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1

High potential for the formation of haloacetic acids in the Karoon River water in Iran.  

PubMed

The impact of the total organic carbon (TOC), chlorine dosage, water temperature, reaction time, pH, and seasonal variation on the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in the Karoon River in Iran was studied. The results showed that dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the most detected HAA5. The HAA5 formation potential (HAA5FP) levels in the Karoon River water in spring time, when the water TOC content exceeded 4 mg/L, were 1.38 times higher than during the winter season, when the water TOC content was below 3.5 mg/L. There was not a strong correlation between the HAA5FP and the residence time for the Karoon River water. For the range of the water temperatures studied, there was little variation in the HAA5FP in cold water, but in warmer water, the values of the HAA5FP varied quickly. PMID:22899461

Ramavandi, Bahman; Dobaradaran, Sina; Asgari, Ghorban; Masoumbeigi, Hossein

2013-05-01

2

Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.  

PubMed

This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water. PMID:25320856

Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

2014-01-01

3

Pregnancy loss and eye malformations in offspring of F344 rats following gestational exposure to mixtures of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.  

PubMed

Chlorination of drinking water yields hundreds of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Among the DBPs, four trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform) and five haloacetic acids (HAAs; chloroacetic, dichloroacetic, trichloroacetic, bromoacetic, and dibromoacetic acid) are U.S. EPA regulated. We assessed the combined toxicity of these DBPs. F344 rats were treated with mixtures of the four THMs (THM4), the five HAAs (HAA5), or nine DBPs (DBP9; THM4+HAA5). Mixtures were administered in 10% Alkamuls(®) EL-620 daily by gavage on gestation days 6-20. Litters were examined postnatally. All three mixtures caused pregnancy loss at ? 613 ?mol/kg/day. In surviving litters, resorption rates were increased in groups receiving HAA5 at 615 ?mol/kg/day and DBP9 at 307 ?mol/kg/day. HAA5 caused eye malformations (anophthalmia, microphthalmia) at ? 308 ?mol/kg/day. Thus, both HAAs and THMs contributed to DBP9-induced pregnancy loss. The presence of THMs in the full mixture, however, appeared to reduce the incidence of HAA-induced eye defects. PMID:20850520

Narotsky, Michael G; Best, Deborah S; McDonald, Anthony; Godin, Elizabeth A; Hunter, E Sidney; Simmons, Jane Ellen

2011-01-01

4

DETERMINATION OF NINE HALOACETIC ACIDS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Whenever natural water or humic substances are chlorinated significant concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAS) are produced. he presence of HAAs in drinking water are suspected to have an adverse health effect on humans. o control HAAs in drinking water, analytical techniques s...

5

A study of the partitioning of haloacetates into cetylpyridinium chloride micelles using semiequilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acids, formed in drinking water during disinfection by chlorination, pose significant risks to human health. Semiequilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration experiments were used to examine the partitioning of the five regulated haloacetic acids (HAA(5)) viz. chloro-, dichloro-, trichloro-, bromo-, and dibromoacetic acids into cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles across a range of micellar mole fraction, surfactant concentration, and added NaCl conditions. The results of these experiments were successfully correlated using a nonlinear three-site equilibrium model, which combines thermodynamic relations with the Oosawa two-state binding theory, incorporates allowances for nonideality, and includes a parameter to account for haloacetate solubilization. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration using CPC provided excellent HAA(5) removal efficiencies of over 98%. PMID:23313349

Roach, Jim D; Premjee, Mohammed M; Buddhavarapu, Sivacharan; Hassib, Ahmed

2013-03-15

6

Sources and haloacetic acid/trihalomethane formation potentials of aquatic humic substances in the Wakarusa River and Clinton Lake near Lawrence, Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gram quantities of aquatic humic substances (AHS) were extracted from the Wakarusa River-Clinton Lake Reservoir system, near Lawrence, KS, to support nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental studies, report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and AHS, define sources of the AHS, and determine if the AHS yield sufficient quantities of haloacetic acids (HAA5) and trihalomethanes (THM4) that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in drinking water. AHS from the Wakarusa River and Clinton Lake originated from riparian forest vegetation, reflected respective effects of soil organic matter and aquatic algal/bacterial sources, and bore evidence of biological degradation and photodegradation. AHS from the Wakarusa River showed the effect of terrestrial sources, whereas Clinton Lake humicacid also reflected aquatic algal/bacterial sources. Greater amounts of carbon attributable to tannin-derived chemical structures may correspond with higher HAA5 and THM4 yields for Clinton Lake fulvic acid. Prior to appreciable leaf-fall from deciduous trees, the combined (humic and fulvic acid) THM4 formation potentials for the Wakarusa River approached the proposed EPA THM4 Stage I MCL of 80 ??g/L, and the combined THM4 formation potential for Clinton Lake slightly exceeded the proposed THM4 Stage II MCL of 40 ??g/L. Finally, AHS from Clinton Lake could account for most (>70%) of the THM4 concentrations in finished water from the Clinton Lake Water Treatment Plant based on September 23, 1996, THM4 results.Gram quantities of aquatic humic substances (AHS) were extracted from the Wakarusa River-Clinton Lake Reservoir system, near Lawrence, KS, to support nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental studies, report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and AHS, define sources of the AHS, and determine if the AHS yield sufficient quantities of haloacetic acids (HAA5) and trihalomethanes (THM4) that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in drinking water. AHS from the Wakarusa River and Clinton Lake originated from riparian forest vegetation, reflected respective effects of soil organic matter and aquatic algal/bacterial sources, and bore evidence of biological degradation and photodegradation. AHS from the Wakarusa River showed the effect of terrestrial sources, whereas Clinton Lake humic acid also reflected aquatic algal/bacterial sources. Greater amounts of carbon attributable to tannin-derived chemical structures may correspond with higher HAA5 and THM4 yields for Clinton Lake fulvic acid. Prior to appreciable leaf-fall from deciduous trees, the combined (humic and fulvic acid) THM4 formation potentials for the Wakarusa River approached the proposed EPA THM4 Stage I MCL of 80 ??g/L, and the combined THM4 formation potential for Clinton Lake slightly exceeded the proposed THM4 Stage II MCL of 40 ??g/L. Finally, AHS from Clinton Lake could account for most (>70%) of the THM4 concentrations in finished water from the Clinton Lake Water Treatment Plant based on September 23, 1996, THM4 results.Gram quantities of aquatic humic substances were extracted from the Wakarusa River-Clinton Lake Reservoir system near Lawrence, KS, and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the proportions of DOC accountable as aquatic humic substances were determined. In addition, the sources of the aquatic humic substances were defined, and the haloacetic acids/trihalomethanes formation potentials were assessed. The samples were collected over the period September 10-October 10, before any appreciable leaf-fall occurred from deciduous trees. Results showed that the humic substances produced considerable yields of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes, with higher yields noted for fulvic acid from Clinton Lake. The aquatic humic substances were derived from sources outside and within the Wakarusa River and Clinton Lake and could yield sufficient trih

Pomes, M.L.; Larive, C.K.; Thurman, E.M.; Green, W.R.; Orem, W.H.; Rostad, C.E.; Coplen, T.B.; Cutak, B.J.; Dixon, A.M.

2000-01-01

7

Haloacetic acids in drinking water and risk for stillbirth  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the effects of haloacetic acid (HAA) compounds in drinking water on stillbirth risk. Methods: A population based case-control study was conducted in Nova Scotia and Eastern Ontario, Canada. Estimates of daily exposure to total and specific HAAs were based on household water samples and questionnaire information on water consumption at home and work. Results: The analysis included 112 stillbirth cases and 398 live birth controls. In analysis without adjustment for total THM exposure, a relative risk greater than 2 was observed for an intermediate exposure category for total HAA and dichloroacetic acid measures. After adjustment for total THM exposure, the risk estimates for intermediate exposure categories were diminished, the relative risk associated with the highest category was in the direction of a protective effect, and all confidence intervals included the null value. Conclusions: No association was observed between HAA exposures and stillbirth risk after controlling for THM exposures. PMID:15657195

King, W; Dodds, L; Allen, A; Armson, B; Fell, D; Nimrod, C

2005-01-01

8

Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.  

PubMed

Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

2015-04-15

9

Environmentally Realistic Mixtures of Haloacetic Acids Exhibit Concentration-Dependent Departures from Dose Additivity  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including haloacetic acids (HAAs), are formed when oxidizing disinfectants react with inorganic and organic matter in water. Drinking water is assayed routinely for 9 HAAs (HAA9): chloro-, dichloro-, trichloro-, bromo-, dibromo-, tribrorno-, bromoc...

10

Nine and Ten chemical haloacetic acid mixtures exhibit concentration-dependent departure from dose additivity  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection of water greatly decreases waterborne disease. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including haloacetic acids (HAAs), are formed when oxidizing disinfectants react with inorganic and organic matter in water. Water providers routinely assay for 9 HAAs in finished drinking...

11

Clustering chlorine reactivity of haloacetic acid precursors in inland lakes.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the major pool of organic precursors for harmful disinfection byproducts, such as haloacetic acids (HAAs), formed during drinking water chlorination, but much of it remains molecularly uncharacterized. Knowledge of model precursors is thus a prerequisite for understanding the more complex whole water DOM. The utility of HAA formation potential data from model DOM precursors, however, is limited due to the lack of comparability to water samples. In this study, the formation kinetics of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), the two predominant HAA species, were delineated upon chlorination of seventeen model DOM precursors and sixty-eight inland lake water samples collected from the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Of particular interest was the finding that the DCAA and TCAA formation rate constants could be grouped into four statistically distinct clusters reflecting the core structural features of model DOM precursors (i.e., non-?-diketone aliphatics, ?-diketone aliphatics, non-?-diketone phenolics, and ?-diketone phenolics). A comparative approach built upon hierarchical cluster analysis was developed to gain further insight into the chlorine reactivity patterns of HAA precursors in inland lake waters as defined by the relative proximity to four model precursor clusters. This work highlights the potential for implementing an integrated kinetic-clustering approach to constrain the chlorine reactivity of DOM in source waters. PMID:24299068

Zeng, Teng; Arnold, William A

2014-01-01

12

Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of the Haloacetic Acids, A Major Class of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

The haloacetic acids (HAAs) are disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are formed during the disinfection of drinking water, wastewaters and recreational pool waters. Currently, five HAAs [bromoacetic acid (BAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), chloroacetic acid (CAA), dichloroacetic ac...

13

MICROEXTRACTION OF NINE HALOACETIC ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER AT MICROGRAM PER LITER LEVELS WITH ELECTROSPRAY-MASS SPECTROMETRY OF STABLE ASSOCIATION COMPLEXES  

EPA Science Inventory

Haloacetic acids are disinfection by-products of the chlorination of drinking water. This paper presents the analysis of all nine chloro- and bromo-haloacetic acids (HAA9) at sub- ug L-1 by microextraction with detection by electrospray mass spectrometry. The haloacetic acids are...

14

Percutaneous absorption of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and haloketones.  

PubMed

Bathing in chlorinated drinking water causes significant exposure to potentially toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In the present studies, we measured the permeation coefficients (K(p)) of three important classes of DBPs, trihalomethanes (THMs), haloketones (HKs), and haloacetic acids (HAAs), in aqueous solution across human skin using in vitro diffusion chambers. Linear mixed-effects model was utilized to calculate the steady-state permeability coefficients. The permeability coefficients of THMs ranged from 0.16 to 0.21 cm/h when the donor solution was at 25 degrees C. Bromoform had the highest K(p) value, while chloroform was the least permeable through the skin. THMs were approximately 10 times more permeable than HKs, while the permeability of HAAs through the skin was very low (1 to 3 x 10(-3) cm/h, pH 7). The permeability of HKs tripled as the temperature was increased from room temperature (20 degrees C) to bathing temperature (40 degrees C). A direct relationship was found between the permeability of THMs, but not HKs and HAAs, and their octanol/water partition coefficients. The dermal dose from daily bathing activities was approximated for an average adult using U.S. EPA recommended methods and found to be 40-70% of the daily ingestion dose for the THMs, 10% of the ingestion dose for HKs, and an insignificant percentage of the ingestion dose for the HAAs. In addition to ingestion, dermal absorption is an important route of exposure to THMs and HKs and must be considered in models of risk assessment. PMID:12392965

Xu, Xu; Mariano, Thomas M; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Weisel, Clifford P

2002-10-01

15

Inhalation exposure to haloacetic acids and haloketones during showering.  

PubMed

Inhalation exposure to haloacetic acids (HAAs) and haloketones (HKs) in contaminated drinking water occurs during showering. The size distribution of the aerosols generated by a shower was determined using an eight size-range particle counter, which measured particles from 0.1 to >2 microm. An exponential increase in aerosol numbers was observed while the shower water was on, while the aerosol numbers declined exponentially once the water was turned off. The half-lives of the shower aerosols were longer than 5 min after the shower water was turned off. Although the majority of the shower-generated aerosols were smaller than 0.3 microm, these aerosols only contributed approximately 2% to the measured total aerosol mass. The total shower-generated particulate HAA and HK concentrations collected on an open face filter were approximately 6.3 and 0.13 microg/m3, respectively, for shower water HAA and HK concentrations of 250 and 25 microg/L, respectively. The vapor-phase HK concentrations were 25-50 microg/m3. The estimate of the dose from inhalation exposure of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the particulate phase indicate that they represent less than 1% of the ingestion dose, so inhalation is not expected to be an important exposure route to nonvolatile water contaminants or the portion of volatile DBPs that stay in the particulate phase, unless the lung is the target organ. The vapor-phase levels of volatile HKs, though, are significantly higher and can contribute greater than 10% of the ingestion dose during a shower. Thus, risk assessment to the these DBPs needs to consider the inhalation route. PMID:12630474

Xu, Xu; Weisel, Clifford P

2003-02-01

16

BROMOCHLORO-HALOACETIC ACIDS: EFFECTS ON MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO AND QSAR CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The haloacetic acids (HAA) are a family of chemicals that are drinking water disinfection byproducts. We previously reported that bromo- and chloro-acetic acids altered embryonic development when mouse conceptuses were directly exposed to these xenobiotics in whole embryo culture...

17

HALOACETIC ACIDS AND KINASE INHIBITORS PERTURB MOUSE NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

HUNTER, E.S.1, J. SMITH2, J. ANDREWS1. 1 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park and 2 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Haloacetic acids and kinase inhibitors perturb mouse neural crest cells in vi...

18

TECHNIQUES AND METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF HALOACETIC ACIDS IN POTABLE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Haloethanoic (haloacetic) acids (HAAs) are formed as disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during the chlorination of natural water to make it fit for consumption. Sundry analytical techniques have been applied in order to determine the concentrations of the HAAs in potable water suppli...

19

ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL HALOACETIC ACID AND HALOACETONITRILE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles are well-known chlorine disinfection byproducts (DBPs), formed by the reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter. These compounds are of concern to public health because of their possible toxicological properties. Studies to date on th...

20

Improving methodological aspects of the analysis of five regulated haloacetic acids in water samples by solid-phase extraction, ion-pair liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are organic pollutants originated from the drinking water disinfection process, which ought to be controlled and minimized. In this work a method for monitoring haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water samples is proposed, which can be used in quality control laboratories using the techniques most frequently available. Among its main advantages we may highlight its automated character, including minimal steps of sample preparation, and above all, its improved selectivity and sensitivity in the analysis of real samples. Five haloacetic acids (HAA5) were analyzed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with ion-pair liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. For the optimization of the chromatographic separation, two amines (triethylamine, TEA and dibutylamine, DBA) as ion pair reagents were compared, and a better selectivity and sensitivity was obtained using DBA, especially for monohaloacetic acids. SPE conditions were optimized using different polymeric adsorbents. The electrospray source parameters were studied for maximum precursor ion accumulation, while the collision cell energy of the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was adjusted for optimum fragmentation. Precursor ions detected were deprotonated, dimeric and decarboxylated ions. The major product ions formed were: ionized halogen atom (chloride and bromide) and decarboxylated ions. After enrichment of the HAAs in Lichrolut EN adsorbent, the limits of detection obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis (between 0.04 and 0.3 ng mL(-1)) were comparable to those obtained by GC-MS after derivatization. Linearity with good correlation coefficients was obtained over two orders of magnitude irrespective of the compound. Adequate recoveries were achieved (60-102%), and the repeatability and intermediate precision were in the range of 2.4-6.6% and 3.8-14.8%, respectively. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the method for routine HAAs monitoring, different types of water samples were analyzed. In swimming pool water samples the ?HAAs were determined between 76 and 154 ng mL(-1). PMID:22608419

Prieto-Blanco, M C; Alpendurada, M F; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Machado, S; Gonçalves, C

2012-05-30

21

Determination of bromate and chlorinated haloacetic acids in bottled drinking water with chromatographic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinfection by-products of interest such as bromate, chlorate and chlorinated haloacetic acids in 10 representative brands of bottled drinking water were investigated with ion chromatography. With the developed method, the detection limits of the disinfection by-products were in sub-?gl?1 level. It was observed that bromate, chlorate and dichloroacetic acid could be detected in some water samples. In the bottled natural

Yongjian Liu; Shifen Mou

2004-01-01

22

Fate of Nnitrosodimethylamine, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid precursors in tertiary treatment including biofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and N-nitrosamines in water is of great concern due to their adverse effects on human health. In this work, the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), total THM and five HAA precursors from secondary effluent by biological activated carbon (BAC) is investigated at full and pilot scale. In the

Maria José Farré; Julien Reungoat; Francois Xavier Argaud; Maxime Rattier; Jürg Keller; Wolfgang Gernjak

2011-01-01

23

DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN THE PRESENCE OF BROMINATED HALOACETIC ACIDS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bromate is a disinfection by product (DBP) in drinking water that is formed during the ozonation of a source water containing bromide. Brominated haloacetic acids are DBPs that are anions at near -neutral phs. The anion character of bromoacetic acid (pKa=2.7) is similar to bromat...

24

The solvent effect on the acidities of haloacetic acids in aqueous solution. A RISM-SCF study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acidities of acetic, fluoracetic and chloroacetic acids in aqueous solution are calculated by means of the ab initio method combined with the reference interaction site method in the statistical mechanics of molecular liquids (the RISM-SCF method). The inversion in the order of acidities experimentally observed when a series of haloacetic acids is immersed into aqueous solution is reproduced. It is shown that the inversion is caused by competition between substitution and solvation effects. The solvation effect is discussed in molecular detail in terms of the charge distribution of the solute and the solute-solvent radial distribution functions.

Kawata, Masaaki; Ten-no, Seiichiro; Kato, Shigeki; Hirata, Fumio

1995-06-01

25

Environmentally Realistic Mixtures of the Five Regulated Haloacetic Acids Exhibit Concentration-Dependent Departures from Dose Additivity  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection of water decreases waterborne disease. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed by the reaction of oxidizing disinfectants with inorganic and organic materials in the source water. The U.S. EPA regulates five haloacetic acid (HAA) DBPs as a mixture. The objective ...

26

Relationship between nine haloacetic acids with total organic halogens in different experimental conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of pH and bromide ion concentration on the formation of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogens (TOX) in chlorinated drinking water have been evaluated. In an extensive study, the relationships of nine HAAs with TOX have been investigated. Honesty Significant Differences test (HSD) and ANOVA tests were used for the statistical analyses. The study determined the concentration range of nine HAAs as of a percentage of TOX at varying experimental conditions. Statistical analyses showed that the parameters pH and Br had significant effects on the formation of nine HAAs and TOX. This study also showed that brominated and mixed species of HAAs would be dominant in the presence of high bromide ion concentration which contributes a high percentage of the TOX. The results of this study could be used to set up a maximum contaminant level of TOX as a water quality standard for chlorination by-products. PMID:23551829

Pourmoghadas, Hossein; Kinman, Riley N

2013-01-01

27

Relationship between nine haloacetic acids with total organic halogens in different experimental conditions  

PubMed Central

The effects of pH and bromide ion concentration on the formation of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogens (TOX) in chlorinated drinking water have been evaluated. In an extensive study, the relationships of nine HAAs with TOX have been investigated. Honesty Significant Differences test (HSD) and ANOVA tests were used for the statistical analyses. The study determined the concentration range of nine HAAs as of a percentage of TOX at varying experimental conditions. Statistical analyses showed that the parameters pH and Br had significant effects on the formation of nine HAAs and TOX. This study also showed that brominated and mixed species of HAAs would be dominant in the presence of high bromide ion concentration which contributes a high percentage of the TOX. The results of this study could be used to set up a maximum contaminant level of TOX as a water quality standard for chlorination by-products. PMID:23551829

2013-01-01

28

Eco-friendly microextraction method for the quantitative speciation of 13 haloacetic acids in water.  

PubMed

This paper describes the first micro liquid-liquid extraction (MLLE) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the speciation of emerging iodinated acetic acids, along with conventional chlorinated and brominated acids in water. The haloacetic acids (HAAs) were derivatised using 3 reagents for their methylation, both in aqueous and organic media. The acidic methanol derivatisation in aqueous medium provided the best efficiency, requiring minimal sample manipulation. The derivatisation yield was improved through the use of microwave energy that drastically reduced reaction time (2 min). The HAA methyl esters were finally extracted using 250 ?L of methyl tert-butyl ether. This MLLE combined with the use of a large-volume sample injection coupled to a programmed temperature vaporiser-GC-MS improved the sensitivity of the method and minimised the generation of hazardous residues in accordance with the principles of "Green Chemistry". Detection and quantification limits (excepting tribromoacetic acid) within the range of 0.01-0.15 ?g/L and 0.03-0.5 ?g/L, respectively, were obtained and the relative standard deviation was lower than 10%. The eco-friendly method was applied to the speciation of the 13 HAAs in treated (chlorinated and chloraminated water) and untreated water. Up to 8 HAAs were found at detectable levels in treated water. The highly toxic monoiodoacetic acid was detected in almost all the chloraminated water. PMID:24679411

Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

2014-05-01

29

Insight into changes during coagulation in NOM reactivity for trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids formation.  

PubMed

Natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water can contribute in many ways to the poor quality of drinking water, including the formation of disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HAA) during disinfection. This paper investigates the role of individual NOM fractions on changes in THM and HAA formation during coagulation with iron chloride (FeCl3) and a combination of polyaluminium chloride and iron chloride (FeCl3/PACl). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the raw water and after coagulation was fractionated into four fractions, based on their hydrophobicity. Fractionation showed that most of the DOC (68%) in the raw water comes from the fulvic acid fraction, yielding 41% of the total THM precursors and 21% of the total HAA precursors. Both coagulants remove the humic acid fraction, but result in different changes to the reactivity of the remaining NOM fractions towards THM and HAA formation, indicating that coagulation occurs by different pathways, depending upon the type of coagulant used. In particular, significant changes in the reactivities of the hydrophilic acidic and non-acidic fractions were observed. PMID:23428464

Tubi?, Aleksandra; Agbaba, Jasmina; Dalmacija, Božo; Molnar, Jelena; Maleti?, Snežana; Watson, Malcolm; Perovi?, Svetlana Ugar?ina

2013-03-30

30

A fully-automated analyzer for determining haloacetic acid concentrations in drinking water.  

PubMed

A fully-automated, on-line, real-time analyzer has been developed for preconcentration and analysis of haloacetic acids (HAAs). Preconcentration of HAAs is achieved by sample acidification and solid phase extraction onto a hydrophobic polymeric resin using sequential injection analysis (SIA). The HAAs preconcentrate is then analyzed using post-column reaction-ion chromatography (PCR-IC), which is selective for HAAs. Systematic optimization of SIA preconcentration parameters are described followed by detailed method detection limit (MDL), accuracy, precision, and linearity studies. MDL values for the individual HAA9 species range from 0.4 to 0.9?gL(-1). Side-by-side comparison studies of HAAs analysis in 14 real-world drinking water samples from Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, New York, Pennsylvania and Tennessee are presented that compare the optimized SIA-PCR-IC to USEPA Method 552.3. Trace levels of HAAs detected in select samples are reported, and the bias values calculated between the two methods are typically less than 5?gL(-1) for eight of the nine individual HAAs. PMID:25303464

Henson, Christina M; Emmert, Gary L; Simone, Paul S

2014-12-01

31

Effect of the chlorinated washing of minimally processed vegetables on the generation of haloacetic acids.  

PubMed

Chlorine solutions are usually used to sanitize fruit and vegetables in the fresh-cut industry due to their efficacy, low cost, and simple use. However, disinfection byproducts such as haloacetic acids (HAAs) can be formed during this process, which can remain on minimally processed vegetables (MPVs). These compounds are toxic and/or carcinogenic and have been associated with human health risks; therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has set a maximum contaminant level for five HAAs at 60 ?g/L in drinking water. This paper describes the first method to determine the nine HAAs that can be present in MPV samples, with static headspace coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry where the leaching and derivatization of the HAAs are carried out in a single step. The proposed method is sensitive, with limits of detection between 0.1 and 2.4 ?g/kg and an average relative standard deviation of ?8%. From the samples analyzed, we can conclude that about 23% of them contain at least two HAAs (<0.4-24 ?g/kg), which showed that these compounds are formed during washing and then remain on the final product. PMID:22747435

Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

2012-07-25

32

Comparison of three-dimensional fluorescence analysis methods for predicting formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.  

PubMed

This work investigated the application of several fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analysis methods as natural organic matter (NOM) indicators for use in predicting the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Waters from four different sources (two rivers and two lakes) were subjected to jar testing followed by 24hr disinfection by-product formation tests using chlorine. NOM was quantified using three common measures: dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm, and specific ultraviolet absorbance as well as by principal component analysis, peak picking, and parallel factor analysis of fluorescence spectra. Based on multi-linear modeling of THMs and HAAs, principle component (PC) scores resulted in the lowest mean squared prediction error of cross-folded test sets (THMs: 43.7 (?g/L)(2), HAAs: 233.3 (?g/L)(2)). Inclusion of principle components representative of protein-like material significantly decreased prediction error for both THMs and HAAs. Parallel factor analysis did not identify a protein-like component and resulted in prediction errors similar to traditional NOM surrogates as well as fluorescence peak picking. These results support the value of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-principal component analysis as a suitable NOM indicator in predicting the formation of THMs and HAAs for the water sources studied. PMID:25597674

Peleato, Nicolás M; Andrews, Robert C

2015-01-01

33

Method of analysis at the U.S. Geological Survey California Water Science Center, Sacramento Laboratory - determination of haloacetic acid formation potential, method validation, and quality-control practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytical method for the determination of haloacetic acid formation potential of water samples has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey California Water Science Center Sacramento Laboratory. The haloacetic acid formation potential is measured by dosing water samples with chlorine under specified conditions of pH, temperature, incubation time, darkness, and residual-free chlorine. The haloacetic acids formed are bromochloroacetic acid, bromodichloroacetic acid, dibromochloroacetic acid, dibromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, tribromoacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. They are extracted, methylated, and then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Method validation experiments were performed to determine the method accuracy, precision, and detection limit for each of the compounds. Method detection limits for these nine haloacetic acids ranged from 0.11 to 0.45 microgram per liter. Quality-control practices include the use of blanks, quality-control samples, calibration verification standards, surrogate recovery, internal standard, matrix spikes, and duplicates.

Zazzi, Barbara C.; Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

2005-01-01

34

Formation of haloacetic acids from dissolved organic matter fractions during chloramination.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions, pH and bromide concentration in the formation of haloacetic acids (HAA) during chloramination. DOM from two surface waters with a low (2.9 L/mg-m) and high (5.1 L/mg-m) specific UV absorbance (SUVA(254)) values was isolated and fractionated into three fractions based on the hydrophobicity [i.e., hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPH) and hydrophilic (HPI)]. DOM mass balances and DBP reactivity checks were performed to characterize the effects of isolation and fractionation steps. The fractions were chloraminated at three pHs and three bromide concentrations. The results showed that pH was the most important factor controlling HAA formation and speciation. The HAA yields significantly decreased with increase in pH from 6.3 to 9.0. The impact of bromide in the formation of brominated HAA species also became less important with increasing pH, and no brominated specie was detectable at pH 9. HPO fractions of the two source waters consistently showed higher HAA yields than TPH and HPI fractions. On the other hand, HPI fractions showed higher bromine incorporation than HPO and TPH fractions. To maintain higher and relatively stable combined chlorine residuals while reducing HAA formation, water utilities may consider keeping pH above 7.5 as one strategy. This will also lower the formation of brominated HAA species which have been shown to be more cyto- and geno-toxic than their chlorinated analogs. PMID:23245540

Hong, Ying; Song, Hocheol; Karanfil, Tanju

2013-03-01

35

Change in haloacetic acid formation potential during UV and UV/H2O2 treatment of model organic compounds.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are disinfection by-products produced by the chlorination of organic matter, including amino acids. Advanced oxidation processes are expected to be effective for the destruction of HAA precursors; however, recent studies have reported the possible failure of these processes to reduce HAA formation potential. This study examined HAA formation potential during the course of UV or UV/H2O2 treatment of three organic compounds: leucine, serine, and resorcinol. HAA formation potential decreased in the treatment of resorcinol, while the potential increased slightly in the treatment of serine and greatly increased for leucine. The chemical structure required for HAA formation was assumed to be produced during the course of UV/H2O2 treatment of leucine and serine. Also, H abstraction from the ? carbon was assumed to result from the initial degradation of leucine by the hydroxyl radical during the UV/H2O2 treatment. The hydroxyl radical may have further reacted with leucine moiety to shorten its carbon chain. This would have produced a chemical structure capable of forming HAA, thus increasing HAA formation potential. PMID:23415308

Sakai, Hiroshi; Autin, Olivier; Parsons, Simon

2013-07-01

36

Cancer risk assessment on trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in drinking water of China using disability-adjusted life years.  

PubMed

The cancer risks from exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) through multiple pathways were assessed based on the result of a water quality survey in 35 major cities of China. To express the risks in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the excess cancer incidence estimates were combined with a two-stage disease model for calculation. The median total cancer risk of THMs and HAAs was calculated as 7.34 × 10(-7) DALYs per person-year (ppy), lower than the reference level of risk (10(-6)DALYsppy) set by WHO. The risk from ingestion and inhalation exposures contributed 93.6% and 6.3% of the total risk respectively, while dermal contact made a negligible contribution. The median risk of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) (2.12 × 10(-7)DALYsppy) was highest among the disinfection by-products (DBPs) considered. The risk ratio of total HAAs (THAA) to total THMs (TTHM) was 1.12. The risk was highest in northeast China while lowest in northwest China. As for the 35 cities, Tianjin had the highest risk while Yinchuan had the lowest. This study attempted to use DALYs for the risk assessment of DBPs, which will provide useful information for risk comparison and prioritization of hazards in drinking water. PMID:25171513

Pan, Shenling; An, Wei; Li, Hongyan; Su, Ming; Zhang, Jinliang; Yang, Min

2014-09-15

37

Determination of haloacetic acids in swimming pool waters by membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

In this study, a simple and efficient extraction method for determining haloacetic acids (HAAs) in swimming pool waters has been developed. HAAs are toxic organic pollutants of disinfection origin most commonly detected in swimming pool and drinking waters at trace level concentrations. For the first time, a highly efficient sorbent was developed using rice husk and used for micro-solid phase extraction (?-SPE) technique. To increase the extraction capability of rice husk silica, iron oxide was incorporated via sol-gel process. In ?-SPE device, the novel sorbent was packed and used for extraction of HAAs prior to analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV). Various extraction parameters were optimized to improve the extraction efficiency of ?-SPE. Under optimum conditions, linearity (coefficient of determination, r(2)?0.991 over the concentration range of 1-150 ?g/L), detection limits in the range of 0.001-0.092 ?g/L, mean recoveries up to 110% with corresponding relative standard deviations of 2-7% (n=3) had been obtained. Finally, the method was applied to swimming pool water to evaluate its feasibility. The mean concentrations for HAAs from the pool waters were in the range of 6.8 and 48.6 ?g/L which are far below the standard values set by United States Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24075018

Nsubuga, Hakimu; Basheer, Chanbasha

2013-11-01

38

Formation of haloacetic acids, halonitromethanes, bromate and iodate during chlorination and ozonation of seawater and saltwater of marine aquaria systems.  

PubMed

This manuscript addresses identification, analysis, formation and occurrence of key disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during chlorination and/or ozonation of both natural seawater (NSW), and synthetic high- and low-bromide saltwater (HBSW and LBSW, respectively). In this study, several groups of water disinfection byproducts were studied, including haloacetic acids (HAAs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), bromate and iodate. Three different water systems were studied including filtered natural seawater (NSW, ca. 64.9 mg L(-1) Br(-)), a high-bromide (Br(-)) saltwater (HBSW, ca. 24.8 mg L(-1) Br), and low-Br(-) saltwater (LBSW, ca. 4.3 mg L(-1)Br). Because ozone reacts with Cl(-) to form free chlorine in seawater and salt water systems, similar DBP patterns were observed for both chlorine and ozone oxidants. The results revealed that some HAAs and HNMs are formed at greater than 100 ?g L(-1) concentrations and are greatly affected by water constituents and formulations when treated with chlorine and ozone. The results showed that in low-Br(-) water salt water, chlorinated HAAs and HNMs predominated, while much greater concentrations of brominated HAAs and HNMs were produced in both natural and synthetic higher Br(-) saltwater. Concentrations of bromate and iodate were strongly impacted by factors other than Br(-) and I(-) concentrations including whether the system was open or closed. PMID:23182113

Shi, Honglan; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig

2013-03-01

39

The fate of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes in an aquifer storage and recovery program, Las Vegas, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fate of disinfection byproducts during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is evaluated for aquifers in Southern Nevada. Rapid declines of haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations during ASR, with associated little change in Cl concentration, indicate that HAAs decline primarily by in situ microbial oxidation. Dilution is only a minor contributor to HAA concentration declines during ASR. Trihalomethane (THM) concentrations generally increased during storage of artificial recharge (AR) water and then declined during recovery. The decline of THM concentrations during recovery was primarily from dilution of current season AR water with residual AR water remaining in the aquifer from previous ASR seasons and native ground water. In more recent ASR seasons, for wells with the longest history of ASR, brominated THMs declined during storage and recovery by processes in addition to dilution. These conclusions about THMs are indicated by THM/Cl values and supported by a comparison of measured and model predicted THM concentrations. Geochemical mixing models were constructed using major-ion chemistry of the three end-member waters to calculate predicted THM concentrations. The decline in brominated THM concentrations in addition to that from dilution may result from biotransformation processes.

Thomas, J.M.; McKay, W.A.; Colec, E.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

2000-01-01

40

Influence of pH and ozone dose on the content and structure of haloacetic acid precursors in groundwater.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of pH (6-10) and ozone dose [0.4-3.0 mg O(3)/mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)] on the content and structure of haloacetic acid (HAA) precursors in groundwater rich in natural organic matter (NOM; DOC 9.85?±?0.18 mg/L) during drinking water treatment. The raw water was ozonated in a 2 L glass column. NOM fractionation was carried out using XAD resins. HAA formation potential (HAAFP) was determined according to standard EPA Method 552. NOM characterization revealed it is mostly hydrophobic (65 % fulvic and 14 % humic acids). Hydrophobic NOM significantly influences HAA formation, as confirmed by the high HAAFP (309?±?15 ?g/L). Ozonation at pH 6-10 led to changes in NOM structure, i.e. complete humic acid oxidation, and increased the hydrophilic NOM fraction content (65-90 % achieved using 3.0 mg O(3)/mg DOC). The highest degree of NOM oxidation and HAA precursor removal was achieved at pH 10 (up to 68 % HAAFP). Ozonation pH influenced the distribution of HAA precursor content, as increasing the pH from 6 to 10 increased the reactivity of the hydrophilic fraction, with the HAAFP increasing from 19.1?±?6.0 ?g/mg DOC in raw water to 152?±?8 ?g/mg DOC in ozonated water. The degree of HAA precursor removal depends on the dominant oxidation mechanism, which is related to the applied ozone dose and the pH of the oxidation process. Ozonation at pH 10 favours the mechanism of radical NOM oxidation and was the most effective for HAAFP reduction, with the efficacy of the process improving with increasing ozone dose. PMID:22875419

Molnar, Jelena; Agbaba, Jasmina; Dalmacija, Božo; Ron?evi?, Sr?an; Prica, Miljana; Tubi?, Aleksandra

2012-09-01

41

Novel insights in Al-MCM-41 precursor as adsorbent for regulated haloacetic acids and nitrate from water.  

PubMed

High concentration of NO (3) (-) in groundwater has raised concern over possible contamination of drinking water supplies. In addition, the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs) as by-products during disinfection with chlorine-based agents is still a relevant issue, since HAAs pose serious health hazard. In this work, we investigated the affinity of a precursor of Al-MCM-41 (a mesostructured hexagonal aluminosilicate containing the template surfactant) towards nitrate and HAAs, for its possible application in the removal of these pollutants from natural and drinking waters. Additionally, adsorption kinetics and isotherms were studied. The adsorbent was synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant and characterized by physico-chemical techniques. Simulated drinking water was spiked with the EPA-regulated HAAs (monochloroacetic (MCAA), monobromoacetic (MBAA), dichloroacetic (DCAA), dibromoacetic (DBAA), and trichloroacetic (TCAA) acids) and placed in contact with the adsorbent. The effect of matrix composition was studied. Adsorption kinetic studies were performed testing three kinetics models. For the adsorption studies, three adsorption isotherm approaches have been tested to experimental data. The pollutant recoveries were evaluated by suppressed ion chromatography. The affinity of the adsorbent was TCAA = DBAA = DCAA > MBAA > MCAA with DCAA, DBAA, and TCAA completely removed. A removal as high as 77 % was achieved for 13 mg/L nitrate. The adsorption isotherms of NO (3) (-) and monochloroacetic acid can be modeled by the Freundlich equation, while their adsorption kinetics follow a pseudo-second-order rate mechanism. The adsorbent exhibited high affinity towards HAAs in simulated drinking water even at relevant matrix concentrations, suggesting its potential application for water remediation technologies. PMID:22529001

Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Sarzanini, Corrado; Caldarola, Dario; Onida, Barbara

2012-11-01

42

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY STUDY OF MIXED HALOACETIC ACIDS FOUND IN CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last two years, our laboratory and others have identified mono-, di-, and trichloro- acetic acids as major byproducts of drinking water disinfection. n areas of the country where relatively high levels of bromine ion are naturally present in the source water, it is expec...

43

An Optimized Analytical Method for the Simultaneous Detection of Iodoform, Iodoacetic Acid, and Other Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

An optimized method is presented using liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization for the extraction of iodoacetic acid (IAA) and other haloacetic acids (HAA9) and direct extraction of iodoform (IF) and other trihalomethanes (THM4) from drinking water, followed by detection by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). A Doehlert experimental design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for the five most significant factors in the derivatization step: namely, the volume and concentration of acidic methanol (optimized values ?=?15%, 1 mL), the volume and concentration of Na2SO4 solution (129 g/L, 8.5 mL), and the volume of saturated NaHCO3 solution (1 mL). Also, derivatization time and temperature were optimized by a two-variable Doehlert design, resulting in the following optimized parameters: an extraction time of 11 minutes for IF and THM4 and 14 minutes for IAA and HAA9; mass of anhydrous Na2SO4 of 4 g for IF and THM4 and 16 g for IAA and HAA9; derivatization time of 160 min and temperature at 40°C. Under optimal conditions, the optimized procedure achieves excellent linearity (R2 ranges 0.9990–0.9998), low detection limits (0.0008–0.2 µg/L), low quantification limits (0.008–0.4 µg/L), and good recovery (86.6%–106.3%). Intra- and inter-day precision were less than 8.9% and 8.8%, respectively. The method was validated by applying it to the analysis of raw, flocculated, settled, and finished waters collected from a water treatment plant in China. PMID:23613747

Jiang, Songhui; Templeton, Michael R.; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

44

An optimized analytical method for the simultaneous detection of iodoform, iodoacetic acid, and other trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in drinking water.  

PubMed

An optimized method is presented using liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization for the extraction of iodoacetic acid (IAA) and other haloacetic acids (HAA9) and direct extraction of iodoform (IF) and other trihalomethanes (THM4) from drinking water, followed by detection by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). A Doehlert experimental design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for the five most significant factors in the derivatization step: namely, the volume and concentration of acidic methanol (optimized values ?=?15%, 1 mL), the volume and concentration of Na2SO4 solution (129 g/L, 8.5 mL), and the volume of saturated NaHCO3 solution (1 mL). Also, derivatization time and temperature were optimized by a two-variable Doehlert design, resulting in the following optimized parameters: an extraction time of 11 minutes for IF and THM4 and 14 minutes for IAA and HAA9; mass of anhydrous Na2SO4 of 4 g for IF and THM4 and 16 g for IAA and HAA9; derivatization time of 160 min and temperature at 40°C. Under optimal conditions, the optimized procedure achieves excellent linearity (R(2) ranges 0.9990-0.9998), low detection limits (0.0008-0.2 µg/L), low quantification limits (0.008-0.4 µg/L), and good recovery (86.6%-106.3%). Intra- and inter-day precision were less than 8.9% and 8.8%, respectively. The method was validated by applying it to the analysis of raw, flocculated, settled, and finished waters collected from a water treatment plant in China. PMID:23613747

Liu, Xiaolin; Wei, Xiao; Zheng, Weiwei; Jiang, Songhui; Templeton, Michael R; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

2013-01-01

45

Simultaneous determination of bromate, chlorite and haloacetic acids by two-dimensional matrix elimination ion chromatography with coupled conventional and capillary columns.  

PubMed

A new, highly sensitive and reliable two-dimensional matrix elimination ion chromatography (IC) method was developed for simultaneous detection of bromate, chlorite and five haloacetic acids. This method combined the conventional IC in first dimension with capillary IC in the second dimension coupled with suppressed conductivity detection. The first dimension utilizes a high capacity column to partially resolve matrix from target analytes. By optimizing the cut window, the target analytes were selectively cut and trapped in a trap column through the use of a six-port valve, while the separated matrix were diverted to waste. The trapped target analytes were delivered on to the capillary column for further separation and detection. Temperature programming was used to improve selectivity in second dimension column to obtain complete resolution of the target analytes. Compared to the performance of one-dimensional IC, the two-dimensional approach resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity for all target analytes with limit of detection ranging from 0.30 to 0.64?g/L and provided more reliable analysis due to second column confirmation. Good linearity was obtained for all the target analytes with correlation coefficients >0.998. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of oxyhalides and haloacetic acids in various matrices with recoveries ranging from 90 to 116% and RSD less than 6.1%. The method allows direct injection of samples and the use of columns with different selectivity, thus significantly reduces the level of false positive results. The method is fully automated and simple, making it practical for routine monitoring of water quality. The satisfactory results also demonstrated that the two-dimensional matrix elimination method coupled with capillary IC is a promising approach for detection of trace substances in complex matrices. PMID:25650354

Teh, Hui Boon; Li, Sam Fong Yau

2015-02-27

46

A convenient and sensitive method for haloacetic acid analysis in tap water by on-line field-amplified sample-stacking CE-ESI-MS.  

PubMed

In this study, we propose a simple strategy based on flow injection and field-amplified sample-stacking CE-ESI-MS/MS to analyze haloacetic acids (HAAs) in tap water. Tap water was passed through a desalination cartridge before field-amplified sample-stacking CE-ESI-MS/MS analysis to reduce sample salinity. With this treatment, the signals of the HAAs increased 300- to 1400-fold. The LODs for tap water analysis were in the range of 10 to 100 ng/L, except for the LOD of monochloroacetic acid (1 ?g/L in selected-ion monitoring mode detection). The proposed method is fast, convenient, and sensitive enough to perform on-line analysis of five HAAs in the tap water of Taipei City. Four HAAs, including trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, dibromoacetic acid, and monobromoacetic acid, were detected at concentrations of approximately 1.74, 1.15, 0.16, and 0.15 ppb, respectively. PMID:24019225

Hung, Sih-Hua; Her, Guor-Rong

2013-11-01

47

Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.  

PubMed

A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively. PMID:22658134

Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

2012-07-01

48

Direct injection ion chromatography for the control of chlorinated drinking water: simultaneous estimation of nine haloacetic acids and quantitation of bromate, chlorite and chlorate along with the major inorganic anions.  

PubMed

Most methods for the analysis of haloacetic acids published in recent years are based on ion chromatography with direct injection, employing a gradient elution with potassium hydroxide (KOH). This work reports the exploration of an alternative eluent, a buffer of sodium carbonate/sodium hydrogen carbonate, aimed at the simultaneous analysis of nine haloacetic acids along with bromate, chlorite and chlorate. The alternative of both a less alkaline eluent and a lower temperature of operation may prevent the partial decomposition of some of the haloacetic acids during the analytical process, especially the more vulnerable brominated ones. Gradient elution at temperature of 7 °C yielded the best results, with an acceptable separation of 17 analytes (which includes the major natural inorganic anions) and a good linearity. Precision ranges from 0.3 to 23.4 (% V.C.), and detection limits are within units of ?g L?¹, except for tribromoacetic acid - somewhat high in comparison with those of the official methods. Nonetheless, with the basic instrumentation setup herein described, this method may be suitable for monitoring when the drinking water treatments are to be optimized. This is especially interesting for small communities or for developing/developed countries in which regulations on disinfection by-products others than trihalomethanes are being addressed. PMID:25252348

Garcia-Villanova, Rafael J; Raposo Funcia, César; Oliveira Dantas Leite, M Vilani; Toruño Fonseca, Ivania M; Espinosa Nieto, Miguel; Espuelas India, Javier

2014-09-01

49

Determination of haloacetic acids in bottled and tap water sources by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and GC-MS analysis.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acids are toxic organic pollutants that can be formed as by-products of disinfection of water by chlorination. In this study, we developed a fast and efficient method for the determination of six species of these compounds in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. To be suitable for GC analysis, the acidic analytes were derivatized using n-octanol. One-factor-at-a-time optimization was carried out on several factors including temperature, extraction time, amount of catalyst, and dispersive solvent. The optimized conditions were then used to determine calibration parameters. Linearity, as demonstrated by coefficient of determination, ranged between 0.9900 and 0.9966 for the concentration range of 0.05-0.57 µg/L. The proposed method has good repeatability; intraday precision was calculated as %RSD of 2.38-9.34%, while interday precision was 4.69-8.06%. The method was applied to real samples in bottled water and tap water sources. Results indicated that the total concentrations of the analytes in these sources (2.97-5.30 µg/L) were far below the maximum contaminant levels set by both the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed method compared favorably with methods reported in the literature. PMID:25295305

Al-shatri, Mohsen A; Nuhu, Abdulmumin A; Basheer, Chanbasha

2014-01-01

50

Determination of Haloacetic Acids in Bottled and Tap Water Sources by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and GC-MS Analysis  

PubMed Central

Haloacetic acids are toxic organic pollutants that can be formed as by-products of disinfection of water by chlorination. In this study, we developed a fast and efficient method for the determination of six species of these compounds in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. To be suitable for GC analysis, the acidic analytes were derivatized using n-octanol. One-factor-at-a-time optimization was carried out on several factors including temperature, extraction time, amount of catalyst, and dispersive solvent. The optimized conditions were then used to determine calibration parameters. Linearity, as demonstrated by coefficient of determination, ranged between 0.9900 and 0.9966 for the concentration range of 0.05–0.57?µg/L. The proposed method has good repeatability; intraday precision was calculated as %RSD of 2.38–9.34%, while interday precision was 4.69–8.06%. The method was applied to real samples in bottled water and tap water sources. Results indicated that the total concentrations of the analytes in these sources (2.97–5.30?µg/L) were far below the maximum contaminant levels set by both the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed method compared favorably with methods reported in the literature. PMID:25295305

Al-shatri, Mohsen A.; Nuhu, Abdulmumin A.; Basheer, Chanbasha

2014-01-01

51

Single-drop microextraction with in-microvial derivatization for the determination of haloacetic acids in water sample by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new approach using single-drop microextraction (SDME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of six haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water samples was presented. n-Octanol was used as extractant and derivatization reagent. HAAs were derivatized both simultaneously during the extraction in the solvent microdrop, and after extraction, inside a glass microvial (1.1mm I.D.). Trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) was used as the reaction catalyst. The influence of catalyst amount, derivatization time and temperature on the yield of the in-microvial derivatization was investigated. Derivatization reaction was performed using 1.2microL of TFAA at 100 degrees C for 20min. Extraction was performed using 1.8microL of n-octanol containing TFAA (10%, v/v). Experimental parameters, such as, exposure time, sample pH and extraction temperature were controlled and optimized. Analytical parameters such as linearity, precision and limit of detection were also evaluated. The proposed method was proved to be a suitable analytical procedure for HAAs in water with limits of detection 0.1-1.2microg/L. The relative recoveries range from 82.5 to 97.6% for all the target analytes. Precision values were from 5.1 to 8.5% (as intra-day relative standard deviation, RSD) and 8.8-12.3% (as inter-day RSD). PMID:19135207

Saraji, Mohammad; Bidgoli, Ali Akbar Hajialiakbari

2009-02-13

52

Electrochemical removal of haloacetic acids in a three-dimensional electrochemical reactor with Pd-GAC particles as fixed filler and Pd-modified carbon paper as cathode.  

PubMed

The reductive removal of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in a three-dimensional electrochemical continuous reactor with Pd-granular activated carbon (Pd-GAC) particles as fixed filler and Pd-modified carbon paper (Pd-C) as cathode was studied in this research. Pd-C electrode was prepared from PdCl2 via electrodeposition onto carbon paper. Pd-GAC particles were prepared by the impregnation of Pd(2+) ions onto GAC. Efficient electrocatalytic reduction of HAAs in this reactor was exhibited. Effects of current density, initial HHAs concentration, and hydraulic retention time on the HHAs removal were investigated. Under the current density of 0.3 mA/cm(2), HAAs with initial concentration of 120 ?g/L were reduced to be less than 60 ?g/L with hydraulic retention time of 20 min. Electron transfer and HAAs diffusion both played an important role in controlling the electro-reduction process under the conditions of current density less than 0.6 mA/cm(2) with an initial HAAs concentration ranging from 120 to 600 ?g/L. However, the HAAs diffusion became the primary rate-limiting step when the current density was higher than 0.6 mA/cm(2). The Pd(0) and Pd(2+) species were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stability of the electrochemical reactor in the reduction removal of HAAs was also exhibited. PMID:24429102

Zhao, Xu; Li, Angzhen; Mao, Ran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

2014-03-15

53

Pyruvate Remediation of Cell Stress and Genotoxicity Induced by Haloacetic Acid Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

PubMed Central

Monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are a major class of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. We propose a model of toxic action based on monoHAA-mediated inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a target cytosolic enzyme. This model predicts that GAPDH inhibition by the monoHAAs will lead to a severe reduction of cellular ATP levels and repress the generation of pyruvate. A loss of pyruvate will lead to mitochondrial stress and genomic DNA damage. We found a concentration-dependent reduction of ATP in Chinese hamster ovary cells after monoHAA treatment. ATP reduction per pmol monoHAA followed the pattern of iodoacetic acid (IAA) > bromoacetic acid (BAA) >> chloroacetic acid (CAA), which is the pattern of potency observed with many toxicological endpoints. Exogenous supplementation with pyruvate enhanced ATP levels and attenuated monoHAA-induced genomic DNA damage as measured with single cell gel electrophoresis. These data were highly correlated with the SN2 alkylating potentials of the monoHAAs and with the induction of toxicity. The results from this study strongly support the hypothesis that GAPDH inhibition and the possible subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species is linked with the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and neurotoxicity of these DBPs. PMID:23893730

Dad, Azra; Jeong, Clara H.; Pals, Justin A.; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Plewa, Michael J.

2014-01-01

54

Pyruvate remediation of cell stress and genotoxicity induced by haloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products.  

PubMed

Monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are a major class of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. We propose a model of toxic action based on monoHAA-mediated inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a target cytosolic enzyme. This model predicts that GAPDH inhibition by the monoHAAs will lead to a severe reduction of cellular ATP levels and repress the generation of pyruvate. A loss of pyruvate will lead to mitochondrial stress and genomic DNA damage. We found a concentration-dependent reduction of ATP in Chinese hamster ovary cells after monoHAA treatment. ATP reduction per pmol monoHAA followed the pattern of iodoacetic acid (IAA)?>?bromoacetic acid (BAA) > chloroacetic acid (CAA), which is the pattern of potency observed with many toxicological endpoints. Exogenous supplementation with pyruvate enhanced ATP levels and attenuated monoHAA-induced genomic DNA damage as measured with single cell gel electrophoresis. These data were highly correlated with the SN 2 alkylating potentials of the monoHAAs and with the induction of toxicity. The results from this study strongly support the hypothesis that GAPDH inhibition and the possible subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species is linked with the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and neurotoxicity of these DBPs. PMID:23893730

Dad, Azra; Jeong, Clara H; Pals, Justin A; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

2013-10-01

55

Effects of pH on the speciation coefficients in models of bromide influence on the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids.  

PubMed

This study investigated effects of pH, bromide and natural organic matter (NOM) level on yields and speciation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in chlorinated water. Experimental data were obtained using two water sources, one with a medium (DOC = 1.4 mg/L and SUVA = 2.60 L mg(-1) m(-1)) and the other with higher (DOC = 7.7 mg/L and SUVA = 4.26 L mg(-1) m(-1)) organic carbon level. The experiments employed the simulated distribution system (SDS) procedure at varying bromide concentrations and pH values of 7.0, 8.5 and 10. The speciation of THMs and dihalogenated HAAs (DHAAs) was interpreted based on the modelling of mixed halogenation yields via dimensionless ratios of bromination/chlorination reaction rates at each halogen incorporation node. The approach allowed precise modelling of the speciation of THMs and DHAAs at all examined pHs. In the case of DHAA, the dimensionless ratios of the bromination/chlorination reaction rates were not consistently affected by pH variations. For THMs, increase of pH caused the values of the dimensionless bromination/chlorination reaction rates to decrease in the case of halogenation of the initial reaction sites indicating a decreasing preference toward bromination at this reaction node. A similar trend was observed for the reactivity of dichlorinated reaction intermediate denoted as SCl2 whose formation precedes the release of CHCl3 and CHBrCl2. A similar but less consistent trend was observed for intermediate SBrCl whose halogenation yields both CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl. An opposite trend of increasing preference towards bromination at higher pHs was observed monobrominated intermediate SBr and in some extent dibrominated intermediate SBr2. These results help develop detailed DBP speciation models which needed to better understand the generation and potential health effects of THMs and HAAs at varying operating conditions and ultimately to adopt measure to minimize their levels in drinking water systems. PMID:24945979

Roccaro, Paolo; Korshin, Gregory V; Cook, David; Chow, Christopher W K; Drikas, Mary

2014-10-01

56

BIOAVAILABILITY OF HALOACETATES IN HUMAN SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to characterize the absorption, disposition and oral bioavailability of chlorinated and brominated haloacetates in human volunteers after consumption of drinking water containing a natural mixture of these compounds. We hypothesize that accurat...

57

Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems  

PubMed Central

Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA) and monobromoacetate (MBA). While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA) were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems. PMID:23167477

2012-01-01

58

CAN ABIOTIC (INORGANIC) PROCESSES ACCOUNT FOR HALOACETATE CONCENTRATION PROFILES?  

EPA Science Inventory

Haloacetates comprise about 13% of the measurable halogenated organic matter in potable water supplies after chlorination. Some of these species have been linked with animal carcinogenesis and are regulated under the Stage 1 DBP Rule. However, it is known that post-disinfection p...

59

ACUTE SPERMATOGENIC EFFECTS OF BROMOACETIC ACIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine and bromine, when present, can react with natural organic substances in source waters to form haloacetic acids, major by-products of chlorine disinfection. everal toxic effects including testicular damage have been attributed to chloroacetic acids but little information ...

60

FORMATION AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE BIODEGRADATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) is formed by chlorination of drinking waters containing naturally occurring bromide. This haloacetic acid is a concern to public health because of suspected carcinogenicity and toxicity, and is a potential target of disinfectant byproduct regulations...

61

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

62

PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF TRIHALOMETHANES, HALOACETIC ACIDS AND HALOKETONES. (R825953)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

63

MIXING RATIO INFLUENCES HALOACETIC ACID (HAA) MIXTURE TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mixtures of the same type (for example, disinfection byproduct mixtures) often contain the same chemicals, but at varying concentrations. The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of mixing ratio (the concentrations of chemicals relative to one another) on ...

64

AVOIDING PITFALLS IN THE DETERMINATION OF HALOCARBOXYLIC ACIDS: THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF METHYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Haloethanoic (haloacetic) acids are formed during chlorination of drinking water and are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These compounds are normally quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) ad the methyl esters. EPA Meth...

65

THE FATE OF THE HALOACETATES IN DRINKING WATER - CHEMICAL KINETICS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Haloacetates comprise about 13% of the measurable halogenated organic matter in potable water supplies after chlorination. Some of these species have been linked with animal carcinogenesis and are regulated under the Stage 1 Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Rule. However, it is known...

66

Haloacetate analogs of pheromones: effects on catabolism and electrophysiology in Plutella xylostella  

SciTech Connect

A series of mono, di-, and trihalogenated acetate analogs of Z11-16:Ac were prepared and examined for electrophysiological activity in antennae of males of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In addition, two potential affinity labels, a diazoacetate (Dza) and a trifluoromethyl ketone (Tfp), were evaluated for EAG activity. The Z11-16:Ac showed the highest activity in EAG assays, followed by the fluorinated acetates, but other haloacetates were essentially inactive. The effects of these analogs on the hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)Z11-16:Ac to (/sup 3/H)Z11-16:OH by antennal esterases was also examined. The three fluorinated acetates showed the greatest activity as inhibitors in competition assays, with rank order F/sub 2/Ac > F/sub 3/Ac > FAc > AC > Cl/sub 2/Ac > ClAc > Dza > Br/sub 2/Ac > BrAc > Tfp > I > Cl/sub 3/Ac > Br/sub 3/Ac > OH. The relative polarities of the haloacetates, as determined by TLC mobility, are in the order mono- > di- > trihalo, but F, Cl, Br, and I all confer similar polarities within a substitution group. Thus, the steric size appears to be the predominant parameter affecting the interactions of the haloacetate analogs with both receptor and catabolic proteins in P. xylostella males.

Prestwich, G.D.; Streinz, L.

1988-03-01

67

Unusual Complex Formation and Chemical Reaction of Haloacetate Anion on the Exterior Surface of Cucurbit[6]uril in the Gas Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncovalent interactions of cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) with haloacetate and halide anions are investigated in the gas phase using electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. Strong noncovalent interactions of monoiodoacetate, monobromoacetate, monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, and trichloroacetate on the exterior surface of CB[6] are observed in the negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectra. The strong binding energy of the complex allows intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which yields externally bound CB[6]-halide complex, by collisional activation. Utilizing ion mobility technique, structures of exteriorly bound CB[6] complexes of haloacetate and halide anions are confirmed. Theoretically determined low energy structures using density functional theory (DFT) further support results from ion mobility studies. The DFT calculation reveals that the binding energy and conformation of haloacetate on the CB[6] surface affect the efficiency of the intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which correlate well with the experimental observation.

Choi, Tae Su; Ko, Jae Yoon; Heo, Sung Woo; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Hugh I.

2012-10-01

68

INHALATION EXPOSURE TO HALOACETIC ACIDS AND HALOKETONES DURING SHOWERING. (R825953)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

69

MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT; II. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: HALOACETIC ACIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Risk management of drinking water relies on quality analytical data. Analytical methodology can often be adapted from environmental monitoring sources. However, risk management sometimes presents special analytical challenges because data may be needed from a source for which n...

70

HALOACETONITRILES VS. REGULATED HALOACETIC ACIDS: ARE NITROGEN CONTAINING DBPS MORE TOXIC?  

EPA Science Inventory

Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are toxic nitrogenous drinking water disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) and are observed with chlorine, chloramine, or chlorine dioxide disinfection. Using microplate-based Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assays for chronic cytotoxicity and acute genotoxi...

71

DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS OF ESTRADIOL IN THE CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMOZED/ESTRADIOL-IMPLANTED FEMALE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations of Estradiol in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized / Estradiol-implanted Female Rats ABSTRACT Haloacetic acids are one of the principal classes of disinfection by-products generated by the chlorination of mun...

72

Simultaneous determination of halogenated neutral and acidic disinfection by-products in drinking water by closed-loop stripping extraction and capillary gas chromatography.  

PubMed

The analytical capabilities of Grob closed-loop stripping analysis technique were evaluated for the determination, in drinking water, of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetic acids, chloropicrin, halogenated ketones and chloral hydrate, reported as chlorination disinfection by-products. Thus by one-step enrichment and isolation procedure and subsequent analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection, organic polar and non-polar disinfection by-products could be analyzed at levels as low as 0.5 ng/l for trihalomethanes, 1 ng/l for haloacetonitriles and 45-72 ng/l for haloacetic acids. PMID:10536840

Kampioti, A A; Stephanou, E G

1999-10-01

73

ALTERED CRANIOFACIAL GENE EXPRESSION OF NEURULATION STAGED MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

An unintended consequence of chemical disinfection of municipal drinking water is the production of chemical disinfection by-products (DBPs). A major class ofDBPs are haloacetic acidsthat may be found at concentrations higher than other DBPs. Bromochloroacetic acid (BCA) is a de...

74

Rapid IC–ICP\\/MS method for simultaneous analysis of iodoacetic acids, bromoacetic acids, bromate, and other related halogenated compounds in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and bromate are toxic water disinfection by-products (DBPs) that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has regulated in drinking water. Iodoacetic acids (IAAs) are the emerging DBPs that have been recently found in disinfected drinking waters with higher toxicity than their corresponding chloro- and bromo-acetic acids. This study has developed a new rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous

Honglan Shi; Craig Adams

2009-01-01

75

The Effect of Water Disinfection By-products on Pregnancy Outcomes in Two Southeastern U.S. Communities  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if exposure to DBPs during gestation increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes, specifically term small for gestational age (SGA) birth, preterm birth (PTB), and very PTB (<32 weeks gestation). Methods We used weekly measurements total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), 5 haloacetic acids (HAA5), and total organic halides (TOX) collected from two distribution systems to evaluate the associations between DBP concentrations and term SGA, PTB and very PTB using logistic regression. Results We found no associations between DBPs and term-SGA. In the site with higher concentrations of bromine-containing DBPs, we found an association between TOX and PTB; this association was larger, though less precise, for very PTB. Conclusions Our results do not support an association between TTHMs or HAA5 and the birth outcomes investigated, but an association was found between increased TOX and PTB. PMID:21915074

Horton, Bethany Jablonski; Luben, Thomas J.; Herring, Amy H.; Savitz, David A.; Singer, Philip C.; Weinberg, Howard S.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

76

ALTERATION OF ESTROUS CYCLICITY BY THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT DIBROMOACETIC ACID: RELATIONSHIP TO AN EFFECT ON ESTRADIOL METABOLISM?  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of chemicals formed by disinfection of municipal drinking water have been suspected to cause reproductive alterations in humans and test animals. One class of these chemicals, the haloacetic acids, have been reported to alter a number of rat testicular endpoints, includ...

77

EVALUATION OF THE JOINT TOXIC ACTION OF MIXTURES OF HALOACETIC ACIDS CONSTRUCTED USING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATION/EXPOSURE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed by reactions between chemicals used to disinfect water and organic compounds present in source water. The composition of DBP mixtures varies based on a number of factors, including treatment scenario, with different DBP mixtures contain...

78

Enthalpies of crystal lattices and standard enthalpies of formation of crystalline metal haloacetates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the calculation of the enthalpies of crystal lattices and standard enthalpies of formation of anhydrous metal nitrates is presented. The estimation of ÄHlat is based on interpolation of the linear plots of this value vs. the Edwards parameter, which, in turn, is a linear function of the logarithm of the acid dissociation constant. Linearity of the above dependence was previously found experimentally for the corresponding uranyl salts. Previously unknown lattice enthalpies and standard enthalpies of formation of a large set of anhydrous metal nitrates and carboxylates are calculated.

Baluev, A. V.

1999-01-01

79

Formation and modeling of disinfection by-products in drinking water of six cities in China.  

PubMed

Water quality parameters including TOC, UV(254), pH, chlorine dosage, bromide concentration and disinfection by-products were measured in water samples from 41 water treatment plants of six selected cities in China. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products in the drinking water of China. Bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were also detected in many water samples. Higher concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were measured in summer compared to winter. The geographical variations in DBPs showed that TTHM levels were higher in Zhengzhou and Tianjin than other selected cities. And the HAA5 levels were highest in Changsha and Tianjin. The modeling procedure that predicts disinfection by-products formation was studied and developed using artificial neural networks. The performance of the artificial neural networks model was excellent (r > 0.84). PMID:21416099

Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli

2011-05-01

80

Simultaneous determination of halogenated neutral and acidic disinfection by-products in drinking water by closed-loop stripping extraction and capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical capabilities of Grob closed-loop stripping analysis technique were evaluated for the determination, in drinking water, of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetic acids, chloropicrin, halogenated ketones and chloral hydrate, reported as chlorination disinfection by-products. Thus by one-step enrichment and isolation procedure and subsequent analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection, organic polar and non-polar disinfection by-products could be analyzed at

Adamantia A. Kampioti; Euripides G. Stephanou

1999-01-01

81

Direct Determination of Trace-Level Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water by Two-1 Dimensional Ion Chromatography with Suppressed Conductivity2  

E-print Network

Chromatography with Suppressed Conductivity2 3 DominiqueVerreya,b, *, Mari-VorganLouyera,b, Olivier Thomasa,GC/MS with derivatization and LC/MS, UV or conductivity. A new method, based22 on two-dimensional ion chromatography (IC 2D to quantify HAA at trace levels in drinking water.31 32 Keywords: ionic chromatography; two dimensions

Boyer, Edmond

82

Occurrence of disinfection by-products in tap water distribution systems and their associated health risk.  

PubMed

The concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, and haloacetic acids (HAAs; monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, dibromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid) were measured in tap waters passing through water distribution systems of six water treatment plants in Seoul, Korea, and their associated health risks from exposure to THMs through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation were estimated using a probabilistic approach. The concentration ranges for total THMs and HAA5 were 3.9-53.5 and acid, and trichloroacetic acid were the most frequently detected. Spatial and seasonal variations in concentrations of THMs and HAAs in the six water distribution systems were significant (P < 0.001).The mean lifetime cancer risks through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation during showering ranged as 7.23-10.06 × 10(-6), 2.19-3.63 × 10(-6), and 5.22-7.35 × 10(-5), respectively. The major exposure route to THMs was inhalation during showering. Sensitivity analysis showed that shower time and shower frequency had a great impact on the lifetime cancer risk by the exposure to THMs in tap water. PMID:23446885

Lee, Jin; Kim, Eun-Sook; Roh, Bang-Sik; Eom, Seog-Won; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

2013-09-01

83

Source Water Management for Disinfection By-Product Control using New York City's Operations Support Tool and On-Line Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2006 Stage 2 Disinfectant / Disinfection Byproduct Rule (DBPR) for finished drinking waters is intended to reduce overall DBP levels by limiting the levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five of the haloacetic acids (HAA5). Under Stage 2, maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), 80 ?g/L for TTHM and 60 ?g/L for HAA5, are based on a locational running annual average for individual sites instead of as the system-wide quarterly running annual average of the Stage 1 DBPR. This means compliance will have to be met at sampling locations of peak TTHM and HAA5 concentrations rather than an average across the entire system. Compliance monitoring under the Stage 2 DBPR began on April 1, 2012. The New York City (NYC) Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) began evaluating potential impacts of the Stage 2 DBPR on NYC's unfiltered water supply in 2002 by monitoring TTHM and HAA5 levels at various locations throughout the distribution system. Initial monitoring indicated that HAA5 levels could be of concern in the future, with the potential to intermittently violate the Stage 2 DBPR at specific locations, particularly those with high water age. Because of the uncertainty regarding the long-term prospect for compliance, DEP evaluated alternatives to ensure compliance, including operational changes (reducing chlorine dose, changing flow configurations to minimize water age, altering pH, altering source water withdrawals); changing the residual disinfectant from free chlorine to chloramines; and engineered treatment alternatives. This paper will discuss the potential for using DEP's Operations Support Tool (OST) and enhanced reservoir monitoring to support optimization of source water withdrawals to minimize finished water DBP levels. The OST is a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. It incorporates a water supply system simulation model (OASIS, HydroLogics, Inc.), reservoir water quality models, a near real-time monitoring network, and hydrologic forecasts to provide analytical support for both long-term planning and near-term operations. The OST helps managers and operators balance multiple objectives, including water supply reliability, water quality, and environmental and community release objectives. This paper will describe the results of initial testing to evaluate the potential to reduce DBP levels by managing source water withdrawals to minimize the transport of natural organic matter (NOM) precursors from upper reservoirs. Operating rules were developed that take advantage of selective withdrawal capabilities at some upstate reservoirs and the inherent flexibility of the overall water supply system, seeking to minimize DBPs within the larger framework of water supply, water quality, environmental, and regulatory objectives. The results demonstrated that there is substantial flexibility within the system to manage DBP levels, in some cases providing the potential for reductions of DBP precursors of nearly 10%. Additional research is underway that seeks to better understand the sources of natural organic matter in the NYC watershed to provide guidance for on-line monitoring to be used with the OST to support real-time operation support for DBP control.

Weiss, W. J.; Becker, W.; Schindler, S.

2012-12-01

84

Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men.  

PubMed

Urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs), such as dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), have been suggested as potential biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, variable exposure to and the short elimination half-lives of these biomarkers can result in considerable variability in urinary measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Here we examined the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among eleven men who provided urine samples on 8 days over 3 months. The urinary concentrations of DCAA and TCAA were measured by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize the within-person and between-person variances and computed the sensitivity and specificity to assess how well single or multiple urine collections accurately determined personal 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels. The within-person variance was much higher than the between-person variance for all three sample types (spot, first morning, and 24-h urine samples) for DCAA (ICC=0.08-0.37) and TCAA (ICC=0.09-0.23), regardless of the sampling interval. A single-spot urinary sample predicted high (top 33%) 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels with high specificity (0.79 and 0.78, respectively) but relatively low sensitivity (0.47 and 0.50, respectively). Collecting two or three urine samples from each participant improved the classification. The poor reproducibility of the measured urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations indicate that a single measurement may not accurately reflect individual long-term exposure. Collection of multiple urine samples from one person is an option for reducing exposure classification errors in studies exploring the effects of DBP exposure on reproductive health. PMID:25262085

Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Le; Huang, Yue-Hui; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Peng; He, Meng-Jie; Huang, Xin; Lu, Wen-Qing

2014-11-01

85

Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of the Water Disinfection Byproduct, Dibromoacetic Acid, in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a water disinfection byproduct formed by the reaction of chlorine oxidizing compounds with natural organic matter in water containing bromide. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to DBA in drinking water for 2 weeks (N=5), 3 months (N=10), or 2 years (N=50). Concentrations of DBA in drinking water were 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/L in the 2-week and 3-month studies, and 0, 50, 500, and 1,000 mg/L in the 2-year studies. Toxic effects of DBA in the prechronic studies were detected in the liver (hepatocellular cytoplasmic vacuolization in rats and mice) and testes (delayed spermiation and atypical residual bodies in male rats and mice, and atrophy of the germinal epithelium in rats). In the 2-year studies, neoplasms were induced at multiple sites in rats and mice exposed to DBA; these included mononuclear cell leukemia and abdominal cavity mesothliomas in rats, and neoplasms of the liver (hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma and hepatoblastoma) and lung (alveolar adenoma or carcinoma) in mice. The increase in incidence of hepatocellular neoplasms in male mice was significant even at the lowest exposure concentration of 50 mg/L, which is equivalent to an average daily dose of approximately 5 mg/kg. These studies provide critical information for future re-evaluations of health-based drinking water standards for haloacetic acids. PMID:17157429

Melnick, Ronald L.; Nyska, Abraham; Foster, Paul M.; Roycroft, Joseph H.; Kissling, Grace E.

2007-01-01

86

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

87

Analyse structurale des dérivés fonctionnels des acides carboxyliques Partie III. Acétate d'éthyle, dérivés ?-halogénés  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylene bending mode analysis of ethyl esters of acetic and haloacetic acids XCH 2CO 2C 2H 5 where X=H( I), F( II), Cl( III),Br ( IV) and I( V) reveals that in the dissolved state (CCl 4) these compounds have conformations induced by rotating motion of the XCH 2 and C 2H 5 groups (( II), ( III) and ( IV)) or by C 2H 5 group rotation exclusively (( I) and ( V)). In the last case, ( I) exists in gauche and anti conformations while ( V) occurs in gauche—gauche and gauche—anti conformations. A theoretical study of compounds ( I), ( II) and ( III) by the PCILO method and Onsager formalism leads to the following conclusion The conformers of ( I) have a dihedral angle (H 3)C?C(H 2)?O?C of 70° (gauche conformer) and 180° (anti conformer). For ( II) and ( III), there are four stable conformers whose dihedral angle ? 3=(H 3)C?C(H 2)?O?C and ?=X?C?C?O values are in agreement with C 2H 5 and CH 2X group orientations found in experimental analysis.

Maury, Catherine; Petrissans, Jean

1991-09-01

88

In situ derivatization coupled to microextraction by packed sorbentand gas chromatography for the automated determination ofhaloacetic acids in chlorinated water.  

PubMed

A novel analytical method is reported for the determination of monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic acid. These are the five haloacetic acids (HAAs) for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has regulated a maximum contamination level (MCL) of 0.060 mg L?1for the sum of their concentrations in drinking waters. Themethod uses in situ aqueous derivatization, followed by microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) priorto gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The parameters affecting derivatization and extraction were optimized with a view to obtaining maximum sensitivity. The HAAs were derivatized with 2,2,2-trifluroethylamine (TFEA), using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as a condensation agent. The reaction occurred in aqueous medium and was carried out in 10 min in the vial of anautosampler used to perform microextraction by packed sorbent. The whole process, from the mixing of the reagents for the derivatization, was automated. Precision values varied from 4.2 to 9.8% (as intra-day relative standard deviation, RSD) and 9.4 to 14% (as inter-day RSD). The recoveries from spiked concentrations ranged from 83 to 117%, revealing the accuracy of the method. The detection limits ranged from 0.36 to 1.2 g L?1, such that it is possible to measure the US EPA MCL in drinking waters. The method developed was applied to the analysis of HAAs in drinking and swimming pool water from Salamanca(North West of Spain). PMID:24353999

Casas Ferreira, Ana María; Fernández Laespada, María Esther; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Cordero, Bernardo Moreno

2013-11-29

89

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

90

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

91

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... acid Description Folic acid, or folate, is a B vitamin found in many beans, grains, fortified breakfast cereals, ... for use? Folic acid, or folate, is a B vitamin. It is promoted mainly as part of a ...

92

Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

Openshaw, Peter

1987-01-01

93

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When

1980-01-01

94

Genotoxic and clastogenic effects of monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products in primary human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the second-most prevalent class of drinking water disinfection by-products formed by chemical disinfectants. Previous studies have determined DNA damage and repair of HAA-induced lesions in mammalian and human cell lines; however, little is known of the genomic DNA and chromosome damage induced by these compounds in primary human cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and clastogenic effects of the monoHAA disinfection by-products in primary human lymphocytes. All monoHAAs were genotoxic in primary human lymphocytes, the rank order of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity was IAA > BAA > CAA. After 6 h of repair time, only 50% of the DNA damage (maximum decrease in DNA damage) was repaired compared to the control. This demonstrates that primary human lymphocytes are less efficient in repairing the induced damage by monoHAAs than previous studies with mammalian cell lines. In addition, the monoHAAs induced an increase in the chromosome aberration frequency as a measurement of the clastogenic effect of these compounds. These results coupled with genomic technologies in primary human cells and other mammalian non-cancerous cell lines may lead to the identification of biomarkers that may be employed in feedback loops to aid water chemists and engineers in the overall goal of producing safer drinking water. PMID:23602619

Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa F; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Londoño-Velasco, Elizabeth; Reyes-Carvajal, Ingrid; Saavedra-Trujillo, Diana; Carvajal-Varona, Silvio; Sánchez-Gómez, Adalberto; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

2013-06-15

95

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

96

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

97

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

98

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

99

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and

1980-01-01

100

The effect of UV/H2O2 treatment on disinfection by-product formation potential under simulated distribution system conditions.  

PubMed

Advanced oxidation with ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide (UV/H(2)O(2)) produces hydroxyl radicals that have the potential to degrade a wide-range of organic micro-pollutants in water. Yet, when this technology is used to reduce target contaminants, natural organic matter can be altered. This study evaluated disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor formation for UV/H(2)O(2) while reducing trace organic contaminants in natural water (>90% for target pharmaceuticals, pesticides and taste and odor producing compounds and 80% atrazine degradation). A year-long UV/H(2)O(2) pilot study was conducted to evaluate DBP precursor formation with varying water quality. The UV pilot reactors were operated to consistently achieve 80% atrazine degradation, allowing comparison of low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamp technologies for DBP precursor formation. Two process waters of differing quality were used as pilot influent, i.e., before and after granular activated carbon adsorption. DBP precursors increased under most of the conditions studied. Regulated trihalomethane formation potential increased through the UV/H(2)O(2) reactors from 20 to 118%, depending on temperature and water quality. When Post-GAC water served as reactor influent, less DBPs were produced in comparison to conventionally treated water. Haloacetic acid (HAA5) increased when conventionally treated water served as UV/H(2)O(2) pilot influent, but only increased slightly (MP lamp) when GAC treated water served as pilot influent. No difference in 3-day simulated distribution system DBP concentration was observed between LP and MP UV reactors when 80% atrazine degradation was targeted. PMID:21624627

Metz, D H; Meyer, M; Dotson, A; Beerendonk, E; Dionysiou, D D

2011-07-01

101

Spatial variation of disinfection by-product concentrations: exposure assessment implications.  

PubMed

The use of public water system (PWS) average trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations as surrogates of "personal" exposures in epidemiological studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) may result in exposure misclassification bias from various sources of measurement error including intra-system variation of DBPs. Using 2000-2004 data from 107 PWSs in Massachusetts, we assessed two approaches for characterizing DBP spatial variability by identifying PWSs with low spatial variability (LSV) and examining differences in LSV across DBP groups and by type of source water and primary disinfectant. We also used spatial differences to examine the association between THM concentrations and indices of social disadvantage; however, we found no correlations or statistically significant differences based on the available data. We observed similar patterns for the percentage of quarterly sampling dates with LSV across different types of source water for all DBPs but not across disinfectants. We found there was little overlap between sites classified as having LSV across different DBP groups. In the main analysis, we found moderate correlations between both approaches (?(THM4) = 0.55; ?(BrTHM) = 0.64; ?(HAA5) = 0.67); although Method 1 (based on concentration differences between samples) may be better suited for identifying PWSs for inclusion in epidemiological studies because it is more easily adapted to study-specific exposure gradients than Method 2 (based on categorical exposure percentiles). These data reinforce the need to consider different exposure assessment approaches when examining the spatial variation of multiple DBP surrogates as they can represent different DBP mixtures. PMID:23993731

Evans, Amanda M; Wright, J Michael; Meyer, Amy; Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar

2013-10-15

102

Peracetic Acid Oxidation of Saline Waters in the Absence and Presence of H2O2: Secondary Oxidant and Disinfection Byproduct Formation.  

PubMed

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a disinfectant considered for use in ballast water treatment, but its chemical behavior in such systems (i.e., saline waters) is largely unknown. In this study, the reactivity of PAA with halide ions (chloride and bromide) to form secondary oxidants (HOCl, HOBr) was investigated. For the PAA-chloride and PAA-bromide reactions, second-order rate constants of (1.47 ± 0.58) × 10(-5) and 0.24 ± 0.02 M(-1) s(-1) were determined for the formation of HOCl or HOBr, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is always present in PAA solutions, reduced HOCl or HOBr to chloride or bromide, respectively. As a consequence, in PAA-treated solutions with [H2O2] > [PAA], the HOBr (HOCl) steady-state concentrations were low with a limited formation of brominated (chlorinated) disinfection byproducts (DBPs). HOI (formed from the PAA-iodide reaction) affected this process because it can react with H2O2 back to iodide. H2O2 is thus consumed in a catalytic cycle and leads to less efficient HOBr scavenging at even low iodide concentrations (<1 ?M). In PAA-treated solutions with [H2O2] < [PAA] and high bromide levels, mostly brominated DBPs are formed. In synthetic water, bromate was formed from the oxidation of bromide. In natural brackish waters, bromoform (CHBr3), bromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), and tribromoacetic acid (TBAA) formed at up to 260, 106, 230, and 89 ?g/L, respectively for doses of 2 mM (ca. 150 mg/L) PAA and [H2O2] < [PAA]. The same brackish waters, treated with PAA with [H2O2] ? [PAA], similar to conditions found in commercial PAA solutions, resulted in no trihalomethanes and only low haloacetic acid concentrations. PMID:25611970

Shah, Amisha D; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Salhi, Elisabeth; Höfer, Thomas; von Gunten, Urs

2015-02-01

103

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University of Houston,

104

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

105

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

106

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

107

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

108

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

109

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

Bess, F.D.

1980-01-01

110

Use of urinary trichloroacetic acid as an exposure biomarker of disinfection by-products in cancer studies.  

PubMed

Urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) has been proposed as a valid exposure biomarker for ingested disinfection by-products (DBP) for reproductive studies. However, it has never been used in epidemiologic studies on cancer. We investigate the performance of urinary TCAA as a biomarker of DBP exposure in the framework of an epidemiologic study on cancer. We conducted home visits to collect tap water, first morning void urine, and a 48h fluid intake diary among 120 controls from a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Barcelona, Spain. We measured urine TCAA and creatinine, and 9 haloacetic acids and 4 trihalomethanes (THM) in tap water. Lifetime THM exposure was estimated based on residential history since age 18 plus routine monitoring data. Robust linear regressions were used to estimate mean change in urinary TCAA adjusted by covariates. Among the studied group, mean age was 74 years (range 63-85) and 41 (34%) were females. Mean total tap water consumption was 2.2l/48h (standard error, 0.1l/48h). Geometric mean urine TCAA excretion rate was 17.3pmol/min [95%CI: 14.0-21.3], which increased 2% for a 10% increase in TCAA ingestion and decreased with total tap water consumption (-17%/l), water intake outside home (-32%), plasmatic volume (-64%/l), in smokers (-79%), and in users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (-50%). Urinary TCAA levels were not associated with lifetime THM exposure. In conclusion, our findings support that urine TCAA is not a valid biomarker in case-control studies of adult cancer given that advanced age, comorbidites and medication use are prevalent and are determinants of urine TCAA levels, apart from ingested TCAA levels. In addition, low TCAA concentrations in drinking water limit the validity of urine TCAA as an exposure biomarker. PMID:25462676

Salas, Lucas A; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Goñi, Fernando; Moreno, Victor; Villanueva, Cristina M

2014-11-01

111

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

112

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

113

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

114

Acidic precipitation  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of the environmental chemistry and transport phenomena of air pollutants, biological and ecological effects of acidic precipitation, mitigation of acidified aquatic ecosystems, and modelling approaches. This book reviews what is known about the impact of acidic deposition in the biota and processes in complex ecosystems such as lakes, streams, and forests. The specific effects on crops, trees, fish, and microorganisms are also discussed.

Adriano, D.C. (Georgia Univ., Aiken, SC (USA)); Johnson, A.H. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-01-01

115

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

116

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

117

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks

2003-08-07

118

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard ?-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

119

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

120

Acid Attack  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

121

Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

Jie Liu

1995-01-01

122

HYDROFLUORIC ACID Safety Office  

E-print Network

acids like Sulfuric and Hydrochloric. Hydrofluoric Acid is an acid like no other. It is so potentHYDROFLUORIC ACID SAFETY Safety Office University ofTennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, TN #12;What is Hydrofluoric Acid ? Hydrofluoric acid is a "weak" inorganic acid. Primarily used

Davis, Lloyd M.

123

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

INCHEM

124

Nicotinuric Acid  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is a multiplex disorder and puts patients on the road to type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, a surrogate biomarker in plasma or urine in fully reflecting features of metabolic syndrome has not been explored. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Urine metabolomics has potential utility in metabolic profiling because urine metabolites analysis reflects global outflux of metabolic change. Accordingly, we collected data on subjects (n = 99) with overweight, dyslipidemia, hypertension or impaired glucose tolerance and took a metabolomics approach to analyze the metabolites of urine revealed in metabolic syndrome by high-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry and elicit potential biomarkers to picture metabolic syndrome. RESULTS Our results revealed that the urine nicotinuric acid value of subjects with diabetes (HbA1c ?6.5% or those receiving diabetes medications) (n = 25) was higher than subjects without diabetes (n = 37) (221 ± 31 vs. 152 ± 13 × 103 mAU, P = 0.0268). Moreover, urinary nicotinuric acid level was positively correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study, to our knowledge, to propose that nicotinuric acid represents an important pathogenic mechanism in process from metabolic syndrome to diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:23275373

Huang, Chun-Feng; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Fan, Chun-Ming; Hong, Chuang-Ye; Shiao, Ming-Shi

2013-01-01

125

Folic acid - test  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

126

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

127

DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

128

QUENCHING OF CHLORINATION DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION IN DRINKING WATER BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. (R825362)  

EPA Science Inventory

Reactions between chlorine disinfectants, dissolved organic matter, and other chemicals in water form a series of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), that are toxic and subject to increasingly stringent regulations. Th...

129

DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND HUMAN SEMEN QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This project, also called the Healthy Men Study will examine potential associations between human exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts, particularly haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs), and male reproductive health as indicated by semen quality. Sinc...

130

IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FORMED AT HIGH BROMIDE LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids, and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. Chlorine dioxide is a popular alternative, with over 500 dri...

131

HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS VIA FOODS AND BEVERAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The ingestion of tap water is a major route of exposure to water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including haloacetonitriles, haloketones, and haloacetic acids. A potentially significant alternate route of exposure is through the consumption of beverages prepared with tap water ...

132

EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711 Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

133

DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPS) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacentonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along with ...

134

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

135

New bioactive fatty acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

136

New Bioactive Fatty Acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

137

Understanding Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

138

Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**  

E-print Network

Brønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

Reed, Christopher A.

139

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

1983-01-01

140

New method of acidizing or acid fracturing: crosslinked acid gels  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from .0025 to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for proppants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provides effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better formation conductivity and practically a residue-free break for rapid clean-up of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show the acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low formation permeability.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1980-01-01

141

Electrochemical oxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate on boron-doped diamond anodes at circumneutral and acidic pH.  

PubMed

Electrochemical processes have been widely investigated for degrading organic contaminants present in wastewater. This study evaluated the performance of electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes by forming OH() for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from secondary-treated wastewater effluents. Since oxidation by OH() and active chlorine species (HClO/ClO(-)) is influenced by pH, the electrochemical oxidation of ROC was evaluated at controlled pH 6-7 and at pH 1-2 (no pH adjustment). A high concentration of chloride ions in the ROC enhanced the oxidation, and 7-11% of Coulombic efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved with 5.2 Ah L(-1) of specific electrical charge. Complete COD removal was observed after 5.2 and 6.6 Ah L(-1), yet the corresponding dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was only 48% (at acidic pH) and 59% (at circumneutral pH). Although a higher operating pH seemed to enhance the participation of OH() in oxidation mechanisms, high concentrations of chloride resulted in the formation of significant concentrations of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) after electrochemical oxidation at both pH. While adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) was degraded at a higher applied electrical charge, a continuous increase in AOCl concentration (up to 0.88 mM) was observed until the end of the experiments (i.e. 10.9 Ah L(-1)). In addition, total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total haloacetic acids (tHAAs) were further degraded with an increase in electrical charge under both pH conditions, to final total concentrations of 1 and 4 ?M (tTHMs), and 12 and 22 ?M (tHAAs), at acidic and circumneutral pH, respectively. In particular, tHAAs were still an order of magnitude above their initial concentration in ROC after further electrooxidation. Where high chloride concentrations are present, it was found to be necessary to separate chloride from ROC prior to electrochemical oxidation in order to avoid the formation of chlorinated by-products. PMID:22995242

Bagastyo, Arseto Y; Batstone, Damien J; Kristiana, Ina; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Joll, Cynthia; Radjenovic, Jelena

2012-11-15

142

Azelaic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

143

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

144

Uric acid test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

145

Folic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

146

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acids levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

147

Acid-Base Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

Sherman, David W.; Bristol, University O.

148

Detection of bound phenolic acids: prevention by ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of degradation of phenolic acids during alkaline hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental conditions commonly used to detect bound phenolic acids by alkaline hydrolysis result in loss of several phenolic acids, particularly dihydroxy-derivatives (caffeic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid, homogentisic acid). In this study we show that the addition of ascorbic acid, a strong antioxidant, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, a metal chelator, totally prevent the loss of phenolic acids during alkaline hydrolysis. In these

M Nardini; E Cirillo; F Natella; D Mencarelli; A Comisso; C Scaccini

2002-01-01

149

Acids and Bases (Netorials)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

150

Acid tolerance in amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

Pierce, B.A.

1985-04-01

151

Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We

M. R. Olthof; P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

2001-01-01

152

Chlorogenic Acid and Caffeic Acid Are Absorbed in Humans1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We

Margreet R. Olthof; Peter C. H. Hollman; Martijn B. Katan

153

Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid  

SciTech Connect

To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

1983-01-01

154

Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

2006-01-01

155

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

156

Aminocaproic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

157

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

158

Uric acid - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

159

Zoledronic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

160

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

161

Fatty acid analogs  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

162

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

163

The Acid Rain Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

164

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

165

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

2012-04-08

166

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise; Perez, Sharon

2004-01-01

167

What Is Acid Rain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

Likens, Gene E.

2004-01-01

168

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05

169

Editorial: Acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-09-01

170

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2010-11-09

171

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2007-12-11

172

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2000-01-01

173

[Biosynthesis of adipic acid].  

PubMed

Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production. PMID:24432653

Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

2013-10-01

174

The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipox- idase, for trans fatty acid by infrared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of hinoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, representing various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated

J. L. Beare-Rogers; L. M. Gray; R. Hollywood

175

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOEpatents

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02

176

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

SciTech Connect

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30

177

Preparation of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids  

E-print Network

Preparation of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids Susanna Branion and Vladimir Benin Department substituted terephthalic acids: 2-sulfomethylterephthalic acid (1) and 2-phosphonoterephthalic acid (2 for construction of acid-pendant polymer chains. Keywords: Acid-pendant polymers, arenephosphonic acids

Benin, Vladimir

178

4, 29012944, 2007 Acid deposition,  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title System Sciences Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

179

Lewis Acid Organocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 °C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

180

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

181

THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

182

CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID,  

E-print Network

, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosa- hexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial in/or, by gavage, an omega-3 (docosahexae- noic or eicosapentaenoic acid) or omega-6 (arachidonic acid) fatty acid. Both of the omega-3 fatty acids elevated major brain phosphatide levels (by 18­28%, and 21­27%) and giv

Wurtman, Richard

183

Acid rain on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

1982-01-01

184

Bile Acid Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bile acids are physiological agents that facilitate biliary secretion of lipids and metabolites, and intestinal absorption\\u000a of fat and nutrients. Bile acids are also signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways\\u000a to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in\\u000a the gallbladder, secreted to the intestine and reabsorbed

John Y. L. Chiang

185

Kidney amino acid transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule.\\u000a This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the\\u000a transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters\\u000a expressed in the basolateral membrane

François Verrey; Dustin Singer; Tamara Ramadan; Raphael N. Vuille-dit-Bille; Luca Mariotta; Simone M. R. Camargo

2009-01-01

186

Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.  

PubMed

Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:10757723

Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

2000-03-01

187

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2009-10-13

188

USGS Tracks Acid Rain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

1995-01-01

189

Acid Rain Students' Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA developed this colorful website to teach students all about acid rain. First, through clear descriptions and helpful figures users can learn the characteristics of acid rain, its dangers, and how to control it. The website offers an interactive connect-the-dots, word searches, crossword puzzles, and other games. A short movie provides an overview of how the use of coal contributes to acid rain and acid rain's impacts on ecosystems and human health. The website also offers an introduction to the pH scale and tools to measure the pH.

190

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-01

191

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

192

EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

193

Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

Sims, Paul A.

2011-01-01

194

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

195

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

196

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None;)

2007-05-16

197

Acids in Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how amino acids build proteins in a person's body. Amino acids are the chemical building blocks for the structure of an organism. A link to a quiz is provided at the end of the lesson to check comprehension.

2012-06-19

198

Sealed Lead Acid Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing trend among users of lead acid batteries towards use of sealed maintenance free designs. These offer the user many advantages in freedom of battery placement, increased safety, battery size and weight, no need to water, and in some instances superior performance. In standby service, two battery types are rivalling the traditional flooded lead acid stationary battery.

J. J. Kelley; C. K. McManus

1986-01-01

199

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the differences between acids and bases and how to use indicators, such as pH paper and red cabbage juice, to distinguish between them. They learn why it is important for engineers to understand acids and bases.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

200

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

201

Controlling acid rain  

E-print Network

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

202

What Causes Acid Rain?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

203

Lead-acid cell  

SciTech Connect

A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

1980-12-09

204

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Carbolic acid is a sweet-smelling clear liquid that is added to many different products. Carbolic acid poisoning occurs when someone touches or swallows this chemical. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management ...

205

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

206

Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.  

PubMed

cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ?-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

2014-12-14

207

Acid recovery from waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sulfuric acid production from pyrite, there is a lot of waste acid produced in fume washing with dilute\\u000a acid. Acid recovery from this sort of waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis is studied in the paper. The mass transfer\\u000a dialysis coefficient of sulfuric acid of the membrane AFX is measured, the effect of the flowrate of

Guiqing Zhang; Qixiu Zhang; Kanggen Zhou

1999-01-01

208

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

209

Trans Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

210

WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

211

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

212

Folic acid in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... certain types of anemias . Folate works along with vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break ... Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, ...

213

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

214

Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

1989-01-01

215

Alpha Hydroxy Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer cells associated with exposure to light) in mice, and that salicyclic acid had a photoprotective effect (protected against the effects of light) in mice. The complete results of this study are available ...

216

Boric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic poisoning ... and ant pesticides Photography chemicals Powders to kill roaches Some eye wash products Note: This list may ...

217

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

218

Amino Acids and Chirality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

Cook, Jamie E.

2012-01-01

219

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir CDC urges women to ... Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

220

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

221

Lead-acid cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification describes a post seal arrangement for a lead-acid battery. The seal is a resilient bellows which permits relative movement between the cell receptacle and the grids to which the post is attached.

L. D. Babusci; B. A. Cretella; D. O. Feder; D. E. Koontz

1970-01-01

222

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

223

Domoic Acid Fact Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online fact sheet illustrates the transfer of domoic acid through the food web. Domoic acid is a nerve toxin produced by a naturally occurring Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) usually (but not always) of the genus Pseudonitzchia. The sheet explains what to do if you find a sick or dead animal and includes contact information for injured/sick/entangled animal rescue networks in California.

Sanctuary, Channel I.

224

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

225

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation, including dry deposition, is recognized as coming from pollution-caused strong acid precursors that result from the burning of fossil fuels. Recent studies suggest that ecosystems susceptible to acidification occur over the entire length of the Appalachian Mountains and certain other regions of the eastern U.S. This paper reviews a short-term assessment by the EPA to survey the extent

Norman R. Glass; Dean E. Arnold; James N. Galloway; George R. Hendrey; Jeffrey J. Lee; W. W. McFee; Stephen A. Norton; Charles F. Powers; Danny L. Rambo; Carl L. Schofield

1982-01-01

226

Discovery of essential fatty acids.  

PubMed

Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

Spector, Arthur A; Kim, Hee-Yong

2015-01-01

227

Acidification and Acid Rain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

2003-12-01

228

Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

1989-01-01

229

Export of Acidity in Drainage Water from Acid Sulphate Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbed acid sulphate soils are potent sources of acidity in coastal waterways. Monitoring studies of the drainage water for sites at East Trinity, Cairns and Pimpama, south-east Queensland indicate that considerable acidity is found in the drainage water from these sites. Hydrogen (H+), ferrous (Fe2+) and aluminium (Al) ions are the dominant acid cations involved. When drainage water is mixed

F. J Cook; W Hicks; E. A Gardner; G. D Carlin; D. W Froggatt

2000-01-01

230

The Completely Sequenced Plasmid pEST4011 Contains a Novel IncP1 Backbone and a Catabolic Transposon Harboring tfd Genes for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Degradation  

PubMed Central

The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans strain EST4002 contains plasmid pEST4011. This plasmid ensures its host a stable 2,4-D+ phenotype. We determined the complete 76,958-bp nucleotide sequence of pEST4011. This plasmid is a deletion and duplication derivative of pD2M4, the 95-kb highly unstable laboratory ancestor of pEST4011, and was self-generated during different laboratory manipulations performed to increase the stability of the 2,4-D+ phenotype of the original strain, strain D2M4(pD2M4). The 47,935-bp catabolic region of pEST4011 forms a transposon-like structure with identical copies of the hybrid insertion element IS1071::IS1471 at the two ends. The catabolic regions of pEST4011 and pJP4, the best-studied 2,4-D-degradative plasmid, both contain homologous, tfd-like genes for complete 2,4-D degradation, but they have little sequence similarity other than that. The backbone genes of pEST4011 are most similar to the corresponding genes of broad-host-range self-transmissible IncP1 plasmids. The backbones of the other three IncP1 catabolic plasmids that have been sequenced (the 2,4-D-degradative plasmid pJP4, the haloacetate-catabolic plasmid pUO1, and the atrazine-catabolic plasmid pADP-1) are nearly identical to the backbone of R751, the archetype plasmid of the IncP1 ? subgroup. We show that despite the overall similarity in plasmid organization, the pEST4011 backbone is sufficiently different (51 to 86% amino acid sequence identity between individual backbone genes) from the backbones of members of the three IncP1 subgroups (the ?, ?, and ? subgroups) that it belongs to a new IncP1subgroup, the ? subgroup. This conclusion was also supported by a phylogenetic analysis of the trfA2, korA, and traG gene products of different IncP1 plasmids. PMID:15489427

Vedler, Eve; Vahter, Merle; Heinaru, Ain

2004-01-01

231

What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

Canada, Earth D.

2010-01-01

232

XYLARIC ACID, DARABINARIC ACID (D-LYXARIC ACID), L-ARABINARIC ACID (L-LYXARIC ACID), AND RIBARIC ACID-1,4-LACTONE; SYNTHESIS AND ISOLATION SYNTHESIS OF POLYHYDROXYPOLYAMIDES THEREFROM.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation describes the nitric acid oxidation of the pentoses D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, and D-ribose to produce xylaric acid, L-arabinaric acid (L-lyxaric acid), D-arabinaric acid… (more)

Hinton, Michael Raymond

2009-01-01

233

Molecular Structure of Malonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

2002-10-10

234

Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

1996-01-01

235

Pelargonic acid weed control parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

236

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

237

Acidity and taste in kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although total titratable acidity levels in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit appear quite stable during storage at 0°C under New Zealand conditions it is known that citric acid levels decline but malic acid levels are maintained. By contrast, malic acid levels tend to increase with storage at 4°C. These observations formed the basis of a sensory comparison of fruit stored at 0, 4,

K. Marsh; S. Attanayake; S. Walker; A. Gunson; H. Boldingh; E. MacRae

2004-01-01

238

The biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid  

PubMed Central

1. Ricinoleic acid is shown to be synthesized in the immature castor bean seed only after 3–4 weeks from the time of fertilization. 2. Synthesis occurs both in the isolated embryo and the endosperm. 3. Linoleic acid does not act as precursor of ricinoleic acid in the isolated bean embryo. 4. Oleic acid is shown to be the direct precursor of ricinoleic acid. 5. The reaction does not use molecular oxygen. This suggests that ricinoleic acid is not a precursor of linoleic acid. PMID:14340094

James, A. T.; Hadaway, H. C.; Webb, Joan P. W.

1965-01-01

239

Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease  

PubMed Central

Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

2014-01-01

240

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01

241

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22

242

Science Shorts: Understanding Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard acid rain mentioned as an environmental problem. It doesn't mean that a strong chemical is raining from the sky. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. However, a small change in how acidic precipitation is can have a profound effect. This month's activity will help students understand the effect of acid rain on buildings and statues.

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-11-01

243

Extracellular nucleic acids.  

PubMed

Extracellular nucleic acids are found in different biological fluids in the organism and in the environment: DNA is a ubiquitous component of the organic matter pool in the soil and in all marine and freshwater habitats. Data from recent studies strongly suggest that extracellular DNA and RNA play important biological roles in microbial communities and in higher organisms. DNA is an important component of bacterial biofilms and is involved in horizontal gene transfer. In recent years, the circulating extracellular nucleic acids were shown to be associated with some diseases. Attempts are being made to develop noninvasive methods of early tumor diagnostics based on analysis of circulating DNA and RNA. Recent observations demonstrated the possibility of nucleic acids exchange between eukaryotic cells and extracellular space suggesting their participation in so far unidentified biological processes. PMID:17563084

Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P; Rykova, Elena Y

2007-07-01

244

Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

Harold F. Hemond

1990-01-01

245

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

SciTech Connect

An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

2010-05-03

246

Acid rain in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

1992-07-01

247

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics  

PubMed Central

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2013-01-01

248

Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23?(9) and 87.97?(9)°. Inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

2011-01-01

249

Liposomal spherical nucleic acids.  

PubMed

A novel class of metal-free spherical nucleic acid nanostructures was synthesized from readily available starting components. These particles consist of 30 nm liposomal cores, composed of an FDA-approved 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid monomer. The surface of the liposomes was functionalized with DNA strands modified with a tocopherol tail that intercalates into the phospholipid layer of the liposomal core via hydrophobic interactions. The spherical nucleic acid architecture not only stabilizes these constructs but also facilitates cellular internalization and gene regulation in SKOV-3 cells. PMID:24983505

Banga, Resham J; Chernyak, Natalia; Narayan, Suguna P; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-07-16

250

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle-loaded  

E-print Network

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle acids and three nonprotein amino acids are derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2 liquid chromatography (HPLC). Keywords: Amino acid / Nonprotein amino acid / Capillary

Zare, Richard N.

251

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2011-07-01

252

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2013-07-01

253

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2010-07-01

254

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2012-07-01

255

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

256

Bile acid coenzyme A: amino acid N-acyltransferase in the amino acid conjugation of bile acids.  

PubMed

Bile acids are converted to their glycine and taurine N-acyl amidates by enzymes in the liver in a two-step process. This increases their aqueous solubility, particularly in the acidic environment of the upper part of the small intestine. Bile acid coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters synthesized by bile acid CoA ligase (see Shonsey et al., 2005) are substrates of bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferases (BAT) in the formation of bile acid N-acyl amidates. This chapter describes the methods used to purify BAT from human liver, to isolate and clone cDNAs encoding BAT from human, mouse, and rat liver cDNA libraries, the expression of BAT, the assays used to measure BAT activity, and the chemical syntheses of bile acid N-acylamidates. In addition, an enzyme that catalyzes further metabolism of glycine-conjugated bile acids is described. PMID:16399361

Shonsey, Erin M; Sfakianos, Mindan; Johnson, Michelle; He, Dongning; Falany, Charles N; Falany, Josie; Merkler, David J; Barnes, Stephen

2005-01-01

257

RESEARCH ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPA METHOD 552.2  

EPA Science Inventory

The work presented in this paper entails the development of a method for haloacetic acid (HAA) analysis, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)method 552.2, that improves the saftey and efficiency of previous methods and incorporates three additional trihalogenated acetic acids: b...

258

Disinfection by-products in Finnish drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) were measured in plant effluents of 35 Finnish waterworks, which utilized different treatment processes and raw water sources. DBPs were measured also from the distribution systems of three waterworks. Di- and trichloroacetic acids, and chloroform were the major DBPs found in treated water samples. The concentration of six haloacetic acids (HAA6) exceeded the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs).

T. K. Nissinen; I. T. Miettinen; P. J. Martikainen; T. Vartiainen

2002-01-01

259

Reduction of glycyrrhizic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of glycyrrhizic acid by NaBH4 and LiAlH4 was studied. The conditions for the selective reduction of the COOH groups of the carbohydrate chain and the C(11)=0 group\\u000a of aglycon were found.

L. A. Baltina; N. G. Serdyuk; E. V. Vasil’eva; G. A. Tolstikov

1997-01-01

260

Acidification and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw

S. A. Norton

2003-01-01

261

Basically Acidic Ink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students hypothesize whether vinegar and ammonia-based glass cleaner are acids or bases. They create designs on index cards using these substances as invisible inks. After the index cards have dried, they apply red cabbage juice as an indicator to reveal the designs.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

262

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

1997-01-01

263

Acid Rain Classroom Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

Demchik, Michael J.

2000-01-01

264

The Acid Rain Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

1982-01-01

265

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

Bybee, Rodger; And Others

1984-01-01

266

Acid Rain Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

Hugo, John C.

1992-01-01

267

ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

268

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

EPA Science Inventory

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

269

Valproic Acid: second generation.  

PubMed

The manuscript focuses on structure-activity relationship studies of CNS-active compounds derived from valproic acid (VPA) that have the potential to become second-generation VPA drugs. Valproic acid is one of the four most widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is effective (and regularly approved) in migraine prophylaxis and in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Valproic acid is also currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients. Valproic acid is the least potent of the established AEDs and its use is limited by two rare but potentially life-threatening side effects, teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity. Because AEDs treat the symptoms (seizure) and not the cause of epilepsy, epileptic patients need to take AEDs for a long period of time. Consequently, there is a substantial need to develop better and safer AEDs. To become a successful second-generation VPA, the new drug should possess the following characteristics: broad-spectrum antiepileptic activity, better potency than VPA, lack of teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity, and a favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared with VPA including a low potential for drug interactions. PMID:17199028

Bialer, Meir; Yagen, Boris

2007-01-01

270

Brain amino acid sensing.  

PubMed

The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

2014-09-01

271

Effects of Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

272

Federal Acid Rain Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

1999-01-01

273

Acid rain bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

Sayers, C.S.

1983-09-01

274

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsible for substantial adverse effects on the public welfare. Such effects include: the acidification of lakes and rivers, with resultant damage to fish and other components of aquatic ecosystems; acidification and demineralization of soils; and possible reductions in crop and forest productivity. Affected areas include Canada and the northeastern US.

Norman R. Glass; Gary E. Glass; Peter J. Rennie

1979-01-01

275

Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes  

SciTech Connect

Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

276

Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

Leonard Warren

1960-01-01

277

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health. PMID:19951413

2009-01-01

278

Fatty acid selectivity of lipases: Erucic acid from rapeseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid selectivity of several commercial lipases was evaluated in the hydrolysis of high-erucic acid rapeseed oil\\u000a (HEARO). The lipase ofPseudomonas cepacia catalyzed virtually complete hydrolysis of the oil (94–97%), while that ofGeotrichum candidum discriminated strongly against erucic acid, especially in esterification. A two-step process is suggested for obtaining a\\u000a highly enriched erucic acid in which theG. candidum lipase

Philip E. Sonnet; Thomas A. Foglia; Stephen H. Feairheller

1993-01-01

279

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN  

E-print Network

Point/Boiling Point If your carboxylic acid is a solid, take its melting point. If it is a liquid, take its micro- boiling point. C. Titration/Neutralization EquivalenceMolecular Weight Determination WeighCarboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, Na

Jasperse, Craig P.

280

Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis

Line Robitaille; Orval A. Mamer; Wilson H. Miller Jr.; Mark Levine; Sarit Assouline; David Melnychuk; Caroline Rousseau; L. John Hoffer

2009-01-01

281

College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

2011-01-01

282

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

283

SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC ASSAY FOR HYPOHALITE AND PEROXYACETIC ACID USING KOJIC ACID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hypochlorite reacted with kojic acid to form an intensely fluorescent product with excitation and emission wavelengths at 395 and 495 nm, respectively. Hypobromite, generated by reaction of hypochlorite or peroxyacetic acid with NaBr, also reacted with kojic acid to generate an identical fluorescen...

284

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system

Philipp Kirchhoff; Mital H. Dave; Christine Remy; Ortrud Kosiek; Stephanie M. Busque; Matthias Dufner; John P. Geibel; Francois Verrey; Carsten A. Wagner

2006-01-01

285

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

286

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

287

Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing  

E-print Network

asphaltene deposition in the reservoir. Frequently, the cause of destabilization is the acid stimulation of the reservoir. Published work in the field of matrix acidizing has been limited to cores saturated with brine. Research in two phase systems has been...

Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

1996-01-01

288

The Composition of Arylstibonic Acids.  

E-print Network

??This thesis describes a detailed ESI-MS investigation into the arylstibonic acids, organo-antimony-containing compounds that are currently of interest as anticancer reagents. Four arylstibonic acids, of… (more)

Wright, Cody Elvin

2010-01-01

289

Folic Acid: Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Folic Acid Share Compartir Data and Statistics On this Page In the United States Hispanic/ ... Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations ...

290

Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... triglycerides (a fat-like substance) in your blood. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are in a class of ...

291

Novel renal amino acid transporters.  

PubMed

Reabsorption of amino acids, similar to that of glucose, is a major task of the proximal kidney tubule. Various amino acids are actively transported across the luminal brush border membrane into proximal tubule epithelial cells, most of which by cotransport. An important player is the newly identified cotransporter (symporter) B0AT1 (SLC6A19), which imports a broad range of neutral amino acids together with Na+ across the luminal membrane and which is defective in Hartnup disorder. In contrast, cationic amino acids and cystine are taken up in exchange for recycled neutral amino acids by the heterodimeric cystinuria transporter. The basolateral release of some neutral amino acids into the extracellular space is mediated by unidirectional efflux transporters, analogous to GLUT2, that have not yet been definitively identified. Additionally, cationic amino acids and some other neutral amino acids leave the cell basolaterally via heterodimeric obligatory exchangers. PMID:15709970

Verrey, François; Ristic, Zorica; Romeo, Elisa; Ramadan, Tamara; Makrides, Victoria; Dave, Mital H; Wagner, Carsten A; Camargo, Simone M R

2005-01-01

292

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system L heteromeric amino acid transporter comprised of the LAT2-4F2hc dimer. Here we address the potential role of the system L amino acid transporter in gastric acid secretion by parietal cells in freshly isolated rat gastric glands. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of 4F2-LAT2 amino acid transporters in rat parietal cells. In addition, mRNA was detected for the B(0)AT1, ASCT2, and ATB(0+) amino acid transporters. Intracellular pH measurements in parietal cells showed histamine-induced and omeprazole-sensitive H+-extrusion which was enhanced by about 50% in the presence of glutamine or cysteine (1 mM), two substrates of system L amino acid transporters. BCH, a non-metabolizable substrate and a competitive inhibitor of system L amino acid transport, abolished the stimulation of acid secretion by glutamine or cysteine suggesting that this stimulation required the uptake of amino acids by system L. In the absence of histamine glutamine also stimulated H+-extrusion, whereas glutamate did not. Also, phenylalanine was effective in stimulating H+/K+-ATPase activity. Glutamine did not increase intracellular Ca2+ levels indicating that it did not act via the recently described amino acid modulated Ca2+-sensing receptor. These data suggest a novel role for heterodimeric amino acid transporters and may elucidate a pathway by which protein-rich diets stimulate gastric acid secretion. PMID:16308696

Kirchhoff, Philipp; Dave, Mital H; Remy, Christine; Kosiek, Ortrud; Busque, Stephanie M; Dufner, Matthias; Geibel, John P; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

2006-03-01

293

Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

2002-10-11

294

Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

1998-01-01

295

Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

296

Acid rain: Reign of controversy  

SciTech Connect

Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

Kahan, A.M.

1986-01-01

297

Molecular Structure of Trimesic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trimesic Acid is made up of a benzene ring with three carboxylic groups at the 1, 3, and 5 positions, and it can be synthesized from the oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene. The acid is an important building block in crystal engineering which is used to form honeycomb structures, but it has the ability to form diverse supramolecular structures. Also, trimesic acid salt and the free trimesic acid are useful as a plasticizer.

2003-05-08

298

XYLARIC ACID, D-ARABINARIC ACID (D-LYXARIC ACID), L-ARABINARIC ACID (L-LYXARIC ACID), AND RIBARIC ACID-1,4-LACTONE; SYNTHESIS AND ISOLATION - SYNTHESIS OF POLYHYDROXYPOLYAMIDES THEREFROM.  

E-print Network

?? This dissertation describes the nitric acid oxidation of the pentoses D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, and D-ribose to produce xylaric acid, L-arabinaric acid (L-lyxaric acid), D-arabinaric… (more)

Hinton, Michael Raymond

2009-01-01

299

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

300

Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".  

PubMed

The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

1986-01-01

301

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given single doses of 1500 and 3000 mg\\/kg; these effects persisted to varying degrees on post-treatment days 2,14,

Ralph E. Linder; Gary R. Klinefelter; Lillian F. Strader; Juan D. Suarez; Naomi L. Roberts

1997-01-01

302

Acid Deposition Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides students with the opportunity to use analytical meters and instruments and perform acid deposition sampling. Students will collect samples from various sources over a period of time, then measure pH and develop graphs or charts. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-02-17

303

Lipoic Acid Synthase (LASY)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Lipoic acid synthase (LASY) is the enzyme that is involved in the endogenous synthesis of lipoic acid, a potent mitochondrial antioxidant. The aim of this study was to study the role of LASY in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We studied expression of LASY in animal models of type 2 diabetes. We also looked at regulation of LASY in vitro under conditions that exist in diabetes. Additionally, we looked at effects of LASY knockdown on cellular antioxidant status, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS—LASY expression is significantly reduced in tissues from animal models of diabetes and obesity compared with age- and sex-matched controls. In vitro, LASY mRNA levels were decreased by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and high glucose. Downregulation of the LASY gene by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced endogenous levels of lipoic acid, and the activities of critical components of the antioxidant defense network, increasing oxidative stress. Treatment with exogenous lipoic acid compensated for some of these defects. RNAi-mediated downregulation of LASY induced a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In endothelial cells, downregulation of LASY aggravated the inflammatory response that manifested as an increase in both basal and TNF-?–induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Overexpression of the LASY gene ameliorated the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS—Deficiency of LASY results in an overall disturbance in the antioxidant defense network, leading to increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:19074983

Padmalayam, Indira; Hasham, Sumera; Saxena, Uday; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

2009-01-01

304

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

305

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

306

An Umbrella for Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

Randal, Judith

1979-01-01

307

Molecular Structure of Carbonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hypothetical acid formed with carbon dioxide and water; it is only in the H2CO3 form when in solution. This acid is found in everyday products, the most prominent of which include carbonated beverages. The conversion of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide in sodas is the reason the beverage looses the bubbling.

2002-09-10

308

Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas  

DOEpatents

Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

2014-07-01

309

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

1995-05-02

310

Nucleic Acids Molecular Biology Tools  

E-print Network

Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Molecular Biology and Genomics Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Outline 1 Nucleic Acids 2 Proteins 3 Molecular Biology Tools Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic

Qiu, Weigang

311

Acid rain: the international response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain or technically “acid deposition” has far reaching environmental, economic, political and international implications. It has been blamed for large?scale damage to aquatic ecosystems and forests in Scandinavia, southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. A number of other countries have expressed concern about the possible affects of acid rain on water bodies, forests, agricultural crops and material structures.Never

Gordon L. Brady; Joseph C. Selle

1985-01-01

312

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Poole, Loree J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

1995-01-01

313

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

1989-01-01

314

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

1989-02-01

315

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

316

Composition for nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

2008-08-26

317

Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C–H stretching mode regions

Johannes Kiefer; Kristina Noack; Juergen Bartelmess; Christian Walter; Heike Dörnenburg; Alfred Leipertz

2010-01-01

318

Molecular Structure of Adipic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adipic acid is odorless and colorless white crystals or powder with a sour taste. Adipic acid is used primarily in the manufacture of nylon-6,6 polyamide and polyester polyols for polyurethane systems. It is also used for raw materials in pharmaceuticals, perfume fixatives, acidulants, leavening and buffering agents in non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins and puddings. In addition, adipic acid is used in manufacturing plasticizers and lubricants components. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and acetone. Adipic acid can be prepared from acetylene and acetic acid in the presence of tert-butyl peroxide. It has been manufactured from either cyclohexane or phenol.

2004-11-09

319

The politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

1989-01-01

320

Acid Rain Experiments: Soil Buffering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment will help students understand that soil sometimes contains substances, like limestone, that buffer acids or bases, and that some salts in soil may also act as buffers. They will collect soil samples from their lawn, garden, or school and look for buffering effects by observing the pH change of an acid mixture poured through the samples. If the water collected from the sample is less acidic than the original mixture, then the soil is buffering some of the acid. If it does not change, then the soil may not be capable of buffering acids.

321

Molecular Structure of Benzoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Benzoic acid is a medium-strong acid found in human foods such as berries, and is used as a plasticizer, insecticide, fungicide, an antifungal agent and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It is more hydrophobic, water fearing, in comparison with other carboxylic acids and therefore can be extracted easily from all types of solvents. This acid is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 122 degrees Celsius. Benzoic acid is industrially manufactured from toluene, benzotrichloride and phthalic anhydride. It is purified by the process of sublimation, and the extremely pure form is used as a titrimetric and calorimetric standard in analytical chemistry.

2003-05-08

322

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01

323

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2002-01-01

324

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

325

Liquid chromatographic determination of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and related aminopolycarboxylic acids using an amperometric detector  

SciTech Connect

An amperometric detector employing a carbon-paste electrode is used to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids, including nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids, including nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), after liquid chromatographic separation on a reversed-phase column with an aqueous trichloroacetic acid mobile phase at pH lower than 2. The aminopolycarboxylic acids are directly oxidized at the detector electrode without involving an intermediate species. Glycine, iminodiacetic acid, common amino acids, citric acid, and fulvic acids do not interfere with the determination of NTA and EDTA. The low mobile-phase pH limits interference from metal ions in natural waters. Where such interference occurs, a stronger chelating reagent (e.g. diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) can be used to suppress it. NTA and EDTA in aqueous samples, including waste water treatment plant influent and effluent, can be determined without prior sample preparation. The minimum detectable amounts are 0.1 ppm for NTA and 0.15 ppm for EDTA with a precision of less than 7% relative standard deviation.

Dai, J.; Helz, G.R.

1988-02-15

326

Gas chromatography of fatty acids.  

PubMed

Lipids in foods contain a wide variety of fatty acids differing in chain length, degree of unsaturation, position and configuration of double bonds and the presence of special functional groups. Modern capillary gas chromatography offers excellent separation of fatty acids. Fused-silica capillary columns with stationary phases of medium polarity and non-polar methylsilicone stationary phases successfully separate most of the natural fatty acids. Special applications, such as the separation of complex cis-trans fatty acid mixtures and cyclic fatty acids, required particular chromatographic conditions, including the use of very long capillary columns or more polar stationary phases. The derivatization methods for the preparation of fatty acid esters also need to be optimized to obtain accurate quantitative results. This paper reviews the derivatization techniques, capillary columns and stationary phases commonly used in the gas chromatography of fatty acids in food. PMID:1494015

Shantha, N C; Napolitano, G E

1992-10-30

327

Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

2004-11-11

328

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid.  

PubMed

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans-1,3-pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4-hexenol and 4-hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3-pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to bring about this conversion. Considerable differences in the resistance of two isolates of P. crustosum to sorbic acid were found. An isolate from coconut was more resistant than one isolated from hazelnuts. Both sorbic acid and caproic acid (hexanoic) brought about disorganization of the mitochondrial membranes in P. crustosum. It is suggested that these lipophilic acids inhibit growth by interfering with the electrochemical membrane potential across the mitochondrial membranes. PMID:2253810

Kinderlerer, J L; Hatton, P V

1990-01-01

329

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2013-04-01

330

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2012-04-01

331

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2014-04-01

332

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2011-04-01

333

Metabolism of 14 C-labelled oleic acid, erucic acid and nervonic acid in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-14C-Oleic acid, 2-14C-erucic acid and 2-14C-nervonic acid were administered to rats by tail-vein and the distribution of radioactivity in liver lipids was determined\\u000a at intervals from 15 min to 6 hr after injection. High levels of activity were found after short time intervals which were\\u000a mainly associated with triglycerides in the case of oleic acid and with free fatty acids

K. K. Carroll

1966-01-01

334

Mycophenolic Acid in Silage  

PubMed Central

We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) ?g/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

2000-01-01

335

Corals on Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry-based lesson is for learners to gain an understanding of how increasing ocean acidity can affect the calcification of marine organisms. During this activity, learners: (1) design an experiment to quantify the CaCO3 concentration of two invertebrate skeletal samples, one that has been soaked in normal seawater and another in a low pH solution, and (2) use critical thinking and discussion to evaluate possible explanations for the difference in the skeletal CaCO3 compositions. This lesson plan includes a post-activity demonstration, which shows how the dissolution of CO2 into the ocean lowers pH.

Boleman, Casey L.; Gravinese, Philip M.; Muse, Ellen N.; Marston, Andrea E.; Windsor, John G.

2013-01-01

336

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

337

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite.  

PubMed

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, have been identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl (tBDMS) derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds have been observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 have been identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series. Inorganic phosphate is present at about 25 micromoles/gram. PMID:11537207

Cooper, G W; Onwo, W M; Cronin, J R

1992-01-01

338

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. METHODS: The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent

Yao Zhang; Rui-Dong Duan

2009-01-01

339

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

340

Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

2012-10-01

341

Electrochemical destruction of organic acids  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical process for removing organic acids from an aqueous waste stream has been characterized. Biological treatment of aqueous organic acid waste streams has been the typical means of degrading organic acids, and the resultant biosludge is landfilled. In the electrochemical approach, aqueous organic acids may be efficiently converted to useful fuel in a one or two electron process. The possible reactions occurring are outlined here. The electrolysis of the sodium salts of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids has been studied both as single component solutions and mixtures. The reaction products as well as relative rates of destruction of the acid salts were measured. The effect of experimental variables such as current density, temperature, and anode material on the current efficiency and product distribution was investigated. Electrode stability due to platinum corrosion was identified as the major limitation to the process.

Gendes, J.D.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Lancaster, NY (United States); Super, J.D. [DuPont Specialty Chemicals, Deepwater, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

342

Molecular Structure of Phosphoric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphoric acid was first made in 1774 by K.W. Scheele and J.G. Gahn from bone ash. Phosphoric acid is made by treating calcium phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, followed by filtration. It is by this process that almost 10 tons of phosphoric acid are produced in the United States each year. The compound is primarily used to manufacture some pharmaceutical products, fertilizers and as a flavoring agent in coca-cola. The steel industry uses it to clean and rust-proof their steel. Phosphoric acid is also used in the process of soil stabilization, and as a catalyst in the production of propylene and butene polymers, ethylbenzene, and cumene. In recent years though the industry has moved away from using phosphoric acid as a ingredient in detergents because of the harmful effect that Phosphates have on lakes a process called lake eutrophication.

2002-09-10

343

Molecular Structure of Butyric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

n-Butyric acid is a substance that was isolated from butter in 1869. Butyric acid means, in Latin, the acid of butter as it was first discovered in rancid butter. It is found most commonly in butter, but can also be present in some fruits. Butyric acid is also produced synthetically, through fermentation of various carbohydrates, to be used as a flavoring agent in various food products. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. It is also used for the production of plastics, plasticizers, surfactants and textile auxiliaries. Butyric acid and its derivatives are also being seriously considered around the world as potential anticancer agents.

2002-10-11

344

Enzymatic tRNA acylation by acid and alpha-hydroxy acid analogues of amino acids.  

PubMed

Incorporation of unnatural amino acids with unique chemical functionalities has proven to be a valuable tool for expansion of the functional repertoire and properties of proteins as well as for structure-function analysis. Incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acids (primary amino group is substituted with hydroxyl) leads to the synthesis of proteins with peptide bonds being substituted by ester bonds. Practical application of this modification is limited by the necessity to prepare corresponding acylated tRNA by chemical synthesis. We investigated the possibility of enzymatic incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues (lacking amino group) of amino acids into tRNA using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). We studied direct acylation of tRNAs by alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues of amino acids and corresponding chemically synthesized analogues of aminoacyl-adenylates. Using adenylate analogues we were able to enzymatically acylate tRNA with amino acid analogues which were otherwise completely inactive in direct aminoacylation reaction, thus bypassing the natural mechanisms ensuring the selectivity of tRNA aminoacylation. Our results are the first demonstration that the use of synthetic aminoacyl-adenylates as substrates in tRNA aminoacylation reaction may provide a way for incorporation of unnatural amino acids into tRNA, and consequently into proteins. PMID:18067322

Owczarek, Alina; Safro, Mark; Wolfson, Alexey D

2008-01-01

345

Enantioselective synthesis of pentacycloanammoxic acid.  

PubMed

A highly effective enantioselective synthesis of pentacycloanammoxic acid (1), an unusual naturally occurring fatty acid from Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, has been accomplished. The C20-structure of 1 was assembled with stereocontrol from four building blocks, cyclobutene, 2-cyclopentenone, the chiral silylcyclopentenone 6, and 7-bromoheptanoic acid. Both 1 and its enantiomer are now available in quantities that should facilitate future studies on the mode of biosynthesis which appears to be unprecedented. PMID:16522072

Mascitti, Vincent; Corey, E J

2006-03-15

346

Total synthesis of (+/-)-pentacycloanammoxic acid.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of (+/-)-pentacycloanammoxic acid/methyl ester (1), an unusual naturally occurring fatty acid from Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, has been accomplished by the sequence of reactions shown in Scheme 1. The C20-structure of 1 was assembled with stereocontrol from three building blocks: cyclooctatetraene, 2-cyclopentenone, and 7-bromoheptanoic acid. The synthesis of 1 confirms the proposed structure of 1. The mode of biosynthesis and absolute configuration have yet to be clarified. PMID:15571387

Mascitti, Vincent; Corey, E J

2004-12-01

347

Zirconium in sulfuric acid applications  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium is one of the few metals that resists attack by sulfuric acid at concentrations up to 75% and temperatures to boiling and above. This capability makes zirconium a good structural metal for use in 40 to 65% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ up to boiling temperatures and for weak acid concentrations at elevated temperatures. Zirconium's corrosion properties in sulfuric acid solutions are compared with nickel base alloys. Examples of applications and limitations in the use of zirconium are presented.

Webster, R.T.; Yau, T.L.

1986-02-01

348

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans?1,3?pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4?hexenol and 4?hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3?pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to

Judith. L. Kinderlerer; P. V. Hatton

1990-01-01

349

Simulated acid rain on crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, simulated HâSOâ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of HâSOâ:HNOâ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and

M. D. Plocher; S. C. Perrigan; R. J. Hevel; R. M. Cooper; D. N. Moss

1985-01-01

350

Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

1974-01-01

351

Toxicologic acid-base disorders.  

PubMed

Acid-base disorders may complicate the presentation of patients with poisoning. This article summarizes an approach to acid-base disorders from a toxicologic perspective. It aims to assist the reader in identifying underlying acid-base processes, generating a differential diagnosis for each, and approaching that differential diagnosis in a systematic fashion. Understanding these processes will help to guide management and interventional strategies. PMID:24275173

Wiener, Sage W

2014-02-01

352

Cryoprotection from bacterial teichoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies from our lab demonstrated that teichoic acid is surrounded by liquid water at -40 °C. The size and shape of the liquid water pockets has been visualized with fluorescence microscopy images of aqueous Rhodamine- B solutions. The long, thin channels surround ice crystals with a size of 5-20 microns. Subsequent studies show that B. subtilis Gram-positive bacteria are sequestered into large pockets without added teichoic acid. Here, the ice crystals are orders of manitude larger. When bacteria are mixed with teichoic acid solutions, the distribution of bacteria changes dramatically. The smaller ice crystals allow the bacteria to align in the thin channels of liquid water seen with teichoic acid only. The role of teichoic acid in the freeze tolerance was examined with live/dead fluorescence assays of bacteria mixed with teichoic acid. These quantitative assays were used to determine if teichoic acid acts in a synergetic fashion to enhance the survivability of E. coli, a gram-negative species which lacks teichoic acid. Additionally, we have obtained B. subtilis mutants lacking wall-associated teichoic acids to evaluate cryoprotection compared to the wild-type strain.

Rice, Charles V.; Harrison, William; Kirkpatrick, Karl; Brown, Eric D.

2009-08-01

353

Molecular Structure of Lauric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lauric acid was first discovered in lauraceae seeds by Marsson T in 1849. The highest content of lauric acid is found in a mother's breast milk and lauraceae seeds. It is used in foods such as vegetable shortenings as a defoaming agent and industrially as a booster for soaps and detergents. Also it is used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food additives. Additionally, Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid, which forms monolaurin in the human or animal body. This compound is an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride that destroys lipid coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, and influenza.

2002-10-11

354

Molecular Structure of Propionic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanoic acid was named after the Greek word "Pro" for first and "pion" for fat, because it is the first fatty acid. It is a liquid and has a slightly pungent odor that can be characterized as rancid. Sweat, milk, and fermentation products all contain small amounts of this chemical. It can be synthesized from ethanol or ethylene and carbon monoxide. The calcium salt of propanoic acid is used as an antimolding agent and is an additive in breads. Esters of this carboxylic acid have a pleasant smell and taste and are used in the manufacture of fruit flavors and perfume bases. This compound is also found in a herbicide, called Silverado.

2002-10-11

355

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10

356

A Simpler Nucleic Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

Orgel, Leslie

2000-01-01

357

No Potassium, No Acid: K+ Channels and Gastric Acid Secretion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The gastric H+-K+-ATPase pumps H+ into the lumen and takes up K+ in parallel. In the acid-producing parietal cells, luminal KCNE2/KCNQ1 K+ channels play a pivotal role in replenishing K+ in the luminal fluid. Inactivation of KCNE2/KCNQ1 channels abrogates gastric acid secretion and dramatically modifies the architecture of gastric mucosa.

2007-10-01

358

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-print Network

is withdrawn from the well. The jetting action helps to remove the drilling fluid filter cake and promote the acid to penetrate into the formation and form wormholes to stimulate the well. However, with very long sections of wellbore open to flow, the acid...

Sasongko, Hari

2012-07-16

359

Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has

E. C. Krug; C. R. Frink

1983-01-01

360

Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

361

Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of organic compounds in bottled waters available in the Greek market and their fate when the representative samples exposed at different conditions were the main purposes of this study. The determination of the organic compounds was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. Disinfection by-products compounds, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), were detected at low concentrations

Stavroula V. Leivadara; Anastasia D. Nikolaou; Themistokles D. Lekkas

2008-01-01

362

Sources of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Disinfection By-Product Precursors to the McKenzie River: Use of absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a constituent of concern with respect to drinking water quality because it reacts upon chlorination to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The amount of DBPs that form is a function of both the amount and type of DOM undergoing treatment. Currently, the EPA regulates two classes of DBPs - trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. This study was

T. E. Kraus; C. Anderson; K. Morgenstern; B. D. Downing; B. A. Bergamaschi

2009-01-01

363

DBP FORMATION KINETICS IN A SIMULATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about how the growth of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water is affected by time spent in a distribution system. Experiments were performed to compare the rate of trihalomethane and haloacetic acid production in a simulated pipe environmen...

364

Assessment of disinfection by-products in drinking water in Korea1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of applying the chlorination process during water treatment is for disinfection. Research results, however, indicate that disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs), and chloropicrin (CP) can be produced by the chlorination process. Some of these DBPs are known to be potential human carcinogens. This 3-year project is designed to establish

DONGCHUN SHIN; YONG CHUNG; YOONHO CHOI; JUNSUNG KIM; HEEJUNG KUM

1999-01-01

365

Examining the Impact of Aquifer Storage and Recovery on DBPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground storage of treated drinking water results in the elimination of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) produced during treatment and in a decrease in the concentration of residual disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors. Removal of THMs is associated with denitrifying conditions, whereas HAAs are removed under aerobic conditions. The findings are consistent with a biological mechanism for DBP and

Philip C. Singer; R. David G. Pyne; Mallikarjun AVS; Cass T. Miller; Carolyn Mojonnier

1993-01-01

366

Use of Normal Human Colon Cells to Assess Toxicities of Unregulated Disinfection By-products and Mixtures  

EPA Science Inventory

The discovery of chlorination and chloramination by-products other than the regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids has created a need for short-term in vitro assays to address toxicities that might be associated with human exposure. Approximately 600 disinfection by-produ...

367

COAGULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study conventional and enhanced coagulation for the control of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and the surrogate total organic halide in t...

368

BACTERIALLY-MEDIATED DEGRADATION OF A CHIRAL DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection of drinking and waste waters, through chlorination, can result in the production of chlorinated organic compounds, many of which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Among these regulated compounds are the haloacetic acids, which exhibit toxic e...

369

A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

Danford, M. D.

1992-01-01

370

Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.  

PubMed

Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

1987-07-01

371

Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

1987-01-01

372

Stability of cyclopropane and conjugated linoleic acids during fatty acid quantification in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven methods commonly used for fatty acid analysis of microgrganisms and foods were compared to establish the best for the\\u000a analysis of lyophilized lactic acid bacteria. One of these methods involves fat extraction followed by methylation of fatty\\u000a acids, while the other methods use a direct methylation of the samples, under different operating conditions (e.g., reaction\\u000a temperature and time, reagents,

Fabiola Dionisi; Pierre-Alain Golay; Marina Elli; Laurent B. Fay

1999-01-01

373

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01

374

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31

375

Chicoric acid found in basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid, which is a caffeic acid derivatized with tartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was

Jungmin Lee; Carolyn F. Scagel

2009-01-01

376

40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10679 Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene...

2014-07-01

377

Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, ?-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

1988-01-01

378

ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic  

E-print Network

ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic acid to serum will precipitate most serum proteins with the exception or ammonium sulfate precipitation, caprylic acid will yield a relatively pure antibody preparation. 1. Measure

Mecham, Robert

379

SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

380

Acetic acid bacteria in oenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria have always been considered the bad mi- croorganisms of oenology; responsible for wine spoiling (vine- gary taint). The taxonomy and our knowledge of the metabo- lism of acetic acid bacteria are rapidly evolving, especially as new molecular biology techniques are applied to this fastidious group of microorganisms, which are still rather difficult to work with. The dramatic

A. Mas; M. J. Torija; A. González; M. Poblet; J. M. Guillamón

381

Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

Marion, James I.

1984-01-01

382

Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

Babich, Harvey; And Others

1980-01-01

383

Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

Bybee, Rodger

1984-01-01

384

Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

Godfrey, Paul J.

1991-01-01

385

Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.

2003-05-08

386

ACID DEPOSITION AND FOREST DECLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The location, topography and other characteristics of the high-elevation forests of eastern North America cause them to be receptors of high levels of acid deposition and airborn trace metals. No other major forested areas in the U.S. are subjected to such intensely acid cloud mo...

387

Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

1985-01-01

388

Molecular Structure of Isophthalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Isophthalic acid is one of the three simple aromatic dicarboxylic acids with the carboxyl groups in the meta postions. It is used to produce isophthalic polyester that together with other components is used in resin systems for flame retardants and in corrosion prevention.

2008-01-10

389

BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF ACIDIC PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Acidic precipitation can be characterized as wet or frozen atmospheric deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 microequivalents liter-1. Acidic precipitation is perceived as a significant air pollution problem derived chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels,...

390

Learning About Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The chemistry of acids and bases is a fundamental area of study in the physical sciences. The following activity is really two exercises in one. First, students learn to distinguish between acids and bases using various color-changing indicator solutions.

John Eichinger

2009-05-15

391

The Acid Rain Differential Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an acid rain differential game. Countries emit sulphur which is partly transferred to other countries. Depositions above critical loads ultimately destroy the soil. Countries face a trade-off between the costs of emission reductions and the damage to the soil due to the depletion of the acid buffers. Because of the transboundary externalities the outcome will depend on

Karl-Göran Mäler; Aart De Zeeuw

1998-01-01

392

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

393

Acid rain and environmental policy  

SciTech Connect

Various seemingly paradoxical scientific questions are posed which relate to the problem of acid rain and its effect on the environment and environmental policy. The first paradox discussed concerns the supposed increase in fossil fuel usage over the last several decades, with the resultant increases in emissions of pollutants from the combustion of fuels which cause acid rain. Despite these increases, experts do not agree on whether acidity of rain has increased in eastern North America. The second paradox concerns the effect of acid rain on vegetation. If the rain is supposedly harmful, why have some reports shown increases and others, decreases in the growth of crops and trees with the application of simulated acid rain. The third paradox concerns the effect of acid rains on fish life in lakes. If acid rain falls throughout eastern North America, why have some lakes become acid and lost fish populations while others have not. Since unequivocal answers to these scientific questions are not available, a systematic approach is needed for developing policy which can be useful for solving the problem. It appears that traditional cost-benefit analysis can not be the sole basis for decision-making, but that it will be helpful. Research needs must be identified, and the upper and lower limits for alternative strategies must be determined. 14 references, 1 table.

Jacobson, J.S.

1981-10-01

394

Can crops tolerate acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of

1989-01-01

395

SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1981, simulated H2SO4 acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H2SO4:HNO3 acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given...

396

Catalytic cracking of octanoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As acids are intermediates during the catalytic conversion of triglycerides to hydrocarbons, the purpose of this research was to investigate octanoic acid conversion to hydrocarbons. The shortage of oil resources has led to the development of new technologies that can more fully exploit renewable energies such as fats (rape or sunflower oils) and their derivatives. The general aim of this

F. Billaud; A. K. Tran Minh; P. Lozano; D. Pioch

2001-01-01

397

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

398

Atmospheric dust and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

1996-12-01

399

Molecular Structure of Linoleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid occurring widely in plant glycerides or fats. Common sources include many vegetable oils such as flax seed, safflower, soybean, peanut, and corn; some margarines; and dairy fats. It is a colorless to straw-colored liquid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. Linoleic acid is easily oxidized by air and is combustible. It also appears as an aluminum salt, in the form of yellow lumps or powder, that is practically insoluble in water but soluble in oils and fixed alkalai hydroxides. Linoleic acid is essential in human nutrition and is used also for soaps, animal feeds, paints, drying protective coatings, emulsifying or smoothing and wetting agents, and in biochemical research. The conjugated form of linoleic acid or CLA has been associated with health benefits such as lowered risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. Prepared CLA is available as a supplement. However, foods high in CLA content could be used.

2003-05-08

400

Molecular Structure of Stearic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stearic acid is white leaflets, slightly yellow crystal masses or a white to slightly yellow powder. Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in low percentages in cotton, coconut, palm kernel, corn, palm, castor, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, herring, and tallow oils. It is also one of the fat components found in the cocoa butter of chocolate. It is prepared synthetically by hydrogenation of cottonseed and other vegetable oils or by treating animal fat with water at a high pressure and temperature. Stearic acid is useful as an ingredient in making candles, soaps, and for softening synthetic rubber. It is also a component of cosmetic formulations, pharmaceuticals creams and vanishing lotion. Stearic acid is practically nontoxic but the dust is irritating to eyes, nose, and throat and the solid is irritating to skin and eyes.

2004-11-11

401

Kinetics of aluminum-fulvic acid complexation in acidic waters  

SciTech Connect

A fluorescence technique has been used to study the complex formation kinetics of aluminum with a single metal-free fulvic acid isolated from an Adirondack Mountain forest soil. In the pH range of 3.0-4.5, two kinetically distinguishable components of the fulvic acid mixture have been identified, which define two types of average aluminum binding sites. Both fulvic acid average sites conform to a bidentate chelating binding site kinetic analysis, from which rate and equilibrium parameters have been obtained. From comparison of rate and equilibrium constants of aluminum-salicyclic acid complexation, the authors conclude that the faster reacting component of fulvic acid probably contains salicyclic acid type aluminum binding sites. Results are also compared with those of an aluminum-fluoride kinetic study. Fulvic acid and fluoride react with aluminum by the same mechanism and therefore have the same pH dependence. The dependence of the rate on temperature is, however, quite different for the two reactions. The environmental implications of these findings are discussed. 45 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.

1987-06-01

402

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2011-04-01

403

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2012-04-01

404

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2013-04-01

405

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2014-04-01

406

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2010-04-01

407

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism  

E-print Network

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism Anthony M. Castaldo, PhD Research three nucleotide se- quences (a codon) into amino acids: Amino Acid (or signal) Codons A (Alanine) GCT believe what is important is the sequence of amino acids produced, and because amino acids average about

Texas at San Antonio, University of

408

The standard amino acids alanine ala A  

E-print Network

The standard amino acids alanine ala A cysteine cys C aspartic acid asp D glutamic acid glu E's the mapping from nucleotide triplets in DNA sequences (via messenger RNA) to individual amino acids, and T) but only 20 amino acids, and that the code is redundant or "degenerate" in the sense that several

Guevara-Vasquez, Fernando

409

8, 687725, 2008 Effect of fatty acids  

E-print Network

Chemistry and Physics Discussions The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary acid films and of water soluble organic25 aerosol constituents on the uptake of atmospheric nitric acid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

n-3 fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in sepsis  

PubMed Central

The usefulness of n-3 fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the critically ill is controversial. I propose that adverse outcome in the critically ill is due to excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while generation of anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs may lead to a favorable outcome. Hence, I suggest that measurement of plasma levels of various cytokines, free radicals, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs and correlating them to the clinical picture may pave the way to identify prognostic markers and develop newer therapeutic strategies to prevent and manage critical illness. PMID:23597172

2013-01-01

411

The ascorbic acid paradox.  

PubMed

Ascorbic acid (AA) is a common culture medium and dietary supplement. While AA is most commonly known for its antioxidant properties, it is also known to function as a pro-oxidant under select conditions. However, the complexity and often unknown composition of biological culture systems makes prediction of AA behaviour in supplemented cultures challenging. The frequent observation of outcomes inconsistent with antioxidant behaviour suggests that AA may be playing a pro-oxidant role more often than appreciated. In this work we explored the intracellular and extracellular impact of AA supplementation on KG1a myeloid leukaemia cells over a 24-h culture period following the addition of the AA supplement. At 24h we found that supplementation of AA up to 250?M resulted in intracellular antioxidant behaviour. However, when these same cultures were evaluated at 2 or 4h we observed pro-oxidant activity at the higher AA concentrations indicating that the outcome was very much time and dose dependent. In contrast, pro-oxidant activity was never observed in the extracellular medium. Paradoxically, and to our knowledge not previously reported, we observed that intracellular pro-oxidant activity and extracellular antioxidant activity could occur simultaneously. These results indicate that the precise activity of AA supplementation varies as a function of dose, time and cellular location. Further, these results demonstrate how in the absence of careful culture characterization the true impact of AA on cultures could be underappreciated. PMID:20732307

Osiecki, Michael; Ghanavi, Parisa; Atkinson, Kerry; Nielsen, Lars K; Doran, Michael R

2010-10-01

412

Lead-acid battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

413

Gibberellic acid in plant  

PubMed Central

Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth. However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory. Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement. It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action. Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant’s growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination. The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production. PMID:23857350

Gupta, Ramwant; Chakrabarty, S K

2013-01-01

414

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2011-07-01

415

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2012-07-01

416

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2010-07-01

417

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2011-07-01

418

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2012-07-01

419

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2014-07-01

420

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2013-07-01

421

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2014-07-01

422

40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

2014-07-01

423

40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

2013-07-01

424

Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ? Erie > Huron > Superior ? Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid. PMID:22722738

Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

2012-11-01

425

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

426

Renal handling of terephthalic acid  

SciTech Connect

By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.

1985-01-01

427

Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.  

PubMed

Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food. PMID:25467926

Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

2015-01-01

428

Potential bile acid metabolites. 14. Hyocholic and muricholic acid stereoisomers.  

PubMed

The complete set of the eight theoretically possible stereoisomeric 3,6,7-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acids, four of which are new, related to hyocholic and muricholic acids were prepared from chenodeoxycholic acid. The principal reactions used were 1) cis-dihydroxylation of delta 6-compounds with osmium tetroxide/N-methylmorpholine N-oxide; 2) trans-dihydroxylation of 6 alpha, 7 alpha-epoxy compounds with boron trifluoride etherate in N,N-dimethyl-formamide; 3) inversion of equatorial 3 alpha-hydroxylated compounds to the corresponding 3 beta-epimers with diethyl azodicarboxylate/triphenylphosphine/formic acid; and 4) stereoselective reduction of 7-keto derivatives with zinc borohydride (or sodium borohydride) and by metallic potassium/tert-amyl alcohol. PMID:2769078

Iida, T; Momose, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T; Chang, F C; Goto, J; Nambara, T

1989-08-01

429

Genetics Home Reference: Sialic acid storage disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Sialic acid storage disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2008 What is sialic acid storage disease? Sialic acid storage disease is an ...

430

Generalization of ACID Properties Brahim Medjahed  

E-print Network

Generalization of ACID Properties Brahim Medjahed Department of Computer & Information Science; Extended Transaction Models DEFINITION ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee the reliability of database transactions [2]. ACID properties were initially

Medjahed, Brahim

431

21 CFR 184.1099 - Tartaric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...also known as l ?(+)?tartaric acid. Tartaric acid occurs as colorless or translucent crystals or as a white, crystalline powder. It is odorless and has an acid taste. It is obtained as a byproduct of wine manufacture....

2010-04-01

432

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2014-04-01

433

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2011-04-01

434

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2013-04-01

435

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2010-04-01

436

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2012-04-01

437

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2011-04-01

438

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2012-04-01

439

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2010-04-01

440

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2013-04-01

441

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2014-04-01

442

Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity of HIV1  

E-print Network

Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity of HIV1 Nucleocapsid Protein: Critical Role in Reverse ............................................................................ 218 II. Structure and Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of HIV1 NC ........................................................................... 219 A. Specific and Nonspecific Nucleic Acid Binding .............................. 220 B. Structural

Levin, Judith G.

443

Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... t recommend widespread use of folic acid and B vitamin supplements to reduce the risk of heart disease ... been established. How do folic acid and other B vitamins affect homocysteine levels? Folic acid and other B ...

444

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2011-07-01

445

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2012-07-01

447

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2014-07-01

448

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2013-07-01

449

Environmental Protection Agency: Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) acid rain portal. It consists of links to information on the causes and effects of acid rain, how it is measured, and some suggestions for ways to reduce its occurrence. There are also links to information for users about the problem in their areas, and to a selection of educational resources, including activities and science experiments, for students in all grades. Another set of links provides access to information on state and national data and statistics, acid rain legislation, and U.S. and international initiatives.

450

Treatment of acid mine wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis.

Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

1993-06-01

451

Amino Acids from a Comet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

Cook, Jamie Elisla

2009-01-01

452

Can crops tolerate acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

Kaplan, J.K.

1989-11-01

453

Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process  

E-print Network

of treated core permeability normalized to damaged vs. water volume............................ 55 Figure 4.18: Dry filter-cake (exposed to the open air for 24 hrs after deposition...)................................................................................................. 56 Figure 4.19: Two acid jetted cores; one jetted immediately, the other after 24 hours of drying out........................................................ 57 Figure 4.20: Core with mud cake after acid jetting (q=140 cc/min, duration 60 sec...

Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

2009-05-15

454

Sedimentary humic acid and fulvic acid as fluorescent organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence and absorption spectra of sedimentary humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA), with molecular weights ranging from 300,000, were measured at 20°C and pH 8. The maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of HA were longer than those of FA, being independent of molecular weight. The excitation and emission maxima can be utilized to differentiate between sedimentary HA and FA.

Kohji Hayase; Hiroyuki Tsubota

1985-01-01

455

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] Torr H[sub 2]O and 1-2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] Torr HNO[sub 3]) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to

Laura T. Iraci; Ann M. Middlebrook; Margaret A. Wilson; Margaret A. Tolbert

1994-01-01

456

Langmuir 1985,1,725-740 725 Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently  

E-print Network

using chromic acid/sulfuric acid introduces a high density of covalently attached carboxylic acid groupsLangmuir 1985,1,725-740 725 Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently Attached: August 7, 1985 Oxidation of polyethylene with chromic acidfsulfuric acid generates a material (PE-C02H

Deutch, John

457

Synthesis and intestinal metabolism of ursodeoxycholic acid conjugate with an antiinflammatory agent, 5-aminosalicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminosalicylic acid conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid was synthesized in above 90% yield by adding a basic solution of 5-aminosalicylic acid into the mixed anhydride formed with ursodeoxycholic acid and ethyl chloroformate. The 5-aminosalicylic acid conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid was poorly secreted into the bile and was deconjugated with cholylglycine hydrolase and Clostridium perfringens, that deconjugate naturally occurring glycine and taurine

Ashok K. Batta; G. Stephen Tint; Guorong Xu; Sarah Shefer; Gerald Salen

458

Oxidation of Benzaldehyde to Benzoic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzaldehyde was oxidized to benzoic acid using Na2WO4·2H2O as a catalyst. Different factors, such as different acidic additives, the reaction time, the amount of catalyst, and hydrogen peroxide dosage, on the isolated yield of benzoic acid were investigated. The effects of surfactants on yield of benzoic acid were also discussed in the acid-free system. The results indicated that both acidic

Hongyan Yan; Chunsheng Liu; Genxiang Luo

2005-01-01

459

Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis  

DOEpatents

The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

2001-01-01

460

Organic acids enhance halogen activation on mildly acidic water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the marine boundary layer (MBL). They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the MBL. Surface-active organic acids coating the surface marine microlayer (SML) and marine aerosols could affect their chemical/physical properties. Recent field measurements show that organic acids represent ˜50% of the mass of fog waters collected in the US Gulf Coast. Here we report that I2(g) emissions from the heterogeneous reactions of O3(g) with I- (aq) are dramatically enhanced in the presence of surface-active organic acids under mildly acidic condition that are typical of fine marine aerosols. The amphiphilic weak carboxylic acids appear to promote I2(g) emissions by donating the interfacial protons more efficiently than water itself. We infer that the organic acids coating aerosol particles ejected from ocean's surface films could enhance I2(g) production in the MBL.

Hayase, S.; Enami, S.; Yabushita, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

2011-12-01

461

40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...monitoring location per monitoring period Subpart H: 500 monitoring may not be reduced. 500-3,300 per year 1 TTHM and 1 HAA5...five highest HAA5 LRAAs. Ground Water: 500 every third year 1 TTHM and 1...

2013-07-01

462

40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...monitoring location per monitoring period Subpart H: 500 monitoring may not be reduced. 500-3,300 per year 1 TTHM and 1 HAA5...five highest HAA5 LRAAs. Ground Water: 500 every third year 1 TTHM and 1...

2011-07-01

463

40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...monitoring location per monitoring period Subpart H: 500 monitoring may not be reduced. 500-3,300 per year 1 TTHM and 1 HAA5...five highest HAA5 LRAAs. Ground Water: 500 every third year 1 TTHM and 1...

2012-07-01

464

Acid Strong Base Titrations Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Acid Strong Base Titrations model show how to estimate the concentration of the acid in a given sample. If one follows the titration by a visual indicator, the neutralization is detected through a sudden change of that indicator color. This model shows the titration curve as a strong monofunctional base (sodium hydroxide, for example), is added to an aqueous solution of a monoprotic acid. The Acid Strong Base Titrations model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Fernandes, Fernando S.

2012-10-03

465

Dried Acid Mine Drainage Residuals  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dried acid mine drainage residuals that are formed during treatment of the drainage.  The USGS has pioneered a new use for these residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, using them to filter phosphorus from agricultural and municipal wastewaters....

466

Low acid producing solid propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

Bennett, Robert R.

1995-01-01

467

Molecular Structure of Retinoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Retinoic acid is a yellow to light-orange crystalline powder, that is insoluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Retinoic acid is a natural metabolite of vitamin A which participates in many of the known functions of vitamin A and may be the active agent in tetragenesis (still under investigation). Retinoic acid is used to improve the appearance and texture of the skin. It is also used in the treatment of certain skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis, diarier's disease and ichthyosis. Mild side-effects to the gel, primarily skin irritation, are common. Common side-effects associated with the oral formulation are: headache, dry skin, peeling skin, alopecia and high blood lipids. Retinoic acid is also very potent in promoting growth and controlling differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues in vitamin A deficient animals.

2004-11-11

468

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

469

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations. Vitamin B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin ...

470

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1995-09-12

471

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

472

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-print Network

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

473

Simulated acid rain on crops  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

1985-10-01

474

Molecular Structure of Abscisic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abscisic acid (ABA) was first identified and characterized by Frederick Addicott in 1963. ABA is a naturally occurring compound in plants synthesized partially in the chloroplasts. It is a phytohormone that plays an important role in regulating transpiration, stress responses, germination of seeds and embryogenesis in plants. Abscisic acid influences most aspects of plant growth and development to some level, in part due to interactions with other phytohormones. Abscisic acid also promotes abscission of leaves and fruits, and for this reason the name abscisic is given. This plant hormone is the key factor in the adaptation of the plant to environmental stresses such as salinity, drought or water loss, and freezing temperatures. Abscisic acid promotes dormancy and helps the plant tolerate stressful conditions by suspending primary and secondary growth.

2004-11-09

475

EXPOSURE MODELING OF ACID AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting an intensive characterization and human exposure monitoring program of acid species and related air pollutants in an urban environment. he EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) in coopera...

476

Biotechnological production of citric acid  

PubMed Central

This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

2010-01-01

477

Acid diffusion through polymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10-10 cm2/s to 10-12 cm2/s. All the experiments are conducted at room temperature and are valid only for acid vapor. With different film thickness, it was found that the acid diffuses through the film with a similar diffusion constant. The diffusion is faster with increased solvent residue in the film (controlled by spin coating speed). The theoretical computer modeling of the local acid concentration with respect to acid diffusion is also performed.

Zhang, P. Linda; Eckert, Andrew R.; Willson, C. Grant; Webber, Stephen E.; Byers, Jeffrey D.

1997-07-01

478

Radiolysis of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid monohydrate, and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate and its relevance to Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report laboratory studies on the 0.8MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4·H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4·4H2O) between 10 and 180K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4-, and SO42-. At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that

M. J. Loeffler; R. L. Hudson; M. H. Moore; R. W. Carlson

2011-01-01

479

Molecular Structure of Glucuronic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glucuronic acid is a substance derived from uronic acid, and is found in both plants and animals, usually in combination with phenols or alcohols. It is primarily used in detoxifying drugs and toxins to ensure easy elimination from the body. This substance is soluble in water and alcohol and has a melting point of 165 degrees Celsius. It exhibits mutarotation in the crystal form or its specific rotation of light changes depending on the way the crystals were prepared.

2003-05-08

480

Understanding acid–base balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the Hendersen–Hasselbalch model has been used to analyse clinical acid–base problems. Simplistically, this approach defines pH as a function of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentrations in aqueous solutions. The definition of the metabolic component of an acid–base relationship with this approach is, however, limited as bicarbonate varies with the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide. These limitations are partly overcome

Andrew Durward; Ian Murdoch

2003-01-01

481

Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids  

SciTech Connect

Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

2011-01-21

482

Molecular Structure of Oxalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oxalic acid is an odorless, colorless powder or granular solid. It is used as a scouring agent in textiles for finishing, stripping, cleaning, and as a bleaching agent for stain removal. Oxalic acid is also used as a rust remover as well as a grease and wax removing agent in metal cleaning. It is also used to clean and sterilize equipment, slso as a purifying agent in the pharmaceutical industry, in the waste water treatment industry and is also used to remove calcium from water. Oxalic acid is found in many plants and in many vegetables, for example sorrel, spinach and rhubarb, usually as its calcium or potassium salts. Oxalic acid is produced commercially by nitric acid oxidation of starch. It also can be made by fusing sawdust (or other forms of cellulose) with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Oxalic acid may be released to the environment in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, rendering, in waste streams from pulp bleaching, and by photochemical oxidations of anthropogenic compounds during long range transport.

2004-11-10

483

Fatty Acids, Antibiotic Resistance, and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Groups of Bradyrhizobiurn japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid compositions and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of 32 strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum correlated with two major deoxyribonucleic acid homology groups. In group I, the fatty acid composition was 1.3% 16:l cis9 acid, 3.6% 16:lC acid, 8.8% 16:O acid, 1.2% 19:0 cyclopropane acid, and 81.2% 18:l acid. Group I1 contained 0.5% 16:lC acid, 11.1% 16:O acid, 0.8% 17:O

L. D. KUYKENDALL; M. A. ROY; J. J. O'NEILL

484

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

485

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10Hydroxy12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or

JUN OGAWA; KENJI MATSUMURA; SHIGENOBU KISHINO; YORIKO OMURA; SAKAYU SHIMIZU

2001-01-01

486

Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids.  

PubMed

The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine. PMID:19099460

de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

2009-01-28

487

CAFFEIC ACID, CHLOROGENIC ACID, AND DIHYDROCAFFEIC ACID METABOLISM: GLUTATHIONE CONJUGATE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties of the dietary dihydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic (CA), dihydrocaffeic (DHCA), and chlorogenic (CGA) acids) have been well studied but little is known about their metabolism. In this article, evidence is presented showing that CA, DHCA, and CGA form quinoids and hydroxylated products when oxidized by peroxidase\\/H2O2 or tyrosinase\\/O2. Mass spectrometry analyses of the metabolites formed with peroxidase\\/H2O2\\/glutathione (GSH)

MAJID Y. MORIDANI; HUGH SCOBIE; AKRAM JAMSHIDZADEH; PAR SALEHI; PETER J. O'BRIEN

488

Decreasing the Linoleic Acid to ?-Linolenic Acid Diet Ratio Increases Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Erythrocytes in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The n-6\\/n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio has increased in the Western-style diet to ~10–15:1 during the last century, which may have\\u000a contributed to the rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prior studies have evaluated the effects on CVD risk factors of manipulating\\u000a the levels of n-6 and n-3 FA using food and supplements or investigated the metabolic fate of linoleic acid

Michelle Wien; Sujatha Rajaram; Keiji Oda; Joan Sabaté

2010-01-01

489

Hepatoprotective bile acid 'ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)' Property and difference as bile acids.  

PubMed

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid, which is present in human bile at a low concentration of only 3% of total bile acids. It is a 7beta-hydroxy epimer of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). UDCA is isolated from the Chinese drug 'Yutan' a powder preparation derived from the dried bile of adult bears. For centuries, Yutan has been used in the treatment of hepatobiliary disorders. In Japan, it has also been in widespread use as a folk medicine from the mid-Edo period. In Japan, not only basic studies such as isolation, crystallization, definition of the chemical structure and establishment of the synthesis of UDCA have been conducted but clinical studies have been conducted. First reports on the effects of UDCA in patients with liver diseases came from Japan as early as 1961. In the 1970s, the first prospective study of patients with gallbladder stones treated with UDCA demonstrating gallstone dissolution was reported. In late 1980s, a number of controlled trials on the use of UDCA in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) were reported. Since then, a variety of clinical studies have shown the beneficial effect of UDCA in liver disease worldwide. To date, UDCA is utilized for the treatment of PBC for which it is the only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In recent years, with the advent of molecular tools, the mechanisms of action of bile acids and UDCA have been investigated, and various bioactivities and pharmacological effects have been revealed. Based on the results of these studies, the bioactive substances in bile acids that are involved in digestive absorption may play important roles in signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of UDCA is evidently involved. We reveal the physicochemical properties of UDCA as bile acid and overview the established pharmacological effects of UDCA from its metabolism. Furthermore, we overview the current investigations into the mechanism of action of UDCA in liver disease. PMID:16214392

Ishizaki, Kaoru; Imada, Teruaki; Tsurufuji, Makoto

2005-10-01

490

A review of the role of acid-base balance in amino acid nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Acid-base balance and amino acid metabolism are intimately related. Changes in acid-base balance influence the metabolic fate of many amino acids. Also, acid-base homeostasis is achieved in part by alteration of amino acid metabolism, not only in the kidney, but also in liver, muscle and splanchnic tissue. Glutamine is the primary amino acid involved in renal ammonia- genesis, a

J. F. Patience; J. E Patience

2010-01-01

491

Extractive fermentation of acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1991-12-31

492

Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent

Corné M. J Pieterse; Leendert C van Loon

1999-01-01

493

Agronomy Facts 3 Soil Acidity and Aglime  

E-print Network

Agronomy Facts 3 Soil Acidity and Aglime Summary · Soil pH indicates the acidic level of a soil. A pH less than 7.0 indicates an acid soil. · Soil acidification is a natural process that is increased of soil acidity (low soil pH) can reduce root growth, reduce nutrient availability, and affect crop

Kaye, Jason P.

494

New Acid Etched Titanium Dental Implant Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this investigation was to create an acid etched implant surface that results in a surface similar to that gained by using sandblasting combined with acid etching and to compare it with surfaces of commercially available screw-type implants. Titanium grade V discs were machined in preparation for acid etching. Tests were carried out using different acids and

Gintaras Juodzbalys; Marija Sapragoniene; Ann Wennerberg

495

Sulfuric Acid in the Venus Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine, produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

Sill, G. T.

1972-01-01

496

An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical nucleic acid biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and ultrasensitive procedure for non- labeling detection of nucleic acids is described in this study. It is based on the photoelectrochemical detection of target nucleic acids by forming a nucleic acid\\/photoreporter adduct layer on an ITO electrode. The target nucleic acids were hybridized with immob- ilized oligonucleotide capture probes on the ITO elec- trode. A subsequent binding of

Zhiqiang Gao; Natalia C. Tansil

2005-01-01

497

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2012-04-01

498

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2011-04-01

499

Stabilization of H2 by Organic Acids  

E-print Network

Stabilization of H2 SO4 ­H2 O Clusters by Organic Acids A.B. Nadykto1 and F. Yu1 Abstract While understood. In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia. The stabilizing effect of formic, acetic, and benzoic acids is found to be close that of ammonia that indicates

Yu, Fangqun

500

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2010-04-01