spectral response tests of the detectors and optical elements of the instruments. Considerable effort was also expended upon the proper laboratory setup for many of the prelaunch tests of the HALOE flight instrument, including the spectral response test and the gas response test. These tests provided the calibration and the assurance that the calibration was performed correctly.

  12. Light-element abundance variations in the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, S. L.; Grebel, E. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present evidence for the contribution of high-mass globular clusters to the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Using SDSS-II/SEGUE spectra of over 1900 G- and K-type halo giants, we identify for the first time a subset of stars with CN bandstrengths significantly larger, and CH bandstrengths lower, than the majority of halo field stars, at fixed temperature and metallicity. Since CN bandstrength inhomogeneity and the usual attendant abundance variations are presently understood as a result of star formation in globular clusters, we interpret this subset of halo giants as a result of globular cluster dissolution into the Galactic halo. We find that 2.5% of our sample is CN-strong, and can infer based on recent models of globular cluster evolution that the fraction of halo field stars initially formed within globular clusters may be as large as 50%.

  13. Fixed Velocity Characteristics for an Electrical Vehicle with the New High-Efficiency Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kousaka, Takuji; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Harada, Taisuke; Abe, Minoru

    Since d-c compound motor have wide industrial applications, theoretical and experimental research in such systems are assumed to be special importance. In previous work, we studied a new d-c compound motor which is suitable for the electronic vehicle and bicycle. This paper provides the fixed velocity characteristics for an electrical vehicle with the new high-efficiency motor. Experimental results show that the electric vehicle with new compund motor is more effective than the conventional one.

  14. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos of NGC 891 and NGC 5775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, G. H.; Rand, R. J.; Benjamin, R. A.; Bershady, M. A.; Collins, J. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2005-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to characterize the nature of the disk-halo interaction in spiral galaxies, we present an investigation into the kinematics of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) halos of two edge-on spirals, NGC 891 and NGC 5775. Observations of optical emission lines were obtained at high spectral resolution with the SparsePak fiber array at WIYN, and the TAURUS-II Fabry-Perot interferometer at the AAT, respectively. Detailed three-dimensional models of the galaxies were created and compared with the data, revealing the presence of a vertical gradient in rotational velocity in each case. The sense of the gradient corresponds to decreasing rotation speed with increasing height above the disk; the magnitude is approximately 15 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 891, and 8 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 5775. Qualitatively, this behavior is predicted by models of the disk-halo interaction which consider gas being lifted out of the disk, but quantitative agreement has not yet been achieved. We describe the results of our observations, present a comparison with a purely ballistic model of disk-halo flow, and discuss prospects for a better understanding of this critical process in the evolution of galaxies. This material is based on work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST 99-86113.

  15. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandens in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S/sup 6-16+/ on He and Ar at 6 to 20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl/sup 16 +/ + Ar collisions at 20, 10, and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed.

  16. High-velocity frictional strength across the Tohoku-Oki megathrust determined from surface drilling torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Kohtaro; Inoue, Tomoya; Ishiwata, Junya

    2016-03-01

    High-velocity frictional strength is one of the primary factors controlling earthquake faulting. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project drilled through the shallow plate boundary fault, where displacement was ~50 m during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To determine downhole frictional strength, we analyzed the surface drilling torque data acquired at rotation rates equivalent to seismic slip rates (0.8-1.3 m/s). The results show a clear contrast in high-velocity frictional strength across the plate boundary fault: the apparent friction coefficient of frontal prism sediments (hemipelagic mudstones) in the hanging wall is 0.1-0.3, while that of the underthrust sediments (mudstone, laminar pelagic claystone, and chert) in the footwall increases to 0.2-0.4. The apparent friction coefficient of the smectite-rich pelagic clay in the plate boundary fault is 0.08-0.19, which is consistent with that determined from high-velocity (1.1-1.3 m/s) friction experiments. This suggests that surface drilling torque is useful in obtaining downhole frictional strength.

  17. Use of Iba Techniques to Characterize High Velocity Thermal Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trompetter, W.; Markwitz, A.; Hyland, M.

    Spray coatings are being used in an increasingly wide range of industries to improve the abrasive, erosive and sliding wear of machine components. Over the past decade industries have moved to the application of supersonic high velocity thermal spray techniques. These coating techniques produce superior coating qu