Science.gov

Sample records for hamster oocyte penetration

  1. THERMOSTABILITY OF SPERM NUCLEI ASSESSED BY MICROINJECTION INTO HAMSTER OOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees - 125 degrees for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  2. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  3. DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID) SYNTHESIS FOLLOWING MICROINJECTION OF HETEROLOGOUS SPERM AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEI INTO HAMSTER OOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have investigated the ability of the hamster oocyte to initiate DNA synthesis in nuclei differing in basic protein content. DNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in oocytes that had been incubated in 3H-thymidine after being parthenogenetically activated by sha...

  4. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) synthesis following microinjection of heterologous sperm and somatic cell nuclei into hamster oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Naish, S.J.; Perreault, S.D.; Zirkin, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the ability of the hamster oocyte to initiate DNA synthesis in nuclei differing in basic protein content. DNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in oocytes that had been incubated in /sup 3/H-thymidine after being parthenogenetically activated by sham microinjection, or microinjected with hamster, mouse, rabbit, or fish sperm nuclei, or hamster hepatocyte nuclei. Within 6 hr of sham or nucleus microinjection, nuclei of each type underwent transformation into pronuclei and synthesized DNA. These results demonstrated that the hamster egg can access and utilize its own and each type of template provided, whether homologous or heterologous. However, pronuclei derived from hamster sperm nuclei were more likely to be synthesizing DNA at 6 hr than pronuclei derived from sperm nuclei of other species. The authors conclude that the mechanisms employed by the hamster oocyte to transform hamster sperm nuclei into pronuclei and to effect DNA synthesis in these nuclei are not specific for the hamster sperm nucleus. Nevertheless, these mechanisms apparently operate more efficiently when the hamster sperm nucleus, rather than a heterologous sperm nucleus, is present.

  5. Penetration in vitro of zona-free pig oocytes by homologous and heterologous spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-Mian; Songa, Xue-Xiong; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Niwa, Koji

    2002-09-01

    We examined the penetrability of pig, rat and bull spermatozoa into zona-free pig oocytes. Frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa penetrated into both zona-intact and zona-free oocytes with similar efficacy in a modified Tris-buffered medium (mTBM) supplemented with BSA and caffeine, but not in medium without caffeine. Rat epididymal spermatozoa did not readily penetrate into zona-free pig oocytes in mTBM with BSA. However, when a modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution was used, penetration rate varied with sperm concentrations at insemination: 79% of the oocytes were penetrated at 1.0 x 10(6) cells/ml, but very few at 0.1 x 10(6) and 10.0 x 10(6) cells/ml. In all oocytes penetrated, no activation was observed and the sperm nucleus was fully decondensed but did not transform into a male pronucleus. Frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa were also found to penetrate into zona-free pig oocytes in mTBM with BSA, caffeine and heparin: higher penetration rates were obtained with 1.0 x 106 and 10.0 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml compared with 0.1 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. The penetration rate with 1.0 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml was stable in five different bulls. All oocytes penetrated were activated and male pronuclear formation was observed in 57-79% of the penetrated oocytes. These results suggest that capacitation or the acrosome reaction is required for boar, rat, and possibly, bull spermatozoa to penetrate into zona-free pig oocytes. Bull spermatozoa can easily induce activation of pig oocytes and form male pronuclei, but rat spermatozoa cannot do so, indicating species differences in the ability of spermatozoa to activate pig oocytes and to transform to male pronuclei in the ooplasm. PMID:12212897

  6. Human sperm chromosome analysis after subzonal sperm insemination of hamster oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, J.

    1994-09-01

    Sperm microinjection techniques, subzonal sperm insemination (SUZI) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), have achieved a wide spread clinical application for the treatment of male infertility. To date, only one study has focused on sperm karyotypes after microinjection. Martin et al. reported a very high incidence of abnormal human sperm complements after ICSI into hamster oocytes. In the present study, are reported the first human sperm karyotypes after SUZI of hamster oocytes. Spermatozoa from two control donors were treated by calcium ionophore A23187 and injected under the zona of hamster eggs. The microinjected eggs were then cultured for cytogenetic analysis of the pronuclei. Out of 47 analyzed sperm chromosome metaphases, 5 (10.6%) were abnormal, 4 (8.5%) were hypohaploid and 1 (2.1%) had a structural abnormality. The sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio. Rates of chromosomal abnormalities in microinjected spermatozoa were similar to those observed in spermatozoa inseminated with zona free eggs, suggesting that SUZI procedure per se does not increase sperm chromosomal abnormalities.

  7. Ability of Catalonian donkey sperm to penetrate zona pellucida-free bovine oocytes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Taberner, E; Morató, R; Mogas, T; Miró, J

    2010-04-01

    An experiment was designed to study the interaction between fresh/frozen-thawed donkey spermatozoa and zona pellucida (ZP)-free bovine oocytes in an attempt to develop a model for assessing cryopreserved Catalonian donkey sperm function. Semen from five donkeys was collected using an artificial vagina. Sperm motility and viability were immediately assessed and the semen sample cryopreserved. Sperm viability and motility were then reassessed immediately after thawing. The motion characteristics of the fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa were determined using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. In vitro-matured cow oocytes were inseminated with different percent live donkey sperm (high (>60%) or low (<40%) viability donkey sperm). After 18h of co-incubation, the oocytes were fixed, stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and examined for sperm penetration, the number of penetrated spermatozoa per oocyte, and male pronucleus formation. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from high viability semen showed significantly lower VCL, VAP and mean ALH values than did high viability fresh spermatozoa. In contrast, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of low viability had significantly higher velocity values than fresh spermatozoa of low viability. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was detected between percentage fertilization and viability (r=0.84), and between percentage fertilization and certain CASA parameters (VAP, r=0.56; VCL, r=0.61 and mean ALH, r=0.68). Fresh or frozen-thawed high viability spermatozoa penetrated 90.1% and 85.4% of bovine oocytes respectively. Lower rates of penetration were observed for fresh and frozen-thawed low viability spermatozoa (34% and 22.5% respectively). The donkey spermatozoa were able to fuse with the oolema and even to decondense and form the male pronucleus (85-94%). Larger numbers of penetrated spermatozoa per oocyte were recorded when high viability sperm samples were used, whether fresh (3.02 vs. 1.12 for low viability sperm) or frozen-thawed (3.41 vs. 1.47). Consequently, low viability sperm samples showed higher percentages of monospermic penetration (91.17% and 61.97% for fresh and frozen-thawed sperm samples respectively). These findings suggest that bovine oocytes provide a useful model for assessing the penetration potential of frozen-thawed donkey sperm. PMID:19748750

  8. An evaluation of different media for the zona-free hamster egg penetration test.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D

    1986-02-01

    Hypertonic high-salt Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham medium was compared with either a complex culture medium (synthetic tubal fluid) or a variant of Tyrode's medium for capacitating donor human spermatozoa to be used in the zona-free hamster egg penetration test. Five sperm preparations showed a slightly higher penetration rate in synthetic tubal fluid than in high-salt Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham medium, five showed equivalent results, and only two had slightly lower penetration rates. However, in modified Tyrode's medium only one sample showed a lower penetration, while six showed comparable results and five showed higher rates of penetration. This last group included two samples that had demonstrated zero penetration in high-salt Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham medium. Although no overall significant differences between media in the two series of experiments could be discerned with paired t tests, in view of the lower incidence of false negative results in modified Tyrode's medium and the absence of osmotic stress, this medium may represent a better choice for routine performance of the hamster egg penetration test. PMID:3946522

  9. CARBENDAZIM (MBC) DISRUPTS OOCYTE SPINDLE FUNCTION AND INDUCES ANEUPLOIDY IN HAMSTERS EXPOSED DURING FERTILIZATION (MEIOSIS II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peri-fertilization exposure to Carbendazim (MBC; a microtubule poison) induces infertility and early pregnancy loss (EPL) in hamsters. resently, both in vivo and in vitro techniques were employed to characterize the effects of MBC on cellular aspects of fertilization in hamsters....

  10. Recombinant Hamster Oviductin Is Biologically Active and Exerts Positive Effects on Sperm Functions and Sperm-Oocyte Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Yuewen; Yang, Xiaolong; Kan, Frederick W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies carried out in several mammalian species suggest that oviductin, also known as oviduct-specific glycoprotein or OVGP1, plays a key role in sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of early embryos. In the present study, we used recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, recombinant hamster OVGP1 (rHamOVGP1) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. rHamOVGP1 secreted in the culture medium was purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein migrated as a poly-dispersed band of 160-350 kDa on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the molecular mass of the native HamOVGP1. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the purified rHamOVGP1 confirmed its identity as HamOVGP1. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated binding of rHamOVGP1 to the mid-piece and head of hamster sperm and to the zona pellucida (ZP) of ovarian oocytes. In vitro functional experiments showed that addition of rHamOVGP1 in the capacitation medium further enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of two sperm proteins of approximately 75 kDa and 83 kDa in a time-dependent manner. After 3 hours of incubation in the presence of rHamOVGP1, a significant increase in acrosome reaction was measured. Pretreatment of either sperm or oocyte with 20 ?g/ml of rHamOVGP1 prior to sperm-egg binding assay significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP. Addition of rHamOVGP1 in the medium during sperm-egg binding with either oocyte or sperm pretreated with rHamOVGP1 also saw an increase in the number of sperm bound to ZP. In all experimental conditions, the effect of rHamOVGP1 on sperm-oocyte binding was negated by the addition of monoclonal anti-HamOVGP1 antibody. The successful production and purification of a biologically active rHamOVGP1 will allow further exploration of the function of this glycoprotein in reproductive function. PMID:25849110

  11. IMPORTANCE OF GLUTATHIONE IN THE ACQUISITION AND MAINTENANCE OF SPERM NUCLEAR DECONDENSING ACTIVITY IN MATURING HAMSTER OOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm nuclear decondensing activity in mammalian oocytes is dependent upon the maturational state of the oocyte. It is maximal in mature, metaphase II oocytes and minimal or absent in immature germinal vesicle (GV) and fertilized pronuclear oocytes. Previous studies suggested tha...

  12. Estimation of the Optimal Timing of Fertilization for Embryo Development of In Vitro-Matured Bovine Oocytes Based on the Times of Nuclear Maturation and Sperm Penetration

    PubMed Central

    KOYAMA, Keisuke; KANG, Sung-Sik; HUANG, Weiping; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; NAGANO, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to estimate the optimal timing for fertilization to achieve proper embryonic development of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes. First, cumulus-oocyte complexes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) for 14–22 hr. The timing when 50% of oocytes reached metaphase II stage was estimated to be 17.5 hr after IVM start. Next, using oocytes subjected to IVM for 12–30 hr, sperm penetration was examined after 4–18 hr of in vitro fertilization (IVF). A significant negative correlation between IVM duration and the timing when 50% of oocytes were penetrated by sperm after IVF start was observed (P<0.01). Finally, oocytes subjected to 12–30 hr of IVM were inseminated and cultured for 6 days to examine embryonic development. In the group with 22 hr of IVM, the percentages of cleaved embryos and blastocysts were the highest values in all groups. According to the regression equation describing the time from nuclear maturation to sperm penetration (x) and the percentage of blastocysts (y) (y=7.23x ? 0.297x2, P<0.01), the blastocyst rate peaked when sperm penetration occurred at 12.2 hr after achieving nuclear maturation. In conclusion, under the present IVM/IVF conditions, it was estimated that oocytes acquired their highest developmental competence at about 30 hr after IVM start, and thus, the optimal IVM duration was calculated to be about 21 hr. PMID:24430663

  13. GLUTATHIONE (GSH) CONCENTRATIONS VARY WITH THE CELL CYCLE IN MATURING HAMSTER OOCYTES, ZYGOTES AND PRE-IMPLANTATION STAGE EMBRYOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutathione (GSH) is thought to play critical roles in oocyte function including spindle maintenance and provision of reducing power needed to initiate sperm chromatin decondensation. Previous observations that GSH concentrations are higher in mature than immature oocytes and decline after fertiliz...

  14. Does seminal plasma PSP-I/PSP-II spermadhesin modulate the ability of boar spermatozoa to penetrate homologous oocytes in vitro?

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ignacio; Vazquez, Juan M; Gil, Maria A; Calvete, Juan J; Roca, Jordi; Sanz, Libia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Garcia, Eva M; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martinez, Emilio A

    2004-01-01

    Low concentration (0.15 mg per million of spermatozoa) of seminal plasma-derived PSP-I/PSP-II spermadhesin heterodimer is able to preserve the viability of highly extended boar spermatozoa. Whether spermatozoa also keep their fertilizing capacity is not yet known. The present study evaluated the effect of exposing freshly extended and frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa (10 million/mL) to PSP-I/PSP-II (1.5 mg/mL) for 30 or 120 minutes on sperm characteristics and the outcome of in vitro penetration of immature (IM) and in vitro matured (IVM) homologous oocytes, aiming to identify this spermadhesin as a suitable modulator for sperm-handling protocols. Although exposure to the heterodimer improved sperm viability and motility without increasing the levels of sperm acrosome exocytosis in both freshly extended and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, this pretreatment did not affect sperm penetration rates or sperm numbers per oocyte when pretreated fresh spermatozoa were coincubated with IM or IVM oocytes compared with controls. When cryopreserved spermatozoa were tested, however, on IVM oocytes, already a 30-minute preincubation exposure to PSP-I/PSP-II showed a significant blocking effect on penetration rate (from 90% to 32%, P < .05) and on mean sperm numbers per oocyte (2.9 to 1.6, P < .05). To disclose the nature of this paradox, frozen-thawed spermatozoa were cleansed (by centrifugation in saline bovine serum albumin or through Percoll density gradient separation) and the procedure repeated. Oocyte penetration (but not number of spermatozoa per oocyte) increased (P < .05) when spermatozoa were cleansed with Percoll compared with either washed or unwashed controls (53% vs 13% vs 31%, respectively). In addition, the percentages of polyspermic oocytes remained lower than control (38.5% vs 68.7%, respectively; P < .05). In conclusion, the results confirm that exposure of fresh or frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa to a low dose of seminal PSP-I/PSP-II spermadhesin preserves sperm viability and motility in vitro. Although there was no obvious influence of the heterodimer on the capability of freshly extended boar spermatozoa to penetrate homologous oocytes (either IM or IVM), PSP-I/PSP-II exerted a deleterious effect when frozen-thawed spermatozoa were used to penetrate IVM oocytes. Such an effect of cryopreservation seems to a certain extent reversible, since cleansing of the sperm surface decreased, at least partially, this blocking effect, increasing both penetration and the monospermic rates. PMID:15477376

  15. GLUTATHIONE (GSH) CONCENTRATIONS VARY WITH THE CELL CYCLE IN MATURING HAMSTER OOCYTES, ZYGOTES AND PRE-IMPLANATION EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Glutathione (GSH) is thought to play critical roles in oocyte function including spindle maintenance and provision of reducing power needed to initiate sperm chromatin decondensation. Previous observations that GSH concentrations are higher in mature than immature o...

  16. Efficacy of zona-free hamster egg sperm penetration assay as a predictor of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M E; Moussa, M A; Pedersen, H

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of the zona-free hamster egg sperm penetration assay (SPA) as a predictor of in vitro fertilization (IVF) is studied. Indications for IVF were tubal factors in 35 couples and male factors in 24 couples. The diagnostic characteristics of SPA in reference to IVF for the whole group (n = 59) were reasonably reliable. Sensitivity was 74%, specificity was 84%, and diagnostic accuracy was 81%. However in patients with male factors, SPA was less reliable in terms of sensitivity (70%), specificity (57%), and diagnostic accuracy (63%), than in patients with tubal factors where the indicators were 80%, 97%, and 94%, respectively. Semen from patients with male infertility shared notable variations in terms of sperm density and motility which may account for the low SPA predictivity. SPA seems to be a useful screening test for prediction of IVF outcome. However other semen variables should be considered before interpretation, especially in male infertility where the diagnostic accuracy is low. PMID:2619415

  17. USE OF THE FUNGICIDE CARBENDAZIM AS A MODEL COMPOUND TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF ACUTE CHEMICAL EXPOSURE DURING OOCYTE MATURATION AND FERTILIZATION ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN THE HAMSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we use a hamster animal model to identify early pregnancy loss due to an acute chemical exposure to the female during the perifertilization interval. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazole-2-carbamate), a microtubule poison with antimitotic activity, was selected...

  18. Disposition and metabolic profiling of the penetration enhancer Azone. I. In vitro studies: Urinary profiles of hamster, rat, monkey, and man

    SciTech Connect

    Wiechers, J.W.; Drenth, B.F.; Adolfsen, F.A.; Prins, L.; de Zeeuw, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Chain-labeled {sup 14}C-Azone was intravenously administered to hamster, monkey, and rat, to compare its metabolic profile with that obtained previously in humans after dermal application. Azone-derived radioactivity was excreted predominantly in the urine for both hamster and monkey, which is similar to the disposition in humans. Metabolic profiling in urine revealed extensive systemic metabolism to occur in all species studied. The main fraction of the metabolites was most polar in man, followed by rat, monkey, and hamster. Traces of the parent compound were detectable only in hamster urine. Although some of the polar major human metabolites were also present in rat urine, the animals were unsuitable for collecting metabolites of Azone observed in humans. In rats, complete cleavage of the dodecyl side chain was ruled out by administering Azone that had been labeled at two distinct positions of the molecule. Additionally, oral administration of Azone to rats resulted in the same metabolic profile as intravenous administration, indicating that gastrointestinal metabolism does not occur or is similar to systemic metabolism.

  19. Oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jeffrey; Sauer, Mark V

    2002-06-01

    Oocyte donation affords women with ovarian failure, advanced reproductive age, heritable conditions or recurrent implantation failure the ability to conceive. Recipients must be medically screened carefully prior to attempting pregnancy. Egg donors should also be healthy and pose no infectious or genetic risk to the recipient or offspring. Donor and recipient menstrual cycles are synchronized so that embryos are transferred to a receptive endometrium. Donors are prescribed injectible gonadotrophins to achieve multifollicular growth. Recipient endometrial priming begins with 2 weeks (or more) of oestradiol, with progesterone added to the regimen 3-4 days prior to the transfer of embryos. Pregnancy rates following egg donation are among the highest observed following assisted reproduction. Despite advanced reproductive age, perinatal and obstetric outcomes are generally good. Techniques (i.e. germinal vesicle transfer, donor ooplasm, and ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation techniques) may permit the recipient to provide some genetic contribution to offspring and are currently under investigation. PMID:12099663

  20. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Sperm-Oocyte Interactions Opinions Relative to in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    PubMed Central

    Anifandis, George; Messini, Christina; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Sotiriou, Sotiris; Messinis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest prerequisites for pregnancy is the fertilization step, where a human haploid spermatozoon interacts and penetrates one haploid oocyte in order to produce the diploid zygote. Although fertilization is defined by the presence of two pronuclei and the extraction of the second polar body the process itself requires preparation of both gametes for fertilization to take place at a specific time. These preparations include a number of consecutive biochemical and molecular events with the help of specific molecules and with the consequential interaction between the two gametes. These events take place at three different levels and in a precise order, where the moving spermatozoon penetrates (a) the outer vestments of the oocyte, known as the cumulus cell layer; (b) the zona pellucida (ZP); where exocytosis of the acrosome contents take place and (c) direct interaction of the spermatozoon with the plasma membrane of the oocyte, which involves a firm adhesion of the head of the spermatozoon with the oocyte plasma membrane that culminates with the fusion of both sperm and oocyte membranes (Part I). After the above interactions, a cascade of molecular signal transductions is initiated which results in oocyte activation. Soon after the entry of the first spermatozoon into the oocyte and oocyte activation, the oocyte’s coat (the ZP) and the oocyte’s plasma membrane seem to change quickly in order to initiate a fast block to a second spermatozoon (Part II). Sometimes, two spermatozoa fuse with one oocyte, an incidence of 1%–2%, resulting in polyploid fetuses that account for up to 10%–20% of spontaneously aborted human conceptuses. The present review aims to focus on the first part of the human sperm and oocyte interactions, emphasizing the latest molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling this process. PMID:25054321

  1. TIMING OF HAMSTER SPERM NUCLEAR DECONDENSATION AND MALE PRONUCLEUS FORMATION IS RELATED TO SPERM NUCLEAR DISULFIDE BOND CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between the timing of both sperm nuclear decondensation and male pronucleus formation in the oocyte and the relative level of disulfide bonds within the sperm nucleus was evaluated. Four types of hamster sperm nuclei, in which the extent of S-S bonding differed, ...

  2. Fertilization Ability of Porcine Oocytes Reconstructed from Ooplasmic Fragments Produced and Characterized after Serial Centrifugations

    PubMed Central

    Viet LINH, Nguyen; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; NAKAI, Michiko; TANIHARA, Fuminori; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; DANG-NGUYEN, Thanh Quang; MEN, Nguyen Thi; VAN HANH, Nguyen; SOMFAI, Tamas; NGUYEN, Bui Xuan; NAGAI, Takashi; MANABE, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondria are reported to be critical in in vitro maturation of oocytes and subsequent embryo development after fertilization, but their contribution for fertilization has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we investigate the contribution of mitochondria to fertilization using reconstructed porcine oocytes by fusion of ooplasmic fragments produced by serial centrifugations (centri-fusion). Firstly, we evaluated the characteristics of ooplasmic fragments. Three types of fragments were obtained by centrifugation of porcine oocytes matured in vitro for 46 h: brownish (B), transparent (T) and large (L) fragments containing both B and T parts in a fragment. The production efficiencies of these types of fragments were 71.7, 91.0 and 17.8 fragments/100 oocytes, respectively. In experiments, L fragments were excluded because they contained both brownish and transparent components that were apparently intermediate between B and T fragments. Observations by confocal microscopy after staining with MitoTracker Red CMXRos® and transmission electron microscopy revealed highly condensed active mitochondria in B fragments in contrast to T fragments that contained only sparse organelles. We reconstructed oocytes by fusion of a karyoplast and two cytoplasts from B and T fragments (B and T oocytes, respectively). The B oocytes showed higher sperm penetration (95.8%) and male pronuclear formation rates (94.2%) by in vitro fertilization than T oocytes (66.7% and 50.0%, respectively). These results suggest that the active mitochondria in oocytes may be related to their ability for fertilization. PMID:23965685

  3. Gait Disturbances in Dystrophic Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Thomas G.; Kale, Ajit; Amende, Ivo; Tang, Wenlong; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N.; VanDongen, Case G.

    2011-01-01

    The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster is an excellent model to study muscular dystrophy. Gait disturbances, important clinically, have not been described in this animal model. We applied ventral plane videography (DigiGait) to analyze gait in BIO TO-2 dystrophic and BIO F1B control hamsters walking on a transparent treadmill belt. Stride length was ?13% shorter (P < .05) in TO-2 hamsters at 9 months of age compared to F1B hamsters. Hindlimb propulsion duration, an indicator of muscle strength, was shorter in 9-month-old TO-2 (247 ± 8?ms) compared to F1B hamsters (272 ± 11?ms; P < .05). Braking duration, reflecting generation of ground reaction forces, was delayed in 9-month-old TO-2 (147 ± 6?ms) compared to F1B hamsters (126 ± 8?ms; P < .05). Hindpaw eversion, evidence of muscle weakness, was greater in 9-month-old TO-2 than in F1B hamsters (17.7 ± 1.2° versus 8.7 ± 1.6°; P < .05). Incline and decline walking aggravated gait disturbances in TO-2 hamsters at 3 months of age. Several gait deficits were apparent in TO-2 hamsters at 1 month of age. Quantitative gait analysis demonstrates that dystrophic TO-2 hamsters recapitulate functional aspects of human muscular dystrophy. Early detection of gait abnormalities in a convenient animal model may accelerate the development of therapies for muscular dystrophy. PMID:21318074

  4. Gait disturbances in dystrophic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Thomas G; Kale, Ajit; Amende, Ivo; Tang, Wenlong; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N; VanDongen, Case G

    2011-01-01

    The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster is an excellent model to study muscular dystrophy. Gait disturbances, important clinically, have not been described in this animal model. We applied ventral plane videography (DigiGait) to analyze gait in BIO TO-2 dystrophic and BIO F1B control hamsters walking on a transparent treadmill belt. Stride length was ?13% shorter (P < .05) in TO-2 hamsters at 9 months of age compared to F1B hamsters. Hindlimb propulsion duration, an indicator of muscle strength, was shorter in 9-month-old TO-2 (247 ± 8?ms) compared to F1B hamsters (272 ± 11?ms; P < .05). Braking duration, reflecting generation of ground reaction forces, was delayed in 9-month-old TO-2 (147 ± 6?ms) compared to F1B hamsters (126 ± 8?ms; P < .05). Hindpaw eversion, evidence of muscle weakness, was greater in 9-month-old TO-2 than in F1B hamsters (17.7 ± 1.2° versus 8.7 ± 1.6°; P < .05). Incline and decline walking aggravated gait disturbances in TO-2 hamsters at 3 months of age. Several gait deficits were apparent in TO-2 hamsters at 1 month of age. Quantitative gait analysis demonstrates that dystrophic TO-2 hamsters recapitulate functional aspects of human muscular dystrophy. Early detection of gait abnormalities in a convenient animal model may accelerate the development of therapies for muscular dystrophy. PMID:21318074

  5. The control of reactive oxygen species influences porcine oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G M; Morado, S A; Soto, M P; Dalvit, G C; Cetica, P D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during oocyte in vitro maturation with enzymatic ROS production systems (xanthine + xanthine oxidase or xanthine + xanthine oxidase + catalase), scavenger systems (catalase or superoxide dismutase + catalase) or cysteine on porcine oocyte maturation. Oocyte ROS levels showed an increase when H2O2 or O2?(-) production systems were added to the culture medium (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the presence of ROS scavengers in the maturation medium did not modify oocyte ROS levels compared with the control after 48 h of maturation, but the addition of cysteine induced a decrease in oocyte ROS levels (p < 0.05). The ROS production systems used in this work did not modified the percentage of oocyte nuclear maturation, but increased the decondensation of sperm head (p < 0.05) and decreased the pronuclear formation (p < 0.05). In turn, the addition of O2?(-) and H2O2 scavenging systems during in vitro maturation did not modify the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II nor the oocytes with decondensed sperm head or pronuclei after fertilization. However, both parameters increased in the presence of cysteine (p < 0.05). The exogenous generation of O2?(-) and H2O2 during oocyte in vitro maturation would not affect nuclear maturation or later sperm penetration, but most of the spermatozoa cannot progress to form the pronuclei after fusion with the oocyte. The decrease in endogenous ROS levels by the addition of cysteine would improve pronuclear formation after sperm penetration. PMID:25522082

  6. Reduction of polyspermic penetration using biomimetic microfluidic technology during in vitro fertilization

    E-print Network

    Beebe, David J.

    fertilization Sherrie G. Clark,ab Kathyrn Haubert,d David J. Beebe,c C. Edward Fergusona and Matthew B. Wheeler of spermatozoa past the oocytes similar to the pattern in the oviduct. In vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes fertilized in the traditional microdrop system with comparable penetration and male pronucleus formation

  7. Oocyte development, meiosis and aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Marie; Crichton, James H; Playfoot, Christopher J; Adams, Ian R

    2015-09-01

    Meiosis is one of the defining events in gametogenesis. Male and female germ cells both undergo one round of meiotic cell division during their development in order to reduce the ploidy of the gametes, and thereby maintain the ploidy of the species after fertilisation. However, there are some aspects of meiosis in the female germline, such as the prolonged arrest in dictyate, that appear to predispose oocytes to missegregate their chromosomes and transmit aneuploidies to the next generation. These maternally-derived aneuploidies are particularly problematic in humans where they are major contributors to miscarriage, age-related infertility, and the high incidence of Down's syndrome in human conceptions. This review will discuss how events that occur in foetal oocyte development and during the oocytes' prolonged dictyate arrest can influence meiotic chromosome segregation and the incidence of aneuploidy in adult oocytes. PMID:26454098

  8. Polyribosomes of Hamster Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stanners, Clifford P.

    1968-01-01

    The amount of radioactivity incorporated into completed polypeptides and into nascent polypeptides bound to polyribosomes was measured for rapidly dividing, cultured hamster embryo cells incubated in the presence of labelled amino acids. Using a mathematical analysis which took into account variations in the specific activity of the intracellular amino acid pool, these measurements yielded a value for the length of time required for the synthesis of a primary polypeptide of average length, the “transit time.” Subject to a number of reasonable assumptions in the mathematical analysis which were, however, only approximately verified, the transit time was found to be 23 ± 2 sec in four independent experiments. Regardless of the absolute accuracy of this measurement, the method is considered a useful measure of translation independent of transcription. PMID:5689103

  9. Penetration equations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.W.

    1997-10-01

    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Recent progress in reproduction of whale oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Liang

    2013-08-01

    Whale oocytes recovered from follicles can be matured in vitro. Whale sperm and mature oocytes can be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF), and IVF embryos have the ability to develop to morula stage. Whale sperm injected into bovine or mouse oocytes can activate the oocytes and form pronucleus. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos have been reconstructed with whale somatic cell nucleus and enucleated bovine or porcine oocytes, and interspecies cloned embryos can develop in vitro. This paper reviews recent progress in maturation, fertilization and development of whale oocytes. PMID:21838965

  11. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant ?-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  12. Comparison of in-vitro outcomes from cryopreserved oocytes and sibling fresh oocytes.

    PubMed

    Chamayou, S; Alecci, C; Ragolia, C; Storaci, G; Maglia, E; Russo, E; Guglielmino, A

    2006-06-01

    In Italy, the restrictive IVF law generalizes the indication for oocyte freezing for surplus oocytes in 78.5% of in-vitro assisted reproductive cycles. With a view to understanding better what the prospects for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on frozen-thawed oocytes might be, the consequences of freeze-thaw procedures on fertilization, cleavage rates and embryo quality obtained from frozen-thawed oocytes were studied and compared with the results obtained from sibling fresh oocytes. Eleven IVF and 29 ICSI on 76 and 169 fresh oocytes were performed and the corresponding 40 ICSI on 221 sibling frozen-thawed oocytes. There was no difference in terms of fertilization rate between fresh and sibling frozen-thawed oocytes. The cleavage rate (98.0 and 94.4% with fresh oocytes in IVF and ICSI; 77.3% with frozen-thawed oocytes in ICSI; P < 0.001) and embryo quality (grade I embryos over total embryos: 36.7 and 22.2% with fresh oocytes in IVF and ICSI; 12.1% with frozen-thawed oocytes in ICSI; respectively P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) were statistically lower after oocyte cryopreservation. The significant decrease in meiotic spindle retrieval rate before freezing (62.4%) and after thawing procedures (43.4%; P < 0.001) suggests that cryoconservation induces irreversible damage to microtubule repolymerization. The consequences of oocyte cryopreservation procedures on embryo development are reviewed. PMID:16792849

  13. The oocyte-to-embryo transition : regulation of oocyte maturation and egg activation in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Weingarten, Lisa Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In oogenesis, meiosis must be highly regulated to ensure that growth of the oocyte and chromosomal segregation are coordinated properly. To do this, meiosis arrests at two points to permit oocyte differentiation and ...

  14. The Transcriptome of a Human Polar Body Accurately Reflects Its Sibling Oocyte*S

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    created through in vitro fertilization (IVF). All oocytes that are retrieved and matured in culture and accurately eval- uate oocyte quality prior to fertilization and transfer into the woman of human embryos are needed to determine oocyte quality prior to fertilizing. The first polar body (PB) is extruded from

  15. Fourier analysis of mitochondrial distribution in oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, Joseph L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Newmark, Judith A.; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to quantifying mitochondrial patterns which are typically described using the qualitative terms "diffuse" "aggregated" and are potentially key indicators for an oocyte's health and survival potential post-implantation. An oocyte was isolated in a confocal image and a coarse grid was superimposed upon it. The spatial spectrum was calculated and an aggregation factor was generated. A classifier for healthy cells was developed and verified. The aggregation factor showed a clear distinction between the healthy and unhealthy oocytes. The ultimate goal is to screen oocytes for viability preimplantation, thus improving the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.

  16. Tritrichomonas foetus damages bovine oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Marlene; da Silva Fontes, Reginaldo; Burla Dias, Angelo José

    2007-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is an extracellular parasite of the urogenital tract in cattle. It causes infertility and abortion, but there is no documented information on the susceptibility of bovine oocytes to the parasite, except by one article that claimed no effects of T. foetus on oocytes or embryos. The aim of the present study was to study the effects provoked by T. foetus when in interaction with bovine oocytes. Oocytes were obtained from cow ovaries and divided into two groups: (1) one group contained cumulus cells, whereas (2) a second group was denuded from these cells. Light microscopy, video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that exposure of oocytes to T. foetus caused rapid adhesion of the trichomonads to cumulus cells and to the zona pellucida (ZP). Motile parasites were observed for 12 h. The ZP was completely damaged, and the parasites were able to infiltrate beneath the ZP and reached the oocytes directly when the oocytes were denuded of the cumulus cells. Both the oocytes and the cumulus cells exhibited morphological characteristics compatible with apoptosis after interaction with T. foetus, such as chromatin condensation, the presence of several cytoplasmic vacuoles, with intact cellular membranes and organelles. The results from this study demonstrate that when a large number of T. foetus interacts with oocytes in vitro damage and apoptosis are provoked in the cow's reproductive cells. The behavior of this parasite as one of the causes of cattle infertility is discussed. PMID:17506970

  17. Immature oocyte quality and maturational competence of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gabriel Martin; Dalvit, Gabriel Carlos; Achi, María Verónica; Miguez, Marcelo Sergio; Cetica, Pablo Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Porcine immature oocyte quality (i.e., that of live oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage) was evaluated according to features of the surrounding cumulus, aiming to establish maturational competence of different subpopulations of such cumulus-oocyte complexes. Six subpopulations were identified: A1 (with a dense cumulus), A2 (with a translucent cumulus), B1 (with the corona radiata), B2 (partly naked oocytes), C (naked oocytes), D (with a dark cumulus). The percent incidence of live oocyte in these subpopulations changed significantly as related to cumulus features, however the occurrence of oocytes in the germinal vesicle stage was lower in class D only. Similar metaphase II rates achieved in A1, A2, B1 and B2 classes after in vitro maturation suggest that the nucleus may in fact mature in vitro, in spite of the different accompanying cumulus features which are typical of these classes. In contrast, a higher cytoplasmic maturation rate obtained in class A may indicate a stronger dependence of this variable upon cumulus features than that shown by nuclear maturation. When different types of cumulus expansion after in vitro maturation were considered (i.e., fully expanded cumulus, partly expanded cumulus, and partly naked oocyte), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes reaching metaphase II or cytoplasmic maturation. It is concluded that morphological features of the collected porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (rather than cumulus behavior during culture) may be useful for selection of potentially competent oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo production. PMID:20067032

  18. FATE OF INHALED FLY ASH IN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine pulmonary deposition, translocation, and clearance of inhaled fly ash, hamsters received a single 95-min nose-only exposure to neutron-activated fly ash. Over a period of 99 days postexposure, the hamsters were sacrificed in groups of six animals. Lungs, liver, kidne...

  19. Directed Student Inquiry: Modeling in Roborovsky Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Bouchard, Adam

    2007-01-01

    In this inquiry-based activity, Roborovsky hamsters are used to provide students with an opportunity to develop their skills of analysis, inquiry, and design. These hamsters are easy to maintain, yet offer students a means to use conventional techniques and those of their own design to make further observations through measuring, assessing, and…

  20. Calcium waves occur as Drosophila oocytes activate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Taro; Sartain, Caroline V.; Takeo, Satomi; Horner, Vanessa L.; Buehner, Norene A.; Aigaki, Toshiro; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Egg activation is the process by which a mature oocyte becomes capable of supporting embryo development. In vertebrates and echinoderms, activation is induced by fertilization. Molecules introduced into the egg by the sperm trigger progressive release of intracellular calcium stores in the oocyte. Calcium wave(s) spread through the oocyte and induce completion of meiosis, new macromolecular synthesis, and modification of the vitelline envelope to prevent polyspermy. However, arthropod eggs activate without fertilization: in the insects examined, eggs activate as they move through the female’s reproductive tract. Here, we show that a calcium wave is, nevertheless, characteristic of egg activation in Drosophila. This calcium rise requires influx of calcium from the external environment and is induced as the egg is ovulated. Pressure on the oocyte (or swelling by the oocyte) can induce a calcium rise through the action of mechanosensitive ion channels. Visualization of calcium fluxes in activating eggs in oviducts shows a wave of increased calcium initiating at one or both oocyte poles and spreading across the oocyte. In vitro, waves also spread inward from oocyte pole(s). Wave propagation requires the IP3 system. Thus, although a fertilizing sperm is not necessary for egg activation in Drosophila, the characteristic of increased cytosolic calcium levels spreading through the egg is conserved. Because many downstream signaling effectors are conserved in Drosophila, this system offers the unique perspective of egg activation events due solely to maternal components. PMID:25564670

  1. Apoptosis in mammalian oocytes: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Ali, Irfan; Singh, Arvind K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99% of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1% of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals. PMID:25958165

  2. Calcium waves occur as Drosophila oocytes activate.

    PubMed

    Kaneuchi, Taro; Sartain, Caroline V; Takeo, Satomi; Horner, Vanessa L; Buehner, Norene A; Aigaki, Toshiro; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-01-20

    Egg activation is the process by which a mature oocyte becomes capable of supporting embryo development. In vertebrates and echinoderms, activation is induced by fertilization. Molecules introduced into the egg by the sperm trigger progressive release of intracellular calcium stores in the oocyte. Calcium wave(s) spread through the oocyte and induce completion of meiosis, new macromolecular synthesis, and modification of the vitelline envelope to prevent polyspermy. However, arthropod eggs activate without fertilization: in the insects examined, eggs activate as they move through the female's reproductive tract. Here, we show that a calcium wave is, nevertheless, characteristic of egg activation in Drosophila. This calcium rise requires influx of calcium from the external environment and is induced as the egg is ovulated. Pressure on the oocyte (or swelling by the oocyte) can induce a calcium rise through the action of mechanosensitive ion channels. Visualization of calcium fluxes in activating eggs in oviducts shows a wave of increased calcium initiating at one or both oocyte poles and spreading across the oocyte. In vitro, waves also spread inward from oocyte pole(s). Wave propagation requires the IP3 system. Thus, although a fertilizing sperm is not necessary for egg activation in Drosophila, the characteristic of increased cytosolic calcium levels spreading through the egg is conserved. Because many downstream signaling effectors are conserved in Drosophila, this system offers the unique perspective of egg activation events due solely to maternal components. PMID:25564670

  3. Genome Analyses of Single Human Oocytes

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    a secondary oocyte arresting at meiosis II (Figure 1A). Upon its fertilization with a sperm cell analyses of human oocytes are important for meiosis research and preimplantation genomic screening. However of PB1 and PB2. The MALBAC-based preimplantation genomic screening in in vitro fertil- ization (IVF

  4. Nonequilibrium dissipation in living oocytes

    E-print Network

    Étienne Fodor; Wylie W. Ahmed; Maria Almonacid; Matthias Bussonnier; Nir S. Gov; Marie-Hélène Verlhac; Timo Betz; Paolo Visco; Frédéric van Wijland

    2015-11-03

    Living organisms are inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. We employ new developments in stochastic energetics and rely on a minimal microscopic model to predict the amount of mechanical energy dissipated by such dynamics. Our model includes complex rheological effects and nonequilibrium stochastic forces. By performing active microrheology and tracking micron-sized vesicles in the cytoplasm of living oocytes, we provide unprecedented measurements of the spectrum of dissipated energy. We show that our model is fully consistent with the experimental data, and we use it to offer predictions for the injection and dissipation energy scales involved in active fluctuations.

  5. Nonequilibrium dissipation in living oocytes

    E-print Network

    Fodor, Étienne; Almonacid, Maria; Bussonnier, Matthias; Gov, Nir S; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Betz, Timo; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms are inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. We employ new developments in stochastic energetics and rely on a minimal microscopic model to predict the amount of mechanical energy dissipated by such dynamics. Our model includes complex rheological effects and nonequilibrium stochastic forces. By performing active microrheology and tracking micron-sized vesicles in the cytoplasm of living oocytes, we provide unprecedented measurements of the spectrum of dissipated energy. We show that our model is fully consistent with the experimental data, and we use it to offer predictions for the injection and dissipation energy scales involved in active fluctuations.

  6. Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells J. Goswami,1 A. J. Sinskey,2 H. Steller of the main problems in the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells continues to be the inability. Keywords: cell culture; Chinese Hamster Ovary; apopto- sis; caspase; bcl-2 INTRODUCTION Chinese Hamster

  7. Diffused Intra-Oocyte Hydrogen Peroxide Activates Myeloperoxidase and Deteriorates Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sana N.; Shaeib, Faten; Najafi, Tohid; Kavdia, Mahendra; Gonik, Bernard; Saed, Ghassan M.; Goud, Pravin T.; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relatively long-lived signaling molecule that plays an essential role in oocyte maturation, implantation, as well as early embryonic development. Exposure to relatively high levels of H2O2 functions efficiently to accelerate oocyte aging and deteriorate oocyte quality. However, little precise information exists regarding intra-oocyte H2O2 concentrations, and its diffusion to the oocyte milieu. In this work, we utilized an L-shaped amperometric integrated H2O2-selective probe to directly and quantitatively measure the real-time intra-oocyte H2O2 concentration. This investigation provides an exact measurement of H2O2 in situ by reducing the possible loss of H2O2 caused by diffusion or reactivity with other biological systems. This experiment suggests that the intra-oocyte H2O2 levels of oocytes obtained from young animals are reasonably high and remained constant during the procedure measurements. However, the intra-oocyte H2O2 concentration dropped significantly (40-50% reduction) in response to catalase pre-incubation, suggesting that the measurements are truly H2O2 based. To further confirm the extracellular diffusion of H2O2, oocytes were incubated with myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the diffused H2O2 triggered MPO chlorinating activity. Our results show that the generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) facilitated the deterioration in oocyte quality, a process that could be prevented by pre-incubating the oocytes with melatonin, which was experimentally proven to be oxidized utilizing HPLC methods. This study is the first to demonstrate direct quantitative measurement of intracellular H2O2, and its extracellular diffusion and activation of MPO as well as its impact on oocyte quality. These results may help in designing more accurate treatment plans in assisted reproduction under inflammatory conditions. PMID:26197395

  8. Oocyte environment: follicular fluid and cumulus cells are critical for oocyte health.

    PubMed

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Meldrum, David R; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G; Krisher, Rebecca L; Schoolcraft, William B

    2015-02-01

    Bidirectional somatic cell-oocyte signaling is essential to create a changing intrafollicular microenvironment that controls primordial follicle growth into a cohort of growing follicles, from which one antral follicle is selected to ovulate a healthy oocyte. Such intercellular communications allow the oocyte to determine its own fate by influencing the intrafollicular microenvironment, which in turn provides the necessary cellular functions for oocyte developmental competence, which is defined as the ability of the oocyte to complete meiosis and undergo fertilization, embryogenesis, and term development. These coordinated somatic cell-oocyte interactions attempt to balance cellular metabolism with energy requirements during folliculogenesis, including changing energy utilization during meiotic resumption. If these cellular mechanisms are perturbed by metabolic disease and/or maternal aging, molecular damage of the oocyte can alter macromolecules, induce mitochondrial mutations, and reduce adenosine triphosphate production, all of which can harm the oocyte. Recent technologies are now exploring transcriptional, translational, and post-translational events within the human follicle with the goal of identifying biomarkers that reliably predict oocyte quality in the clinical setting. PMID:25497448

  9. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.

    1988-09-01

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  10. Spontaneous endomyometrial neoplasms in aging Chinese hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Brownstein, D.G.; Brooks, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one endomyometrial neoplasms among 93 nulliparous noninbred Chinese hamsters were evaluated. The median survival time of the 93 females was 1040 days. The median age of hamsters with endomyometrial neoplasms was 1200 days. Neoplasms were classified as carcinomas or malignant mixed muellerian tumors of the endometrium and benign or malignant myometrial neoplasms. There were 13 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Three tumors were mixed adenosquamous carcinomas, which occurred in significantly older Chinese hamsters than did adenocarcinomas. Three malignant mixed muellerian tumors consisted of 2 carcinosarcomas and 1 mixed mesodermal tumor. The 2 myometrial neoplasms were a lelomyoma and a lelomyosarcoma. The classification and relative frequency of these neoplasms were similar to endomyometrial neoplasms of women, which makes Chinese hamsters useful subjects for studies of spontaneous endomyometrial cancers.

  11. Effects of Resveratrol on Vitrified Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Giaretta, Elisa; Spinaci, Marcella; Bucci, Diego; Tamanini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Vitrified MII porcine oocytes are characterized by reduced developmental competence, associated with the activation of the apoptotic pathway. Resveratrol (R), a polyphenolic compound present in several vegetal sources, has been reported to exert, among all its other biological effects, an antiapoptotic one. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of R (2?µM) on the apoptotic status of porcine oocytes vitrified by Cryotop method, evaluating phosphatidylserine (PS) exteriorization and caspases activation. R was added during IVM (A); 2?h postwarming incubation (B); vitrification/warming and 2?h postwarming incubation (C); all previous phases (D). Data on PS exteriorization showed, in each treated group, a significantly higher (P < 0.05) percentage of live nonapoptotic oocytes as compared with CTR; moreover, the percentage of live apoptotic oocytes was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in all R-treated groups relative to CTR. The results on caspase activation showed a tendency to an increase of viable oocytes with inactive caspases in B, C, and D, while a significant (P < 0.05) increase in A compared to CTR was recorded. These data demonstrate that R supplementation in various phases of IVM and vitrification/warming procedure can modulate the apoptotic process, improving the resistance of porcine oocytes to cryopreservation-induced damage. PMID:24223236

  12. Proteomes of Animal Oocytes: What Can We Learn for Human Oocytes in the In Vitro Fertilization Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes are crucial cells for mammalian reproduction, yet the molecular principles underlying oocyte development are only partially understood. Therefore, contemporary proteomic approaches have been used increasingly to provide new insights into oocyte quality and maturation in various species such as mouse, pig, and cow. Especially, animal studies have helped in elucidating the molecular status of oocytes during in vitro maturation and other procedures of assisted reproduction. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature on mammalian oocyte proteome and secretome research in the light of natural and assisted reproduction and on lessons to be learned for human oocytes, which have so far remained inaccessible for proteome analysis. PMID:24804254

  13. Fertility preservation with immature and in vitro matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun-Xia; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2009-11-01

    The development of an effective oocyte-freezing program will have a major impact on clinical practice in reproductive medicine and will serve as a powerful tool to preserve fertility for teenage girls and young women without male partners or for those individuals who are affected by malignancies. It will also be beneficial to infertile couples who have moral or religious objections about embryo cryopreservation. In addition, a successful oocyte cryopreservation program will eliminate the need for donor and recipient menstrual cycle synchronization and will enable the establishment of oocyte banks, which would facilitate the logistics of coordinating egg donors with recipients. Recent advances in vitrification technology have markedly improved the oocyte survival rate after thawing, and the pregnancy rate is comparable with that achieved with fresh oocytes. However, most studies were performed using in vivo matured oocytes for vitrification. The objective of this article was to review whether immature and in vitro matured human oocytes can be vitrified successfully. The results indicated that although healthy live births can be achieved from the combination of in vitro maturation (IVM) oocytes and vitrification, vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes is less effective than vitrification of in vivo matured oocytes. The results suggest that oocytes should be vitrified at the mature metaphase II stage following IVM rather than at the immature germinal vesicle (GV) stage because the potential of oocyte maturation is reduced by the vitrification of immature oocytes at the GV stage. PMID:19806514

  14. Fertilizability of oocytes derived from Holstein cows having different antral follicle counts in ovaries.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhisa; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2015-12-01

    In this study, to clarify the relationship between ovarian reserve and oocyte quality, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected repeatedly by ovum pick-up (OPU) from cows with high and low antral follicle counts (AFCs) at short (3-4 days) and long (7 days) intervals, and COC morphologies and oocyte fertilizability were examined. The relationship between AFC and follicular growth after OPU was also investigated. Cows showing AFC of ?30 in at least one OPU session were grouped into the high-AFC group. At a short interval, follicular sizes and COC morphologies were similar between the different AFC groups. However, the normal fertilization rate was higher in the high-AFC group than in the low one, although total penetration rates were similar. At a long interval, the percentage of COCs with poor morphology in the high-AFC group was higher and the normal fertilization rate was lower than in the low one. In the low-AFC group, normal fertilization rates at short and long intervals were similar, and mean follicular size became larger at a long than at a short interval. However, mean follicular sizes at short- and long-interval OPU were similar in the high-AFC group. In conclusion, it is suggested that oocytes derived from cows with high AFC had higher fertilizability than those from cows with low AFC when OPUs were performed at a short (3-4 days) interval. However, oocyte quality in high-AFC cows was impaired by long-interval (7 days) OPU, possibly due to the degradation of follicles. PMID:26588889

  15. Successful Cryopreservation of Mouse Oocytes by Using Low Concentrations of Trehalose and Dimethylsulfoxide1

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Ali; Bailey, Sarah E.; Toner, Mehmet; Toth, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars such as trehalose, sucrose, and glucose are effectively used by a variety of animals (e.g., brine shrimp, tardigrades, some frogs, and insects), as well as by bacteria, yeasts, and plant seeds to survive freezing and extreme drying. The objective of this study was to examine the potential application of sugars to mammalian oocyte cryopreservation. To this end, we used trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide, and mouse metaphase II oocytes as models. Our experiments show that extracellular trehalose alone affords some protection at high subzero temperatures (e.g., ?15°C), which diminishes with further cooling of the oocytes to ?30°C and below. When present both intracellularly and extracellularly, trehalose dramatically improves the cryosurvival with increasing extracellular concentrations to 0.5 M, even after cooling to ?196°C. Furthermore, the combination of intracellular and extracellular trehalose with small amounts of a conventional penetrating cryoprotectant (i.e., 0.5 M dimethylsulfoxide) provide high survival, fertilization, and embryonic development rates statistically similar to untreated controls. When transferred to foster mothers, cryopreserved oocytes give rise to healthy offspring showing the proof of principle. Our experiments with differential scanning calorimetry indicate that when cooled using the same cryopreservation protocol, the mixture of 0.5 M trehalose and cryopreservation medium undergoes glass transition at high subzero temperatures, which further substantiates the use of sugars as intracellular and extracellular cryoprotectants. Taken together, our results are in agreement with the survival schemes in nature and demonstrate the successful use of sugars in cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes. PMID:18815355

  16. Genome analyses of single human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu; Fan, Wei; Yan, Liying; Li, Rong; Lian, Ying; Huang, Jin; Li, Jinsen; Xu, Liya; Tang, Fuchou; Xie, X Sunney; Qiao, Jie

    2013-12-19

    Single-cell genome analyses of human oocytes are important for meiosis research and preimplantation genomic screening. However, the nonuniformity of single-cell whole-genome amplification hindered its use. Here, we demonstrate genome analyses of single human oocytes using multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycle (MALBAC)-based sequencing technology. By sequencing the triads of the first and second polar bodies (PB1 and PB2) and the oocyte pronuclei from same female egg donors, we phase the genomes of these donors with detected SNPs and determine the crossover maps of their oocytes. Our data exhibit an expected crossover interference and indicate a weak chromatid interference. Further, the genome of the oocyte pronucleus, including information regarding aneuploidy and SNPs in disease-associated alleles, can be accurately deduced from the genomes of PB1 and PB2. The MALBAC-based preimplantation genomic screening in in vitro fertilization (IVF) enables accurate and cost-effective selection of normal fertilized eggs for embryo transfer. PMID:24360273

  17. CYTOPLASMIC MICROTUBULAR DYNAMIC AND CHROMATIN ORGANIZATION DURING MAMMALIAN OOCYTE MATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coordinated alterations in oocyte chromosome and microtubule disposition occur during oogenesis and oocyte maturation in the mammal. imely transitions in meiotic spindle and cytoplasmic microtubules, due to modifications in both the assembly competence of the tubulin pool and nuc...

  18. Motility contrast imaging of live porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ran; Turek, John; Machaty, Zoltan; Nolte, David

    2013-02-01

    Freshly-harvested porcine oocytes are invested with cumulus granulosa cells in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The cumulus cell layer is usually too thick to image the living oocyte under a conventional microscope. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the oocyte viability. The low success rate of implantation is the main problem for in vitro fertilization. In this paper, we demonstrate our dynamic imaging technique called motility contrast imaging (MCI) that provides a non-invasive way to monitor the COCs before and after maturation. MCI shows a change of intracellular activity during oocyte maturation, and a measures dynamic contrast between the cumulus granulosa shell and the oocytes. MCI also shows difference in the spectral response between oocytes that were graded into quality classes. MCI is based on shortcoherence digital holography. It uses intracellular motility as the endogenous imaging contrast of living tissue. MCI presents a new approach for cumulus-oocyte complex assessment.

  19. Spielerisches Erlernen der Programmierung mit dem Java-Hamster-Modell

    E-print Network

    Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen

    Spielerisches Erlernen der Programmierung mit dem Java- Hamster-Modell Dietrich Boles Department Oldenburg boles@informatik.uni-oldenburg.de Abstract: Das Java-Hamster-Modell ist ein spezielles Programmierkonzepte und den Programmentwurf kennen, indem sie so genannte Hamster-Programme entwickeln, mit denen sie

  20. Establishment and persistence of photoperiodic memory in hamsters

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    Establishment and persistence of photoperiodic memory in hamsters Brian J. Prendergast* , Michael R reproduction in Siberian hamsters. By contrast, intermedi- ate-duration day lengths (12.5­14 h long) either of these outcomes transpires depends on an animal's photoperiodic history, suggesting that hamsters must encode

  1. Nonrandom Sex Composition of Gerbil, Mouse, and Hamster

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Nonrandom Sex Composition of Gerbil, Mouse, and Hamster Litters Before and After Birth MERTICE M litters of Mongolian gerbils, and 854 vaginally delivered litters of golden hamsters, we determined hamsters is present in vaginally delivered infant Mongolian gerbils. but not in their Caesarean

  2. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  3. Embryological Aspects of Oocyte In Vitro Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Mir Mehrdad; Kamali, Nematollah; Pourghasem, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    In Vitro Maturation (IVM) is a method that immature oocytes in antral follicles are extracted and matured in laboratry conditions. This review has attempted to provide the current knowledge and recent findings in in vitro maturation of oocytes and highlights the most important factors involved in this process. The review is based on literature reports and the author’s experience. In IVM cycles, the time of administration of hCG is depending on the diameter of the largest follicle that has been determined to be about 10-12 mm to prevent the detrimental effect of dominant follicle (DF). Higher number of in vivo matured oocytes with dispersed cumulus cells (CC) pattern can be achieved by increasing the time of hCG injection up to 38 h. Growing of oocytes during the final hours of in vitro maturation has profound effect on the following outcome. Injection of IVM oocytes must be delayed at least 1 h after extrusion of the first polar body. IVM outcome shows that the pregnancy rate is low in pure immature oocytes except PCO(s) (Polycystic ovaries and Polycystic ovarian syndrome) cases. Furthermore, endometrial quality may have a crucial role in this respect after non hCG-triggered IVM. The formulation of different types of maturation media shows that they are generally supplemented with recombinant FSH and hCG. Taurine and calcium as unique components of blastocyst medium have been supposed to be valuable to IVM media. Pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) have been proposed as additives for maturation media. IVM is not a suitable treatment for women over 40 years. Different categories of patients could be candidate for IVM. Despite of old concept in low outcome and caution in IVM indications, innovative findings in this field have opened new windows in the treatment of patients. PMID:24551799

  4. A miniature probe for ultrasonic penetration of a single cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Zhou, Zhaoying; Wang, Qun; Yang, Xing; Xiao, Mingfei

    2009-01-01

    Although ultrasound cavitation must be avoided for safe diagnostic applications, the ability of ultrasound to disrupt cell membranes has taken on increasing significance as a method to facilitate drug and gene delivery. A new ultrasonic resonance driving method is introduced to penetrate rigid wall plant cells or oocytes with springy cell membranes. When a reasonable design is created, ultrasound can gather energy and increase the amplitude factor. Ultrasonic penetration enables exogenous materials to enter cells without damaging them by utilizing instant acceleration. This paper seeks to develop a miniature ultrasonic probe experiment system for cell penetration. A miniature ultrasonic probe is designed and optimized using the Precise Four Terminal Network Method and Finite Element Method (FEM) and an ultrasonic generator to drive the probe is designed. The system was able to successfully puncture a single fish cell. PMID:22412314

  5. Biochemical studies of isolated hamster tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, D G

    1976-01-01

    The epithelial lining of respiratory air passageways is a primary target tissue for toxicity and carcinogenesis in man and in animal models of human disease. The importance of this target tissue was the basis for development of methods to study its biochemistry, and with this information to distinguish the unique properties of this tissue from properties common to all cell types. Biochemical methods employed labeling of macromolecules in isolated hamster treacheas during brief (less than 4 hr) incubation in vitro. Studies of RNA metabolism in isolated tracheas demonstrated a pattern of maturation of ribosomal RNA like that shown for other cell types. Alterations in RNA metabolism were observed in isolated tracheas obtained from vitamin A-deficient hamsters and hamsters previously treated by intratracheal administration of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) plus ferric oxide (Fe2O3) in vivo. Studies with toyocamycin, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanitin, all inhibitors of RNA metabolism, were performed to characterize the class of RNA molecules with a decreased proportion of labeling in tracheas from vitamin A deficient hamsters. In another series of experiments, BP was shown to bind to DNA in epithelial cells of isolated tracheas. The quantity of BP binding was increased by prior intratracheal treatment of hamsters with BP plus Fe2O3 in vivo, this induced binding was inhibited by addition of 7,8-benzoflavone to the incubation medium. Increased BP binding was also observed in isolated tracheas from hamsters believed to be in states of increased susceptibility to respiratory carcinogenesis in vivo. The results show that biochemical studies are feasible with this tissue. Furthermore, a number of questions of importance with regard to this target epithelium are best studied directly in its constituent cells. PMID:1017424

  6. Development of embryos after in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes with sperm from either yaks (Bos grunniens) or cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Zi, Xiang-Dong; Lu, Hong; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, Shao-Wei

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate differences in fertilization and development of embryos after in vitro fertilization of Bos taurus (cow) oocytes with sperm from either yaks (Bos grunniens) or Holstein bulls. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa (Holstein n=5 sires; yak n=5 sires) were evaluated for motility (forward progression) and acrosomal status immediately post-thaw and then 1, 2, 3, and 8h later. In vitro-matured cow oocytes (n=1652) were inseminated with either Holstein bull or yak spermatozoa and after an 18-h co-incubation period, a proportion of the oocytes were fixed and examined for sperm penetration, polyspermy, and male pronuclear formation. The remaining oocytes were cultured in vitro and evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst production rates. Overall, there were species differences (P<0.05) and an effect of time (P<0.01) in sperm motility and acrosome integrity. An effect (P<0.01) of a species-by-time interaction was detected for motility, but not for acrosome integrity. The percentage of oocytes penetrated and the formation of two pronuclei when cow oocytes were inseminated with yak spermatozoa (97.4% and 81.6%, respectively) were greater (P<0.01) than that achieved with Holstein bull spermatozoa (77.8% and 65.9%, respectively), but the incidence of polyspermy (>2 pronuclei) was similar (P>0.05; 10.8% vs. 15.8%). The yak male symbolxcow combination gave a higher cleavage rate than the Holstein male symbolxcow combination (P<0.05; 76.3% vs. 63.3%), but there was no difference in the blastocyst rate (17.9% vs. 14.5%). It is concluded that yak spermatozoa could successfully fertilize cattle oocytes and their hybrid embryos had normal competence to develop to blastocysts. PMID:17889459

  7. Fbos, a novel oocyte-specific protein, interacts with proteins important for oocyte development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oogenesis is characterized by a series of developmentally regulated events, which result in the matured oocyte that can give rise to a new organism after fertilization. Oocyte-specific genes play critical roles in oogenesis; however, the molecular details of oocyte-specific genes are poorly defined....

  8. Intrafollicular influences on human oocyte developmental competence: perifollicular vascularity, oocyte metabolism and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Van Blerkom, J

    2000-07-01

    While genetic and epigenetic factors have been associated with the developmental competence of human oocytes and embryos produced by IVF, how such factors develop or influence the oocyte remain to be explained. This paper reviews evidence which suggests that the degree of perifollicular vascular expansion associated with increased rates of blood flow are developmentally important for the generation of a normal follicle and competent oocyte. The degree of vascular development is follicle specific and differences between follicles might reflect their unique abilities to regulate angiogenic growth factor(s) production by the follicle cells in response to hypoxia. The notion that mitochondrial function in oocytes and early embryos could be influenced by intrafollicular conditions, and that differential patterns of mitochondrial segregation occur in blastomeres during early cleavage, is discussed with respect to the role of these organelles as critical determinants of developmental competence. PMID:11041523

  9. Sperm and Oocyte Communication Mechanisms Controlling C. elegans Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Min; Cottee, Pauline A.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During sexual reproduction in many species, sperm and oocyte secrete diffusible signaling molecules to help orchestrate the biological symphony of fertilization. In the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, bidirectional signaling between sperm and oocyte is important for guiding sperm to the fertilization site and inducing oocyte maturation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate sperm guidance and oocyte maturation are being delineated. Unexpectedly, these mechanisms are providing insight into human diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and cancer. Here we review sperm and oocyte communication in C. elegans and discuss relationships to human disorders. PMID:20034089

  10. Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2012-08-01

    If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after exposure to a single heterospecific male during 8 days across a wire-mesh barrier. Here we repeated that experiment but this time we exposed female Turkish hamsters to a male Syrian hamster for 8 days and then measured sexual and aggressive behaviors towards that heterospecific male and towards a conspecific male. In contrast to female Syrian hamsters, female Turkish hamsters did not differ in their latency to go into lordosis or in any measure of aggression towards either type of male. Female Turkish hamsters spent less time in lordosis with the heterospecific male, but the percentage of trials in which females copulated with conspecific and heterospecific males did not differ. When comparing females from both species that had been exposed to a heterospecific male for 8days, female Syrian hamsters copulated less and were more aggressive towards the heterospecific male compared to the behavior of female Turkish hamsters. We discuss how this asymmetric response between females of the two species may be due to the much larger geographical range of Turkish hamsters compared to Syrian hamsters. PMID:22658324

  11. Sperm-induced calcium oscillations of human oocytes show distinct features in oocyte center and periphery.

    PubMed

    Tesarik, J; Sousa, M; Mendoza, C

    1995-06-01

    Temporal and spatial characteristics of explosive periodic increases (spikes) of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by sperm in human oocytes (Ca2+ oscillations) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and compared to Ca2+ oscillations induced in oocytes by the thiol reagent thimerosal. During the steady-state period of sperm-induced Ca2+ oscillations, each individual [Ca2+]i spike invariably began from a focus in oocyte periphery and spread throughout the entire peripheral region before propagating to the central ooplasm. This peripheral Ca2+ wave was immediately followed by an explosive [Ca2+]i increase in the central ooplasm. However, this central [Ca2+]i rise only peaked when [Ca2+]i in the peripheral ooplasm was already on the decline. Moreover, the peak [Ca2+]i values were always considerably higher in the oocyte center than in the periphery. In contrast, thimerosal-induced Ca2+ oscillations did not show this particular form of propagation. These data show that sperm-induced Ca2+ oscillations have a unique pattern of spatial dynamics and suggest that the bulk of Ca2+ mobilized during each spike is released from stores that have a relatively high threshold for Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). These stores are poorly developed, if not absent, in the oocyte cortex, and CICR from them is triggered by previous CICR from another type of store with a lower threshold that are preferentially located in the oocyte cortex and act as a detonator. PMID:7654379

  12. Sirt1 protects pig oocyte against in vitro aging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Liang; Han, Jun; Rui, Rong

    2015-09-01

    Sirtuins have been widely reported to be involved in multiple biological processes. However, their function during pig oocyte aging has not been reported yet. Here, we first identify that sirt1 expression is dramatically reduced in pig in vitro-aged oocytes. Furthermore, by confocal scanning and quantitative analysis, we find the increased frequency of spindle defects and chromosome misalignment, disturbed redistribution of cortical granules and mitochondria during oocyte in vitro-aging. Importantly, these aging-associated defective phenotypes can be ameliorated through resveratrol (sirt1 activator) treatment during pig oocyte maturation, providing the evidence for the hypothesis that decreased sirt1 is one of a number of factors contributing to oocyte in vitro-aging. In summary, our data indicate a role for sirt1 in pig oocytes and uncover a striking beneficial effect of sirt1 expression on aged oocytes. PMID:25601632

  13. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates. PMID:26679945

  14. IN VITRO CULTURE OF POSTIMPLANTATION HAMSTER EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro culture of intact rat and mouse embryos has been described extensively, but information on the culture of other species is sparse. The present study examined some culture requirements of early somite stage hamster embryos and assessed the embryotoxic effects of sodium sa...

  15. Role of focal adhesion kinase in oocyte-follicle communication

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Lynda K.; Kinsey, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells require communication with associated somatic cells for normal gametogenesis as exemplified by the oocyte which interacts with granulosa cells via paracrine factors as well as gap junctions located at sites of contact between these two cell types. The objective of the present study was to define the mechanisms by which cell-cell contact with the oocyte is controlled and determine the extent to which the oocyte actively participates in this association. Focal adhesion kinase (PTK2) was found to be activated at sites of contact between the oocyte and trans-zonal cell processes from the surrounding granulosa cells. In order to determine the functional significance of oocyte-derived PTK2 signaling in oocyte-follicle communication, an oocyte-specific ptk2 knockout was produced through a breeding strategy pairing a floxed ptk2-CAT-eGFP mouse with the Zp3-cre line. Since ptk2-null mice never develop to birth, this represents the first opportunity to define the role of ptk2 in oocytefollicle communication. Ablation of ptk2 within the developing oocyte resulted in lower fertility with reduced numbers of pups, lower rates of blastocyst formation, and reduced cell numbers per blastocyst. Follicles containing ptk2-null oocytes exhibited reduced oocyte diameter, reduced numbers of connexin 37 and 43 foci at the oocyte surface, and impaired dye coupling between oocyte and granulosa cells. These findings are consistent with a model in which PTK2 plays a critical role in establishing or maintaining oocyte-granulosa cell contacts that are essential for gap junction - mediated communication between granulosa cells and the oocyte. PMID:25536210

  16. Age-associated telomere shortening in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oocytes may undergo two types of aging. The first is induced by exposure to an aged ovarian microenvironment before being ovulated, known as ‘reproductive or maternal aging’, and the second by either a prolonged stay in the oviduct before fertilization or in vitro aging prior to insemination, known as ‘postovulatory aging’. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these aging processes remain to be elucidated. As telomere shortening in cultured somatic cells triggers replicative senescence, telomere shortening in oocytes during reproductive and postovulatory aging may predict developmental competence. This study aimed to ascertain the mechanisms underlying altered telomere biology in mouse oocytes during reproductive and postovulatory aging. Methods We studied Tert expression patterns, telomerase activity, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and telomere length in fresh oocytes from young versus reproductively-aged female mice retrieved from oviducts at 14 h post-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), in vivo or in vitro postovulatory-aged mouse oocytes at 23 h post-hCG. Oocytes were collected from super-ovulated C57BL/6 J mice of 6–8 weeks or 42–48 weeks of age. mRNA and protein expressions of the Tert gene were quantified using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunochemistry. Telomerase activity was measured by a telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, while telomere length was measured by Q-PCR and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Results The abundance of Tert expression in oocytes significantly decreased during reproductive and postovulatory aging. Immunofluorescent staining clearly demonstrated an altered pattern and intensity of TERT protein expression in oocytes during reproductive aging. Furthermore, relative telomerase activity (RTA) in oocytes from reproductively-aged females was significantly lower than that in oocytes from young females. In contrast, RTA in postovulatory-aged oocytes was similar to that in fresh oocytes. Oocytes from reproductively-aged females and postovulatory-aged oocytes showed higher ROS levels than oocytes from young females. Relative telomere length (RTL) was remarkably shorter in oocytes from reproductively-aged females compared to oocytes from young females. However, postovulatory aging had no significant effect on RTL of oocytes. Conclusions Long-term adverse effects of low telomerase activity and increased ROS exposure are likely associated with telomere shortening in oocytes from reproductively-aged female mice. PMID:24261933

  17. Oocyte induction of EGF responsiveness in somatic cells is associated with the acquisition of porcine oocyte developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Lesley J; Sugimura, Satoshi; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    Oocytes progressively acquire the competence to support embryo development as oogenesis proceeds with ovarian folliculogenesis. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyte-secreted factor (OSF) participation in the development of somatic cell epidermal growth factor (EGF) responsiveness associated with oocyte developmental competence. A well-established porcine model was employed using oocytes from small (<4 mm) vs medium sized (>4 mm) antral follicles, representing low vs moderate developmental competence, respectively. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated in vitro with inducers of oocyte maturation, and cumulus cell functions and oocyte developmental competence were assessed. COCs from small follicles responded to FSH but, unlike COCs from larger follicles, were incapable of responding to EGF family growth factors known to mediate oocyte maturation in vivo, exhibiting perturbed cumulus expansion and expression of associated transcripts (HAS2 and TNFAIP6). Low and moderate competence COCs expressed equivalent levels of EGF receptor (EGFR) mRNA; however, the former had less total EGFR protein leading to failed activation of phospho-EGFR and phospho-ERK1/2, despite equivalent total ERK1/2 protein levels. Native OSFs from moderate, but not from low, competence oocytes established EGF responsiveness in low competence COCs. Four candidate recombinant OSFs failed to mimic the actions of native OSFs in regulating cumulus expansion. Treatment with OSFs and EGF enhanced oocyte competence but only of the low competence COCs. These data suggest that developmental acquisition by the oocyte of capacity to regulate EGF responsiveness in the oocyte's somatic cells is a major milestone in the oocyte's developmental program and contributes to coordinated oocyte and somatic cell development. PMID:25849729

  18. The effect of porcine follicular fluid on the interaction of boar spermatozoa with zona-free hamster ova.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsoondar, J; Downey, B R; Bousquet, D

    1991-01-01

    Boar spermatozoa were cocultured with zona-free hamster ova (eggs) to assess the effects of preovulatory porcine follicular fluid (pFF) in the capacitation medium or gamete coculture (fertilization) medium (pFF; 0, 10 or 40% v/v) on subsequent sperm-egg interaction. Increasing pFF concentrations in the capacitation medium resulted in a progressive decrease in the average numbers of sperm attaching to or penetrating each ovum. When pFF was included in the fertilization medium, but not in the capacitation medium, the average numbers of sperm attaching to or penetrating each ovum and the percentage of ova with sperm attached decreased markedly with increasing pFF concentrations. The percentage of ova with greater than five sperm attached decreased from 84% to 13% and 0% with 0%, 10% and 40% pFF, respectively. Sperm attachment was completely inhibited in approximately 50% of the ova cocultured in 40% pFF. The percentage of ova penetrated by greater than five sperm decreased from 82% to 21% and 7% with 0%, 10% and 40% pFF, respectively. Preincubation of ova in 40% pFF prior to coculture with sperm also resulted in a reduction in sperm attachment and penetration. These results suggest that pFF contains substance(s) that alter the ability of boar spermatozoa to interact with the hamster ovum plasma membrane in vitro. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1889030

  19. Aromatase is expressed and active in the rainbow trout oocyte during final oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Gohin, Maella; Bodinier, Pascal; Fostier, Alexis; Chesnel, Franck; Bobe, Julien

    2011-07-01

    While it is generally well accepted that the ovarian follicular sites of estradiol-17? (E2) synthesis are restricted to somatic cells, the possible contribution of the germinal compartment has received little or no attention in teleosts. In order to demonstrate the expression of ovarian aromatase in the oocyte, cyp19a1a mRNA was studied in ovarian follicles by in situ hybridization. In addition, the expression of cyp19a1a was studied in both somatic and germinal compartments of the ovarian follicle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during final oocyte maturation (i.e., maturational competence acquisition and subsequent meiosis resumption) by real-time PCR. The enzymatic activity of ovarian aromatase was also studied in both somatic and germinal compartments of the ovarian follicle. Finally, E2 levels were monitored in follicle-enclosed oocytes throughout the pre-ovulatory period. We were able to demonstrate a significant ovarian aromatase expression and activity in the late vitellogenic oocyte. Furthermore, a dramatic decrease in aromatase expression and activity occurs in the oocyte during late oogenesis, concomitantly with the trend observed in surrounding follicular layers. We also report an unexpected increase of E2 levels in the oocyte during the pre-ovulatory period. To our knowledge, these observations are reported for the first time in any teleost species. Together, our data support the hypothesis of the participation of the germinal compartment in follicular estrogen synthesis and a biological role of E2 during oocyte and/or early embryo development. PMID:21656871

  20. Accurate dispensing system for single oocytes using air ejection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Sun, Yiling; Ohsumi, Chisato; Arai, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new approach to increase the success rate of single-oocyte dispensing and investigate the subsequent viability of the dispensed oocytes. We used a pair of capacitance sensors placed in a microfluidic chip to detect the oocyte, and custom-designed a special buffer zone in the microchannel to decelerate the flow velocity and reduce the hydraulic pressure acting on the oocyte. In the buffer zone, a semicircular bay, formed by equally spaced micro-pillars, is used to stop the oocyte at the dispensing nozzle hole. Finally, the oocyte is ejected by airflow to the culture array. The novel feature of the developed microfluidic system is that the extraordinary improvement in success rate is accompanied by a lack of change in oocyte survival rate (as assessed by a comparison of survival rates before and after the dispensing procedure). By using this device, we achieved a highly accurate single-oocyte dispensing process with a success rate of 100%. The oocyte survival rate is approximately 70%, regardless of whether or not the oocyte is dispensed. The newly proposed system has the advantages of high operation speed and potential usage for two-dimensional micropatterning. PMID:24404076

  1. Sex aneuploidy of unfertilized human oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.; Ward, D.C.; Jones, E.E.

    1994-09-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has recently achieved successful fertilization and pregnancy in human in vitro fertilization, particularly in cases of severe male factor infertility. One criticism of this novel clinical technique is that it bypasses the natural selection process of fertilization. We use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyze oocytes which fail to fertilize after ICSI in the Yale IVF Program. The purpose of this study is to determine whether failed fertilization after ICSI can be attributed to sex chromosome aneuploidy in the oocyte. Fertilization of oocytes is determined by the presence of two pronuclei on light microscopic examination (400X). Multi-probe FISH with DAPI (4,6,-diamino-2-phenyl-indole) counterstain is then performed to determine oocyte ploidy and the presence of decondensed sperm. Centromeric probes for X, Y and 17 are used simultaneously in each oocyte for in situ hybridization to oocyte chromatin. In all oocytes examined after ICSI to date, unfertilized oocytes have decondensed sperm DNA present confirming appropriate intracytoplasmic placement of the sperm. Preliminary results obtained from 31 oocytes have not identified any sex chromosome aneuploidies. The FISH technique used in post-ICSI oocytes is a model system for delineating genetic causes of failed fertilization in the human.

  2. Pig oocyte activation using a Zn²? chelator, TPEN.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiho; Davis, Alyssa; Zhang, Lu; Ryu, Junghyun; Spate, Lee D; Park, Kwang-Wook; Samuel, Melissa S; Walters, Eric M; Murphy, Clifton N; Machaty, Zoltan; Prather, Randall S

    2015-10-01

    Artificial oocyte activation is a critical step during SCNT. Most current activation protocols focus on inducing an increase in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration of the oocyte. Here, we have used a zinc chelator, TPEN, to enhance the efficiency of oocyte activation during SCNT. TPEN treatment of matured pig oocytes resulted in the reduction of available Zn(2+) in pig oocytes; however, the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in the oocytes was not affected by the TPEN treatment. When various concentrations (100-250 ?M) and incubation durations (45 minutes-2.5 hours) of TPEN were used to activate oocytes, the efficiency of oocyte activation was not different from conventional activation methods. When oocytes that were activated by conventional activation methods were incubated with a lower concentration of TPEN (5-10 ?M), a significant increase in embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was observed. In addition, when oocytes receiving a small Ca(2+) stimulus were further activated by higher concentration of TPEN (100-200 ?M), a significant increase in the frequency of blastocyst formation was observed, compared to a conventional activation method. This result indicated that TPEN can be a main reagent in oocyte activation. No increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level was detected when oocytes were exposed to various concentrations of TPEN, indicating the ability of TPEN to induce oocyte activation is independent of an intracellular Ca(2+) increase. We were able to produce clones through SCNT by using the TPEN-assisted activation procedure, and the piglets produced through the process did not show any signs of abnormality. In this study, we have developed an efficient way to use TPEN to increase the developmental potential of cloned embryos. PMID:26143360

  3. Role of arachidonic acid cascade in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Arias-Torres, Ana Josefina; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies that document the production of prostaglandins (PGs) or their role in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. In this study, we analysed the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) on maturation, activation and pronuclear formation in R. arenarum oocytes. Our results demonstrated that AA was capable of inducing maturation in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Arachidonic acid-induced maturation was inhibited by indomethacin. PGs from AA hydrolysis, such as prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) and, to a lesser extent, PGE2, induced meiosis resumption. Oocyte maturation in response to PGF2? was similar to that produced by progesterone (P4). Oocyte response to PGE1 was scarce. Rhinella arenarum oocyte PGF2?-induced maturation showed seasonal variation. From February to June, oocytes presented low sensitivity to PGF2?. In following periods, this response increased until a maximum was reached during October to January, a close temporal correlation with oocyte response to P4 being observed. The effect of PGF2? on maturation was verified by analysing the capacity of oocytes to activate and form pronuclei after being injected with homologous sperm. The cytological analysis of activated oocytes demonstrated the absence of cortical granules in oocytes, suggesting that PGF2? induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and meiosis resumption up to metaphase II. In turn, oocytes matured by the action of PGF2? were able to form pronuclei after fertilization in a similar way to oocyte maturated by P4. In microinjection of mature cytoplasm experiments, the transformation of pre-maturation promoting factor (pre-MPF) to MPF was observed when oocytes were treated with PGF2?. In summary, our results illustrated the participation of the AA cascade and its metabolites in maturation, activation and pronuclei formation in R. arenarum. PMID:24964276

  4. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  5. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    PubMed

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated. PMID:16382687

  6. Cumulus Cells Block Oocyte Meiotic Resumption via Gap Junctions in Cumulus Oocyte Complexes Subjected to DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming-Hong; Zheng, Jie; Xie, Feng-Yun; Shen, Wei; Yin, Shen; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian oocyte growth, genomic DNA may accumulate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by factors such as reactive oxygen species. Recent evidence demonstrated that slight DSBs do not activate DNA damage checkpoint proteins in denuded oocytes. These oocytes, even with DNA DSBs, can resume meiosis and progress to metaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic resumption in oocytes is also controlled by the surrounding cumulus cells; accordingly, we analyzed whether cumulus-cell enclosed oocytes (CEOs) with DNA damage are able to resume meiosis. Compared with DNA-damaged denuded oocytes, we found that meiotic resumption rates of CEOs significantly decreased. To assess the mechanism by which cumulus cells block meiotic resumption in CEOs with DNA DSBs, we treated the cumulus oocyte complex with the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone and found that carbenoxolone can rescue the block in CEO meiosis induced by DNA DSBs. Since cumulus cell-synthesized cAMPs can pass through the gap junctions between oocyte and cumulus cell to block oocyte meiosis, we measured the expression levels of adenylate cyclase 1 (Adcy1) in cumulus cells, and G-protein coupled receptor 3 (Gpr3) and phosphodiesterase 3A (Pde3a) in oocytes, and found that the mRNA expression level of Adcy1 increased significantly in DNA-damaged cumulus cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that DNA DSBs promote cAMP synthesis in cumulus cells, and cumulus cAMPs can inhibit meiotic resumption of CEOs through gap junctions. PMID:26575642

  7. Follicular steroid hormones as markers of oocyte quality and oocyte development potential

    PubMed Central

    Carpintero, Nayara López; Suárez, Onica Armijo; Mangas, Carmen Cuadrado; Varea, Carolina González; Rioja, Rubén Gómez

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Various components of follicular fluid are suggested as biochemical predictors of oocyte quality. Previous studies of follicular steroid hormone levels have shown disparate results when related with fertilization outcomes. AIM: The objective of the study was to relate the levels of steroid hormones of each individual follicle with oocyte maturation, fertilization results, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in a university hospital. METHODS: In 31 patients, who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection, it was performed an ultrasound guided aspiration of follicular fluid of the first two mature follicles from each ovary. Follicular levels of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS: In follicular fluids with mature oocyte presence, in normal as well as in failed fertilization, there was a positive correlation between follicular testosterone and progesterone (r = 0.794, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.829, P = 0.0001). Progesterone levels were higher in cases of normal fertilization compared to failed fertilization (P = 0.003). B quality embryos came from oocytes immersed in follicular fluids with higher estradiol values and higher estradiol/progesterone and estradiol/testosterone ratios than those of C quality (P = 0.01; P = 0.0009; P = 0.001). Estradiol levels were higher in patients who achieved pregnancy (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The analysis of follicular hormone composition could be considered as an additional tool in oocyte selection. PMID:25395744

  8. In Vitro Maturation of Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes for Efficient Isolation of Oocytes from Outbred Deer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Kyu; He, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background The outbred (as with humans) deer mice have been a useful animal model of research on human behavior and biology including that of the reproductive system. One of the major challenges in using this species is that the yield of oocyte isolation via superovulation is dismal according to the literature to date less than ?5 oocytes per animal can be obtained so far. Objective The goal of this study is to improve the yield of oocyte isolation from outbred deer mice close to that of most laboratory mice by in vitro maturation (IVM) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Methods Oocytes were isolated by both superovulation and IVM. For the latter, COCs were obtained by follicular puncture of antral follicles in both the surface and inner cortical layers of ovaries. Immature oocytes in the COCs were then cultured in vitro under optimized conditions to obtain metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Quality of the oocytes from IVM and superovulation was tested by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development. Results Less than ?5 oocytes per animal could be isolated by superovulation only. However, we successfully obtained 20.3±2.9 oocytes per animal by IVM (16.0±2.5) and superovulation (4.3±1.3) in this study. Moreover, IVF and embryo development studies suggest that IVM oocytes have even better quality than that from superovulation The latter never developed to beyond 2-cell stage as usual while 9% of the former developed to 4-cells. Significance We have successfully established the protocol for isolating oocytes from deer mice with high yield by IVM. Moreover, this is the first ever success to develop in vitro fertilized deer mice oocytes beyond the 2-cell stage in vitro. Therefore, this study is of significance to the use of deer mice for reproductive biology research. PMID:23457518

  9. Bioactivation of diethylstilbestrol by the Syrian hamster kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Male Syrian golden hamsters chronically exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) develop renal adenocarcinomas with an incidence approaching 100%. The ability of the hamster kidney to bioactivate DES was assessed using hamster kidney slices. The male hamster renal cortex has a 2- to 5-fold greater capacity to irreversibly bind ({sup 3}H)DES as compared with female hamster renal cortex and with male hamster renal medulla. Incubation of the tissue under anaerobic conditions inhibited the metabolism and irreversible binding of ({sup 3}H)DES. Gel electrophoresis analysis of covalently modified proteins revealed several radioactive peaks indicating that specific adduct formation had occurred. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitors SKF 525-A, metyrapone, carbon monoxide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and dicumarol decreased the irreversible binding of ({sup 3}H)DES to renal cortical protein by 38 to 72%.

  10. Vitrification of oocytes, embryos and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Mukaida, Tetsunori; Oka, Chikahiro

    2012-12-01

    In assisted reproductive technology, cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos has been significantly improved by refined slow-cooling and the new vitrification method. The slow-cooling method requires a programmed cryo-machine, and usually takes several hours. It is, however, difficult to eliminate injuries resulting from ice formation completely. Vitrification has become a reliable strategy because it is simple, can lead to high survival rates and viability, and has better clinical outcome. Vitrification transforms cells into an amorphous glassy state inside and outside the vitrified cell with ultra-rapid cooling and warming steps by plunging the oocytes and embryos into liquid nitrogen, instead of ice-crystal formation. Over the past decade, several advances in vitrification technologies have improved clinical efficiency and outcome. In this chapter, we focus on vitrification technologies for cryopreservation in human assisted reproductive technology. PMID:22940094

  11. Aging-related Changes in In Vitro-matured Bovine Oocytes: Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Activity and ATP Content After Nuclear Maturation

    PubMed Central

    KOYAMA, Keisuke; KANG, Sung-Sik; HUANG, Weiping; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; NAGANO, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to clarify the aging-related changes in in vitro-matured bovine oocytes. Firstly, we examined the fertilization and embryonic development of bovine oocytes after 22 and 30–34 h of in vitro maturation (IVM). The oocytes after 30–34 h of IVM (penetrated by sperm at around 40 h after starting IVM) showed a lower developmental rate to blastocysts (P<0.01), although normal fertilization rates were similar regardless of IVM duration. In the next experiment, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial activity and ATP content in oocytes after 20, 30 and 40 h of IVM were examined. The lowest level of ROS was found in the group subjected to 30 h of IVM. The mitochondrial activity and ATP content in the group subjected to 40 h of IVM were higher than in the group subjected to 20 h of IVM (P<0.01), and those in the group subjected to 30 h of IVM showed intermediate values. Thereafter, the mitochondrial activities at 3 days after in vitro fertilization in embryos derived from the oocytes subjected to 22 and 34 h of IVM were evaluated. In the group subjected to 34 h of IVM, high-polarized mitochondria were frequently observed at the periphery of blastomeres. The present results suggest that high mitochondrial activity observed in oocytes after prolonged IVM culture and localization of high-polarized mitochondria at the periphery of blastomeres during early embryonic development may be associated with the low developmental competence in aged bovine oocytes. PMID:24492658

  12. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jinping; McGinnis, Lynda K.; Carlton, Carol; Beggs, Hilary E.; Kinsey, William H.

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development.

  13. Ultrastructure of immature and mature human oocytes after cryotop vitrification

    PubMed Central

    PALMERINI, Maria Grazia; ANTINORI, Monica; MAIONE, Marta; CERUSICO, Fabrizio; VERSACI, Caterina; NOTTOLA, Stefania Annarita; MACCHIARELLI, Guido; KHALILI, Mohammad Ali; ANTINORI, Severino

    2014-01-01

    In vitro maturation of vitrified immature germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes is a promising fertility preservation option. We analyzed the ultrastructure of human GV oocytes after Cryotop vitrification (GVv) and compared it with fresh GV (GVc), fresh mature metaphase II (MIIc) and Cryotop-vitrified mature (MIIv) oocytes. By phase contrast microscopy and light microscopy, the oolemmal and cytoplasmic organization of fresh and vitrified oocytes did not show significant changes. GVv oocytes showed significant ultrastructural alterations of the microvilli in 40% of the samples; small vacuoles and occasional large/isolated vacuoles were abnormally present in the ooplasm periphery of 50% of samples. The ultrastructure of nuclei and mitochondria-vesicle (MV) complexes, as well as the distribution and characteristics of cortical granules (CGs), were comparable with those of GVc oocytes. MIIv oocytes showed an abnormal ultrastructure of microvilli in 30% of the samples and isolated large vacuoles in 70% of the samples. MV complexes were normal, but mitochondria-smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates appeared to be of reduced size. CGs were normally located under the oolemma but presented abnormalities in distribution and matrix electron density. In conclusion, Cryotop vitrification preserved main oocyte characteristics in the GV and MII stages, even if peculiar ultrastructural alterations appeared in both stages. This study also showed that the GV stage appears more suitable for vitrification than the MII stage, as indicated by the good ultrastructural preservation of important structures that are present only in immature oocytes, like the nucleus and migrating CGs. PMID:25168087

  14. Survival of oocytes recovered from vitrified sheep ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Al-aghbari, A M; Menino, A R

    2002-05-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an effective vitrification technique for cryopreserving oocytes in sheep ovarian tissues. Ovaries were surgically recovered from 15 pubertal ewes and the ovarian cortex was cut into sections. Ovarian tissues were placed in equilibration medium consisting of 4% (v/v) ethylene glycol (EG) and 20% (v/v) FBS in TCM-199 on ice for 30 min and transferred to vitrification solution (35% EG, 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 0.4M trehalose and 20% FBS in TCM-199) for 5 min. Ovarian tissues were vitrified by dropping the tissue on the surface of a steel cube cooled by liquid nitrogen. Cumulus-enclosed oocyte complexes (COC) were also collected and vitrified following the procedure used for ovarian tissues. After 2-3 weeks of storage in liquid nitrogen, ovarian tissues and COC were thawed at 37 degrees C in 0.3M trehalose and COC in ovarian tissues were mechanically and enzymatically isolated. Vitrified COC and freshly collected COC were washed twice in maturation medium (TCM-199 supplemented with 0.255 mM pyruvate and 10% heat-treated estrus cow serum) and cultured in 50 microl drops of maturation medium under paraffin oil for 23-25h at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air. After culture, cumulus cells were removed by hyaluronidase treatment and vortexing and oocytes were fixed and stained. No significant differences were observed between vitrified oocytes, oocytes recovered from vitrified ovarian tissues and non-vitrified control oocytes in the percentage of oocytes with acceptable staining per total number of oocytes fixed or with visible chromatin per total number of oocytes with acceptable staining. However, fewer (P<0.05) oocytes obtained from vitrified ovarian tissues (70%) reached metaphase II compared to vitrified oocytes (88%) and non-vitrified control oocytes (90%). In contrast, when oocytes with at least 3-5 layers of cumulus cells were considered from each of the three groups, no differences (P>0.05) were observed due to treatment in the percentages of oocytes developing to metaphase II. These results demonstrate that sheep oocytes can be successfully cryopreserved by vitrification of ovarian tissues and exhibit in vitro maturation rates similar to that of vitrified and non-vitrified oocytes. PMID:11988374

  15. The efficacy of melatonin administration on oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Bat?o?lu, A Sertaç; Sahin, U?ra?; Gürlek, Beril; Oztürk, Nazire; Unsal, Evrim

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin administration on oocyte quality in women underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Eighty-five women undergoing IVF cycles were randomized in two groups during IVF-embryo transfer (ET) procedure, 40 women with melatonin treatment (A) and 45 women without melatonin treatment (B). Primary endpoint was the number of morphologically mature oocytes retrieved (MII oocytes). Secondary endpoints were fertilization rate per number of mature oocytes, embryo quality and pregnancy rate. There were no differences between two groups according to age, and peak estradiol levels. The mean number of oocytes (15.33 vs. 14.27) and the mean number of mature oocytes did not differ between the two groups (12.63 vs. 10.94), whereas the percentage of mature oocytes (M2/oocytes retrieved) was significantly different in melatonin-treated group (p < 0.05). Fertilization rate (72.75 vs. 71.16) did not differ between the two groups. The mean number of class 1 embryos resulted higher in the group A (3.28 vs. 2.53) (p < 0.05). Clinical pregnancy rate was in tendency higher in the group treated with melatonin, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Melatonin is likely to improve oocyte and embryo quality in women undergoing IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI). PMID:21770829

  16. Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet biophantoms

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet to the ultrasonic backscatter coefficient BSC estimate using Chinese hamster ovary CHO cells. Also introduced

  17. In Vitro Oocyte Maturation and Preantral Follicle Culture from the Luteal-Phase Baboon Ovary Produce Mature Oocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.; Shikanov, Ariella; Jackson, Erin; Barrett, Susan L.; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jenny; Kiesewetter, Sarah E.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2010-01-01

    Female cancer patients who seek fertility preservation but cannot undergo ovarian stimulation and embryo preservation may consider 1) retrieval of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) or 2) ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by transplantation or in vitro follicle culture. Conventional IVM is carried out during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle. There is limited evidence demonstrating that immature oocyte retrieved during the luteal phase can mature in vitro and be fertilized to produce viable embryos. While in vitro follicle culture is successful in rodents, its application in nonhuman primates has made limited progress. The objective of this study was to investigate the competence of immature luteal-phase oocytes from baboon and to determine the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on baboon preantral follicle culture and oocyte maturation in vitro. Oocytes from small antral follicle cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with multiple cumulus layers (42%) were more likely to resume meiosis and progress to metaphase II (MII) than oocytes with a single layer of cumulus cells or less (23% vs. 3%, respectively). Twenty-four percent of mature oocytes were successfully fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and 25% of these developed to morula-stage embryos. Preantral follicles were encapsulated in fibrin-alginate-matrigel matrices and cultured to small antral stage in an FSH-independent manner. FSH negatively impacted follicle health by disrupting the integrity of oocyte and cumulus cells contact. Follicles grown in the absence of FSH produced MII oocytes with normal spindle structure. In conclusion, baboon luteal-phase COCs and oocytes from cultured preantral follicles can be matured in vitro. Oocyte meiotic competence correlated positively with the number of cumulus cell layers. This study clarifies the parameters of the follicle culture system in nonhuman primates and provides foundational data for future clinical development as a fertility preservation option for women with cancer. PMID:21123815

  18. An oocyte-specific ELAVL2 isoform is a translational repressor ablated from meiotically competent antral oocytes.

    PubMed

    Chalupnikova, Katerina; Solc, Petr; Sulimenko, Vadym; Sedlacek, Radislav; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the growth phase, mouse antral follicle oocytes acquire full developmental competence. In the mouse, this event is marked by the transition from the so-called non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) chromatin configuration into the transcriptionally quiescent surrounded nucleolus (SN) configuration, which is named after a prominent perinucleolar condensed chromatin ring. However, the SN chromatin configuration alone is not sufficient for determining the developmental competence of the SN oocyte. There are additional nuclear and cytoplamic factors involved, while a little is known about the changes occurring in the cytoplasm during the NSN/SN transition. Here, we report functional analysis of maternal ELAVL2 an AU-rich element binding protein. Elavl2 gene encodes an oocyte-specific protein isoform (denoted ELAVL2°), which acts as a translational repressor. ELAVL2° is abundant in fully grown NSN oocytes, is ablated during the NSN/SN transition and remains low during the oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET). ELAVL2° overexpression during meiotic maturation causes errors in chromosome segregation, indicating the significance of naturally reduced ELAVL2° levels in SN oocytes. On the other hand, during oocyte growth, prematurely reduced Elavl2 expression results in lower yields of fully grown and meiotically matured oocytes, suggesting that Elavl2 is necessary for proper oocyte maturation. Moreover, Elavl2 knockdown showed stimulating effects on translation in fully grown oocytes. We propose that ELAVL2 has an ambivalent role in oocytes: it functions as a pleiotropic translational repressor in efficient production of fully grown oocytes, while its disposal during the NSN/SN transition contributes to the acquisition of full developmental competence. PMID:24553115

  19. An oocyte-specific ELAVL2 isoform is a translational repressor ablated from meiotically competent antral oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chalupnikova, Katerina; Solc, Petr; Sulimenko, Vadym; Sedlacek, Radislav; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the growth phase, mouse antral follicle oocytes acquire full developmental competence. In the mouse, this event is marked by the transition from the so-called non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) chromatin configuration into the transcriptionally quiescent surrounded nucleolus (SN) configuration, which is named after a prominent perinucleolar condensed chromatin ring. However, the SN chromatin configuration alone is not sufficient for determining the developmental competence of the SN oocyte. There are additional nuclear and cytoplamic factors involved, while a little is known about the changes occurring in the cytoplasm during the NSN/SN transition. Here, we report functional analysis of maternal ELAVL2 an AU-rich element binding protein. Elavl2 gene encodes an oocyte-specific protein isoform (denoted ELAVL2°), which acts as a translational repressor. ELAVL2° is abundant in fully grown NSN oocytes, is ablated during the NSN/SN transition and remains low during the oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET). ELAVL2° overexpression during meiotic maturation causes errors in chromosome segregation, indicating the significance of naturally reduced ELAVL2° levels in SN oocytes. On the other hand, during oocyte growth, prematurely reduced Elavl2 expression results in lower yields of fully grown and meiotically matured oocytes, suggesting that Elavl2 is necessary for proper oocyte maturation. Moreover, Elavl2 knockdown showed stimulating effects on translation in fully grown oocytes. We propose that ELAVL2 has an ambivalent role in oocytes: it functions as a pleiotropic translational repressor in efficient production of fully grown oocytes, while its disposal during the NSN/SN transition contributes to the acquisition of full developmental competence. PMID:24553115

  20. Inhibition of bovine sperm-oocyte fusion by a monoclonal antibody recognising the TEC-2 epitope on bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gougoulidis, T; Trounson, A; Dowsing, A

    1999-10-01

    The TEC-2 antigenic determinant is a carbohydrate epitope located on a glycoprotein carrier molecule. In the mouse, this epitope is expressed on the zona pellucida and plasma membrane of the oocyte and is associated with the ZP2 glycoprotein and involved in the secondary sperm receptor mechanism. On the bovine oocyte expression is confined to the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to determine the role the TEC-2 epitope plays during fertilization in the bovine species using the monoclonal antibody TEC-02. Incubating oocytes with the TEC-02 antibody prior to fertilization inhibited cleavage in a dose-dependent manner-the cleavage rate decreased as the concentration of the antibody increased. Significantly more sperm were bound to oocytes exposed to TEC-02 (12 sperm/oocyte) compared to oocytes that were not incubated with the antibody (4 sperm/oocyte). Oocytes treated with the TEC-02 antibody had a 7.5 +/- 3.2% fusion rate and no cortical granule exocytosis compared with oocytes not exposed to the antibody, with 86.5 +/- 5.8% of sperm-oocyte fusions and release of cortical granules. The block to sperm-oocyte fertilization observed in the pretreated group was overcome using intracytoplasmic sperm injection as the method of fertilization that bypassed the fusion process. Although sperm were binding to the oolemma these results suggest that fusion was not occurring and this may be due to the antibody occupying TEC-2 epitope sites involved in the fusion process. In conclusion, the TEC-2 epitope seems to be involved in sperm-oocyte interaction in the bovine species and appears to be involved specifically during the fusion events of fertilization. PMID:10471477

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Donor Protects Porcine Oocytes against Aging and Improves the Developmental Potential of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krejcova, Tereza; Smelcova, Miroslava; Petr, Jaroslav; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Sedmikova, Marketa; Nevoral, Jan; Dvorakova, Marketa; Vyskocilova, Alena; Weingartova, Ivona; Kucerova-Chrpova, Veronika; Chmelikova, Eva; Tumova, Lenka; Jilek, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Porcine oocytes that have matured in in vitro conditions undergo the process of aging during prolonged cultivation, which is manifested by spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, lysis or fragmentation of aged oocytes. This study focused on the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the process of porcine oocyte aging. H2S is a gaseous signaling molecule and is produced endogenously by the enzymes cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST). We demonstrated that H2S-producing enzymes are active in porcine oocytes and that a statistically significant decline in endogenous H2S production occurs during the first day of aging. Inhibition of these enzymes accelerates signs of aging in oocytes and significantly increases the ratio of fragmented oocytes. The presence of exogenous H2S from a donor (Na2S.9H2O) significantly suppressed the manifestations of aging, reversed the effects of inhibitors and resulted in the complete suppression of oocyte fragmentation. Cultivation of aging oocytes in the presence of H2S donor positively affected their subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation. Although no unambiguous effects of exogenous H2S on MPF and MAPK activities were detected and the intracellular mechanism underlying H2S activity remains unclear, our study clearly demonstrates the role of H2S in the regulation of porcine oocyte aging. PMID:25615598

  2. DNA methylation pattern in mouse oocytes and their in vitro fertilized early embryos: effect of oocyte vitrification.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Xiang-Wei; Li, Jun-Jie; Yuan, Dian-Shuai; Zhu, Shi-En

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the pattern of DNA methylation in vitrified-thawed mouse oocytes and their in vitro fertilized early embryos. Firstly, mouse oocytes at metaphase II (MII) stage of meiosis were allocated randomly into three groups: (1) untreated (control); (2) exposed to vitrification solution without being plunged into liquid nitrogen (toxicity); or (3) vitrified by open-pulled straw (OPS) method (vitrification). Oocytes from all three groups were fertilized subsequently in vitro. The level of DNA methylation in the MII oocytes and their early embryos was then examined by immunofluorescence using an anti-5-methylcytosine (anti-5-MeC) monoclonal antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Developmental rates to 2-cell embryos (62.28%) and blastocysts (43.68%) of the vitrified-thawed oocytes were lower (P < 0.01) than those of fresh oocytes (81.47%, 61.99%) and vitrification solution treated (79.20%, 60.04%) oocytes. DNA methylation (as reflected by 5-MeC fluorescence intensity) in the vitrification group was less (P < 0.01) for MII oocyte and 2- to 8-cell stages compared with that in the control and toxicity groups. Accordingly, a reduction in global genomic methylation due to vitrification of MII oocytes may result in compromised in vitro developmental potential in early mouse embryos. PMID:23174120

  3. Taurine protects hamster bronchioles from acute NO2-induced alterations. A histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, R. E.; Shaked, A. A.; Solano, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the authors describe the use of dietary taurine to protect hamster lung epithelium from acute nitrogen dioxide (NO2) injury. The conclusions were based on histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture analyses. Hamsters were pretreated for 14 days with 0.5% taurine in their drinking water. They were then exposed to either 7 or 30 ppm NO2 for 24 hours. The lungs from animals of these experimental groups were compared with those from hamsters treated with only NO2, and those given only taurine and with untreated controls. After treatment, hamsters were anesthetized and perfusion-fixed through the right side of the heart with a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde, 4% paraformaldehyde, and 0.2 M cacodylate. The trachea and lungs were removed en bloc and stored overnight in cacodylate buffer at 4 C. Terminal and respiratory bronchioles, including alveolar ducts and peribronchiolar alveoli, were dissected from each lobe and processed for embedding in Epon and freeze-fracture replication. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed the typical inflammatory cell infiltrate in the bronchiolar and alveolar duct regions in the lungs of hamsters exposed to NO2. The bronchiolar epithelium appeared flattened because of loss and breakage of cilia on ciliated cells and apical protrusions of Clara cells. Clara-cell secretory granules were reduced or absent. Freeze-fracture replicas of tight junctions of bronchiolar epithelium analyzed by morphometric techniques demonstrated a reduction and fragmentation of fibrils. Only animals exposed to 30 ppm NO2 exhibited physiologic intercellular penetration of horseradish peroxidase. Hamsters pretreated with taurine and then exposed to NO2 showed none of these alterations. They exhibited the same morphologic features as the untreated controls and the hamsters treated only with taurine. On the basis of this evidence, it is suggested that prophylactic dietary taurine can prevent acute NO2-induced morphologic lung injury. Taurine may also be effective in preventing lung injury induced by other oxidant gases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 p597-a PMID:3541644

  4. Checking weld penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macfarlane, D. I.

    1979-01-01

    Fused wire in weld root area verifies weld penetration in electron-beam-welded joints. Method could be used in automotive, aircraft, and machinery manufacturing when electron-beam-welds cannot be inspected ultrasonically.

  5. Interactions between oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes in a chemically defined medium: effect of denuded oocytes on cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Appeltant, R; Somfai, T; Nakai, M; Bodó, S; Maes, D; Kikuchi, K; Van Soom, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify interactions between oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) on the level of cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation during IVM of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in a chemically defined medium using a system that allows individual tracking of oocytes. Especially, the influence of oocyte-secreted factors was investigated by the aid of addition of denuded oocytes (DOs) as a possible approach to improve the IVM system. The basic maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium with addition of gonadotropins only during the first 20 hours of IVM. During IVM, COCs were kept fixed to the bottom of culture dish by adhesive Cell-Tak coating, which enabled individual tracking of COCs during IVM. Size changes in COCs during IVM were measured by digital image analysis. Cumulus expansion in a porcine oocyte medium of intact COCs increased in a typical manner until 20 hours and decreased in size subsequently until 48 hours of IVM (P < 0.05). Removal of oocytes from COCs by oocytectomy allowed the expansion of CCs to some extent, although their expansion ability was lower than that of COCs (P < 0.05). Addition of DOs (COCs to DOs ratio of 9:16) did not improve cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation rates of intact COCs (P > 0.05) but did enhance cumulus expansion of oocytectomized complexes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, removal of CCs before IVM increased oocyte maturation rates compared with COCs (52.3% and 32.9%, respectively) (P < 0.05) and a similar effect was observed in COCs when the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone was added to the IVM medium: carbenoxolone repressed the expansion of COCs at 20 hours of IVM. In conclusion, the porcine oocyte enhances cumulus expansion both by gap junctional communications and presumably by oocyte-secreted factor production. Nevertheless, the presence of oocytes is not a prerequisite for this process. In return, CCs maintain meiotic arrest in cumulus-enclosed oocytes during the initial culture through gap junctions. On the basis of these findings, future research could investigate if coculture with DOs during IVM is beneficial for fertilization and embryo development. PMID:25467769

  6. Mammalian oocytes exhibit specific recognition of the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) tripeptide and express oolemmal integrins.

    PubMed

    Fusi, F M; Vignali, M; Gailit, J; Bronson, R A

    1993-10-01

    Integrins are a family of cell adhesion receptors involved in many cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Some of these heterodimeric receptors, such as alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha v beta 1, specifically recognize the amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) within their ligands. The RGD sequence is found in fibronectin, vitronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins. Our results demonstrate that the oolemmas of eggs from human and several other mammalian species contain receptors capable of binding to RGD ligands, and that integrin subunits are expressed by oocytes. Four distinct techniques were utilized to identify the presence of functional integrins on mammalian eggs. RGD-binding receptors were detected on the surfaces of zona-free eggs from all species tested. Covaspheres coated with PepTite-2000, which contains RGD, bound to the eggs and formed rosettes. Rosetting was competitively inhibited by PepTite-2000 and by GRGDTP, a soluble RGD peptide, but not by RGES. An ELISA using polyclonal antibodies directed against the cytoplasmic tails of the integrin subunits identified the integrin subunits alpha 5, beta 1, and alpha v, but not beta 3, in detergent extracts of Syrian hamster eggs. A dot blot confirmed the presence of alpha v in hamster egg lysates. Finally, the integrin subunits alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, but not alpha 4, were detected on the surfaces of zona-free eggs from human and Syrian hamster. Immunobeads coated with monoclonal antibodies specific for alpha 2, alpha 5, and alpha 6 bound to the eggs and formed rosettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8257570

  7. Transformation of Hamster Embryo Cells and Tumor Induction in Newborn Hamsters by Simian Adenovirus SV11

    PubMed Central

    Casto, Bruce C.

    1969-01-01

    Simian adenovirus, SV11, readily transformed hamster embryo cell cultures in vitro and produced tumors in vivo when inoculated into newborn hamsters. Foci consisting of small, loosely attached, rounded cells could be seen as early as 7 days postinoculation. Many of these cells contained several nuclei or the nucleus was multilobed. The cells grew without extensive cell to cell contact or formed small chains or clusters when passaged in vitro. This pattern of cell morphology and growth has not been reported with other simian or human adenovirus-transformed cells. Linearity of foci formation with virus dilution was observed when the virus multiplicity was less than 3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/cell. The PFU to focus-forming units ratio for SV11 was found to be 2 × 104 to 4 × 104, which is approximately 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold lower than those reported for simian adenovirus, SA7, and human adenovirus type 12, respectively. Cells transformed by SV11: (i) produced tumors when inoculated into young hamsters, (ii) contained tumor antigen which reacts with serum obtained from hamsters bearing SV11 passaged tumors, and (iii) could be propagated in vitro through an indefinite number of generations. Images PMID:5786181

  8. Crossed and Uncrossed Retinal Projections to the Hamster

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Crossed and Uncrossed Retinal Projections to the Hamster Circadian System LOUISE MUSCAT,1 ANDREW D York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 ABSTRACT The hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), site of the circadian clock, has been thought to be equally and completely innervated by each retina

  9. Organization of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Projections in Syrian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Silver, Rae

    Organization of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Projections in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 ABSTRACT Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are associated with functional specialization in Syrian hamsters. The core region, marked by calbindin-D28K (Cal

  10. Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3140 Accepted 1/23/03 ABSTRACT Arousal from deep hibernation 2001); typically, Mel is elevated only at night. In hibernating species, such as marmots, Syrian hamsters, and Turkish hamsters, Mel production is suppressed during the multiday bouts of hibernation

  11. In Vitro Growth and Maturation of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes Collected from Early Antral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    HIRAO, Yuji; SOMFAI, Tamás; NARUSE, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Cryopreservation of growing oocytes enriches the choice of timing and location of artificial embryo production. However, completion of oocyte growth after warming is crucial when using such cryopreserved oocytes. Our research objective was to develop a sequential system that incorporates cryopreservation of growing bovine oocytes and their subsequent in vitro growth. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes with a mean oocyte diameter of approximately 100 µm were vitrified-warmed and then cultured for 14 days. The percentage of surviving oocytes following cryopreservation and 14-day culture was approximately 80%. More than half of the surviving oocytes were capable of maturing to metaphase II after in vitro maturation; the rate was comparable to that of control oocytes grown in vitro without cryopreservation. Taken together, the combined protocols for vitrification-warming of growing oocytes and subsequent in vitro growth can produce oocytes capable of undergoing meiotic maturation. PMID:24126072

  12. The type and extent of injuries in vitrified mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yang; Ning, Fang-Yong; Du, Wen-Jing; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Piao, Shan-Hua; An, Tie-Zhu

    2012-04-01

    To improve the vitrification of mouse oocytes using straws, we attempted to estimate the type and extent of injuries during vitrification with a vitrification solution EAFS10/10. Injuries in oocytes were assessed based on cellular viability, the integrity of the plasma membrane, the status of the meiotic spindle/chromosomes, and morphological appearance. For morphologically normal oocytes, the ability to be fertilized and to develop into blastocysts was examined. Morphological assessment revealed 15% of oocytes to be injured by intracellular ice formed during vitrification, and 10% by osmotic swelling during removal of the cryoprotectant. When assessed by the status of spindles/chromosomes, the most sensitive criterion, damage was found in 16% of oocytes without any treatment. This value was similar to the proportion of fresh oocytes that did not cleave after insemination (13%). On exposure to EAFS10/10, the spindles/chromosomes were affected in 33% of oocytes. The exposure reduced the rate of cleavage by 18% points and the rate of development into blastocysts by 19 points. Vitrification reduced these rates by 15% and 36% points, respectively. Although the mechanism responsible for this moderate toxic effect on developmental ability is not known, information obtained in the present study will be useful to develop a practical method for the vitrification of mouse oocytes using straws. PMID:22202671

  13. On-chip enucleation of an oocyte by untethered microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Sakuma, Shinya; Sugita, Masakuni; Shoda, Tatsuro; Tamakoshi, Takahiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-09-01

    We propose a novel on-chip enucleation of an oocyte with zona pellucida by using a combination of untethered microrobots. To achieve enucleation within the closed space of a microfluidic chip, two microrobots, a microknife and a microgripper were integrated into the microfluidic chip. These microrobots were actuated by an external magnetic force produced by permanent magnets placed on the robotic stage. The tip of the microknife was designed by considering the biological geometric feature of an oocyte, i.e. the oocyte has a polar body in maturation stage II. Moreover, the microknife was fabricated by using grayscale lithography, which allows fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures. The microgripper has a gripping function that is independent of the driving mechanism. On-chip enucleation was demonstrated, and the enucleated oocytes are spherical, indicating that the cell membrane of the oocytes remained intact. To confirm successful enucleation using this method, we investigated the viability of oocytes after enucleation. The results show that the production rate, i.e. the ratio between the number of oocytes that reach the blastocyst stage and the number of bovine oocytes after nucleus transfer, is 100%. The technique will contribute to complex cell manipulation such as cell surgery in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  14. Elastic and Viscoelastic Characterization of Mouse Oocytes Using Micropipette Indentation

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yu

    forces applied to an oocyte and resultant cell deformations in real time during oocyte manipulation is performed. A two-step, large-deformation mechanical model is developed to extract the mechanical properties analysis,25,27 genetic screening,5,29 spectroscopy-based metabolomic profiling,22,28,33 and polscope

  15. Selective carboxyl methylation of structurally altered calmodulins in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, R R; Romanik, E A; O'Connor, C M

    1990-12-01

    The eucaryotic protein carboxyl methyltransferase specifically modifies atypical D-aspartyl and L-isoaspartyl residues which are generated spontaneously as proteins age. The selectivity of the enzyme for altered proteins in intact cells was explored by co-injecting Xenopus laevis oocytes with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine and structurally altered calmodulins generated during a 14-day preincubation in vitro. Control experiments indicated that the oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase was not saturated with endogenous substrates, since protein carboxyl methylation rates could be stimulated up to 8-fold by increasing concentrations of injected calmodulin. The oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase showed strong selectivities for bovine brain and bacterially synthesized calmodulins which had been preincubated in the presence of 1 mM EDTA relative to calmodulins which had been preincubated with 1 mM CaCl2. Radioactive methyl groups were incorporated into base-stable linkages with recombinant calmodulin as well as into carboxyl methyl esters following its microinjection into oocytes. This base-stable radioactivity most likely represents the trimethylation of lysine 115, a highly conserved post-translational modification which is present in bovine and Xenopus but not in bacterially synthesized calmodulin. Endogenous oocyte calmodulin incorporates radioactivity into both carboxyl methyl esters and into base-stable linkages following microinjection of oocytes with S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine alone. The rate of oocyte calmodulin carboxyl methylation in injected oocytes is calculated to be similar to that of lysine 115 trimethylation, suggesting that the rate of calmodulin carboxyl methylation is similar to that of calmodulin synthesis. At steady state, oocyte calmodulin contains approximately 0.0002 esters/mol of protein, which turn over rapidly. The results suggest the quantitative significance of carboxyl methylation in the metabolism of oocyte calmodulin. PMID:2123492

  16. Penetration of yawed projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J.E.

    1990-10-08

    We used computer simulations and experiment to study the penetration of tungsten-alloy projectiles into a thick, armored steel target. These projectiles, with length-to-diameter ratios of 4, strike the target with severe yaws, up to 90{degree}(side-on-impact), such as might be induced in an originally longer projectile by a multiple-spaced plate array. In this study, we focus on the terminal ballistics of these projectiles and ignore how the yaw was induced. We found that the minimum penetration depth occurs at 90{degree}yaw. This case is well approximated by the two-dimensional plane-strain penetration of a side-on cylinder. The ratio of penetration depth to diameter, P:D, for this case is larger than that for a sphere because the plane-strain geometry lacks hoop stress, which is activated in axisymmetric geometry. A more surprising result of work is that the penetration at 60{degree} yaw is only slightly deeper than that of the side-on impact. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Kinetics of Leptospira interrogans Infection in Hamsters after Intradermal and Subcutaneous Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Mariana L.; Matsunaga, James; Wang, Long-Chieh; de la Peña Moctezuma, Alejandro; Lewis, Michael S.; Babbitt, Jane T.; Aleixo, Jose Antonio G.; Haake, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by highly motile, helically shaped bacteria that penetrate the skin and mucous membranes through lesions or abrasions, and rapidly disseminate throughout the body. Although the intraperitoneal route of infection is widely used to experimentally inoculate hamsters, this challenge route does not represent a natural route of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the kinetics of disease and infection in hamster model of leptospirosis after subcutaneous and intradermal inoculation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, strain Fiocruz L1-130. Histopathologic changes in and around the kidney, including glomerular and tubular damage and interstitial inflammatory changes, began on day 5, and preceded deterioration in renal function as measured by serum creatinine. Weight loss, hemoconcentration, increased absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) in the blood and hepatic dysfunction were first noted on day 6. Vascular endothelial growth factor, a serum marker of sepsis severity, became elevated during the later stages of infection. The burden of infection, as measured by quantitative PCR, was highest in the kidney and peaked on day 5 after intradermal challenge and on day 6 after subcutaneous challenge. Compared to subcutaneous challenge, intradermal challenge resulted in a lower burden of infection in both the kidney and liver on day 6, lower ANC and less weight loss on day 7. Conclusions/Significance The intradermal and subcutaneous challenge routes result in significant differences in the kinetics of dissemination and disease after challenge with L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 at an experimental dose of 2×106 leptospires. These results provide new information regarding infection kinetics in the hamster model of leptospirosis. PMID:25411782

  18. Sympathoadrenal System Differentially Affects Photoperiodic Changes in Humoral Immunity of Siberian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) G. E. Demas*, D. L. Drazen², A. M. Jasnow³, T. J. Bartness³§ and R. J. Nelson, antibodies, catecholamines, norepinephrine. Abstract Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) rely catecholamines, to photoperiodic changes in immune function in male Siberian hamsters. In Experiment 1, hamsters

  19. Social interactions differentially affect reproductive and immune responses of Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Social interactions differentially affect reproductive and immune responses of Siberian hamsters in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Male and female hamsters were housed alone, in same-sex pairsM, and mitogen-stimulated splenocyte proliferation. Male hamsters housed with a female had increased testosterone

  20. INTRODUCTION The end-point of mammalian oocyte development is in the pro-

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    fertile oocyte. The mouse oocyte grows from an initial diameter of 20 µm to 70 µm in size, during which the growth phase, at about 60 µm diameter, the oocyte first becomes competent to resume meiosis and Enzman, 1935; Edwards, 1965). About 2 hours after the resumption of meiosis in either case, the oocyte

  1. Direct Peptide Interaction with Surface Glycosaminoglycans Contributes to the Cell Penetration of Maurocalcine*

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Narendra; Aroui, Sonia; Jaumain, Emilie; Bichraoui, Hicham; Mabrouk, Kamel; Ronjat, Michel; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; De Waard, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Maurocalcine (MCa), initially identified from a tunisian scorpion venom, defines a new member of the family of cell penetrating peptides by its ability to efficiently cross the plasma membrane. The initiating mechanistic step required for the cell translocation of a cell penetrating peptide implicates its binding onto cell surface components such as membrane lipids and/or heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Here we characterized the interaction of wild-type MCa and MCa K20A, a mutant analogue with reduced cell-penetration efficiency, with heparin (HP) and heparan sulfates (HS) through surface plasma resonance. HP and HS bind both to MCa, indicating that heparan sulfate proteoglycans may represent an important entry route of the peptide. This is confirmed by the fact that (i) both compounds bind with reduced affinity to MCa K20A and (ii) the cell penetration of wild-type or mutant MCa coupled to fluorescent streptavidin is reduced by about 50% in mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines lacking either all glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or just HS. Incubating MCa with soluble HS, HP, or chondroitin sulfates also inhibits the cell penetration of MCa-streptavidin complexes. Analyses of the cell distributions of MCa/streptavidin in several Chinese hamster ovary cell lines show that the distribution of the complex coincides with the endosomal marker Lyso-Tracker red and is not affected by the absence of GAGs. The distribution of MCa/streptavidin is not coincident with that of transferrin receptors nor affected by a dominant-negative dynamin 2 K44A mutant, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, entry of the complex is greatly diminished by amiloride, indicating the importance of macropinocytosis in MCa/streptavidin entry. It is concluded that (i) interaction of MCa with GAGs quantitatively improves the cell penetration of MCa, and (ii) GAG-dependent and -independent MCa penetration rely similarly on the macropinocytosis pathway. PMID:18603532

  2. Sinusoidal vessels in the periodontal ligament of hamster incisors: their distribution, structure and possible function.

    PubMed

    Kannari, K; Maeda, T; Takano, Y

    1993-03-01

    Vascular architecture in the periodontal ligament of hamster incisors was investigated by use of vascular casts under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition to ordinary nutrient blood vessels, anastomosing vessels of large caliber developed, surrounding the incisor. From their characteristic configuration, these vessels were regarded as "sinusoids". The plexus of sinusoidal vessels was connected with capillaries in the papillary layer of the enamel organ at the labial periodontal ligament, and with veins penetrating into the alveolar bone on the lingual side. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation showed that the sinusoidal wall was composed of only a thin layer of endothelial cells, lacking a smooth muscular element, and surrounded by densely arranged collagen fibers. Although the frequent association of Ruffini-type nerve endings with sinusoidal vessels was noted, neither direct contact nor specialized structures between these was recognizable. A possible function of the periodontal sinusoids is discussed on the basis of their distribution and ultrastructural evidence. PMID:8499129

  3. Single wall penetration equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.

  4. Jet penetration in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.; Kusubov, A.

    1991-05-01

    We describe a phenomenological model which accounts for the mechanical response of glass to intense impulsive loading. An important aspect of this response is the dilatancy accompanying fracture. We have also conducted a number of experiments with 38.1-mm diameter precision shaped charges to establish the performance against various targets and to allow evaluation of our model. At 3 charge diameters standoff, the data indicate that both virgin and damaged glass offer better (Bernoulli-scaled) resistance to penetration than either of 4340 steel, or 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Time-resolved measurements indicate two distinct phases of jet penetration in glass: An initial hydrodynamic phase, and a second phase characterized by a slower penetration velocity. Our calculations show that at early time, a crater is formed around the jet and only the tip of the undisturbed jet interacts with the glass. At late time the glass has collapsed on the jet and degraded penetration continues via a disturbed and fragmented jet.

  5. Soil penetrometers and penetrability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil penetrometers are useful tools that measure the penetrability, or strength, of a soil. They can be as simple as a rod or shaft with a blunt or sharp end, or complicated mechanically driven instruments with digital data collection systems. Regardless of their design, soil penetrometers measure s...

  6. Squires penetrative downdraft model

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, G.W. )

    1993-04-01

    The parcel model of penetrative downdrafts formulated by Squires is further analyzed. The parcel's velocity is governed by an equation for an oscillator with exponential damping due to mixing and with forcing depending on the evaporation and the cloud updraft. The initial conditions are improved to avoid a discontinuous vertical velocity at the cloud top, resulting in a more realistic penetration depth. The time required to develop the maximum downdraft speed is found to be one-half the Brunt-Vaisala period of the cloudy air. The depth at which this peak downdraft speed occurs is proportional to the cloud-water mixing ratio and does not depend on the cloud updraft. The downdraft speed and penetration depth are primarily regulated by the cloud water content and the cloud temperature lapse rate. Deep penetration is only likely for clouds with high water contents and lapse rates exceeding about 5[degrees]C km[sup [minus]1]. The presence of ice crystals increases the downdraft speed slightly compared to a liquid water cloud. The use of the parcel model is discussed against its inherent limitations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Androgens promote the acquisition of maturation competence in bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    MAKITA, Miho; MIYANO, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in mice suggest that androgens are important for normal follicle development. However, there have been few reports concerning the action of androgens in the growth of oocytes from large animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of androgens in bovine oocyte growth in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) collected from 0.4?0.7 mm early antral follicles were cultured for 14 days with 17?-estradiol (E2) and a non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We also examined the ability of an androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor, hydroxyflutamide, to antagonize the effect of androgens on the oocytes. During growth culture, the OGC structures collapsed in the medium with DHT alone, while in the presence of E2, the OGC structures were maintained. In the medium with both androgens and E2, the mean diameter of oocytes was increased from 95 ?m to around 120 ?m, larger than those grown with E2 alone (115 ?m). Also in the maturation culture, oocytes grown with androgens (A4 or DHT) and E2 showed higher percentages of metaphase II oocytes (63% or 69%, respectively) than those grown with E2 alone (32%). Moreover, these maturation rates were decreased by hydroxyflutamide in a dose-dependent manner. Immunostaining showed that ARs were expressed in oocytes and granulosa cells in early antral follicles, and the nuclei of granulosa cells showed intense AR expression. In conclusion, although E2 supports the OGC structure, additional androgens promote oocyte growth and their acquisition of meiotic competence via AR during in vitro growth culture. PMID:25754240

  8. Donor motivations, associated risks and ethical considerations of oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    Three decades after the first reported successful cases, oocyte donation continues to grow in popularity and regard as an established method to aid women in achieving their reproductive goals. As a result of the increased demand for donated oocytes, many young women in the U.S. volunteer to undergo complex medical procedures to donate their oocytes in return for financial compensation. To best care for these women before, during and after donation, it is important to explore donor characteristics and motivations, discuss the safety of the donation procedure and examine the ethical issues related to this process. PMID:24750650

  9. A role for glucose in hypothermic hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    Hypothermic hamsters at a rectal temperature of 7 C showed a fivefold increase in survival times from 20 to 100.5 hr when infused with glucose which maintained a blood level at about 45 mg/100 ml. A potential role for osmotic effects of the infusion was tested and eliminated. There was no improvement in survival of 3-O-methylglucose or dextran 40-infused animals. The fact that death eventually occurs even in the glucose-infused animal after about 4 days and that oxygen consumption undergoes a slow decrement in that period suggests that hypothermic survival is not wholly substrate limited. Radioactive tracer showed that localization of the C-14 was greatest in brain tissue and diaphragm, intermediate in heart and kidney, and lowest in skeletal muscle and liver. The significance of the label at sites important to respiration and circulation was presented.

  10. Melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation of hamster sperm.

    PubMed

    Fujinoki, Masakatsu

    2008-11-01

    The effects of melatonin on reproductive function were examined using hamster spermatozoa. When 1 pM to 1 microM melatonin was added to the mTALP medium, hyperactivation was significantly enhanced. Antagonists and agonists of the melatonin receptor (i.e., MT1 and MT2) were added to the medium. Luzindole, an MT1 and MT2 competitive antagonist, significantly inhibited melatonin-induced hyperactivation, whereas the MT2-specific antagonists, 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin and N-pentanoyl-2-benzyltryptamine, had no effect. Moreover, hyperactivation was significantly enhanced when non-specific agonists, such as 6-chloromelatonin and 2-iodomelatonin, were added to the medium. 8-Methoxy-2-propionamidotetralin, which is a strong MT2 agonist and a weak MT1 agonist, significantly increased hyperactivation, although the effect was weak. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin enhances sperm hyperactivation via the MT1 receptor. PMID:18715981

  11. NEONATAL CHIORDECONE EXPOSURE ALTERS BEHAVIORAL SEX DIFFERENTIATION IN FEMALE HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was designed in order to determine if exposure to the weakly estrogenic pesticide Chlordecone during a critical period of behavioral sex differentiation of the brain could masculinize and defeminize the behavior of female hamsters.

  12. Micro-bioreactor design for Chinese hamster ovary cells

    E-print Network

    Goh, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    The research objective is to design a micro-bioreactor for the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. There is an increasing demand for upstream development in high-throughput micro-bioreactors specifically for the ...

  13. Periscope For Viewing Weld Penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.; Marman, Jonathan M.

    1988-01-01

    Periscope enables viewing of weld joint from inside cylindrical duct to determine when weld penetration occurs. Supplies steady stream of inert gas to shield joint. Device used to calibrate and evaluate techniques for sensing weld penetration.

  14. Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

  15. Functional expression of murine multidrug resistance in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, G.; Vera, J.C.; Rosen, O.M. ); Yang, Chiaping Huang; Horwitz, S.B. )

    1990-06-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with the overproduction of a plasma membrane glycoprotein, P glycoprotein. Here the authors report the functional expression of a member of the murine MDR family of proteins and show that Xenopus oocytes injected with RNA encoding the mouse mdr1b P glycoprotein develop a MDR-like phenotype. Immunological analysis indicated that oocytes injected with the mdr1b RNA synthesized a protein with the size and immunological characteristics of the mouse mdr1b P glycoprotein. These oocytes exhibited a decreased accumulation of ({sup 3}H)vinblastine and showed an increased capacity to extrude the drug compared to control oocytes not expressing the P glycoprotein. In addition, competition experiments indicated that verapamil, vincristine, daunomycin, and quinidine, but not colchicine, can overcome the rapid drug efflux conferred by the expression of the mouse P glycoprotein.

  16. Recent advances in oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A.; Oktay, Kutluk

    2012-01-01

    Options for preserving fertility in women include well-established methods such as fertility-sparing surgery, shielding to reduce radiation damage to reproductive organs, and emergency in-vitro fertilisation after controlled ovarian stimulation, with the aim of freezing embryos. The practice of transfering frozen or thawed embryos has been in place for over 25 years, and today is a routine clinical treatment in fertility clinics. Oocytes may also be frozen unfertilised for later thawing and fertilisation by intracytoplasmic sperm injection in vitro. In recent years, oocyte cryopreservation methods have further developed, reaching promising standards. More than 1000 children are born worldwide after fertilisation of frozen and thawed oocytes. Nevertheless, this technique is still considered experimental. In this chapter, we focus on options for fertility preservation still in development that can be offered to women. These include freezing of oocytes and ovarian cortex and the transplantation of ovarian tissue. PMID:22301053

  17. Transport, meiotic arrest, and biphasic maturation of canine oocytes 

    E-print Network

    Hanna, Carol Bailey McCormick

    2001-01-01

    Assisted reproduction is undeveloped in the canine compared to most domestic mammalian species. One of the contributing reasons is the inefficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of the canine oocyte. This project was designed to examine several...

  18. Reproductive Management for Optimal Oocyte Development to Enhance Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are multiple steps associated with the ovulatory follicle that affect oocyte growth, fertilization, embryo development and establishment of pregnancy. When estrous cycles are manipulated with assisted reproductive technologies and ovulation induced, some of these variables become more importa...

  19. Transcription reactivation steps stimulated by oocyte maturation in C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Blackwell, Keith

    embryonic development then cease transcription before fertilization. Later, a distinct transcription program, a process that releases meiotic arrest and prepares for fertilization. By monitoring transcription; Oocyte maturation; Meiosis; C. elegans; Transcription; CTD; CTD phosphatase; FCP-1; Ubiquitylation

  20. Evidence for a metabolic limitation of survival in hypothermic hamsters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewitt, R. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    The underlying factors limiting survival in the hypothermic state are studied. Hamsters of both sexes, clipped and unclipped, were inducted into profound hypothermia by the helium cold method until they reached a temperature between 7 and 10 C. It appears that the primary cause of death is failure of respiration due to the depletion of carbohydrate energy supplies and may explain why survival time in hypothermia is shorter than the normal hibernation time of the hamster.

  1. Natriuretic peptides stimulate oocyte meiotic resumption in bovine.

    PubMed

    De Cesaro, Matheus P; Macedo, Mariana P; Santos, Joabel T; Rosa, Paulo R A; Ludke, Charles A; Rissi, Vitor B; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of mRNA encoding natriuretic peptides (NPs) and their receptors in the cumulus-oocyte complex in cattle, a monovular mammalian species, and also to investigate the role of NPs in oocyte meiotic resumption in vitro. mRNA was observed for the NP precursor type-A (NPPA), type-C (NPPC), NP receptor-1 (NPR-1), receptor-2 (NPR-2) and receptor-3 (NPR-3) in bovine cumulus cells, and NPR-2 mRNA was observed in oocytes. These results are different from those obtained in mouse and pig models. The effects of NPPA, NP precursor type-B (NPPB) and NPPC on the resumption of arrested meiosis maintained by forskolin were studied at three different doses (10, 100 and 1000nM) with a 12h culture system. The germinal vesicle breakdown rates were greater (P?0.05) in oocytes that were cultured in the presence of one or a combination of NPs (from 44% to 73%) than the negative control (from 24% to 27%). Additionally, it was demonstrated that the concentration of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is increased by NPPA and NPPC in oocytes and cumulus cells after 3h of in vitro maturation. However, in both groups, the concentration of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in the oocyte did not increase between 3 and 6h of culture, even when forskolin was used. In summary, we observed the presence of mRNA for NPs and their receptors in the bovine cumulus-oocyte complex and demonstrated that, in vitro, NPPA, NPPB and NPPC stimulate oocyte meiotic resumption in a monovular species. PMID:26051611

  2. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits porcine oocyte meiotic resumption.

    PubMed

    Hiradate, Yuki; Hoshino, Yumi; Tanemura, Kentaro; Sato, Eimei

    2014-08-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a recently identified meiotic inhibitor in mice. However, it has not been investigated in porcine oocytes to date. This study aimed to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of CNP against germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in porcine oocyte meiotic resumption. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intense natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) immunoreactivity in the oocyte surrounded cumulus cells in the follicles. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the expression of npr2 mRNA only in cumulus cells but not in oocytes, suggesting that cumulus cells are the targets of CNP. When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) or denuded oocytes (DOs) were cultured with various concentrations of CNP (10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 nM), inhibitory effect was observed in the COC group, but not in the DO group, confirming that CNP indirectly inhibits GVBD via cumulus cells. This evidence is the first indication that the CNP-NPR2 pathway is involved in meiotic arrest in porcine oocytes. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of oocyte-derived paracrine factor (ODPF) on npr2 mRNA expression level in cumulus cells by evaluating changes in mRNA expression in oocytectomised COCs (OXCs) by real-time PCR. A significant decrease in npr2 mRNA expression level was observed in OXCs, whereas mRNA expression level was restored in OXCs with DOs, indicating that ODPF participates in the regulation of npr2 expression in porcine cumulus cells. PMID:23331536

  3. Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf

    2014-11-10

    The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (?2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ?2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ?3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ?2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ?2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ?2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05). PMID:25261077

  4. Regulation of hamster splenocyte reactivity to concanavalin A during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Weppner, W.A.; Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1980-08-15

    The survival to term of mammalian fetuses regardless of their expression of paternal or embryonic developmental antigens suggests that some alteration in the immune capabilities of a female occur during pregnancy. The immunocompetence of female Syrian golden hamsters during pregnancy was investigated with respect to the blastogenic response of spleen cells to the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The blastogenic response of spleen cells from pregnant hamsters during mid- or late gestation is 10% of that observed for spleen cells from age-matched, virgin female animals. The spleen cells from pregnant hamsters are not capable of suppressing the proliferative response of spleen cells from virgin females to Con A. However, the serum from pregnant hamsters, in comparison with serum from virgin female animals, is capable of reducing this mitogenic response. Extensive washing of the splenocytes from pregnant hamsters does reduce the degree of suppression. These results suggest that the hamster is an excellent animal model for the investigation of the mechanism(s) of immune regulation that operate during pregnancy.

  5. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  6. Weather entrainment and multispectral diel activity rhythm of desert hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinrong; Zhang, Xinjie; Huo, Yingjun; Wang, Guiming

    2013-10-01

    The circadian rhythm of animals is an adaptation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Multiple internal oscillators may allow animals to cope with environmental oscillations in different frequencies. Heat stress and dramatic differences between night and day temperatures are the main selective pressures of the diel activity of desert mammals, particularly small-sized rodents. We tested the hypotheses that the diel activities of desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) would be entrained by ambient humidity and temperature. We predicted that increases in night temperature and humidity would improve the propensity to perform activities of the hamster. We observed hourly activities of desert hamsters under semi natural conditions for 24 consecutive hours, with seven replicates in 7 different days. We fit generalized linear mixed models to observed proportions of active hamsters, temperatures, and relative humidity. Observed diel activities of desert hamsters consisted of three harmonic oscillations in the periodicities of 24 h, 12 h, and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, probabilities to perform activities were positively related to night temperature and humidity. Therefore, the diel activities of desert hamsters are synchronized by atmospheric humidity, temperatures, and environmental cues of ultradian fluctuations. PMID:23810901

  7. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 prevents porcine oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Xing; Xiong, Bo; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Rui, Rong; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-07-01

    The inhibitor Y-27632 is a specific selective inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs), which are downstream effectors of Rho guanosine triphosphatease (GTPases) and regulate Rho-associated cellular functions, including actin cytoskeletal organization. Little is known regarding the effects of Y-27632 on mammalian oocyte maturation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Y-27632 on porcine oocyte meiosis and possible regulatory mechanisms of ROCK during porcine oocyte maturation. We found that ROCK accumulated not only at spindles, but also at the cortex in porcine oocytes. Y-27632 treatment reduced ROCK expression, and inhibited porcine oocyte meiotic maturation, which might be because of the impairment of actin expression and actin-related spindle positioning. Y-27632 treatment also disrupted the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain, which further confirmed a spindle positioning failure. Thus, Y-27632 has significant effects on the meiotic competence of mammalian oocytes by reducing ROCK expression, and the regulation is related to its effects on actin-mediated spindle positioning. PMID:24681214

  8. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25–45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18–33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes. PMID:23695274

  9. Culture of oocytes and risk of imprinting defects.

    PubMed

    Anckaert, Ellen; De Rycke, Martine; Smitz, Johan

    2013-01-01

    BACKROUND Follicle culture and oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) are emerging assisted reproductive technologies with potentially important future applications in the fertility clinic. There is concern that these technologies might interfere at the epigenetic level and, in particular, with genomic imprinting. The timely acquisition of correct imprinting patterns in oocytes and the maintenance of genomic imprinting after fertilization are both required for normal embryonic development. METHODS A systematic literature search in Pubmed was performed and all publications reporting on the effects of follicle culture, IVM or ovarian tissue culture on genomic imprinting were retained. RESULTS Mouse ovarian tissue culture studies, mouse in vitro follicle culture studies and a single bovine IVM study generally showed correct imprinted DNA methylation establishment in oocytes. Influences of treatment and suboptimal culture conditions in mouse follicle culture indicate that imprinting establishment in oocytes is a robust process. This is in contrast with preimplantation embryo culture-induced epigenetic defects reported in mice. For human IVM, no definitive conclusion on imprinting establishment can be drawn as well-designed studies are currently not available. CONCLUSIONS Animal models provide reassuring data on imprinting establishment in cultured oocytes, but further studies should assess the effect of oocyte culture on imprinting maintenance. Optimized IVM procedures should be assessed in well-designed human studies. Finally, epigenetic analysis should be performed in children born from pregnancies after IVM to draw definitive conclusions on the epigenetic safety of human IVM. PMID:23054129

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition is a valid therapeutic strategy in vitrifying oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Ling; Fu, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ru-Xin; Wei, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Rui; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the link between oocyte cryopreservation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; whether ER stress inhibition improves the efficiency of oocyte vitrification is also explored. Oocytes from mice were exposure to tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, an ER stress inhibitor) or TM (tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer) with or without vitrification. The expressions of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) protein and caspase-12 protein, viability of vitrified-warmed oocytes, and their subsequent embryo competence were measured. The levels of XBP-1 protein and caspase-12 protein expression in vitrified-warmed oocytes were significantly higher than those of fresh control oocytes. TUDCA improved the viability of vitrified-warmed oocytes and their subsequent embryo competence. Mouse oocyte cryopreservation is associated with ER stress, and ER stress inhibition improves the efficiency of oocyte vitrification. PMID:25499542

  11. Suppression of hamster lymphocyte reactivity to simian virus 40 tumor surface antigens by spleen cells from pregnant hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Weppner, W.A.; Adkinson, L.R.; Coggin, J.H.Jr

    1980-09-01

    SV40-transformed tumor cells in hamsters have been found to have cell surface antigens cross-reactive with antigens temporally expressed on fetal tissues. Using a lymphocyte transformation assay, spleen cells from pregnant hamsters were found to be incapable of responding to preparations of either hamster fetal tissue or SV40-transformed cells. However, a suppressor component can be demonstrated in spleen cell populations of both primi-and multiparous hamsters during pregnancy that is capable of reducing the response of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40 tumor-associated antigens. The degree of suppression is proportional to the ratio of responder cells to spleen cells from pregnant animals. These results suggest there is a subpopulation of spleen cells involved in immunoregulation during pregnancy that has the ability to suppress the reactivity of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40-associated oncofetal antigens.

  12. Quantitative proteomics reveals the dynamics of protein changes during Drosophila oocyte maturation and the oocyte-to-embryo transition

    E-print Network

    Kronja, Iva

    The onset of development is marked by two major, posttranscriptionally controlled, events: oocyte maturation (release of the prophase I primary arrest) and egg activation (release from the secondary meiotic arrest). Using ...

  13. Deep penetration calculations. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90/sup 0/ bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG.

  14. Successful pregnancy and delivery after ICSI with artificial oocyte activation by calcium ionophore in in-vitro matured oocytes: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Woo; Yang, Seong-Ho; Yoon, San-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Don; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Jin-Ho

    2015-04-01

    The achievement of a successful pregnancy and delivery after oocyte activation with calcium ionophore is reported in a couple having low fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of in-vitro matured oocytes. A couple, in which the wife had polycystic ovary syndrome and the husband had moderate oligoteratozoospermia, showed a low fertilization rate in a previous in-vitro maturation cycle (2/11 [18.2%]). The most likely cause of complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates is failure of oocyte activation. Therefore, artificial oocyte activation by calcium ionophore was combined with ICSI to achieve viable fertilized oocytes. Oocytes were stimulated with calcium ionophore for 30?min after ICSI. The fertilization rate of oocytes activated with calcium ionophore (13/15 [86.7%] and 7/9 [77.8%]) was higher than that of the non-activated oocytes. In the latest cycle, three embryos derived from the activated oocytes were transferred into the uterus on day 3. Subsequently, two gestational sacs were identified on ultrasound. The patient delivered dizygotic twins (girl 2260?g and boy 2760?g) at 35 weeks and 6 days gestation by caesarean section. This result suggests that calcium ionophore could be useful for oocyte fertilization in couples with low fertilization rates after ICSI of in-vitro matured oocytes. PMID:25592974

  15. Genome organization and epigenetic marks in mouse germinal vesicle oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bonnet-Garnier, Amelie; Feuerstein, Prisca; Chebrout, Martine; Fleurot, Renaud; Jan, Habib-Ullah; Debey, Pascale; Beaujean, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    During the final step of oogenesis, the oocyte nucleus is subject to large-scale modifications that correlate with transcriptional silencing. While oocytes with dense chromatin around the nucleolus are silent (SN, surrounded nucleolus), oocytes with uncondensed chromatin (NSN, non-surrounded nucleolus) are transcriptionally active. It is believed that epigenetic mechanisms that participate in gene expression regulation could play a role in this event. In this context, we examined the behaviour of heterochromatin and related histone modifications during the NSN to SN transition by immunostaining. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization on three dimensional-preserved nuclei (3D-FISH), we also studied the distribution of centromeric, pericentromeric and ribosomal (rDNA) sequences in relation to the nucleolus (also called the nucleolus-like body, NLB). We observed that in NSN-type oocytes, pericentromeric heterochromatin is aggregated within chromocenters. In SN-type oocytes, pericentromeric heterochromatin and centromeres form a discontinuous ring around the NLB. rDNA sequences, which initially present a pearl necklace structure, gather together in seven highly condensed foci at the NLB periphery. H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 heterochromatin marks clearly label chromocenters, whereas H3K4me3 and H4K5ac are totally excluded from heterochromatin regions, even in the very compact SN-nuclei. Remarkably, H3K27me3 displays an intermediate behavior. It appears that GV oocyte nuclei exhibit a specific epigenetic landscape. Histone modifications, related to both active and repressive chromatin structures, seem to follow the large-scale chromatin movements that occur during the NSN to SN transition. We also demonstrate that, while heterochromatin regions re-localize around the NLB, rDNA sequences adopt a highly compact structure in SN-type oocytes. PMID:23417410

  16. In vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes: Effect of corpus luteum and follicle size

    PubMed Central

    Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Shahsavari, Mohammad Hamed; Hajarian, Hadi; Moghaddam, Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported many discrepancies about the effects of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian follicle size on the developmental competence of oocytes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CL and different size of follicle on the developmental potential of bovine oocytes. Materials and Methods: After ovarian classification based on presence or absence of CL, sample follicles were placed in three groups according to their diameter; small (S; 3–6 mm), medium (M; 6–9 mm), and large (L; 10–20 mm). Collected oocytes in each group were subjected to the in vitro embryo production processes. Results: Results showed that, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from oocytes originating from small and medium follicles of ovaries bearing a CL (CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes, respectively) were lower (p<0.001) than those of small and medium follicles of ovaries not bearing a CL (CL-S-oocytes and CL-M-oocytes, respectively) (30.8% and 33.6% vs. 36.9% and 38.7% respectively). Although, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from CL-M-oocytes and CL-L-oocytes were greater (p< 0.001) than those of CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes. There were no significant differences in the percentages of blastocyst formation between controls (C-oocytes), CL-S-oocytes and CL+L-oocytes. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the negative effect of CL on the developmental competence of bovine oocyte depends on the follicle size. Therefore, oocytes originating from large grown follicles were not influenced by negative effects of CL as much as those originating from small and medium follicles did. PMID:26644789

  17. Time-Lapse Dynamics of the Mouse Oocyte Chromatin Organisation during Meiotic Resumption

    PubMed Central

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Zuccotti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian oocyte, distinct patterns of centromeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin localisation correlate with the gamete's developmental competence. Mouse antral oocytes display two main types of chromatin organisation: SN oocytes, with a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus, and NSN oocytes lacking this ring. When matured to MII and fertilised, only SN oocytes develop beyond the 2-cell, and reach full term. To give detailed information on the dynamics of the SN or NSN chromatin during meiosis resumption, we performed a 9?hr time-lapse observation. The main significant differences recorded are: (1) reduction of the nuclear area only in SN oocytes; (2) ~17?min delay of GVBD in NSN oocytes; (3) chromatin condensation, after GVBD, in SN oocytes; (4) formation of 4-5 CHCs in SN oocytes; (5) increase of the perivitelline space, ~57?min later in NSN oocytes; (6) formation of a rosette-like disposition of CHCs, ~84?min later in SN oocytes; (7) appearance of the MI plate ~40?min later in NSN oocytes. Overall, we described a pathway of transition from the GV to the MII stage that is punctuated of discrete recordable events showing their specificity and occurring with different time kinetics in the two types of oocytes. PMID:24864231

  18. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  19. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  20. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  1. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P. (Cedar Crest, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM); Baldwin, Michael D. (Albuquerque, NM); Maguire, Michael C. (Worcester, MA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  2. Cell penetration by transportan.

    PubMed

    Pooga, M; Hällbrink, M; Zorko, M; Langel, U

    1998-01-01

    Transportan is a 27 amino acid-long peptide containing 12 functional amino acids from the amino terminus of the neuropeptide galanin and mastoparan in the carboxyl terminus, connected via a lysine. Transportan is a cell-penetrating peptide as judged by indirect immunofluorescence using N epsilon13-biotinyl-transportan. The internalization of biotinyl-transportan is energy independent and takes place efficiently at 37 degrees, 4 degrees, and 0 degrees C. Cellular uptake of transportan is probably not mediated by endocytosis, since it cannot be blocked by treating the cells with phenylarsine oxide or hyperosmolar sucrose solution and is nonsaturable. The kinetics of internalization was studied with the aid of the 125I-labeled peptide. At 37 degrees C, the maximal intracellular concentration is reached in about 20 min. The internalized transportan is protected from trypsin. The cell-penetrating ability of transportan is not restricted by cell type, but seems to be a general feature of this peptide. In Bowes' melanoma cells, transportan first localizes in the outer membrane and cytoplasmatic membrane structures. This is followed by a redistribution into the nuclear membrane and uptake into the nuclei where transportan concentrates in distinct substructures, probably the nucleoli. PMID:9438412

  3. Restraint stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: roles of chromatin configuration and histone modification in germinal vesicle stage oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Fen; Yuan, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong; Gong, Shuai; Lin, Juan; Miao, Yi-Long; Wang, Tian-Yang; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which restraint stress impairs oocyte developmental potential are unclear. Factors causing differences between the developmental potential of oocytes with surrounded nucleolus (SN) and that of oocytes with nonsurrounded nucleolus (NSN) are not fully characterized. Furthermore, the relationship between increased histone acetylation and methylation and the increased developmental competence in SN oocytes is particularly worth exploring using a system where the SN configuration can be uncoupled (dissociated) from increased histone modifications. In this study, female mice were subjected to restraint for 24 or 48 h or for 23 days before being examined for oocyte chromatin configuration, histone modification, and development in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that restraint for 48 h or 23 days impaired NSN-to-SN transition, histone acetylation and methylation in SN oocytes, and oocyte developmental potential. However, whereas the percentage of stressed SN oocytes returned to normal after a 48-h postrestraint recovery, neither histone acetylation/methylation in SN oocytes nor developmental competence recovered following postrestraint recovery with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) injection. Priming unstressed mice with eCG expedited oocyte histone modification to an early completion. Contrary to the levels of acetylated and methylated histones, the level of phosphorylated H3S10 increased significantly in the stressed SN oocytes. Together, the results suggest that 1) restraint stress impaired oocyte potential with disturbed histone modifications; 2) SN configuration was uncoupled from increased histone acetylation/methylation in the restraint-stressed oocytes; and 3) the developmental potential of SN oocytes is more closely correlated with epigenetic histone modification than with chromatin configuration. PMID:25411393

  4. Humoral and cellular response to infection with Echinostoma revolutum in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Mabus, J; Huffman, J E; Fried, B

    1988-06-01

    Laboratory hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with Echinostoma revolutum (Trematoda). Immunoelectrophoretic studies of hamster serum showed no demonstrable antibody response to E. revolutum. Histopathologic examination of intestinal tissue of infected hamsters showed erosion of intestinal villi and lymphocytic infiltration as the primary host response. Spleens from infected hamsters were hyperplastic during the first 3 weeks of infection and atrophic from 4 to 8 weeks postinfection. Hamsters were unable to acquire a resistance to E. revolutum infection. Lack of resistance was demonstrated in hamsters where the parasite infection was no longer detected based on the absence of eggs in the faeces; these hamsters were then reinfected. Hamsters treated with the anthelmintic oxyclozanide were also reinfected with E. revolutum. PMID:3397514

  5. KL/KIT co-expression in mouse fetal oocytes.

    PubMed

    Doneda, Luisa; Klinger, Francesca-Gioia; Larizza, Lidia; De Felici, Massimo

    2002-12-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor, KIT, and its ligand, KL are important regulators of germ cell development. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the expression of the genes encoding these proteins (White and Steel, respectively) during the fetal period (14.5-18.5 days post coitum, dpc) and the two weeks after birth in mouse ovaries using the highly sensitive in situ reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR). KL and KIT mRNAs were not detected in 14.5-15.5 dpc ovaries but, between 16.5 and 17.5 dpc, most of the oocytes in the outer regions of the ovaries positively stained for both mRNAs. The majority of the co-expressing oocytes were identified at the zygotene/pachytene stage of meiotic prophase I. At 18.5 dpc, positive staining for KL mRNA was present only in the somatic cells in the outer regions of the ovaries. At birth, faint KL mRNA-labelled somatic cells were mainly found in the central region of the ovaries and, by P7-14, a higher level of expression was detected in the follicle cells of one- and two-layered growing follicles. Between 17.5 dpc and birth, most of the oocytes expressed KIT mRNA and, from P7 onward, there was a considerable accumulation of transcripts in the growing oocytes. The results of in situ RT-PCR were confirmed by RT-PCR on purified populations of oocytes, and at protein level by means of immunohistochemistry. The co-expression of KL and KIT in a fraction of fetal oocytes suggests that the KL/KIT system, besides the well known paracrine functions on germ cells, may exert a novel autocrine role during the mid-stage of the oocyte meiotic prophase. The possibility that this autocrine loop plays a role in sustaining the survival of fetal oocytes in this stage is supported by the finding that the addition to the culture medium of anti-KL or anti-KIT antibodies led to a significant increase in oocyte apoptosis in the absence of exogenous KL. PMID:12533025

  6. Exceptional material requirement for reproduction in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Wang, S F; Zhai, Q Z; Yao, Y Q; Jiang, F; Lu, Y X

    2015-01-01

    Limited information on oocytes and fertilization prevents the efficient therapy of patients with infertility. The most important reason for this lack of understanding is a deficiency in research dedicated to oocytes and fertilization. Currently, we are concerned with the role of nutrition in the process of oocyte development to better understand the relationship between nutrition and infertility. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between some exceptional materials and infertility to elucidate the role of these materials in oocyte development. We used proteomic analysis to identify numerous nutrition-related proteins in three developmental stages: the germinal vesicle stage, the metaphase II-arrested stage, and the fertilized oocyte-zygote stage. Specific proteins were abundantly expressed during the three stages. These proteins included astacin-like metalloendopeptidase, selenium-binding proteins, and other proteins involved in metabolic and signaling pathways. Other proteins were involved in the citrate cycle, the electron transport chain, the urea cycle, fatty acid metabolism, and the insulin signaling pathway. Almost all these proteins exhibited different expression levels in the three stages. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of early embryonic development and suggest new treatment methods for infertility. PMID:26600495

  7. Storage of Steindachneridion parahybae oocytes at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Eduardo Antônio; Okawara, Renan Yoshiharu; Caneppele, Danilo; Neumann, Giovano; Bombardelli, Robie Allan; Romagosa, Elizabeth

    2014-12-30

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of temperature and time on the storage of fresh Steindachneridion parahybae oocytes. Two experiments were carried out: (1) the fertilization rates of oocytes exposed to temperatures of 5, 15, 28 (room temperature) and 35°C were assessed 15min (control), 115, 235 and 355min after release; (2) the fertilization and hatching rates, as well as the percentage of normal larvae of oocytes exposed to 14, 17 or 20°C, 20min (control) were assessed 50, 80 and 110min after stripping. In the first experiment, the highest fertilization rates (P<0.05) were obtained in the control treatment (15min, 28°C), with 74.34±5.48% oocytes showing loss of viability over time. In the second experiment, there was a reduction (P<0.05) in the fertilization rates at the temperatures and times tested. The artificial fertilization of S. parahybae oocytes is recommended immediately after collection, and if storage is necessary, it should be conducted at temperatures between 17 and 20°C. PMID:25458322

  8. PLK4 is essential for meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Bo; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Polo-like kinase (PLK) 4 is a unique member of the PLK family that plays vital roles in centriole biogenesis during mitosis. The localization of PLK4 on centrioles must be precisely regulated during mitosis to ensure correct centriole duplication. However, little is known about the function of PLK4 in mammalian oocyte meiosis. We addressed this question by examining the expression and localization of PLK4 in mouse oocytes and using RNA interference and protein overexpression to investigate its function in meiosis. PLK4 expression peaked at the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stage, and the protein was localized in the cytoplasm throughout meiotic maturation. Depletion of PLK4 caused meiotic arrest at the GV stage and suppressed CYCLINB1 and CDC2 activities. Moreover, PLK4 depletion prevented the de-phosphorylation of CDC2-Tyr15 in nucleus and induced a decrease in the level of the CDC25C protein. PLK1 overexpression failed to rescue GV-stage arrest in PLK4-depleted oocytes, whereas overexpressing PLK4 resulted in normal GVBD in oocytes in which PLK1 activity was inhibited. In addition, PLK4 overexpression did not cause abnormal spindle formation or affect extrusion of the first polar body. These results illustrate the fact that PLK4 is essential for meiotic resumption but may not influence spindle formation in mouse oocytes during meiotic maturation. PMID:25740542

  9. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  10. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2012-02-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:22128030

  11. The hamster flank organ model: Is it relevant to man

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, T.J.; Lehman, P.A.; Pochi, P.; Odland, G.F.; Olerud, J. )

    1989-10-01

    The critical role that androgens play in the etiology of acne has led to a search for topically active antiandrogens and the frequent use of the flank organ of the golden Syrian hamster as an animal model. 17-alpha-propyltestosterone (17-PT) has been identified as having potent antiandrogenic activity in the hamster model, and this report describes its clinical evaluation. Two double-blind placebo controlled studies comparing 4% 17-PT in 80% alcohol versus vehicle alone were conducted. One study examined 17-PT sebosuppressive activity in 20 subjects. The second study examined its efficacy in 44 subjects having mild to moderate acne. A third study measured in vitro percutaneous absorption of 17-PT through hamster flank and monkey skin, and human face skin in-vivo, using radioactive drug. 17-PT was found to be ineffective in reducing either the sebum excretion rate or the number of inflammatory acne lesions. Failure of 17-PT to show clinical activity was not a result of poor percutaneous absorption. Total absorption in man was 7.7% of the dose and only 1.0% in the hamster. The sebaceous gland of hamster flank organ is apparently more sensitive to antiandrogens than the human sebaceous gland.

  12. Lymphoma outbreak in a GASH:Sal hamster colony.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Luis J; Ludeña, Dolores; Gedvilaite, Alma; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Jandrig, Burkhard; Voronkova, Tatyana; Ulrich, Rainer G; López, Dolores E

    2013-11-01

    We have detected a high incidence of lymphomas in a colony of GASH:Sal Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). This strain is characterised by its ability to present convulsive crises of audiogenic origin. Almost 16 % (90 males and 60 females) of the 975 animals were affected during a 5-year period by the development of a progressing lymphoid tumour and exhibited similar clinical profiles characterised by lethargy, anorexia, evident abdominal distension, and a rapid disease progression resulting in mortality within 1 to 2 weeks. A TaqMan® probe-based real-time PCR analysis of genomic DNA from different tissue samples of the affected animals revealed the presence of a DNA sequence encoding the hamster polyomavirus (HaPyV) VP1 capsid protein. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis using HaPyV-VP1-specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of viral proteins in all hamster tumour tissues analysed within the colony. An indirect ELISA and western blot analysis confirmed the presence of antibodies against the VP1 capsid protein in sera, not only from affected and non-affected GASH:Sal hamsters but also from control hamsters from the same breeding area. The HaPyV genome that accumulated in tumour tissues typically contained deletions affecting the noncoding regulatory region and adjacent sequences coding for the N-terminal part of the capsid protein VP2. PMID:23719671

  13. The Syrian hamster model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a relatively rare, but frequently fatal disease associated with New World hantaviruses, most commonly Sin Nombre and Andes viruses in North and South America, respectively. It is characterized by fever and the sudden, rapid onset of severe respiratory distress and cardiogenic shock, which can be fatal in up to 50% of cases. Currently there are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of HPS. A major obstacle in the development of effective medical countermeasures against highly pathogenic agents like the hantaviruses is recapitulating the human disease as closely as possible in an appropriate and reliable animal model. To date, the only animal model that resembles HPS in humans is the Syrian hamster model. Following infection with Andes virus, hamsters develop HPS-like disease which faithfully mimics the human condition with respect to incubation period and pathophysiology of disease. Perhaps most importantly, the sudden and rapid onset of severe respiratory distress observed in humans also occurs in hamsters. The last several years has seen an increase in studies utilizing the Andes virus hamster model which have provided unique insight into HPS pathogenesis as well as potential therapeutic and vaccine strategies to treat and prevent HPS. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of HPS disease progression in Syrian hamsters and discuss the suitability of utilizing this model to evaluate potential medical countermeasures against HPS. PMID:22705798

  14. High-throughput optofluidic system for the laser microsurgery of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Alliegro, Mark C.; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. This study combines microfluidics with optical microablation in a microscopy system that allows for high-throughput manipulation of oocytes, automated media exchange, and long-term oocyte observation. The microfluidic component of the system transports oocytes from an inlet port into multiple flow channels. Within each channel, oocytes are confined against a microfluidic barrier using a steady fluid flow provided by an external computer-controlled syringe pump. This allows for easy media replacement without disturbing the oocyte location. The microfluidic and optical-laser microbeam ablation capabilities of the system were validated using surf clam (Spisula solidissima) oocytes that were immobilized in order to permit ablation of the 5 ?m diameter nucleolinus within the oocyte nucleolus. Oocytes were the followed and assayed for polar body ejection. PMID:22352645

  15. Widespread Changes in the Posttranscriptional Landscape at the Drosophila Oocyte-to-Embryo Transition

    E-print Network

    Kronja, Iva

    The oocyte-to-embryo transition marks the onset of development. The initial phase of this profound change from the differentiated oocyte to the totipotent embryo occurs in the absence of both transcription and mRNA ...

  16. Microtubule arrays in the cortex and near the germinal vesicle of immature starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Otto, J J; Schroeder, T E

    1984-02-01

    An extensive array of long, crisscrossing microtubules has been discovered in the cortex of oocytes of the starfish Pisaster ochraceus. The microtubules were visualized in cortex preparations by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies to tubulin. The cortical array of microtubules is present in all oocytes before and for about 30 min after the application of 1-methyladenine, the hormone that induces oocyte maturation. The presence of microtubules was confirmed by electron microscopy. The microtubules in this array are depolymerized when oocytes are treated with colchicine or nocodozole and are augmented when oocytes are treated with taxol. Dihydrocytochalasin B treatment of the oocytes causes the microtubules to aggregate, presumably by altering a microfilament network also found in the cortex. The distribution of microtubules was also explored in whole oocytes stained with antitubulin. One or two aster-like structures were observed adjacent to the germinal vesicle of each oocyte. PMID:6363161

  17. Signalling pathways involved in oocyte growth, acquisition of competence and activation.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cláudia; Silva, Joana Vieira; Silva, Vladimiro; Torgal, Isabel; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-06-01

    The oocyte's primary function is to be fertilised by a spermatozoon in order to create a viable embryo. Oocyte growth and development are initiated during embryogenesis and occur in parallel to follicular development. Factors produced by the oocyte bind to receptors on follicular cells, ensuring follicular development. Oocytes begin meiosis during foetal development and are arrested in prophase I by elevated levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases triggers degradation of cAMP, allowing oocyte maturation to proceed. The production of progesterone and prostaglandins during the ovulation process ultimately activates proteases, whose action helps to release the oocyte into the Fallopian tube. Oocyte activation depends on fertilisation and is induced by changes in intracellular calcium levels. Dysregulation of these pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including the syndrome of oocyte maturation failure. PMID:25738216

  18. Water penetration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine film-filter combinations have been tested for effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail when exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. An experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and an infrared film with selected filters were tested. Results have been tabulated to show the relative capability of each film-filter combination for: (1) image contrast in shallow water (0 to 5 feet); (2) image contrast at medium depth (5 to 10 feet); (3) image contrast in deep water (10 feet plus); (4) water penetration; maximum depth where detail was discriminated; (5) image color (the spectral range of the image); (6) vegetation visible above a water background; (7) specular reflections visible from the water surface; and (8) visual compatibility; ease of discriminating image detail. Recommendations for future recording over water bodies are included.

  19. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  20. Gonadal hormones modulate the display of submissive behavior in socially defeated female Syrian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    hamsters Alicia N. Faruzzia , Matia B. Solomona , Gregory E. Demasb , Kim L. Huhmana,T a Department There are striking differences in the behavioral response to social defeat between male and female Syrian hamsters hamsters were ovariectomized and implanted with Silastic capsules containing estradiol (E2), testosterone

  1. Photoperiod-dependent effects of neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition on aggression in Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    in Siberian hamsters Tracy A. Bedrosian a, , Laura K. Fonken a , Gregory E. Demas b , Randy J. Nelson and aggression. Seasonally-breeding Siberian hamsters, however, are paradoxically more aggressive in short, is associated with increased aggression in male short-day hamsters. In the present study, we hypothesized

  2. Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters J hamsters undergoes a transition from play fighting to adult aggression. Repeated exposure to social stress investigated the effects of stress hormones on the matur- ation of agonistic behaviour. Male hamsters were

  3. Photoperiod Affects Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Aggressive Behaviour in Male Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J. C. Wen,*a A. K. Hotchkiss,* G. E. Demas and R. J. Nelson* *Departments University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Key words: photoperiod, Siberian hamster, seasonal, aggression, nitric including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod

  4. Leptin Effects on Immune Function and Energy Balance Are Photoperiod Dependent in Siberian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Leptin Effects on Immune Function and Energy Balance Are Photoperiod Dependent in Siberian Hamsters- sters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in long or short days for a total of 12 weeks. Short-day hamsters days. In Exp 2, when the leptin-induced increase in food intake in short-day hamsters was prevented

  5. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  6. Refractoriness to melatonin occurs independently at multiple brain sites in Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    Refractoriness to melatonin occurs independently at multiple brain sites in Siberian hamsters David on these brain nuclei, induced testicular regression within 6 wk in male Siberian hamsters; 12 wk later Mel implants no longer suppressed reproduction and gonadal recrudescence ensued. Hamsters that were then given

  7. Perinatal Influences of Melatonin on Testicular Development and Photoperiodic Memory in Siberian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    Hamsters C. R. Tuthill,* D. A. Freeman, M. P. Butler, Tori Chinn,* J. H. Park* and I. Zucker* Departments, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA. Key words: melatonin, hamster, photoperiodism, development, testes) was substantially reduced in Siberian hamsters gestated by pinealectomised compared to pineal-intact females

  8. Thermoregulatory Behavior in Infant Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    E-print Network

    Thermoregulatory Behavior in Infant Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Rattus norvegicus) and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to thermal stimulation were assessed in 4. In general, hamsters exhibited more rapid and robust responses to thermal stimulation than rats. A framework

  9. Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) by comparing Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised from birth in either long day (LD; 16:8 h light:dark) or short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods. Hamsters were

  10. Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters Department, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 In golden hamsters subjugation) during puberty. Male golden hamsters were weaned at postna- tal day 25 (P25), exposed daily

  11. Photoperiod modulates the effects of norepinephrine on lymphocyte proliferation in Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    hamsters Gregory E. Demas,1 Timothy J. Bartness,2 Randy J. Nelson,3 and Deborah L. Drazen4 1 Department hamsters. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 285: R873­R879, 2003; 10.1152/ajpregu.00209. 2003.--Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) rely on pho- toperiod to coordinate seasonally appropriate changes

  12. Synchrotron FT-IR Analysis of Collagen Localization in Normal, Cardiomyopathic and Losartan-treated Hamsters

    E-print Network

    -treated Hamsters K.M. Gough, I. Dixon, P. Bromberg, D. Zielinski Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba scale). Figure 1. Photomicrograph of stained cardiomyopathic heart tissue from Syrian hamsters. Blue and localization of collagen in model animals: the UM-X7.1 strain of Syrian hamsters. In cases where a collagen

  13. Response to exogenous kisspeptin varies according to sex and reproductive condition in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) Timothy J. Greives, Kimberly L. Long, Christine M. Bergeon Burns, Gregory E Siberian hamsters held on reproductively inhibitory or stimulatory photoperiods. In Experiment 2, we asked in this response, with males showing greater LH responses to kisspeptin than females. Hamsters responded

  14. Exogenous T3 mimics long day lengths in Siberian hamsters David A. Freeman1

    E-print Network

    Freeman, David A.

    1 Exogenous T3 mimics long day lengths in Siberian hamsters David A. Freeman1 *, Brett J.W. Teubner.2006 Copyright © 2007 by the American Physiological Society. #12;2 ABSTRACT: Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus are decoded at the level of neural target tissues remains uncharacterized. In Siberian hamsters, exposure

  15. Photoperiodic Control of Oestrous Cycles in Syrian Hamsters: Mediation by the Mediobasal Hypothalamus

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    Photoperiodic Control of Oestrous Cycles in Syrian Hamsters: Mediation by the Mediobasal of oestrous cycles and prolactin secretion, we tested intact female Syrian hamsters (controls) and those that had sustained unilateral or bilateral lesions of the MBH. All hamsters displayed 4-day oestrous cycles

  16. Short Days and Exogenous Melatonin Increase Aggression of Male Syrian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Short Days and Exogenous Melatonin Increase Aggression of Male Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus melatonin on resident-intruder aggres- sion in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). In Experiment 1, male Syrian hamsters were housed in long (LD 14:10) or short (LD 10:14) days for 10 weeks

  17. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Hamsters J. C. Wommack,* A. Salinas,* R. H. Melloni Jr, and Y. Delville* *Psychology Department, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters-pubertal changes in stress hormones may explain why juvenile hamsters are more resilient to social stress than

  18. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  19. Photoperiodic regulation of gene expression in brown and white adipose tissue of Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Photoperiodic regulation of gene expression in brown and white adipose tissue of Siberian hamsters expression in brown and white adipose tissue of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 282: R114­R121, 2002.--Siberian hamsters exhibit seasonal fluctuations

  20. A NEURAL NETWORK UNDERLYING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN EMOTION AND AGGRESSION IN MALE GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    HAMSTERS J. T. DAVID, M. C. CERVANTES, K. A. TROSKY, J. A. SALINAS AND Y. DELVILLE* Psychology Department a common neural network. Male golden hamsters were first screened for offensive aggression. Then. Similar protocols have been used to test behaviors associated with frustration. At first, all hamsters

  1. Acute and Chronic Social Defeat Suppresses Humoral Immunity of Male Syrian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Acute and Chronic Social Defeat Suppresses Humoral Immunity of Male Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus examined the role of a stressor, social defeat, on humoral immune function of Syrian hamsters (Me- vated in both acutely and chronically defeated hamsters compared with control animals. In contrast

  2. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  3. Vasopressin/Serotonin Interactions in the Anterior Hypothalamus Control Aggressive Behavior in Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    in Golden Hamsters Craig F. Ferris,1 Richard H. Melloni Jr,1 Gary Koppel,2 Kenneth W. Perry,2 Ray W. Fuller) in the control of offensive aggres- sion in Syrian golden hamsters. First, specific V1A and 5-HT1B binding sites/intruder paradigm, resident hamsters treated with fluoxetine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, have

  4. Aggressive encounters differentially affect serum dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone concentrations in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    concentrations in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) Melissa-Ann L. Scotti a , Kim L. Schmidt b , Amy E we examined serum DHEA and T levels in long-day housed Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus and T levels were measured in adult male hamsters during the day (1200 h, noon) and night (2400 h, midnight

  5. Reproduction (2003) 125, 397407 Seasonal control of penile development of Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    2003-01-01

    hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) by daylength and testicular hormones J. H. Park1 , E. M. Spencer2 , N. J and androgens on penile develop- ment in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Adult penile masses were achieved at 18 and 8 weeks of age in hamsters maintained from birth under short (10 h light: 14 h dark

  6. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  7. Adrenal hormones mediate melatonin-induced increases in aggression in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Adrenal hormones mediate melatonin-induced increases in aggression in male Siberian hamsters of melatonin, as well as adrenal hormones, in the regulation of seasonal aggression in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). In Experiment 1, male Siberian hamsters received either daily (s.c.) injections

  8. Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Mary Kate Bonner1

    E-print Network

    Skop, Ahna

    Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Mary Kate Bonner1 , Daniel S. Poole1 events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells A, Yates JR III, et al. (2011) Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. PLoS ONE 6

  9. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals...and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the...

  10. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals...and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the...

  11. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals...and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the...

  12. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals...and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the...

  13. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals...and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36...used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the...

  14. Evaluation of sperm subpopulation structure in relation to in vitro sperm-oocyte interaction of frozen-thawed semen from Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M A M M; Morató, R; Yeste, M; Arcarons, N; Pena, A I; Tamargo, C; Hidalgo, C O; Muiño, R; Mogas, T

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined the relationship between the relative amount of high motile sperm and sperm-oocyte interactions obtained from Holstein bull ejaculates. Post-thaw sperm motility was analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer system and evaluated to determine the sperm motility subpopulations. Adhesion and penetration of zona pellucida (ZP) and pronucleus formation using post-thawed samples (15 ejaculates form 5 different bulls) with different percentages of sperm in the subpopulation with the fastest and most progressive subpopulation (subpopulation 4 [SP4]) were analyzed. The correlation between the proportion of sperm in SP4 and the number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida (ZBA), the penetration rate, and the rate of pronucleus formation were calculated. A significant (P < 0.05) and positive correlation was found between the number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida, the penetration rate, and the rate of pronucleus formation with the proportion of sperm in SP4 (r = 0.79, r = 0.66, and r = 0.63, respectively). Our results suggest that this specific high motile and progressive subpopulation is positively and significantly correlated with the ability of a thawed bull semen sample to interact properly with the oocyte and its extracellular vestments. These findings emphasize the relevance of analyzing semen subpopulation composition to predict bull sperm fertilizing ability and to select Holstein bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:24581584

  15. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  16. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Phillip W. (Rochester, MN); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Bradley, Orvil D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  17. Effects of hormones on in vitro maturation of cattle oocytes.

    PubMed

    Smetanina, I G; Tatarinova, L V; Krivokharchenko, A S

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of cattle oocyte maturation in vitro was studied in protein-free MEM-? with hormones and in completely definite culture medium without hormones. Oocyte capacity to develop after fertilization to the morula/blastocyst and blastocyst stages served as a criterion of effective maturation. The increase in follicle-stimulating hormone concentration in the medium by one or two orders of magnitude in comparison with the "standard" level of 1 ?g/ml deteriorated the development of embryos to the preimplantation stages. Serum gonadotropin from pregnant mares worked similarly as follicle-stimulating hormone. Oocytes that underwent maturation without hormones developed to the blastocyst stage, though the percentage of dividing embryos was significantly less and there was a trend to worse development of the embryos to the preimplantation stages. PMID:25257429

  18. Improved Oocyte Isolation and Embryonic Development of Outbred Deer Mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the protocol for isolating cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from the outbred deer mice by using only one hormone (instead of the widely used combination of two hormones) with reduced dose. Moreover, we identified that significantly more metaphase II (MII) oocytes could be obtained by supplementing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and leukemia inhibition factor (LIF) into the previously established medium for in vitro maturation (IVM) of the COCs. Furthermore, we overcame the major challenge of two-cell block during embryonic development of deer mice after either in vitro fertilization (IVF) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) of the MII oocytes, by culturing the two-cell stage embryos on the feeder layer of inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in the medium of mouse embryonic stem cells. Collectively, this work represents a major step forward in using deer mice as an outbred animal model for biomedical research on reproduction and early embryonic development. PMID:26184014

  19. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somosk?i, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized. PMID:24779007

  20. Improved Oocyte Isolation and Embryonic Development of Outbred Deer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kyu Choi, Jung; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the protocol for isolating cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from the outbred deer mice by using only one hormone (instead of the widely used combination of two hormones) with reduced dose. Moreover, we identified that significantly more metaphase II (MII) oocytes could be obtained by supplementing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and leukemia inhibition factor (LIF) into the previously established medium for in vitro maturation (IVM) of the COCs. Furthermore, we overcame the major challenge of two-cell block during embryonic development of deer mice after either in vitro fertilization (IVF) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) of the MII oocytes, by culturing the two-cell stage embryos on the feeder layer of inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in the medium of mouse embryonic stem cells. Collectively, this work represents a major step forward in using deer mice as an outbred animal model for biomedical research on reproduction and early embryonic development. PMID:26184014

  1. Oocyte quality of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) during the reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Galo, J M; Ribeiro, R P; Streit-Junior, D P; Albuquerque, D M; Fornari, D C; Roma, C F C; Guerreiro, L R J

    2015-05-01

    The study aimed to analyze the Colossoma macropomum reproductive behavior and quality of the female gametes throughout the reproductive season. The experiment was carried out in Pimenta Bueno - Rondônia State (Northern Brazil) during the reproductive season (2010-2011) using 36 females. Each sampling was performed on a 15 ± 5 days interval. Female gametes were collected by stripping and the following analyses were performed: weight of oocytes released (g); productivity index, fertilization and hatching rate. During the sampling period was verified effect (p < 0.05) of collecting time into the season for oocytes weight, productivity index and fertilization rate. Although the period 3 (December) did not differ significantly from other periods, it showed better parameters for the quality of C. macropomum oocytes. PMID:26132008

  2. Live imaging of GFP-labeled proteins in Drosophila oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Nancy Jo

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes. The ability to perform video imaging combined with a rich repertoire of mutants allows an enormous variety of genes and processes to be examined in incredible detail. One such example is the process of ooplasmic streaming, which initiates at mid-oogenesis. This vigorous movement of cytoplasmic vesicles is microtubule and kinesin-dependent and provides a useful system for investigating cytoskeleton function at these stages. Here I present a protocol for time lapse imaging of living oocytes using virtually any confocal microscopy setup. PMID:23567977

  3. Expression of TGF? superfamily components and other markers of oocyte quality in oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue staining: relevance to early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Ashry, Mohamed; Lee, KyungBon; Mondal, Mohan; Datta, Tirtha K; Folger, Joseph K; Rajput, Sandeep K; Zhang, Kun; Hemeida, Nabil A; Smith, George W

    2015-03-01

    Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) is a super-vital stain that has been used to select competent oocytes in different species. One objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between BCB staining, which correlates with an oocyte's developmental potential, and the transcript abundance for select TGF?-superfamily components, SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5 phosphorylation levels, and oocyte (JY1) and cumulus-cell (CTSB, CTSK, CTSS, and CTSZ) transcript markers in bovine oocytes and/or adjacent cumulus cells. The capacity of exogenous follistatin or JY1 supplementation or cathepsin inhibitor treatment to enhance development of embryos derived from low-quality oocytes, based on BCB staining, was also determined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from abattoir-derived ovaries were subjected to BCB staining, and germinal-vesicle-stage oocytes and cumulus cells were harvested from control, BCB+, and BCB- (low-quality oocyte) groups for real-time PCR or Western-blot analysis. Remaining COCs underwent in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo culture in the presence or absence of the above exogenous supplements. Levels of FST, JY1, BMP15, and SMAD1, 2, 3, and 5 transcripts were higher in BCB+ oocytes whereas CTSB, CTSK, CTSS, and CTSZ mRNA abundance was higher in cumulus cells surrounding BCB- oocytes. Western-blot analysis revealed higher SMAD1/5 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation in BCB+ than BCB- oocytes. Embryo-culture studies demonstrated that follistatin and cathepsin inhibitor treatment, but not JY-1 treatment, improve the developmental competence of BCB- oocytes. These results contribute to a better understanding of molecular indices of oocyte competence. PMID:25704641

  4. Expression of TGF? superfamily components and other markers of oocyte quality in oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue staining: Relevance to early embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Ashry, Mohamed; Lee, KyungBon; Mondal, Mohan; Datta, Tirtha K.; Folger, Joseph K.; Rajput, Sandeep K.; Zhang, Kun; Hemeida, Nabil A.; Smith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) is a super vital stain that has been used to select competent oocytes in different species. The objectives of present studies were to determine mRNA abundance for select TGF? superfamily components, SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5 phosphorylation levels and transcript abundance for other oocyte (JY1) and cumulus cell (CTSB, CTSK, CTSS and CTSZ) markers of oocyte quality in bovine oocytes and or adjacent cumulus cells classified based on developmental potential using BCB staining. The ability of exogenous FST, JY1, or cathepsin inhibitor treatment to enhance development of embryos derived from poor quality oocytes selected based on BCB staining was also determined. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) from abattoir derived ovaries were subjected to BCB staining and GV stage oocytes and cumulus cells harvested from control, BCB+ and BCB- (poor oocyte quality) groups for real time PCR or Western blot analysis. Remaining COCs underwent in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and embryo culture in presence or absence of above described treatments. Levels of FST, JY1, BMP15 and SMAD1, 2, 3 and 5 transcripts were higher in BCB+ oocytes whereas abundance of CTSB, CTSK, CTSS and CTSZ mRNAs was higher in cumulus cells surrounding poor quality BCB- oocytes. Western blot analysis revealed SMAD1/5 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation were higher in BCB+ than BCB? oocytes. Embryo culture studies demonstrated that follistatin and cathepsin inhibitor treatment but not JY-1 treatment can promote developmental competence of BCB- oocytes. Results provide further understanding of molecular indices of oocyte competence. PMID:25704641

  5. Fibroma (myxoma) molle in a hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    West, W L; Gaillard, E T; O'Connor, S A

    2001-11-01

    An adult female Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) presented with a large, ulcerated lesion in its right cheek pouch; this wound interfered with the animal's ability to masticate. As a result, the hamster became inappetant and lethargic and lost about 25% of its original body weight within 6 to 9 weeks of presentation. The mass was surgically excised and submitted for histopathological evaluation. Microscopically, the mass was characterized as a neoplastic process partially encapsulated with fibrous connective tissue in the submucosa. Loosely arranged bundles of spindle to stellate cells with round to oval hyperchromatic nuclei and amphophilic cytoplasm were abundant. Some cells had multiple nucleoli, and some mitotic figures were observed. Special stains were used to definitively diagnose fibroma (myxoma) molle, a rare spontaneous neoplastic lesion in the hamster. PMID:11703055

  6. Dysferlin is essential for endocytosis in the sea star oocyte Nathalie Oulhen, Thomas M. Onorato 1

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    Dysferlin is essential for endocytosis in the sea star oocyte Nathalie Oulhen, Thomas M. Onorato 1 Oocytes Endocytosis Gastrulation a b s t r a c t Dysferlin is a calcium-binding transmembrane protein leads to a decrease of endocytosis in oocytes, and to a developmental arrest during gastrulation

  7. Optimization of Cryoprotectant Loading into Murine and Human Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Jens O.M.; Szurek, Edyta A.; Higgins, Adam Z.; Lee, Sang R.; Eroglu, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Loading of cryoprotectants into oocytes is an important step of the cryopreservation process, in which the cells are exposed to potentially damaging osmotic stresses and chemical toxicity. Thus, we investigated the use of physics-based mathematical optimization to guide design of cryoprotectant loading methods for mouse and human oocytes. We first examined loading of 1.5 M dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) into mouse oocytes at 23°C. Conventional one-step loading resulted in rates of fertilization (34%) and embryonic development (60%) that were significantly lower than those of untreated controls (95% and 94%, respectively). In contrast, the mathematically optimized two-step method yielded much higher rates of fertilization (85%) and development (87%). To examine the causes for oocyte damage, we performed experiments to separate the effects of cell shrinkage and Me2SO exposure time, revealing that neither shrinkage nor Me2SO exposure single-handedly impairs the fertilization and development rates. Thus, damage during one-step Me2SO addition appears to result from interactions between the effects of Me2SO toxicity and osmotic stress. We also investigated Me2SO loading into mouse oocytes at 30°C. At this temperature, fertilization rates were again lower after one-step loading (8%) in comparison to mathematically optimized two-step loading (86%) and untreated controls (96%). Furthermore, our computer algorithm generated an effective strategy for reducing Me2SO exposure time, using hypotonic diluents for cryoprotectant solutions. With this technique, 1.5 M Me2SO was successfully loaded in only 2.5 min, with 92% fertilizability. Based on these promising results, we propose new methods to load cryoprotectants into human oocytes, designed using our mathematical optimization approach. PMID:24246951

  8. Optimization of cryoprotectant loading into murine and human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jens O M; Szurek, Edyta A; Higgins, Adam Z; Lee, Sang R; Eroglu, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Loading of cryoprotectants into oocytes is an important step of the cryopreservation process, in which the cells are exposed to potentially damaging osmotic stresses and chemical toxicity. Thus, we investigated the use of physics-based mathematical optimization to guide design of cryoprotectant loading methods for mouse and human oocytes. We first examined loading of 1.5 M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) into mouse oocytes at 23°C. Conventional one-step loading resulted in rates of fertilization (34%) and embryonic development (60%) that were significantly lower than those of untreated controls (95% and 94%, respectively). In contrast, the mathematically optimized two-step method yielded much higher rates of fertilization (85%) and development (87%). To examine the causes for oocyte damage, we performed experiments to separate the effects of cell shrinkage and Me(2)SO exposure time, revealing that neither shrinkage nor Me(2)SO exposure single-handedly impairs the fertilization and development rates. Thus, damage during one-step Me(2)SO addition appears to result from interactions between the effects of Me(2)SO toxicity and osmotic stress. We also investigated Me(2)SO loading into mouse oocytes at 30°C. At this temperature, fertilization rates were again lower after one-step loading (8%) in comparison to mathematically optimized two-step loading (86%) and untreated controls (96%). Furthermore, our computer algorithm generated an effective strategy for reducing Me(2)SO exposure time, using hypotonic diluents for cryoprotectant solutions. With this technique, 1.5 M Me(2)SO was successfully loaded in only 2.5 min, with 92% fertilizability. Based on these promising results, we propose new methods to load cryoprotectants into human oocytes, designed using our mathematical optimization approach. PMID:24246951

  9. Foodborne transmission of nipah virus in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Falzarano, Darryl; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2014-03-01

    Since 2001, outbreaks of Nipah virus have occurred almost every year in Bangladesh with high case-fatality rates. Epidemiological data suggest that in Bangladesh, Nipah virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir, fruit bats, to humans via consumption of date palm sap contaminated by bats, with subsequent human-to-human transmission. To experimentally investigate this epidemiological association between drinking of date palm sap and human cases of Nipah virus infection, we determined the viability of Nipah virus (strain Bangladesh/200401066) in artificial palm sap. At 22°C virus titers remained stable for at least 7 days, thus potentially allowing food-borne transmission. Next, we modeled food-borne Nipah virus infection by supplying Syrian hamsters with artificial palm sap containing Nipah virus. Drinking of 5×10? TCID?? of Nipah virus resulted in neurological disease in 5 out of 8 hamsters, indicating that food-borne transmission of Nipah virus can indeed occur. In comparison, intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with the same dose of Nipah virus resulted in lethal respiratory disease in all animals. In animals infected with Nipah virus via drinking, virus was detected in respiratory tissues rather than in the intestinal tract. Using fluorescently labeled Nipah virus particles, we showed that during drinking, a substantial amount of virus is deposited in the lungs, explaining the replication of Nipah virus in the respiratory tract of these hamsters. Besides the ability of Nipah virus to infect hamsters via the drinking route, Syrian hamsters infected via that route transmitted the virus through direct contact with naïve hamsters in 2 out of 24 transmission pairs. Although these findings do not directly prove that date palm sap contaminated with Nipah virus by bats is the origin of Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh, they provide the first experimental support for this hypothesis. Understanding the Nipah virus transmission cycle is essential for preventing and mitigating future outbreaks. PMID:24626480

  10. Susceptibility of hamsters to Clostridium difficile isolates of differing toxinotype.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Anthony M; Spencer, Janice; Maclellan, Lindsay M; Candlish, Denise; Irvine, June J; Douce, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most commonly associated cause of antibiotic associated disease (AAD), which caused ?21,000 cases of AAD in 2011 in the U.K. alone. The golden Syrian hamster model of CDI is an acute model displaying many of the clinical features of C. difficile disease. Using this model we characterised three clinical strains of C. difficile, all differing in toxinotype; CD1342 (PaLoc negative), M68 (toxinotype VIII) & BI-7 (toxinotype III). The naturally occurring non-toxic strain colonised all hamsters within 1-day post challenge (d.p.c.) with high-levels of spores being shed in the faeces of animals that appeared well throughout the entire experiment. However, some changes including increased neutrophil influx and unclotted red blood cells were observed at early time points despite the fact that the known C. difficile toxins (TcdA, TcdB and CDT) are absent from the genome. In contrast, hamsters challenged with strain M68 resulted in a 45% mortality rate, with those that survived challenge remaining highly colonised. It is currently unclear why some hamsters survive infection, as bacterial & toxin levels and histology scores were similar to those culled at a similar time-point. Hamsters challenged with strain BI-7 resulted in a rapid fatal infection in 100% of the hamsters approximately 26 hr post challenge. Severe caecal pathology, including transmural neutrophil infiltrates and extensive submucosal damage correlated with high levels of toxin measured in gut filtrates ex vivo. These data describes the infection kinetics and disease outcomes of 3 clinical C. difficile isolates differing in toxin carriage and provides additional insights to the role of each toxin in disease progression. PMID:23704976

  11. Foodborne Transmission of Nipah Virus in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Falzarano, Darryl; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, outbreaks of Nipah virus have occurred almost every year in Bangladesh with high case-fatality rates. Epidemiological data suggest that in Bangladesh, Nipah virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir, fruit bats, to humans via consumption of date palm sap contaminated by bats, with subsequent human-to-human transmission. To experimentally investigate this epidemiological association between drinking of date palm sap and human cases of Nipah virus infection, we determined the viability of Nipah virus (strain Bangladesh/200401066) in artificial palm sap. At 22°C virus titers remained stable for at least 7 days, thus potentially allowing food-borne transmission. Next, we modeled food-borne Nipah virus infection by supplying Syrian hamsters with artificial palm sap containing Nipah virus. Drinking of 5×108 TCID50 of Nipah virus resulted in neurological disease in 5 out of 8 hamsters, indicating that food-borne transmission of Nipah virus can indeed occur. In comparison, intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with the same dose of Nipah virus resulted in lethal respiratory disease in all animals. In animals infected with Nipah virus via drinking, virus was detected in respiratory tissues rather than in the intestinal tract. Using fluorescently labeled Nipah virus particles, we showed that during drinking, a substantial amount of virus is deposited in the lungs, explaining the replication of Nipah virus in the respiratory tract of these hamsters. Besides the ability of Nipah virus to infect hamsters via the drinking route, Syrian hamsters infected via that route transmitted the virus through direct contact with naïve hamsters in 2 out of 24 transmission pairs. Although these findings do not directly prove that date palm sap contaminated with Nipah virus by bats is the origin of Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh, they provide the first experimental support for this hypothesis. Understanding the Nipah virus transmission cycle is essential for preventing and mitigating future outbreaks. PMID:24626480

  12. Hamster thecal cells express muscle characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Self, D.A.; Schroeder, P.C.; Gown, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    Contraction of the follicular wall about the time of ovulation appears to be a coordinated event; however, the cells that mediate it remain poorly studied. We examined the theca externa cells in the wall of hamster follicles for the presence of a functional actomyosin system, both in developing follicles and in culture. We used a monoclonal antibody (HHF35) that recognizes the alpha and gamma isoelectric variants of actin normally found in muscle, but not the beta variant associated with non-muscle sources, to evaluate large preovulatory follicles for actin content and composition. Antibody staining of sectioned ovaries showed intense circumferential reactivity in the outermost wall of developing follicles. Immunoblots from two-dimensional gels of theca externa lysates demonstrated the presence of the two muscle-specific isozymes of actin. Immunofluorescence of cultured follicular cells pulse-labeled with (3H) thymidine (for autoradiographic detection of DNA replication) revealed the presence, in many dividing cells, of actin filaments aligned primarily along the longitudinal axis of the cells. In cultures exposed to the calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-4) M) for varying periods (5 min to 1 h), contraction of many individual muscle-actin-positive cells was observed. Immunofluorescence of these cells, fixed immediately after ionophore-induced contraction, revealed compaction of the actin filaments. Our findings demonstrate that the cells of the theca externa contain muscle actins from an early stage and that these cells are capable of contraction even while proliferating in subconfluent cultures. They suggest that follicular growth may include a naturally occurring developmental sequence in which a contractile cell type proliferates in the differentiated state.

  13. Artificial intelligence techniques for embryo and oocyte classification.

    PubMed

    Manna, Claudio; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra; Pappalardo, Sebastiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in the capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. This work concentrates the efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology, starting from their images. The artificial intelligence system proposed in this work is based on a set of Levenberg-Marquardt neural networks trained using textural descriptors (the local binary patterns). The proposed system was tested on two data sets of 269 oocytes and 269 corresponding embryos from 104 women and compared with other machine learning methods already proposed in the past for similar classification problems. Although the results are only preliminary, they show an interesting classification performance. This technique may be of particular interest in those countries where legislation restricts embryo selection. One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in our capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. In this work, we concentrate our efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology, starting from their images. The artificial intelligence system proposed in this work is based on a set of Levenberg-Marquardt neural networks trained using textural descriptors (the 'local binary patterns'). The proposed system is tested on two data sets, of 269 oocytes and 269 corresponding embryos from 104 women, and compared with other machine learning methods already proposed in the past for similar classification problems. Although the results are only preliminary, they showed an interesting classification performance. This technique may be of particular interest in those countries where legislation restricts embryo selection. PMID:23177416

  14. Isolation and identification of normal killer cells from Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Matveeva, V.A.; Klyuchareva, T.E.

    1986-09-01

    This paper gives data on isolation of normal killer cells from the blood and various tissues of Syrian hamsters in a Percoll density gradient and their identification on the basis of morphologic criteria and cytotoxic activity (CTA). CTA of the isolated cells was studied in the cytotoxic test with target cells of a human MOLT-4 thymoma cell labeled with /sup 51/Cr. Isolation of large granular lymphocytes from blood, spleen, and bone marrow of Syrian hamsters in Percoll density gradient is shown in the results of five experiments used for cells of each type.

  15. Photodynamic therapy of hamster Greene melanoma in vitro and in vivo using bacteriochlorin-a as photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuitmaker, J. J.; Van Best, Jaap A.; van Delft, J. L.; Jannink, J. E.; Oosterhuis, J. A.; Vrensen, Gijs F.; Ms Wolff-Rouendaal, Didi; Dubbelman, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    Efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant melanoma may be possible with photosensitizers having absorption maxima in the far-red region e.g., above 700 nm. Bacteriochlorin a (BCA), a non toxic derivative of bacteriochlorphyllin a, has a high molecular absorption coefficient (32.000 M-1.cm-1) at 760 nm. At this wavelength tissue penetration of light is almost optimal and melanin absorption is relatively low. In several series of experiments BCA was proven to be a very effective photosensitizer, in vitro and in vivo. It is preferentially retained in experimental hamster Greene melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, RIF- and mamma tumors. Its fluorescence can be detected in vivo, thus enabling early tumor detection and it is rapidly cleared from the tissues which promises no, or minor skin photosensitivity. The effects of BCA-PDT were studied in vitro and in vivo using the heavily pigmented Hamster Greene Melanoma (HGM) cell line as a model. In vitro it was found that the uptake of BCA was time, concentration and temperature dependant. Upon illumination (10 Mw/cm2, 756 nm) after incubation with 2.5 (mu) g/ml BCA for 1 h, almost complete cell kill was obtained within seconds. Hamster Greene Melanoma implanted in the anterior eye chamber of rabbits is an accepted in vivo model for ocular melanoma. The effects of BCA-PDT using this model were studied by light- and electron microscopy. Immediately after PDT intracellular spaces were enlarged and blood vessels were clotted with swollen erythrocytes. Electron microscopy showed fused inner and outer membranes and affected cristae mitchondriales of some mitochondria. With time, the severity of tissue and cell damage increased. One day after irradiation tumor growth had stopped; fluorescein angiography showed non perfusion of the tumor. Histopathology showed almost complete tumor necrosis with occasionally viable cells at the tumor periphery. It is concluded that the direct mitochondrial damage and the vascular damage both contribute to BCA-PDT induced tumor necrosis.

  16. AMS 102: QUIZ 2 1. The population of long-tailed hamster in eastern Texas has been de-

    E-print Network

    Retakh, Alexander

    AMS 102: QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS 1. The population of long-tailed hamster in eastern Texas has been de of the hamster's natural habitat. Two statistical studies were conducted that, on the year-by-year basis (1) compared hamster population with the area of human settlement, (2) compared hamster population with annual

  17. Aerosol penetration through transport lines 

    E-print Network

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    for prediction of aerosol penetration through transport system was done component wise for two different flow rates, 27.5 L/min, and, 18 1.1 L/min. For 27.5 L/min, the experimental results and DEPOSITION predictions for the total penetration were 71.6% and 78...

  18. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  19. Vitrification of oocytes from endangered Mexican gray wolves (Canis lupus baileyi).

    PubMed

    Boutelle, S; Lenahan, K; Krisher, R; Bauman, K L; Asa, C S; Silber, S

    2011-03-01

    Careful genetic management, including cryopreservation of genetic material, is central to conservation of the endangered Mexican gray wolf. We tested a technique, previously used to vitrify human and domestic animal oocytes, on oocytes from domestic dogs as a model and from the endangered Mexican wolf. This method provided a way to conserve oocytes from genetically valuable older female Mexican wolves as an alternative to embryos for preserving female genes. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of 36 female dogs in December and March (0 to 65 oocytes per female) and from six female wolves (4 to 73 per female) during their physiologic breeding season, or following stimulation with the GnRH agonist deslorelin. Oocytes from dogs were pooled; half were immediately tested for viability and the remainder vitrified, then warmed and tested for viability. All oocytes were vitrified by being moved through media of increasing cryoprotectant concentration, placed on Cryotops, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was no difference in viability (propidium iodide staining) between fresh and vitrified, warmed dog oocytes (65.7 and 61.0%, respectively, P = 0.27). Oocyte viability after warming was similarly assessed in a subset of wolves (4 to 15 oocytes from each of three females; total 29 oocytes). Of these, 57.1% of the post-thaw intact oocytes were viable, which was 41.4% of all oocytes warmed. These were the first oocytes from a canid or an endangered species demonstrated to have maintained viability after vitrification and warming. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that vitrification of oocytes with the Cryotop technique was an option for preserving female gametes from Mexican wolves for future use in captive breeding programs, although in vitro embryo production techniques must first be developed in canids for this technique to be used. PMID:21111469

  20. Static penetration resistance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgunoglu, H. T.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Model test results were used to define the failure mechanism associated with the static penetration resistance of cohesionless and low-cohesion soils. Knowledge of this mechanism has permitted the development of a new analytical method for calculating the ultimate penetration resistance which explicitly accounts for penetrometer base apex angle and roughness, soil friction angle, and the ratio of penetration depth to base width. Curves relating the bearing capacity factors to the soil friction angle are presented for failure in general shear. Strength parameters and penetrometer interaction properties of a fine sand were determined and used as the basis for prediction of the penetration resistance encountered by wedge, cone, and flat-ended penetrometers of different surface roughness using the proposed analytical method. Because of the close agreement between predicted values and values measured in laboratory tests, it appears possible to deduce in-situ soil strength parameters and their variation with depth from the results of static penetration tests.

  1. In vivo oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production from bovine oocyte donors treated with progestagen, oestradiol and FSH.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, K L; Staines, M E; Hutchinson, J S; Broadbent, P J

    2000-11-01

    The effect of treatment of donor cattle with progestagen and oestradiol or FSH on in vivo oocyte recovery and in vitro embryo production was studied. Forty-eight beefxFriesian cows formed eight replicates of six treatments in a 2 (no steroid versus steroid)x3 (none, single or multiple dose(s) of FSH) factorial design in which follicles were aspirated once weekly for 3 weeks. Oocytes were graded, washed, matured for 20-24h and then inseminated with frozen/thawed semen from a single sire followed by coculture on granulosa cell monolayers. Treatment with steroid had no significant effect on any follicular, oocyte or embryo production variate other than to reduce the number (P<0.05) and the diameter of large follicles>10mm (P<0.01) present at aspiration. FSH increased numbers of medium (6-10mm) and large follicles (P<0.01) and there was a corresponding decrease in the number of small follicles (2-5mm; P<0. 01). The total number of follicles at aspiration increased from 17. 7+/-1.60 for animals not treated with FSH to 23.6+/-1.97 following multiple dose treatment with FSH (P<0.05). Significantly, more follicles were aspirated following FSH treatment (no FSH 9.7+/-1.09, single dose FSH 13.6+/-1.30, multiple dose FSH 17.3+/-1.52; P<0.05) and numbers of oocytes recovered per cow per week increased (no FSH 4.1+/-0.76, single dose FSH 5.3+/-0.87, multiple dose FSH 5.9+/-0. 94) but the differences were not significant. Significantly, more good oocytes (Category 1) were recovered from animals treated with FSH (P<0.05). There was no overall significant effect of FSH on embryo production rate or the total number of transferable embryos produced but the number of transferable embryos was highest following administration of multiple doses of FSH. In conclusion, progestagen plus oestradiol 17beta treatment did not affect follicle, oocyte and embryo production of oocyte donors aspirated once per week. FSH treatment, however, significantly increased the number of follicles aspirated and Category 1 oocytes recovered. Multiple dose administration of FSH resulted in the production of the highest number of transferable embryos but this effect was not significant. PMID:10989225

  2. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  3. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  4. Efficient Gene Targeting in Golden Syrian Hamsters by the CRISPR/Cas9 System

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qinggang; Shi, Bi; Bunch, Thomas D.; White, Kenneth L.; Kong, Il-Keun; Wang, Zhongde

    2014-01-01

    The golden Syrian hamster is the model of choice or the only rodent model for studying many human diseases. However, the lack of gene targeting tools in hamsters severely limits their use in biomedical research. Here, we report the first successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently conduct gene targeting in hamsters. We designed five synthetic single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs)—three for targeting the coding sequences for different functional domains of the hamster STAT2 protein, one for KCNQ1, and one for PPP1R12C—and demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient in introducing site-specific mutations in hamster somatic cells. We then developed unique pronuclear (PN) and cytoplasmic injection protocols in hamsters and produced STAT2 knockout (KO) hamsters by injecting the sgRNA/Cas9, either in the form of plasmid or mRNA, targeting exon 4 of hamster STAT2. Among the produced hamsters, 14.3% and 88.9% harbored germline-transmitted STAT2 mutations from plasmid and mRNA injection, respectively. Notably, 10.4% of the animals produced from mRNA injection were biallelically targeted. This is the first success in conducting site-specific gene targeting in hamsters and can serve as the foundation for developing other genetically engineered hamster models for human disease. PMID:25299451

  5. Experimental investigation of wavelength dependence of penetration depth and imaging contrast for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, S.; Nishizawa, N.; Itoh, K.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non invasive optical imaging technology for micron-scale cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and materials. Although OCT has many advantages in medical equipments, low penetration depth is a serious limitation for other applications. To realize the ultrahigh resolution and the high penetration depth at the same time, it is effective to choose the proper wavelength to maximize the light penetration and enhance the image contrast at deeper depths. Recently, we have demonstrated ultrahigh resolution and high penetration depth OCT by use of all-fiber based Gaussian shaped supercontinuum source at 1.7 ?m center wavelength. Gaussian-like supercontinuum with 360 nm bandwidth at center wavelength of 1.7 ?m was generated by ultrashort pulse Er doped fiber laser based system. In this paper, using 0.8 ?m and 1.3 ?m SC sources in addition to the 1.7 ?m SC source, we have investigated the wavelength dependence of ultrahigh resolution OCT in terms of penetration depth. Longitudinal resolutions at each wavelength region are almost 4.6 ?m in air. The obtained sensitivity was 95 dB for all wavelength regions. We confirmed the difference of imaging contrast and penetration depth with hamster's cheek pouch and so on. As the wavelength was increased, the magnitude of penetration depth was increased for these samples.

  6. Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH), Inhibin-?, Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9), and Bone Morphogenic Protein-15 (BMP-15) mRNA and protein are influenced by photoperiod-induced ovarian regression and recrudescence in Siberian hamster ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photostimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors: anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-?, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP-15) across the estrus cycle and in photoregressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks representing functional and regressed ovaries, respectively. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for two (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or eight weeks (PTw8). Ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry or frozen in liquid nitrogen for real-time PCR. AMH, inhibin-?, GDF-9 and BMP-15 mRNA and protein were detected in all stages of the estrus cycle. Fourteen weeks of SD exposure increased (p<0.05) ovarian AMH, GDF-9 and BMP-15, but not inhibin-? mRNA levels as compared to LD. Transfer of regressed hamsters to stimulatory long photoperiod for 8 weeks returned AMH and GDF-9 mRNA levels to LD levels levels, and further increased mRNA levels for inhibin-? and BMP-15. Immunostaining of AMH, inhibin-?, GDF-9 and BMP-15 proteins was most intense in preantral/antral follicles and oocytes. The overall immunostaining extent for AMH and inhibin-? generally mirrored mRNA data, though no changes were observed in GDF-9 or BMP-15 immunostaining extent. Shifts in mRNA and protein levels across photoperiod conditions suggest possible syncretic roles for these folliculogenic factors in photostimulated recrudescence via potential regulation of follicle recruitment, preservation and development. PMID:23877969

  7. Granulosa cell-oocyte interactions: the phosphorylation of specific proteins in mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage is dependent upon the differentiative state of companion somatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cecconi, S.; Tatone, C.; Buccione, R.; Mangia, F.; Colonna, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The role of granulosa cells in the regulation of mouse ovarian oocyte metabolism was investigated. Fully grown antral oocytes, isolated from surrounding cumulus cells, were cultured on monolayers of preantral granulosa cells in the presence of dbcAMP to prevent the resumption of meiosis. Under these conditions metabolic cooperativity was established between the two cell types as early as 1 hr after seeding. Moreover, cocultured oocytes phosphorylated two polypeptides of 74 and 21 kDa which are normally phosphorylated in follicle-enclosed growing oocytes but not in cumulus cell-enclosed fully grown oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. When cocultured oocytes were allowed to resume meiosis, the 74 and 21 kDa proteins were synthesized but no longer phosphorylated even though intercellular coupling between the two cell types was maintained during radiolabeling. It appears therefore: (a) that the different protein kinase activity of growing and fully grown germinal vesicle-stage mouse oocytes is related to the differentiative state of granulosa cells, and (b) that the regulation of oocyte protein phosphorylation activity by granulosa cells is dependent on the meiotic stage of the oocyte.

  8. Assessment of in vitro fertility of deer spermatozoa by heterologous IVF with zona-free bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Mauget, R; Mermillod, P

    2001-07-15

    We have previously shown that the in vitro development of deer embryos differed according to the IVF conditions. The aim of the study was to use heterologous IVF with zona-free matured bovine oocytes to assess the in vitro fertility of 3 samples of deer semen (2 ejaculates from sika deer (Cervus nippon) and 1 pool of epididymal spermatozoa from red deer (Cervus elaphus)). The frozen/thawed semen samples were selected on Percoll gradient and resuspended in Tyrode modified medium supplemented with estrus sheep serum (0, 2, 20% v/v) or heparin (10 microg/mL). During 8 h of culture, the sperm motility index according to the post-insemination time (hpi) did not differ either between samples or between supplemented IVF media. In vitro matured zona-free bovine oocytes were inseminated in different IVF media with the semen samples. Penetration rates assessed at 15 hpi were optimal with 20% estrus sheep serum for sika deer ejaculates whereas 2% were sufficient to reach the maximum functionality of epididymal spermatozoa from red deer. The mean time of pronuclear formation was similar regardless of the semen sample. The precocity of the onset of the first S-phase in both pronuclei was characterized by Bromo-deoxy-Uridine exposures between 5 and 15 hpi in order to assess the developmental potential conferred by the semen sample (intrinsic value). As we previously observed in homologous IVF, this value seemed to be higher for the epididymal sperm sample. PMID:11480618

  9. Gene Expression Profiling of Human Oocytes Developed and Matured In Vivo or In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Knez, Katja; Tomazevic, Tomaz; Skutella, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The quality of the human oocyte determines the success of fertilization and affects the consequent embryo development, pregnancy and birth; it therefore serves as a basis for human reproduction and fertility. The possibility to evaluate oocyte quality in the in vitro fertilization programme is very limited. The only criterion which is commonly used to evaluate oocyte quality is its morphology. There is a mass of oocytes in the in vitro fertilization programme which are not fertilized in spite of normal morphology. In the past, several attempts focused on oocyte gene expression profiling by different approaches. The results elucidated groups of genes related to the human oocyte. It was confirmed that some factors, such as oocyte in vitro maturation, are detectable at the molecular level of human oocytes and their polar bodies in terms of gene expression profile. Furthermore, the first genetic evaluations of oocyte-like cells developed in vitro from human stem cells of different origin were performed showing that these cells express some genes related to oocytes. All these findings provide some new knowledge and clearer insights into oocyte quality and oogenesis that might be introduced into clinical practice in the future. PMID:23509795

  10. Dynamics of calcium regulation of chloride currents in Xenopus oocytes

    E-print Network

    Dynamics of calcium regulation of chloride currents in Xenopus oocytes AKINORI KURUMA AND H. CRISS-3030 Kuruma, Akinori, and H. Criss Hartzell. Dynamics of calcium regulation of chloride currents in Xenopus-23187; store-operated calcium entry INCREASES IN CYTOSOLIC Ca can occur by Ca influx from

  11. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) Oocytes' Contact Plate Structure and Development

    PubMed Central

    Adonin, Leonid S.; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G.; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the “contact plate”. Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high Mr bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides Mr corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' Mr is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida. PMID:23185235

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation during meiotic divisions of starfish oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peaucellier, G.; Andersen, A.C.; Kinsey, W.H. )

    1990-04-01

    We have used an antibody specific for phosphotyrosine to investigate protein phosphorylation on tyrosine during hormone-induced maturation of starfish oocytes. Analysis of immunoprecipitates from cortices of in vivo labeled Marthasterias glacialis oocytes revealed the presence of labeled phosphotyrosine-containing proteins only after hormone addition. Six major phosphoproteins of 195, 155, 100, 85, 45, and 35 kDa were detected. Total activity in immunoprecipitates increased until first polar body emission and was greatly reduced upon completion of meiosis but some proteins exhibited different kinetics. The labeling of the 155-kDa protein reached a maximum at germinal vesicle breakdown, while the 35-kDa appeared later and disappeared after polar body emission. Similar results were obtained with Asterias rubens oocytes. In vitro phosphorylation of cortices showed that tyrosine kinase activity is a major protein kinase activity in this fraction, the main endogenous substrate being a 68-kDa protein. The proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine in vitro were almost similar in extracts from oocytes treated or not with the hormone.

  13. Anastral spindle assembly and ?-tubulin in Drosophila oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anastral spindles assemble by a mechanism that involves microtubule nucleation and growth from chromatin. It is still uncertain whether ?-tubulin, a microtubule nucleator essential for mitotic spindle assembly and maintenance, plays a role. Not only is the requirement for ?-tubulin to form anastral Drosophila oocyte meiosis I spindles controversial, but its presence in oocyte meiosis I spindles has not been demonstrated and is uncertain. Results We show, for the first time, using a bright GFP fusion protein and live imaging, that the Drosophila maternally-expressed ?Tub37C is present at low levels in oocyte meiosis I spindles. Despite this, we find that formation of bipolar meiosis I spindles does not require functional ?Tub37C, extending previous findings by others. Fluorescence photobleaching assays show rapid recovery of ?Tub37C in the meiosis I spindle, similar to the cytoplasm, indicating weak binding by ?Tub37C to spindles, and fits of a new, potentially more accurate model for fluorescence recovery yield kinetic parameters consistent with transient, diffusional binding. Conclusions The FRAP results, together with its mutant effects late in meiosis I, indicate that ?Tub37C may perform a role subsequent to metaphase I, rather than nucleating microtubules for meiosis I spindle formation. Weak binding to the meiosis I spindle could stabilize pre-existing microtubules or position ?-tubulin for function during meiosis II spindle assembly, which follows rapidly upon oocyte activation and completion of the meiosis I division. PMID:21208439

  14. Imaging 103 Imaging Ca2+ Signals in Xenopus Oocytes

    E-print Network

    Parker, Ian

    . Glass vials (~15-mL capacity). 10. Collagenase type 1 (Sigma). This is toxic. 11. Ringer's solution: 120 gloves. 3. Frog guillotine. 4. Gentamicin solution, 50 mg/mL (Sigma). Store at 4°C; toxic. 5. Modified dissection microscope. 8. Regular Petri dishes and one lined with nylon netting (for oocyte injection). 9

  15. Fourteen babies born after round spermatid injection into human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Takemoto, Youichi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Kuroda, Keiji; Takeda, Satoru; Ito, Masahiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2015-11-24

    During the human in vitro fertilization procedure in the assisted reproductive technology, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is routinely used to inject a spermatozoon or a less mature elongating spermatid into the oocyte. In some infertile men, round spermatids (haploid male germ cells that have completed meiosis) are the most mature cells visible during testicular biopsy. The microsurgical injection of a round spermatid into an oocyte as a substitute is commonly referred to as round spermatid injection (ROSI). Currently, human ROSI is considered a very inefficient procedure and of no clinical value. Herein, we report the birth and development of 14 children born to 12 women following ROSI of 734 oocytes previously activated by an electric current. The round spermatids came from men who had been diagnosed as not having spermatozoa or elongated spermatids by andrologists at other hospitals after a first Micro-TESE. A key to our success was our ability to identify round spermatids accurately before oocyte injection. As of today, all children born after ROSI in our clinic are without any unusual physical, mental, or epigenetic problems. Thus, for men whose germ cells are unable to develop beyond the round spermatid stage, ROSI can, as a last resort, enable them to have their own genetic offspring. PMID:26575628

  16. Fourteen babies born after round spermatid injection into human oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Takemoto, Youichi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Kuroda, Keiji; Takeda, Satoru; Ito, Masahiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2015-01-01

    During the human in vitro fertilization procedure in the assisted reproductive technology, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is routinely used to inject a spermatozoon or a less mature elongating spermatid into the oocyte. In some infertile men, round spermatids (haploid male germ cells that have completed meiosis) are the most mature cells visible during testicular biopsy. The microsurgical injection of a round spermatid into an oocyte as a substitute is commonly referred to as round spermatid injection (ROSI). Currently, human ROSI is considered a very inefficient procedure and of no clinical value. Herein, we report the birth and development of 14 children born to 12 women following ROSI of 734 oocytes previously activated by an electric current. The round spermatids came from men who had been diagnosed as not having spermatozoa or elongated spermatids by andrologists at other hospitals after a first Micro-TESE. A key to our success was our ability to identify round spermatids accurately before oocyte injection. As of today, all children born after ROSI in our clinic are without any unusual physical, mental, or epigenetic problems. Thus, for men whose germ cells are unable to develop beyond the round spermatid stage, ROSI can, as a last resort, enable them to have their own genetic offspring. PMID:26575628

  17. The portrayal of healthy women requesting oocyte cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Mertes, H.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to cryopreserve oocytes to be used in IVF treatment later in life has not only enlarged the reproductive options of cancer patients who are faced with gonadotoxic treatments, but also holds the promise of enlarging the reproductive options of healthy women whose personal circumstances (most often the absence of a partner) do not allow them to reproduce in their most fertile years. Opinions for and against this application of the cryopreservation technology are often based on different portrayals of the women who might use it. Three different portrayals can be discerned in the debate about the ethics of so-called ‘social egg freezing’ or ‘non medical egg freezing’. First, these women have been portrayed as selfish career-pursuing women. Second, healthy women who might benefit from oocyte cryopreservation have been portrayed as victims of a male-oriented society that makes it difficult for women to combine motherhood with a good education or professional responsibilities. Third, healthy women opting to cryopreserve oocytes have been portrayed as wise, proactive women who will not have to depend on oocyte donors should they suffer from age-related infertility by the time they are ready to reproduce. Each of these three portrayals has its own shortcomings that one should be wary of, as they lead to an oversimplification of the ethical debate. PMID:24753939

  18. Role of animal pole protuberance and microtubules during meiosis in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhenguo; Chang, Yaqing; Sun, Huiling; Yu, Jiaping

    2010-05-01

    Fully grown oocytes of Apostichopus japonicus have a cytoplasmic protuberance where the oocyte attaches to the follicle. The protuberance and the oolamina located on the opposite side of the oocyte indicate the animal-vegetal axis. Two pre-meiotic centrosomes are anchored to the protuberance by microtubules between centrosomes and protuberance. After meiosis reinitiation induced by DTT solution, the germinal vesicle (GV) migrates towards the protuberance. The GV breaks down after it migrates to the oocyte membrane on the protuberance side. The protuberance then contracts back into the oocyte and the first polar body extrudes from the site of the former protuberance. The second polar body forms beneath the first. Thus the oocyte protuberance indicates the presumptive animal pole well before maturation of the oocyte.

  19. Femtosecond laser based enucleation of porcine oocytes for somatic cell nuclear transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kütemeyer, K.; Lucas-Hahn, A.; Petersen, B.; Hassel, P.; Lemme, E.; Niemann, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Cloning of several mammalian species has been achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in recent years. However, this method still results in very low efficiencies around 1% which originate from suboptimal culture conditions and highly invasive techniques for oocyte enucleation and injection of the donor cell using micromanipulators. In this paper, we present a new minimal invasive method for oocyte imaging and enucleation based on the application of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. After imaging of the oocyte with multiphoton microscopy, ultrashort pulses are focused onto the metaphase plate of MII-oocytes in order to ablate the DNA molecules. We show that fs laser based enucleation of porcine oocytes completely inhibits the first mitotic cleavage after parthenogenetic activation while maintaining intact oocyte morphology in most cases. In contrast, control groups without previous irradiation of the metaphase plate are able to develop to the blastocyst stage. Further experiments have to clarify the suitability of fs laser based enucleated oocytes for SCNT.

  20. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  1. DOSE RESPONSE OF ELASTASE-INDUCED EMPHYSEMA IN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elastase-induced emhysema in hamsters was studied using pulmonary function tests in an effort to develop techniques for determining the effects of air pollutants on the progression of this disease. It appears that as little as 6 units of elastase produces mild emphysema in hamste...

  2. CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF ROTENONE. PHASE I: DIETARY ADMINISTRATION TO HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were performed to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity rotenone in the Syrian Golden hamster. Several ancillary range-finding studies were carried out including 14-day feeding trials and a reproduction experiment. The latter experiment indicated that rotenone at a level...

  3. PULMONARY CELL POPULATIONS IN HAMSTERS MAINTAINED UNDER EGYPTIAN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to obtain baseline values for pulmonary cells in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) bred and maintained under the laboratory conditions of Al-Azhar University in Egypt. An improvised technique is presented for measuring pulmonary cells obtained by lung...

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) of male golden hamsters (Mesocricitus auratus) was measured repeatedly by placing the animals in a temperature gradient for 80 min. A total of 180 observations were made during the last 20 min of treatment in the gradient. The mean preferred Ta ...

  5. Sarcoglycan complex is selectively lost in dystrophic hamster muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Y.; Noguchi, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yoshida, M.; Nonaka, I.; Hirai, S.; Ozawa, E.

    1995-01-01

    We recently reported that the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein (DAG) complex is biochemically divided into two subcomplexes: one is the dystroglycan complex comprised of 156DAG and 43DAG and the other is the sarcoglycan complex comprised of 50DAG, A3b, and 35DAG. A3b is a novel dystrophin-associated glycoprotein with an approximate molecular mass of 43 kd but is distinct from 43DAG. In the present study, we examined the striated muscles of the dystrophic hamster with anti-A3b antibody in addition to anti-50DAG, anti-43DAG, anti-35DAG, anti-dystrophin, and anti-laminin antibodies by both immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis and found that 50DAG, A3b, and 35DAG are selectively lost. This selective defect of the sarcoglycan complex in dystrophic hamster muscles may give rise to dystrophic changes in striated muscles. Thus, the differentiation of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex into the dystroglycan and sarcoglycan complexes is important not only from a biochemical standpoint but also in understanding the cause of muscular dystrophy in the hamster. Our findings further show that the dystrophic hamster may serve as an animal model for a human disease, severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, which has recently been shown to result from a selective defect in the sarcoglycan complex. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7856762

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihe; Perdomo, German; Kim, Dae Hyun; Qu, Shen; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Dong, H. Henry

    2008-01-01

    High fructose consumption is associated with the development of fatty liver and dyslipidemia with poorly understood mechanisms. We employed a MALDI-based proteomics approach to define the molecular events that link high fructose consumption to fatty liver in hamsters. Hamsters fed high fructose diet for 8 weeks, as opposed to regular chow-fed controls, developed hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. High fructose-fed hamsters exhibited fat accumulation in liver. Hamsters were sacrificed, and liver tissues were subjected to MALDI-based proteomics. This approach identified a number of proteins whose expression levels were altered by >2-fold in response to high fructose feeding. These proteins fall into five different categories including 1) functions in fatty acid metabolism such as fatty acid binding protein and carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, 2) proteins in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism such as apolipoprotein A1 and protein disulfide isomerase, 3) molecular chaperones such as GroEL, peroxiredoxin 2 and heat shock protein 70, whose functions are important for protein folding and anti-oxidation, 4) enzymes in fructose catabolism such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glycerol kinase, and 5) proteins with house-keeping functions such as albumin. These data provide insight into the molecular basis linking fructose-induced metabolic shift to the development of metabolic syndrome characterized by hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia. PMID:18640390

  7. Differential expression and localization of glycosidic residues in in vitro- and in vivo-matured cumulus-oocyte complexes in equine and porcine species.

    PubMed

    Accogli, Gianluca; Douet, Cécile; Ambruosi, Barbara; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Deleuze, Stefan; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Desantis, Salvatore; Goudet, Ghylène

    2014-12-01

    Glycoprotein oligosaccharides play major roles during reproduction, yet their function in gamete interactions is not fully elucidated. Identification and comparison of the glycan pattern in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from species with different efficiencies of in vitro spermatozoa penetration through the zona pellucida (ZP) could help clarify how oligosaccharides affect gamete interactions. We compared the expression and localization of 12 glycosidic residues in equine and porcine in vitro-matured (IVM) and preovulatory COCs by means of lectin histochemistry. The COCs glycan pattern differed between animals and COC source (IVM versus preovulatory). Among the 12 carbohydrate residues investigated, the IVM COCs from these two species shared: (a) sialo- and ?N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-terminating glycans in the ZP; (b) sialylated and fucosylated glycans in cumulus cells; and (c) GalNAc and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) glycans in the ooplasm. Differences in the preovulatory COCs of the two species included: (a) sialoglycans and GlcNAc terminating glycans in the equine ZP versus terminal GalNAc and internal GlcNAc in the porcine ZP; (b) terminal galactosides in equine cumulus cells versus terminal GlcNAc and fucose in porcine cohorts; and (c) fucose in the mare ooplasm versus lactosamine and internal GlcNAc in porcine oocyte cytoplasm. Furthermore, equine and porcine cumulus cells and oocytes contributed differently to the synthesis of ZP glycoproteins. These results could be attributed to the different in vitro fertilization efficiencies between these two divergent, large-animal models. PMID:25511183

  8. Self-administration of estrogen and dihydrotestosterone in male hamsters.

    PubMed

    DiMeo, Anita N; Wood, Ruth I

    2006-04-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. Previous studies have shown that male and female hamsters self-administer testosterone (T) and other AAS, suggesting that androgens are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. AAS are synthetic derivatives of T, which may be aromatizable to estrogen and/or reducible to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, we do not know which metabolites of T are reinforcing. To determine if DHT, estradiol (E(2)), or DHT + E(2) are reinforcing, we tested intracerebroventricular (icv) self-administration in male hamsters. The hypothesis was that androgen reinforcement is sensitive to both androgenic and estrogenic T metabolites. If so, hamsters would self-administer DHT, E(2), and DHT + E(2). Twenty four castrated male hamsters (n = 8/group) received icv cannulas and sc T implants for physiologic androgen replacement. One week later, hamsters self-administered DHT (0.1, 1.0, 2.0 microg/microl), E(2) (0.001, 0.01, 0.02 microg/microl), or DHT + E(2), each for 8 days in increasing concentration (4 h/day). Operant chambers were equipped with an active and inactive nose-poke. At the medium concentration, hamsters self-administered DHT (active nose-poke: 47.9 +/- 13.9 responses/4 h vs. inactive: 18.7 +/- 4.8), E(2) (active: 44.8 +/- 14.9 vs. inactive: 16.6 +/- 2.6), and DHT + E(2) (active: 19.1 +/- 2.4 vs. inactive: 10.4 +/- 2.4, P < 0.05). At the highest concentration, males self-administered DHT (active: 28.3 +/- 7.7 vs. inactive: 15.0 +/- 3.5, P < 0.05) and DHT + E(2) (active: 22.6 +/- 3.8 vs. inactive: 11.6 +/- 2.5, P < 0.05), but not E(2). Hamsters did not self-administer the lowest concentrations of DHT, E(2), or DHT + E(2). These results support our hypothesis that both androgenic and estrogenic T metabolites are reinforcing. Together, they do not exert synergistic effects. PMID:16388806

  9. The use of two fluorescent dyes to identify sperm in a competitive binding assay to oocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, D J; Demers, J M; Braundmeier, A G; Behrens, M L

    1998-01-01

    The relationship of most sperm laboratory assays to male fertility is inconsistent. Assays that measure traits required to fertilize oocytes are expected to have the most predictive value. A new assay that measures the competitive ability of two sperm samples to bind to oocytes was developed. Two populations of sperm were labeled using a pair of lipophilic dyes. A concentration of 75 microM of the two dyes, DiQ (4-[4-(dihexadecylamino)styryl]-N-methylquinolinium iodide; an orange-red dye) and DiOC16 (3,3'-dihexadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate; a yellow-green dye), intensely stained 66 and 73% of sperm, respectively, without affecting sperm motility or oocyte-binding ability. Because sperm could be stained with fluorescent dyes, sperm from two semen samples were mixed together in a droplet, and oocytes were added to allow sperm to bind oocytes competitively. Oocyte-bound sperm from each sample were counted. Binding was specific; nonspecific sperm binding was estimated by sperm bound to two-cell mouse embryos and averaged one to three sperm per embryo. Staining with DiQ or DiOC16 did not affect oocyte-binding ability since more than 80% of the sperm bound were stained with either dye. Furthermore, if different ratios of DiQ- or DiOC16-stained sperm from the same ejaculate were prepared in droplets and oocytes were added, the percentage of sperm bound to the oocytes reflected the percentage of sperm in the droplet; there was no differential effect of either dye. This assay used fixed oocytes because sperm bound equally to fixed and fresh bovine oocytes. This competitive oocyte-binding assay allows one to make a series of pairwise comparisons between a group of males or to include an internal control sample in sperm-oocyte binding assays. This assay may allow more accurate prediction of the oocyte-binding ability of sperm. PMID:9876016

  10. Evaluation of oocyte competency in bovine and canine species via non-invasive assessment of oocyte quality 

    E-print Network

    Willingham-Rocky, Lauri A.

    2009-05-15

    between oocyte morphological parameters (as defined by a ratio of a shape factor (SF) to average fluorescence intensity (AFI) and AFI, followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) using the Well of Well (WOW) method to evaluate...

  11. Oocyte insemination techniques are related to alterations of embryo developmental timing in an oocyte donation model.

    PubMed

    Cruz, María; Garrido, Nicolás; Gadea, Blanca; Muñoz, Manuel; Pérez-Cano, Inmaculada; Meseguer, Marcos

    2013-10-01

    Because of the different intrinsic characteristics of the classic IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) techniques, the timing of zygote development can be influenced by the method of fertilization. However, there is no information about the relevance of the insemination procedure on embryo-quality parameters as measured through their developmental dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine if the insemination technique, IVF or ICSI, influences embryo developmental kinetics by examining 1203 embryos from 178 couples undergoing oocyte donation with IVF or ICSI. Using time-lapse information, this work calculated several developmental kinetic variables, from pronuclear fading (PNF) to expanded blastocyst, and also the proportion of optimal embryos in a best time range with a predicted higher implantation potential. Embryo development after ICSI was slightly faster than after IVF; however, when PNF, rather than time of insemination, was established as t0, the differences between the two procedures disappeared. The percentage of optimal embryos showed a trend towards higher values in IVF-derived embryos; however, the difference was not statistically significant. With these results and through the time-lapse monitoring system, it is concluded that it is the fertilization method which determines embryo developmental kinetics if insemination time is used as the starting point. A key step in assisted reproduction is the assessment of oocyte and embryo viability to determine the embryo(s) most likely to implant. Current embryo assessment strategies in clinical settings largely rely on embryo morphology and cleavage rates, and although these systems have been successful in improving pregnancy rates, their precision is far from ideal as they are based on visual information. In contrast, automated image analysis may add objectivity to the process of embryo selection and consequently, lead to an improvement in the implantation rates. Timing of zygote development can be influenced by the method of fertilization or by in-vitro culture conditions, so it has been suggested that the fertilization procedure influences the length of time elapsed between fertilization and the first cleavage. In this report, we show the results from using a time-lapse monitoring system to determine the timing of key events during embryo development both in IVF and ICSI. Due to the different intrinsic characteristics of the classic IVF and ICSI techniques, the selection of a critical time point is essential so as to maximize the differences between the two methods. For that reason, we searched for evidence in the data obtained from the image analysis for a link connecting embryo cleavage and the fertilization technique and also to find whether the kinetic of development derived from classic IVF or ICSI is also related to a predicted higher implantation. PMID:23953584

  12. Investigations into Monochloramine Biofilm Penetration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct b...

  13. [Will penetrating keratoplasty become obsolete?].

    PubMed

    Cochener, B

    2008-11-01

    The development of technologies for performing lamellar cuts of the cornea constitutes a major breakthrough in corneal grafting, since it can bypass the well-identified limits of penetrative keratoplasty such as intraocular pressure elevation and graft rejection with nonreversible edema, which are major but unpredictable complications of penetrative keratoplasty. A surgical procedure that could exchange only pathologic tissue layers might be able to eliminate all these adverse events and provide faster visual recovery with better visual performance. However, certain indications for penetrative graft will certainly remain, benefiting from the considerable progress in surgical technique with the advent of femtosecond laser and the the control of immunomodulation. This article develops arguments to answer the three following questions: Why should we replace penetrative keratoplasty? Why will this procedure survive? How can we improve it? PMID:19107062

  14. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  15. Inspecting the reactor vessel penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bodson, F.; Fleming, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    The susceptibility of Alloy 600 to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) continues to plague nuclear power plants. Recently, the problem of PWSCC cracking has manifested itself in Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) head penetrations in nuclear plants in Europe. Framatome has been extensively involved in the performance of both inspections and repairs of CRDM head penetrations at Electricite de France (EdF) plants. B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT), building on Framatome technology, has developed a fully integrated service package and robotic manipulator to inspect and repair CRDM head penetrations for US utilities. Reactor vessel bottom penetration are also made of Alloy 600 and to tackle this potential PWSCC problem at EdF plants, Framatome has been performing specific inspections in order to detect the appearance of the phenomenon. This paper describes the overall range of inspection techniques and toolings developed to address these issues.

  16. Demonstration of Survivable Space Penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, P.; Huntington-Thresher, W.; Penny, N.; Bruce, A.; Smith, A.; Gowan, R.

    2009-06-01

    This work was performed in support of MoonLITE which is a proposed UK space mission to the moon. The basic premise is to deploy 4 instrumented penetrators, one each on the near-side, far-side and at the poles of the moon, with an impact velocity of approximately 300m/s. The primary science aims are to set up a passive seismometer network, investigate the presence of water and volatiles and determine thermal gradients in the lunar soil (i.e. regolith). A key requirement is that the penetrator shell survives the impact together with the instrument payload and supporting subsystems. The material chosen for the penetrator shell was 7075 aluminum alloy, which is a good compromise between high compressive strength and low mass. The baseline penetrator design was evaluated and refined using the DYNA3D hydrocode to determine the survivability of the penetrator in sand at an impact velocity of 300m/s and an attack angle of 8 degrees. The simulations predicted that the penetrator design would survive this severe impact condition which was confirmed by experiments on the Pendine rocket test track.

  17. Demonstration of survivable space penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Philip; Huntington-Thresher, William; Bruce, Alan; Penny, Nick; Smith, Alan; Gowan, Rob

    2012-03-01

    This work was performed in support of MoonLITE which is a proposed UK space mission to the moon. The basic premise is to deploy 4 instrumented penetrators, one each on the near-side, farside and at the poles of the moon, with an impact velocity of approximately 300m/s. The primary science aims are to set up a passive seismometer network, investigate the presence of water and volatiles and determine thermal gradients in the lunar soil (i.e. regolith). A key requirement is that the penetrator shell survives the impact together with the instrument payload and supporting subsystems. The material chosen for the penetrator shell was 7075 aluminium alloy, which is a good compromise between high compressive strength and low mass. The baseline penetrator design was evaluated and refined using the DYNA3D hydrocode to determine the survivability of the penetrator in sand at an impact velocity of 300m/s and an attack angle of 8°. The simulations predicted that the penetrator design would survive this severe impact condition which was confirmed by experiments on the Pendine rocket test track.

  18. Modification of aortic contractility in the cardiomyopathic hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, E. C.; Lambert, C.; Lamontagne, D.

    1996-01-01

    1. The functional arterial response in the cardiomyopathic hamster compared with inbred control, was investigated in thoracic aortae. For this purpose, vessels were cut into 6-mm rings and mounted in 20-ml organ baths. 2. In a first experimental series, the function of the endothelium was evaluated. Dose-response curves to acetylcholine (0.1 nM-10 microM) on phenylephrine (0.3 microM)-preconstricted rings of cardiomyopathic hamsters and inbred age-matched controls were comparable (log[EC50] of -7.08 +/- 0.12 and -7.18 +/- 0.12, respectively; n = 4). 3. Changes in contractility of cardiomyopathic hamster endothelium-denuded aortae were investigated. Dose-response curves to phenylephrine (1 nM-0.1 mM), angiotensin II (10 pM-0.3 microM), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (1 nM-0.1 mM) and KCl (1 mM-0.1 M) were performed. Increased sensitivity in cardiomyopathic hamster aortae, compared to controls, was observed with phenylephrine (log[EC50] of -7.25 +/- 0.05 and -6.83 +/- 0.05, respectively, n = 6, P < 0.001) and angiotensin II (log[EC50] of -8.67 +/- 0.07 and -8.26 +/- 0.06, respectively, n = 6, P = 0.001) but not with 5-HT or KCl. A decreased maximum response in cardiomyopathic, compared to control, was observed with 5-HT (1.28 +/- 0.06 g vs 1.56 +/- 0.07 g, respectively, n = 6, P = 0.03). Comparable results were found in aortae with an intact endothelium. 4. No difference in the maximum contractile response to the G-protein activator, NaF (3, 10 and 30 mM) was observed in either group of animals. 5. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1-10 microM) was used to assess changes in the activity of protein kinase C (PKC). Contractility to PMA was increased in cardiomyopathic hamster aortae compared to controls (0.22 +/- 0.02 g vs 0.07 +/- 0.03 g at 3 microM, respectively, n = 6, P = 0.003). 6. Finally, cardiomyopathic hamsters aortae were found to be less sensitive when exposed to increasing concentrations of Ca2+ (10 microM-1 mM) in KCl-depolarized rings (0.58 +/- 0.04 g in cardiomyopathic vs 0.79 +/- 0.06 g in control aortae at 0.3 mM, n = 8, P = 0.03). 7. In conclusion, aortae from cardiomyopathic hamsters are more sensitive to phenylephrine and angiotensin II, but not to 5-HT, than those of controls. The increase in sensitivity does not implicate Ca2+ channels or Ca2+ itself since cardiomyopathic hamsters aortae are not more sensitive to KCl- and Ca(2+)-induced contraction. The greater effect of PMA on cardiomyopathic hamster aortae suggests that the increase in sensitivity to phenylephrine and angiotensin II involves an enhanced activity of PKC. PMID:8818336

  19. Both diet and gene mutation induced obesity affect oocyte quality in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Duan, Xing; Liu, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was shown to cause reproductive dysfunctions such as reduced conception, infertility and early pregnancy loss. However, the possible effects of obesity on oocyte quality are still not fully understood. In this study we investigated the effects of both diet and gene mutation induced obesity on impairments in mouse oocyte polarization, oxidative stress, and epigenetic modifications. Our results showed that high-fat diet induced obesity (HFD) and gene mutation induced obesity (ob/ob) could both impair oocyte meiotic maturation, disrupt spindle morphology, and reduce oocyte polarity. Oocytes from obese mice underwent oxidative stress, as shown by high DHE and ROS levels. Abnormal mitochondrial distributions and structures were observed in oocytes from obese groups of mice and early apoptosis signals were detected, which suggesting that oxidative stress had impaired mitochondrial function and resulted in oocyte apoptosis. Our results also showed that 5?mC levels and H3K9 and H3K27 methylation levels were altered in oocytes from obese mice, which indicated that DNA methylation and histone methylation had been affected. Our results showed that both HFD and ob/ob induced obesity affected oocyte maturation and that oxidative stress-induced early apoptosis and altered epigenetic modifications may be the reasons for reduced oocyte quality in obese mice. PMID:26732298

  20. NLRP9B protein is dispensable for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Hui; LIN, Xiujiao; LIU, Fang; WANG, Cheng; ZHANG, Wenchang

    2015-01-01

    Nlrp9a, Nlrp9b and Nlrp9c are preferentially expressed in oocytes and early embryos in the mouse. Simultaneous genetic ablation of Nlrp9a and Nlrp9c does not affect early embryonic development, but the function of Nlrp9b in the process of oocyte maturation and embryonic development has not been elucidated. Here we show that both Nlrp9b mRNA and its protein are expressed in ovaries and the small intestine. Moreover, the NLRP9B protein was restricted to oocytes in the ovary and declined with oocyte aging. After ovulation and fertilization, NLRP9B protein was found in preimplantation embryos. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that it was mainly localized in the cytoplasm in the oocytes and blastomeres. Thus, this protein might play a role in oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. However, knockdown of Nlrp9b expression in GV-stage oocytes using RNA interference did not affect oocyte maturation or subsequent parthenogenetic development after Nlrp9b-deficient oocytes were activated. Furthermore, Nlrp9b knockdown zygotes could reach the blastocyst stage after being cultured for 3.5 days in vitro. These results provide the first evidence that the NLRP9B protein is dispensable for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse. PMID:26411641

  1. Production of offspring from one-day-old oocytes stored at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Sayaka; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Kishigami, Satoshi; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Eiji; Hikichi, Takafusa; Miyake, Masashi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2004-12-01

    To determine the feasibility of preserving oocytes without freezing, we stored mouse oocytes in several media at different temperatures for one day. Confocal microscopy of the metaphase-II spindle in these stored oocytes revealed gross abnormalities in both the spindle and the arrangement of chromosomes. The abnormal spindles could not be rescued by transplanting the aged spindle-chromosome complex into a fresh enucleated oocyte. A diploid parthenogenetic development showed that some of the oocytes stored at room temperature could still develop into blastocysts (10-57%). However, oocytes stored in a refrigerator (5%) or incubator (0%) lost the potential almost entirely. Fertilization of room-temperature-preserved oocytes with fresh spermatozoa by ICSI or IVF resulted in, respectively, 4 and 10%, full-term births. These results suggest that when oocytes are stored at room temperature for one day, most have irreversible damage not only to their cytoplasm but also to the spindle. However, since at least a few percent of stored oocytes retained the potential for full-term development, it may be possible to overcome these problems and develop a simple method for preserving mammalian oocytes without freezing. PMID:15647614

  2. Optimising vitrification of human oocytes using multiple cryoprotectants and morphological and functional assessment.

    PubMed

    Seet, V Y K; Al-Samerria, S; Wong, J; Stanger, J; Yovich, J L; Almahbobi, G

    2013-01-01

    Oocyte vitrification is a clinical practice that allows preservation of fertility potential in women. Vitrification involves quick cooling using high concentrations of cryoprotectants to minimise freezing injuries. However, high concentrations of cryoprotectants have detrimental effects on oocyte quality and eventually the offspring. In addition, current assessment of oocyte quality after vitrification is commonly based only on the morphological appearance of the oocyte, raising concerns regarding its efficiency. Using both morphological and functional assessments, the present study investigated whether combinations of cryoprotectants at lower individual concentrations result in better cryosurvival rates than single cryoprotectants at higher concentrations. Surplus oocytes from IVF patients were vitrified within 24h after retrieval using the Cryotop method with several cryoprotectants, either individually or in combination. The morphological and functional quality of the vitrified oocytes was investigated using light microscopy and computer-based quantification of mitochondrial integrity, respectively. Oocyte quality was significantly higher using a combination of cryoprotectants than vitrification with individual cryoprotectants. In addition, the quality of vitrified oocyte varied depending on the cryoprotectants and type of combination used. The results of the present study indicate that observations based purely on the morphological appearance of the oocyte to assess the cryosurvival rate are insufficient and sometimes misleading. The outcome will have a significant implication in the area of human oocyte cryopreservation as an important approach for fertility preservation. PMID:22967503

  3. NLRP9B protein is dispensable for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Lin, Xiujiao; Liu, Fang; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Wenchang

    2015-12-18

    Nlrp9a, Nlrp9b and Nlrp9c are preferentially expressed in oocytes and early embryos in the mouse. Simultaneous genetic ablation of Nlrp9a and Nlrp9c does not affect early embryonic development, but the function of Nlrp9b in the process of oocyte maturation and embryonic development has not been elucidated. Here we show that both Nlrp9b mRNA and its protein are expressed in ovaries and the small intestine. Moreover, the NLRP9B protein was restricted to oocytes in the ovary and declined with oocyte aging. After ovulation and fertilization, NLRP9B protein was found in preimplantation embryos. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that it was mainly localized in the cytoplasm in the oocytes and blastomeres. Thus, this protein might play a role in oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. However, knockdown of Nlrp9b expression in GV-stage oocytes using RNA interference did not affect oocyte maturation or subsequent parthenogenetic development after Nlrp9b-deficient oocytes were activated. Furthermore, Nlrp9b knockdown zygotes could reach the blastocyst stage after being cultured for 3.5 days in vitro. These results provide the first evidence that the NLRP9B protein is dispensable for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse. PMID:26411641

  4. Metabolic control of oocyte development: linking maternal nutrition and reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honglin; Gu, Xi; Boots, Christina; Moley, Kelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders are major health issues worldwide. As the epidemic of metabolic disorders continues, the associated medical comorbidities, including the detrimental impact on reproduction, increase as well. Emerging evidence suggests that the effects of maternal nutrition on reproductive outcomes are likely to be mediated, at least in part, by oocyte metabolism. Well-balanced and timed energy metabolism is critical for optimal development of oocytes. To date, much of our understanding of oocyte metabolism comes from the effects of extrinsic nutrients on oocyte maturation. In contrast, intrinsic regulation of oocyte development by metabolic enzymes, intracellular mediators, and transport systems is less characterized. Specifically, decreased acid transport proteins levels, increased glucose/lipid content and elevated reactive oxygen species in oocytes have been implicated in meiotic defects, organelle dysfunction and epigenetic alteration. Therefore, metabolic disturbances in oocytes may contribute to the diminished reproductive potential experienced by women with metabolic disorders. In-depth research is needed to further explore the underlying mechanisms. This review also discusses several approaches for metabolic analysis. Metabolomic profiling of oocytes, the surrounding granulosa cells, and follicular fluid will uncover the metabolic networks regulating oocyte development, potentially leading to the identification of oocyte quality markers and prevention of reproductive disease and poor outcomes in offspring. PMID:25280482

  5. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17?-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20?-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  6. Selection of In Vitro-Matured Porcine Oocytes Based on Localization Patterns of Lipid Droplets to Evaluate Developmental Competence

    PubMed Central

    HIRAGA, Kou; HOSHINO, Yumi; TANEMURA, Kentaro; SATO, Eimei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Localization patterns of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of porcine oocytes were evaluated as a novel marker for in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes with high developmental competence. Porcine oocytes were cultured in TCM-199, which is a complete synthetic medium, for 44 h at 38.5 C. Localization patterns were divided into 2 classes: lipid droplets localized uniformly in the whole cytoplasm (class I) and those that were centrally located (class II). After IVM in TCM-199, 60% of matured oocytes exhibited the class II pattern. To investigate the relation between the distribution of lipid droplets and the developmental rate of the oocyte, the developmental rates of class I and class II oocytes were compared after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Class II oocytes showed a significantly higher rate of blastocyst development than class I oocytes. These results suggest that porcine oocytes with high developmental competence can be selected based on the localization patterns of lipid droplets. PMID:23594924

  7. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  8. Analysis of RNA transport in Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ichiro; McCloskey, Asako; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, many RNA species are transcribed, processed in the nucleus, and exported to the cytoplasm, where they are destined to function or to be further matured. Some RNAs are even reimported to the nucleus. In addition, many RNAs are localized at specific nuclear bodies before their export and/or after their nuclear reimport. To understand how RNAs are transported, Xenopus oocytes are extremely useful cells, thanks to their large size. RNA transport can be easily examined by microinjecting radioactively or fluorescently labeled RNAs into Xenopus oocytes. Mammalian cultured cells are sometimes useful by virtue of RNA-FISH technique. Here, we describe methods to analyze RNA localization and export using these cells. PMID:24857740

  9. Double-Plate Penetration Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    This report compares seven double-plate penetration predictor equations for accuracy and effectiveness of a shield design. Three of the seven are the Johnson Space Center original, modified, and new Cour-Palais equations. The other four are the Nysmith, Lundeberg-Stern-Bristow, Burch, and Wilkinson equations. These equations, except the Wilkinson equation, were derived from test results, with the velocities ranging up to 8 km/sec. Spreadsheet software calculated the projectile diameters for various velocities for the different equations. The results were plotted on projectile diameter versus velocity graphs for the expected orbital debris impact velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/sec. The new Cour-Palais double-plate penetration equation was compared to the modified Cour-Palais single-plate penetration equation. Then the predictions from each of the seven double-plate penetration equations were compared to each other for a chosen shield design. Finally, these results from the equations were compared with test results performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Because the different equations predict a wide range of projectile diameters at any given velocity, it is very difficult to choose the "right" prediction equation for shield configurations other than those exactly used in the equations' development. Although developed for various materials, the penetration equations alone cannot be relied upon to accurately predict the effectiveness of a shield without using hypervelocity impact tests to verify the design.

  10. Using oocyte size to assess seasonal ovarian development in Solea solea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, K.; Witthames, P.

    1996-12-01

    Maximum oocyte size was used to assess seasonal ovarian development in sole. Fish age, especially the adolescent period, appeared to affect the start of vitellogenin-dependent oocyte development in the annual reproductive cycle and the subsequent oocyte growth rate. The majority of oocyte growth occurred between September and March. Several other aspects of ovarian development were also age-dependent, including the increase in ovary condition factor (ovary weight/fish length 3) and the size of oocytes commencing nuclear migration. Evidence is presented that in the recruiting year class of sole abortive maturation occurs where oocytes develop yolk but spawning does not take place. The implications of this study on the estimation of female spawning stock biomass are discussed.

  11. Sarcolemmal phospholipid N-methylation in genetically determined hamster cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, K.; Panagia, V.; Jasmin, G.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1987-02-27

    The heart sarcolemmal phosphatidylethanolamine N-methylation in UM-X7.1 strain of cardiomyopathic hamsters was examined by using 0.055, 10 and 150 microM S-adenosyl-L-(methyl-/sup 3/H) methionine as methyl donor for sites I, II and III, respectively. In comparison with control values, methylation activities at site I was increased in 40, 120 and 250 days old cardiomyopathic hamsters. On the other hand, methylation activities at sites II and III in 120 and 250 days old cardiomyopathic animals were depressed without any change in the 40 days old group. The alterations in N-methylation activities were associated with kinetic changes in apparent Vmax values without any changes in the apparent Km. These results indicate a defect in the phospholipid N-methylation process in heart sarcolemma during the development of genetically determined cardiomyopathy.

  12. Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15.

  13. Histology and fine structure of the hamster retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Buyukmihci, N; Goehring-Harmon, F

    1982-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium of normal adult golden Syrian hamsters was examined by light and electron microscopy, using conventional and enzyme histochemical techniques. Hamster retinal pigment epithelium was composed of a single layer of cuboidal cells that had marked infolding of the basal cell wall and numerous microvillous processes extending from the apical surface. Melanin content varied within each specimen and there appeared to be incomplete or aberrant development of many melanin granules. Many incompletely melanized granules showed acid phosphate activity. There were the usual cell organelles, and Golgi complexes. Large phagosomes increased in number in the morning hours. Autophagic vacuoles and small lipid droplets were commonly seen. Occasional basal bodies, cilia, and root filaments were found. In two specimens, a curious intranuclear paracrystalline structure was observed. PMID:7080797

  14. Oxidative metabolites of diethylstilbestrol in the fetal Syrian golden hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Maydl, R.; Metzler, M.

    1984-12-01

    /sup 14/C-Diethylstilbestrol was administered orally, intraperitoneally, and intrafetally to 15-day pregnant hamsters at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and the radioactivity was determined in the fetus, placenta, and maternal liver after 6 hours. Significant amounts of radioactivity were found in these tissues in every case, indicating maternal-fetal and fetal-maternal transfer of diethylstilbestrol. Part of the radioactivity found in the tissues could not be extracted even after excessive washing. This implied the presence of reactive metabolites. In the fetal and placental extracts, eight oxidative metabolites of diethylstilbestrol were identified by mass fragmentography as hydroxy- and methoxy-derivatives of diethylstilbestrol, pseudodiethylstilbestrol, and dienestrol. The presence of oxidative metabolites in the hamster fetus and the covalent binding to tissue macromolecules are possibly associated with the fetotoxic effects of diethylstilbestrol.

  15. The effect of leukotriene synthesis inhibitors on hamster periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Baroukh, B; Saffar, J S

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to assess the role of the lipoxygenation products of arachidonic acid in hamster periodontitis. Phenidone and ketoconazole were used as inhibitors of leukotriene synthesis. In an established periodontitis, both drugs administered for 30 days induced a statistically significant decrease in PMNLs in the infiltrated connective tissue and around bacterial plaque within periodontal pockets. These changes were associated with a significant decrease in osteoclastic bone resorption. The results suggest that leukotrienes, and particularly leukotriene B4, are involved during hamster periodontitis and are responsible for PMNL infiltration of the periodontal pocket. The effects on bone are probably the consequence of the reduced inflammation resulting from the decrease in PMNL chemotaxis. PMID:2128444

  16. Hibernation, stress, intestinal functions, and catecholoamine turnover rate in hamsters and gerbils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bioenergetic studies on hamsters during depressed metabolic states are reported. External support of blood glucose extended the survival times of hibernating animals. Radioresistance increased in hibernating as well as in hypothermic hamsters. Marked changes in hamster catecholamine turnover rates were observed during acclimatization to high temperature stress. High radioresistance levels of the gerbil gastrointestinal system were attributed in part to the ability of the gut to maintain functional integrity.

  17. Multiple Requirements of PLK1 during Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Solc, Petr; Kitajima, Tomoya S.; Yoshida, Shuhei; Brzakova, Adela; Kaido, Masako; Baran, Vladimir; Mayer, Alexandra; Samalova, Pavlina; Motlik, Jan; Ellenberg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) orchestrates multiple events of cell division. Although PLK1 function has been intensively studied in centriole-containing and rapidly cycling somatic cells, much less is known about its function in the meiotic divisions of mammalian oocytes, which arrest for a long period of time in prophase before meiotic resumption and lack centrioles for spindle assembly. Here, using specific small molecule inhibition combined with live mouse oocyte imaging, we comprehensively characterize meiotic PLK1’s functions. We show that PLK1 becomes activated at meiotic resumption on microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) and later at kinetochores. PLK1 is required for efficient meiotic resumption by promoting nuclear envelope breakdown. PLK1 is also needed to recruit centrosomal proteins to acentriolar MTOCs to promote normal spindle formation, as well as for stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Consequently, PLK1 inhibition leads to metaphase I arrest with misaligned chromosomes activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Unlike in mitosis, the metaphase I arrest is not bypassed by the inactivation of the SAC. We show that PLK1 is required for the full activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by promoting the degradation of the APC/C inhibitor EMI1 and is therefore essential for entry into anaphase I. Moreover, our data suggest that PLK1 is required for proper chromosome segregation and the maintenance of chromosome condensation during the meiosis I-II transition, independently of the APC/C. Thus, our results define the meiotic roles of PLK1 in oocytes and reveal interesting differential requirements of PLK1 between mitosis and oocyte meiosis in mammals. PMID:25658810

  18. Purification and characterization of RNase from Rana catesbiana (bullfrog) oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y.D.; Lin, C.T. )

    1991-03-11

    In vitro transcription study under conditions where 5S ribosomal (rRNA) synthesis was highly active in oocyte extracts of X. laevis, the transcriptional activity was not detected in oocyte extracts of cold treated R. catesbiana. The lack of 5S rRNA transcription was not due to the absence of RNA polymerase III, since this enzyme was still active when poly d(A-T) was used as a template. It was found that R. catesbiana extracts could cleave exogenously added 5S rRNA, tRNA and VA-RNA while the X. laevis extract could not. The presence of this RNase activity was not a result of oocyte destruction because eggs derived from R. catesbiana oocytes, which contained this RNase activity, developed into tadpoles after artificial fertilization. In order to elucidate the relationship between the RNase activity and the regulation of gene transcription of cold treated R. catesbiana, this enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized. This enzyme could be inactivated by heating to 80C for 15 min, but was resistant to acid and alkaline conditions. The optimal temperature for activity was 55C-65C, while the optimal pH was 4 in 50 mM acetate buffer and 8 in 50 mM Tris-buffer. The optimal cation concentration for the enzyme activity was 4 mM and 0.5 mM for Mg{sup ++} and Zn{sup ++} respectively. The specific cleavage site of this enzyme was located at the phosphodiester bond to the 3{prime} side of the pyrimidine in the pyrimidine-p-G segment. The antiserum against the purified RNase was prepared and used for quantitating this enzyme under different condition.

  19. In vitro follicle growth supports human oocyte meiotic maturation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuo; Zhang, Jiyang; Romero, Megan M.; Smith, Kristin N.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro follicle growth is a potential approach to preserve fertility for young women who are facing a risk of premature ovarian failure (POF) caused by radiation or chemotherapy. Our two-step follicle culture strategy recapitulated the dynamic human follicle growth environment in vitro. Follicles developed from the preantral to antral stage, and, for the first time, produced meiotically competent metaphase II (MII) oocytes after in vitro maturation (IVM). PMID:26612176

  20. Photoperiodic influences on ultradian rhythms of male Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Zucker, Irving

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ?14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (?'), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ?13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), ?' of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L-13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters. PMID:22848579

  1. Expression of human angiogenin in cultured baby hamster kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kurachi, K.; Rybak, S.M.; Fett, J.W.; Shapiro, R.; Strydom, D.J.; Olson, K.A.; Riordan, J.F.; Davie, E.W.; Vallee, B.L.

    1988-08-23

    Baby hamster kidney cells were transformed with DNA sequences derived from the gene for human angiogenin. Expression was under the transcriptional control of the inducible mouse metallothionein 1 promoter. Recombinant angiogenin was purified and shown to be chemically, biologically, and enzymatically indistinguishable from the natural product. The large-scale production of recombinant angiogenin achieved should facilitate detailed studies into the structure-function relationships of this potent angiogenic molecule.

  2. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Patel, Priyesh N; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2014-03-15

    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1? and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1? and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors. PMID:24333374

  3. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Onishi, Kenneth G.; Patel, Priyesh N.; Stevenson, Tyler J.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1? and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1? and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors. PMID:24333374

  4. Development of A Questionnaire to Measure Attitude toward Oocyte Donation

    PubMed Central

    Omani Samani, Reza; Mounesan, Leila; Ezabadi, Zahra; Vesali, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no valid and comprehensive questionnaire that considers attitude toward oocyte donation (OD). Therefore this study has aimed to design and develop a tool entitled attitude toward donation-oocyte (ATOD-O) to measure attitude toward OD. Materials and Methods This methodological, qualitative research was undertaken on 15 infertile cases. In addition, we performed a literature review and search of various databases. Validity of this questionnaire was conducted by knowledgeable experts who determined indices such as relevancy, clarity, and comprehensiveness. Reliability of the questionnaire was assessed based on the opinions of experts and infertile couples referred to Royan Institute. Results ATOD-O was designed in 52 statements that covered various issues such as the OD process, donor and recipient characteristics, as well as family, emotional, psychological, legal, religious, and socio-economic dimensions. Results were scored as five points: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (somewhat), 4 (agree), and 5 (strongly agree). The overall relevancy of the questionnaire was 97% and clarity was 96%. Overall comprehensiveness was 100%. Conclusion The findings from this preliminary validation study have indicated that ATOD-O is a valid measure for measuring and assessing attitude toward donated oocytes. This questionnaire can be used in studies regarding different groups of a society. PMID:26644863

  5. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    PubMed Central

    Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, “natural” pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored. PMID:25133168

  6. Targeting oocyte maturation to improve fertility in older women.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Johné

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive aging is an increasingly pressing problem facing women in modern society, due to delay in child bearing. According to Statistics Canada, 52% of all Canadian births in 2011 were by women aged 30 years and older, up from 24% in 1981 ( http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-209-x/2013001/article/11784-eng.htm ). Women older than 35 years of age experience significantly increased risks of infertility, miscarriage and congenital birth defects, mostly due to poor quality of the eggs. Increasingly sophisticated, and often invasive, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped millions of women to achieve reproductive success. However, by and large, ARTs do not address the fundamental issue of reproductive aging in women: age-related decline in egg quality. More importantly, ARTs are not, and will never be, the main solution for the general population. Here, I attempt to review the scientific literature on age-related egg quality decline, based mostly on studies in mice and in humans. Emphasis is given to the brief period of time called oocyte maturation, which occurs just prior to ovulation. The rationale for this emphasis is that oocyte maturation represents a critical window where unfavorable ovarian conditions in older females contribute significantly to the decline of egg quality, and that science-based intervention during oocyte maturation represents the best chance of improving egg quality in older women. Finally, I summarize our own work in recent years on peri-ovulatory putrescine supplementation as a possible remedy for reproductive aging. PMID:26329301

  7. The gametic synapse: RNA transfer to the bovine oocyte.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Angus D; Gilbert, Isabelle; Caballero, Julieta; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fournier, Eric; Tossou, Prudencio; Sirard, Marc-André; Clarke, Hugh J; Khandjian, Édouard W; Richard, Francois J; Hyttel, Poul; Robert, Claude

    2014-10-01

    Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build the reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between the gamete and the surrounding cells that is limited to paracrine signaling and direct transfer of small molecules via gap junctions existing at the end of the somatic cells' projections that are in contact with the oolemma. The purpose of this work was to explore the role of cumulus cell projections as a means of conductance of large molecules, including RNA, to the mammalian oocyte. By studying nascent RNA with confocal and transmission electron microscopy in combination with transcript detection, we show that the somatic cells surrounding the fully grown bovine oocyte contribute to the maternal reserves by actively transferring large cargo, including mRNA and long noncoding RNA. This occurrence was further demonstrated by the reconstruction of cumulus-oocyte complexes with transfected cumulus cells transferring a synthetic transcript. We propose selective transfer of transcripts occurs, the delivery of which is supported by a remarkable synapselike vesicular trafficking connection between the cumulus cells and the gamete. This unexpected exogenous contribution to the maternal stores offers a new perspective on the determinants of female fertility. PMID:25143353

  8. Lariat intronic RNAs in the cytoplasm of Xenopus tropicalis oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Talhouarne, Gaëlle J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the oocyte nucleus (germinal vesicle or GV) of Xenopus tropicalis contains a population of stable RNA molecules derived from the introns of most expressed genes. Here we show that similar stable intronic sequence (sis) RNAs occur in the oocyte cytoplasm. About 9000 cytoplasmic sisRNAs have been identified, all of which are resistant to the exonuclease RNase R. About half have been confirmed as lariat molecules and the rest are presumed to be lariats, whereas nuclear sisRNAs are a mixture of lariat and linear molecules. Cytoplasmic sisRNAs are more abundant on a molar basis than nuclear sisRNAs and are derived from short introns, mostly under 1 kb in length. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic sisRNAs are transmitted intact to the egg at GV breakdown and persist until at least the blastula stage of embryogenesis, when zygotic transcription begins. We compared cytoplasmic sisRNAs derived from orthologous genes of X. tropicalis and X. laevis, and found that the specific introns from which sisRNAs are derived are not conserved. The existence of sisRNAs in the cytoplasm of the oocyte, their transmission to the fertilized egg, and their persistence during early embryogenesis suggest that they might play a regulatory role in mRNA translation. PMID:25051970

  9. Characterization of the IGF2 Imprinted Gene Methylation Status in Bovine Oocytes during Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Anelise dos Santos; Guimarães, Ana Luíza Silva; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes; Franco, Maurício Machaim

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation reprogramming occurs during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Sex-specific DNA methylation patterns at specific CpG islands controlling imprinted genes are acquired during this window of development. Characterization of the DNA methylation dynamics of imprinted genes acquired by oocytes during folliculogenesis is essential for understanding the physiological and genetic aspects of female gametogenesis and to determine the parameters for oocyte competence. This knowledge can be used to improve in vitro embryo production (IVP), specifically because oocyte competence is one of the most important aspects determining the success of IVP. Imprinted genes, such as IGF2, play important roles in embryo development, placentation and fetal growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the DNA methylation profile of the CpG island located in IGF2 exon 10 in oocytes during bovine folliculogenesis. The methylation percentages in oocytes from primordial follicles, final secondary follicles, small antral follicles, large antral follicles, MII oocytes and spermatozoa were 73.74 ± 2.88%, 58.70 ± 7.46%, 56.00 ± 5.58%, 65.77 ± 5.10%, 56.35 ± 7.45% and 96.04 ± 0.78%, respectively. Oocytes from primordial follicles showed fewer hypomethylated alleles (15.5%) than MII oocytes (34.6%) (p = 0.039); spermatozoa showed only hypermethylated alleles. Moreover, MII oocytes were less methylated than spermatozoa (p<0.001). Our results showed that the methylation pattern of this region behaves differently between mature oocytes and spermatozoa. However, while this region has a classical imprinted pattern in spermatozoa that is fully methylated, it was variable in mature oocytes, showing hypermethylated and hypomethylated alleles. Furthermore, our results suggest that this CpG island may have received precocious reprogramming, considering that the hypermethylated pattern was already found in growing oocytes from primordial follicles. These results may contribute to our understanding of the reprogramming of imprinted genes during bovine oogenesis. PMID:26517264

  10. ?-endosulfine (ENSA) regulates exit from prophase I arrest in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Lauren M; Evans, Janice P

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes in ovarian follicles are arrested in meiosis at prophase I. This arrest is maintained until ovulation, upon which the oocyte exits from this arrest, progresses through meiosis I and to metaphase of meiosis II. The progression from prophase I to metaphase II, known as meiotic maturation, is mediated by signals that coordinate these transitions in the life of the oocyte. ENSA (?-endosulfine) and ARPP19 (cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-19) have emerged as regulators of M-phase, with function in inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Inhibition of PP2A maintains the phosphorylated state of CDK1 substrates, thus allowing progression into and/or maintenance of an M-phase state. We show here ENSA in mouse oocytes plays a key role in the progression from prophase I arrest into M-phase of meiosis I. The majority of ENSA-deficient oocytes fail to exit from prophase I arrest. This function of ENSA in oocytes is dependent on PP2A, and specifically on the regulatory subunit PPP2R2D (also known as B55?). Treatment of ENSA-deficient oocytes with Okadaic acid to inhibit PP2A rescues the defect in meiotic progression, with Okadaic acid-treated, ENSA-deficient oocytes being able to exit from prophase I arrest. Similarly, oocytes deficient in both ENSA and PPP2R2D are able to exit from prophase I arrest to an extent similar to wild-type oocytes. These data are evidence of a role for ENSA in regulating meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes, and also have potential relevance to human oocyte biology, as mouse and human have genes encoding both Arpp19 and Ensa. PMID:24675883

  11. ?-endosulfine (ENSA) regulates exit from prophase I arrest in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lauren M; Evans, Janice P

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes in ovarian follicles are arrested in meiosis at prophase I. This arrest is maintained until ovulation, upon which the oocyte exits from this arrest, progresses through meiosis I and to metaphase of meiosis II. The progression from prophase I to metaphase II, known as meiotic maturation, is mediated by signals that coordinate these transitions in the life of the oocyte. ENSA (?-endosulfine) and ARPP19 (cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-19) have emerged as regulators of M-phase, with function in inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Inhibition of PP2A maintains the phosphorylated state of CDK1 substrates, thus allowing progression into and/or maintenance of an M-phase state. We show here ENSA in mouse oocytes plays a key role in the progression from prophase I arrest into M-phase of meiosis I. The majority of ENSA-deficient oocytes fail to exit from prophase I arrest. This function of ENSA in oocytes is dependent on PP2A, and specifically on the regulatory subunit PPP2R2D (also known as B55?). Treatment of ENSA-deficient oocytes with Okadaic acid to inhibit PP2A rescues the defect in meiotic progression, with Okadaic acid-treated, ENSA-deficient oocytes being able to exit from prophase I arrest. Similarly, oocytes deficient in both ENSA and PPP2R2D are able to exit from prophase I arrest to an extent similar to wild-type oocytes. These data are evidence of a role for ENSA in regulating meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes, and also have potential relevance to human oocyte biology, as mouse and human have genes encoding both Arpp19 and Ensa. PMID:24675883

  12. Pregnancy and fertilization potential of immature oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Duck Sung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Dong-Wook; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature (metaphase I or germinal vesicle stage) oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Methods A total of 1,871 couples with infertility underwent 2,984 ICSI cycles. Cycles in which three or fewer oocytes were retrieved were included in this study in order to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature oocytes. Cycles were divided into five groups (group I-V), according to the maturation status of the oocytes at the time of cumulus cell removal and ICSI. The fertilization and pregnancy rates after ICSI were analyzed and compared among the study groups based on the maturation status of the retrieved oocytes. Results The retrieval of only immature oocytes was associated with a significant decrease in the fertilization rate (76.1%±37.3% vs. 49.0%±49.1%, 66.7%±48.7%; group I vs. group II, group III, respectively) and the average number of transferred embryos (1.5±0.7 vs. 1.1±0.4, 1.1±0.6). The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher when only immature oocytes were retrieved. The clinical pregnancy rate decreased significantly when the transferred embryos had originated from immature oocytes (16.9% vs. 10.3%, 1.2%). Conclusion In ICSI cycles, the fertilization potential and pregnancy potential of the immature oocytes retrieved in ICSI cycles were inferior to those of mature oocytes. Therefore, increasing the number of injectable oocytes and transferrable embryos by using immature oocytes after their spontaneous in vitro maturation does not necessarily improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26473112

  13. In Vitro Ovine Embryo Production: the Study of Seasonal and Oocyte Recovery Method Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Dashti, Saeed; Shamsi, Helia; Moghadam, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: To current knowledge, different oocyte's recovery method and various seasons have profound impact on in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Objectives: The aim of this study was to define an efficient recovery method for oocytes harvesting from slaughterhouse material in different seasons, and their effects on IVEP yield. Materials and Methods: Ovaries from slaughtered ewes in breeding season (BS) and non-breeding season (NBS) were collected from a local abattoir. The oocytes were recovered through aspiration, centrifugation (ORC), puncture and slicing, and categorized into three classes (I, oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells; II, less than three layers with damaged cumulus cells; III, denuded oocytes). After cultivation in TCM 199 for 24 hours, matured oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). The oocyte recovery using ORC in BS and NBS was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with other recovery methods. Results: No significant dissimilarities in the proportion of oocytes reaching M-II stage were recorded when using different oocyte recovery methods in different seasons. Aspiration resulted in lower (P < 0.05) proportion of class I (BS, 60.0 ± 2.1; NBS, 51.1 ± 2.1) compared to ORC (BS, 82.0 ± 1.2; NBS, 70.0 ± 1.2), slicing (BS, 80.0 ± 2.1; NBS, 71.0 ± 1.4) and puncture (BS, 80.0 ± 1.5; NBS, 72.0 ± 2.0). Monospermy and blastocyst development rates were significantly higher using ORC than other recovery techniques in both BS and NBS. More oocytes with high quality, greater blastocyst development and oocyte recovery rates were achieved in BS. Conclusions: The results revealed that oocytes harvesting technique and season are effective in the rate of cleavage and blastocysts’ development, and suggest that despite same meiotic resumption rate in all treatments, it would be better to use ORC. PMID:25593733

  14. Parthenogenic Blastocysts Derived from Cumulus-Free In Vitro Matured Human Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Sohyun L.; Byrne, James A.; Chavez, Shawn L.; Behr, Barry; Hsueh, Aaron J.; Westphal, Lynn M.; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of oocytes are classified as immature and discarded following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. These oocytes are obtained from gonadotropin-stimulated patients, and are routinely removed from the cumulus cells which normally would mature the oocytes. Given the ready access to these human oocytes, they represent a potential resource for both clinical and basic science application. However culture conditions for the maturation of cumulus-free oocytes have not been optimized. We aimed to improve maturation conditions for cumulus-free oocytes via culture with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors identified by single cell analysis. Methodology/Principal Finding Immature human oocytes were matured in vitro via supplementation with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors that were selected based on expression of ligands in the cumulus cells and their corresponding receptors in oocytes. Matured oocytes were artificially activated to assess developmental competence. Gene expression profiles of parthenotes were compared to IVF/ICSI embryos at morula and blastocyst stages. Following incubation in medium supplemented with ovarian factors (BDNF, IGF-I, estradiol, GDNF, FGF2 and leptin), a greater percentage of oocytes demonstrated nuclear maturation and subsequently, underwent parthenogenesis relative to control. Similarly, cytoplasmic maturation was also improved as indicated by development to blastocyst stage. Parthenogenic blastocysts exhibited mRNA expression profiles similar to those of blastocysts obtained after IVF/ICSI with the exception for MKLP2 and PEG1. Conclusions/Significance Human cumulus-free oocytes from hormone-stimulated cycles are capable of developing to blastocysts when cultured with ovarian factor supplementation. Our improved IVM culture conditions may be used for obtaining mature oocytes for clinical purposes and/or for derivation of embryonic stem cells following parthenogenesis or nuclear transfer. PMID:20539753

  15. Zinc deficiency during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes causes meiotic block and developmental failure.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Yoon, Junchul David; Cai, Lian; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Kim, Eunhye; Zheng, Zhong; Jeung, Euibae; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of zinc deficiency during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Zinc deficiency was induced by administering the membrane?permeable zinc chelator N,N,N',N'?tetrakis?(2?pyridylmethyl)?ethylendiamine (TPEN). First, the effects of zinc deficiency during IVM on a TPEN?treated group and a TPEN+zinc-treated group compared with a control group were assessed. The oocyte maturation rates and subsequent embryonic developmental competence of the TPEN+zinc?treated oocytes were similar to those of the control oocytes (metaphase II [MII] rate, 93.0 and 92.7%, respectively, and blastocyst [BL] formation rate, 42.0 and 40.0%, respectively). These results were significantly different from those obtained for the TPEN?treated oocytes (MII rate, 0.61%; BL formation rate, 0%). Although the TPEN?treated oocytes were arrested at metaphase I (MI), the distribution of microtubules was normal. However, microfilament formation was abnormal in the TPEN?treated oocytes. Furthermore, the effect of a temporary zinc deficiency during IVM on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development was assessed. TPEN (10 µM) was added to the IVM medium for 0, 7, 15 or 22 h. The 0 h?treated oocytes showed an 83.9% MII rate, while the 7 h?treated oocytes had a significantly lower MII rate (44.8%). Most of the 15- and 22 h?treated oocytes were arrested at MI (MI rate: 98.0 and 97.2%, respectively; MII rate, 0% in both groups). Reductions in the BL formation were dependent on the TPEN treatment duration (29.3, 9.2, 0, and 0% after 0, 7, 15 and 22 h, respectively). In conclusion, zinc is an essential element for successful oocyte maturation and embryonic development in pigs. Zinc deficiency caused a meiotic block and had lasting effects on early embryonic development. PMID:26238161

  16. Circadian clock speed increases during aging in the male Syrian hamster: A large-scale study.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    There are conflicting reports in the literature as to whether or not the circadian period in Syrian hamsters shortens with age, and those studies were conducted with small sample sizes. This report mines data from a large number of experiments resulting in more than 1000 measurements of circadian period in hamsters during aging up to 6 months, and this was correlated with both age and weight. Circadian period was calculated while hamsters were in running wheels in constant darkness. There is a weak correlation between hamster weight and circadian period, and there is significant shortening of circadian period during aging. PMID:26362117

  17. Isolation of two chloroethylnitrosourea-sensitive Chinese hamster cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, H.; Numata, M.; Tohda, H.; Yasui, A.; Oikawa, A. )

    1991-01-01

    1-((4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3- nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), a cancer chemotherapeutic bifunctional alkylating agent, causes chloroethylation of DNA and subsequent DNA strand cross-linking through an ethylene bridge. We isolated and characterized two ACNU-sensitive mutants from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary cells and found them to be new drug-sensitive recessive Chinese hamster mutants. Both mutants were sensitive to various monofunctional alkylating agents in a way similar to that of the parental cell lines CHO9. One mutant (UVS1) was cross-sensitive to UV and complemented the UV sensitivity of all Chinese hamster cell lines of 7 established complementation groups. Since UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis was very low, a new locus related to excision repair is thought to be defective in this cell line. Another ACNU-sensitive mutant, CNU1, was slightly more sensitive to UV than the parent cell line. CNU1 was cross-sensitive to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and slightly more sensitive to mitomycin C. No increased accumulation of ACNU and a low level of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in this cell as compared with the parental cell line suggest that there is abnormality in a repair response of this mutant cell to some types of DNA cross-links.

  18. Histogenesis of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster: ultrastructural evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Flaks, B.

    1984-06-01

    Pancreatic carcinogenesis in the Syrian hamster, induced by ..beta..-oxidized derivatives of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, constitutes a valuable model of human cancer of the exocrine pancreas. In both species the majority of tumors are adenocarcinomas: superficially, on the basis of their histological appearance, these appear to be ductal in origin. However, sequential analysis, by electron microscopy, of the development of pancreatic neoplasia in the hamster model indicates that acinar cells may participate in the histogenesis of ductal adenomas and carcinomas. Acinar cells appear to undergo changes in differentiation, including pseudoductular transformation, giving rise to a new population of cells that resemble ductular or centroacinar types. This new population may then proliferate to form, first, cystic foci and subsequently cytadenomas and adenocarcinomas. Mucous metaplasia appears to develop at late stages of tumor development. Although the participation of ductular and centroacinar cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis cannot be excluded, very few tumors arise from the ductal epithelium. It is possible that some human pancreatic adenocarcinomas may also have their origin from dysplastic acinar cells, by analogy with the hamster model: focal acinar dyplasia being common in human pancreatic cancer patients. 90 references, 18 figures.

  19. Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

  20. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  1. Melanin content of hamster tissues, human tissues, and various melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.P.; Fairchild, R.G.; Slatkin, D.N.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Hannon, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    Melanin content (percentage by weight) was determined in both pigmented and nonpigmented tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma. Melanin content was also measured in various other melanoma models (B-16 in C57 mice, Harding-Passey in BALB/c mice, and KHDD in C3H mice) and in nine human melanomas, as well as in selected normal tissues. The purpose was to evaluate the possible efficacy of chlorpromazine, which is known to bind to melanin, as a vehicle for boron transport in neutron capture therapy. Successful therapy would depend upon selective uptake and absolute concentration of borated compounds in tumors; these parameters will in turn depend upon melanin concentration in melanomas and nonpigmented ''background'' tissues. Hamster whole eyes, hamster melanomas, and other well-pigmented animal melanomas were found to contain 0.3 to 0.8% melanin by weight, whereas human melanomas varied from 0.1 to 0.9% (average, 0.35%). Other tissues, with the exception of skin, were lower in content by a factor of greater than or equal to30. Melanin pigment was extracted from tissues, and the melanin content was determined spectrophotometrically. Measurements were found to be sensitive to the presence of other proteins. Previous procedures for isolating and quantifying melanin often neglected the importance of removing proteins and other interfering nonmelanic substances.

  2. [Effect of taixian tablet on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Duan, K; Zheng, G; Li, B

    1998-05-01

    Eighty syrian hamsters were divided into 4 equal groups. The right buccal pouches of hamsters in group I and group II were painted three times weekly with 0.5% DMBA dissolved in acetone, but the hamsters in group I received 0.45 g Taixian tablet daily by mouth. The animals in group III only received 0.45 g Taixian tablet daily and group IV was control group. After 9, 12 weeks, animals were killed with their pouches excised, and tumors were counted and measured. The results showed; 1. Comparing with group II, the malignant rate of group I was lower after 9 weeks and the tumor volume was smaller after 12 weeks (P < 0.01); 2. It was found histologically many inflammatory cells locating in the epithelial layer and lamina propria of group I after 9 weeks, while only a few inflammatory cells in group II. The high differentiated squamous cell carcinoma could be seen in group I and group II after 12 weeks, but no abnormal changes in cervical lymphnodes and organs (lung, liver, spleen, et al) of all animals in 4 groups. It suggests that Taixian tablet can restrain the development of oral carcinogenesis. PMID:12214411

  3. Effects of sperm DNA damage on the levels of RAD51 and p53 proteins in zygotes and 2-cell embryos sired by golden hamsters without the major accessory sex glands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liao, Su-Bin; Cheung, May P L; Chow, Pak Ham; Cheung, Annie L M; O, Wai Sum

    2012-08-15

    We previously reported that the male accessory sex gland (ASG) secretion is the main source of antioxidants to safeguard sperm genomic integrity and functional competence. Removal of all ASGs in the golden hamster can reduce male fertility by increasing embryo wastage. This study aims to investigate whether the oxidative DNA-damaged sperm from hamsters without all ASGs (TX) could successfully fertilize oocytes and to qualify the status of DNA repair by the expression of RAD51 and p53 proteins. Here we demonstrated a significantly higher DNA-base adduct formation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) in sperm from TX males than those from sham-operated males. Comet assays demonstrated that all female pronuclei in both zygotes were intact, but single- and double-strand DNA damage was found in decondensed sperm in TX males only. DNA damage could also be detected in both nuclei of the TX 2-cell embryos. RAD51, a DNA repair enzyme, was found to be evenly distributed in the cytoplasm and nuclei in oocytes/zygotes, while at the 2-cell stage, a strong expression of p53 protein and a larger clear perinuclear area without RAD51 expression were found in TX embryos. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time DNA damage in decondensed sperm of zygotes and blastomeres of 2-cell stage embryos sired by TX males, resulting in the activation of DNA repair. Sperm DNA damage could induce the increase in p53 expression and the reduction of RAD51 expression in the TX 2-cell stage embryos. PMID:22705368

  4. Mars surface penetrator: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, L. A. (editor)

    1977-01-01

    A point design of a penetrator system for a Mars mission is described. A strawman payload which is to conduct measurements of geophysical and meteorological parameters is included in the design. The subsystems used in the point design are delineated in terms of power, mass, volume, data, and functional modes. The prospects for survival of the rigors of emplacement are described. Data handling and communications plans are presented to allow consideration of the requirements placed by the penetrator on the orbiter and ground operations. The point design is technically feasible and the payload selection scientifically desirable.

  5. Direct Real-Time Measurement of Intra-Oocyte Nitric Oxide Concentration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Goud, Pravin T.; Goud, Anuradha P.; Najafi, Tohid; Gonik, Bernard; Diamond, Michael P.; Saed, Ghassan M.; Zhang, Xueji; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is reported to play significant a role in oocyte activation and maturation, implantation, and early embryonic development. Previously we have shown that NO forms an important component of the oocyte microenvironment, and functions effectively to delay oocyte aging. Thus, precise information about intra-oocyte NO concentrations [NO] will result in designing more accurate treatment plans in assisted reproduction. In this work, the direct, real-time and quantitative intra-oocyte [NO] was measured utilizing an L-shaped amperometric integrated NO-selective electrode. This method not only provides an elegant and convenient approach to real-time the measurement of NO in physiological environments, but also mimics the loss of NO caused by rapid NO diffusion combined with its reactivity in the biological milieu. This experiment suggests that the NO levels of oocytes obtained from young animals are significantly higher than those of oocytes obtained from old animals. Additionally the NO levels stay constant during the measurements; however, the intra-oocyte [NO] is reduced significantly (70–75% reduction) in response to L-NAME incubation, suggesting that NO measurements are truly NOS based rather than caused by an unknown interfering substance in our system. We believe this first demonstration of the direct quantitative measurement of [NO] in situ in an intact cellular complex should be useful in tracking real-time and rapid changes at nanomolar levels. Moreover, this finding confirms and extends our previous work showing that supplementation with NO delays the oocyte aging process. PMID:24887331

  6. Live Birth from Slow-Frozen Rabbit Oocytes after In Vivo Fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Trigos, Estrella; Vicente, José S.; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In vivo fertilisation techniques such as intraoviductal oocyte transfer have been considered as alternatives to bypass the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilisation in rabbit. There is only one study in the literature, published in 1989, that reports live offspring from cryopreserved rabbit oocytes. The aim of the present study was to establish the in vivo fertilisation procedure to generate live offspring with frozen oocytes. First, the effect of two recipient models (i) ovariectomised or (ii) oviduct ligated immediately after transfer on the ability of fresh oocytes to fertilise were compared. Second, generation of live offspring from slow-frozen oocytes was carried out using the ligated oviduct recipient model. Throughout the experiment, recipients were artificially inseminated 9 hours prior to oocyte transfer. In the first experiment, two days after unilateral transfer of fresh oocytes, oviducts and uterine horns were flushed to assess embryo recovery rates. The embryo recovery rates were low compared to control in both ovariectomised and ligated oviduct groups. However, ligated oviduct recipient showed significantly (P<0.05) higher embryo recovery rates compared to ovariectomised and control-transferred. In the second experiment, using bilateral oviduct ligation model, all females that received slow-frozen oocytes became pregnant and delivered a total of 4 live young naturally. Thus, in vivo fertilisation is an effective technique to generate live offspring using slow-frozen oocytes in rabbits. PMID:24358281

  7. Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 Inhibits the WNT Signaling Pathway and Improves Pig Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Spate, Lee D.; Brown, Alana N.; Redel, Bethany K.; Whitworth, Kristin M.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Prather, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to mature oocytes in vitro provides a tool for creating embryos by parthenogenesis, fertilization, and cloning. Unfortunately the quality of oocytes matured in vitro falls behind that of in vivo matured oocytes. To address this difference, transcriptional profiling by deep sequencing was conducted on pig oocytes that were either matured in vitro or in vivo. Alignment of over 18 million reads identified 1,316 transcripts that were differentially represented. One pathway that was overrepresented in the oocytes matured in vitro was for Wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) signaling. In an attempt to inhibit the WNT pathway, Dickkopf-related protein 1 was added to the in vitro maturation medium. Addition of Dickkopf-related protein 1 improved the percentage of oocytes that matured to the metaphase II stage, increased the number of nuclei in the resulting blastocyst stage embryos, and reduced the amount of disheveled segment polarity protein 1 protein in oocytes. It is concluded that transcriptional profiling is a powerful method for detecting differences between in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes, and that the WNT signaling pathway is important for proper oocyte maturation. PMID:24739947

  8. The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Tao

    2011-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

  9. Multiple aster formation is frequently observed in bovine oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Tagiri, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2016-02-01

    We have recently reported that multiple aster formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was one of the factors that negatively affected the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine matured oocytes, and that short-term culture of the post-warm oocytes with an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) suppressed the multiple aster formation and improved the blastocyst yield. The present study was conducted to investigate whether increased multiple aster formation following IVF was involved in impaired developmental competence of stored ovary-derived bovine oocytes. Oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries had lower developmental potential to day 8 blastocysts when compared with those from fresh ovaries (37 versus 63%). Immunostaining of ?-tubulin 10 h post-IVF revealed that a higher incidence of multiple aster formation occurred in oocytes retrieved from stored ovaries than from fresh ovaries (31 versus 15%). Treatment of post-in vitro maturated (post-IVM) oocytes with ROCK inhibitor for 2 h significantly suppressed the incidence of multiple aster formation (10 versus 32% in the control group). However, the suppression effect of ROCK inhibitor on multiple aster formation in IVM/IVF oocytes did not improve blastocyst yield from stored ovary-derived oocytes (41 versus 37% in the control group). These results suggested that the higher incidence of multiple aster formation by bovine ovary storage was not responsible for the decreased developmental competence of IVF oocytes. PMID:25732862

  10. Effect of Acrylamide on Oocyte Nuclear Maturation and Cumulus Cells Apoptosis in Mouse In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuzhen; Jiang, Ligang; Zhong, Tao; Kong, Shuhui; Zheng, Rongbin; Kong, Fengyun; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Lei; An, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical compound with severe neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. Recent studies showed that ACR impairs the function of reproductive organs, e.g., epididymis and testes. In vitro maturation of mouse oocyte is a sensitive assay to identify potential chemical hazard to female fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of ACR on the nuclear maturation and cumulus cells apoptosis of mouse oocytes in vitro. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were incubated in a maturation medium containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 ?M of ACR. Chromosome alignment and spindle morphology of oocytes was determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that oocytes exposed to different doses of ACR in vitro were associated with a significant decrease of oocyte maturation, significant increase of chromosome misalignment rate, occurrence of abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of oocyte parthenogenetic activation. Furthermore, apoptosis of cumulus cells was determined by TUNEL and CASPASE-3 assay. Results showed that apoptosis in cumulus cells was enhanced and the expression of CASPASE-3 was increased after cumulus–oocyte complexes were exposed to ACR. Therefore, ACR may affect the nuclear maturation of oocytes via the apoptosis of cumulus cells in vitro. PMID:26275143

  11. Imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes in mammalian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Tanino, Motohiko; Matoba, Ryo; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Oocytes have unique characteristics compared with other cell types. In mouse and human oocytes, two X chromosomes are maintained in the active state. Previous microarray studies have shown that the balance of the expression state is maintained in haploid oocytes. Here, we investigated transcripts using RNA-sequence technology in mouse and human oocytes. The median expression ratio between X chromosome and autosomal genes (X:A) in immature mouse oocytes increased as the gene expression levels increased, reaching a value of 1. However, the ratio in mature oocytes was under 1 for all expression categories. Moreover, we observed a markedly low ratio resulting from the bimodal expression patterns of X–linked genes. The low X:A expression ratio in mature oocyte was independent of DNA methylation. While mature human oocytes exhibited a slightly low X:A expression ratio, this was the result of the skewed high frequency of lowly expressed X-linked genes rather than the bimodal state. We propose that this imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes is a feature of transcripts in mammalian oocytes lacking X-chromosome inactivation. PMID:26370379

  12. Extrafollicular mediation of oocyte maturation by radial nerve factor in starfish Pisaster ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, A W

    2000-11-01

    In starfish ovaries follicle cells that envelop each oocyte are thought to mediate the production of a maturation inducing substance (MIS), identified as 1-methyladenine, that induces maturation and spawning of oocytes after exposure to a gonadotropic substance secreted by the radial nerve (RNF). Studies were carried out to assess the possible role of extrafollicular cells within the ovarian wall in mediating this signal transduction process in the ovary of Pisaster ochraceus. Oocyte maturation and spawning occurred following the addition of RNF to intact ovarian tissue in vitro whereas no maturation occurred following the addition of RNF to germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes or GV oocytes surrounded by follicle cells. In contrast, oocyte maturation occurred when small ovarian wall fragments, lacking mature follicles, were incubated with GV oocytes and RNF. Neither actinomycin D nor cycloheximide altered RNF induction of oocyte maturation in the presence of the ovarian wall tissue whereas preheating (boiling water for 5 min) the tissue obliterated its response to RNF. Non-ovarian tissues failed to produce MIS in response to RNF. Results suggest that ovarian components other than the follicle cells that envelop fully grown immature oocyte are responsive to RNF and represent a significant and previously unrecognised intra-ovarian source of MIS. PMID:11108557

  13. Progesterone plays a critical role in canine oocyte maturation and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Karine; Saint-Dizier, Marie; Tahir, Muhammad Zahid; Havard, Tiphaine; Harichaux, Grégoire; Labas, Valérie; Thoumire, Sandra; Fontbonne, Alain; Grimard, Bénédicte; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Canine oocyte maturation and fertilization take place within the oviducts under increasing plasma levels of progesterone (P4). In order to investigate the role of P4 in these processes, 51 beagle bitches were treated with the P4 receptor antagonist aglepristone at the end of proestrus and 32 females were kept untreated. Fifteen treated and 13 control bitches were inseminated at Days +1 and +2 after ovulation (Day 0). Stages of oocyte maturation and embryo development were determined after ovariectomy at different time points after ovulation. Aglepristone did not prevent ovulation but delayed the resumption of oocyte meiosis and inhibited its progression: first metaphase I (MI) stage was observed at 173 h postovulation and 39% of oocytes reached MII as late as 335 h postovulation in treated females whereas first MI occurred at 76 h and 100% of oocytes were in MII at 109 h postovulation in controls. Aglepristone extended the stay of morphologically normal oocytes within the oviducts: first signs of oocyte degeneration were observed at 335 h in treated versus 100- to 110-h postovulation in control bitches. In inseminated females, aglepristone prevented sperm progression toward the oviducts and fertilization, although motile spermatozoa were observed in the uterine tip flush and within the cranial uterine glands. A proteomic analysis of the tubal fluid from treated and control noninseminated bitches at Day +4 found evidence of 79 differential proteins potentially involved in the oocyte phenotype. In conclusion, P4 plays key roles in postovulatory canine oocyte maturation, aging, and in fertilization. PMID:26333993

  14. Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Localization of the Chinese hamster CAD gene reveals homology between human chromosome 2p and Chinese hamster 7q

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, L.; Attolini, C.; Giulotto, E. ); Simi, S. )

    1993-06-01

    The trifunctional enzyme CAD catalyzes the first three steps of pyrimidine biosynthesis. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization the authors have localized the Chinese hamster CAD gene on chromosome 7q11-q13 of diploid fibroblasts. Other genes previously assigned to chromosome 7 include acid phosphatase-1, the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and ornithine decarboxylase. These genes are also syntenic with CAD on human chromosome 2p. They have then mapped CAD on the pericentromeric region of two different rearranged chromosomes (Z8p and R2q) in a cell line derived from Chinese hamster ovary. The presence of CAD on Z8 and R2 indicates that they derive from rearrangements involving chromosome 7. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 ?g/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 ?g/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+)] or not [Micronucleus- injected (?)] to a transgene (50 ng/?l pCX-EGFP) during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+)] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+)] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/?l pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (?)] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 ?M ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (?), Parthenogenetic (?) and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher?s exact test (p?0.05). Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had fewer than 15 chromosomes per blastomere (from 1 to 13), while none of the IVF and Parthenogenetic controls showed less than 30 chromosomes per spread. Conclusions We have developed a new method to replicate somatic micronuclei, by using the replication machinery of the oocyte. This could be a useful tool for making chromosome transfer, which could be previously targeted for transgenesis. PMID:23173571

  17. Translocation and Endocytosis for Cell-penetrating Peptide Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Chen-Yu; Delaroche, Diane; Burlina, Fabienne; Alves, Isabel D.; Chassaing, Gérard; Sagan, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) share the property of cellular internalization. The question of how these peptides reach the cytoplasm of cells is still widely debated. Herein, we have used a mass spectrometry-based method that enables quantification of internalized and membrane-bound peptides. Internalization of the most used CPP was studied at 37 °C (endocytosis and translocation) and 4 °C (translocation) in wild type and proteoglycan-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both translocation and endocytosis are internalization pathways used by CPP. The choice of one pathway versus the other depends on the peptide sequence (not the number of positive changes), the extracellular peptide concentration, and the membrane components. There is no relationship between the high affinity of these peptides for the cell membrane and their internalization efficacy. Translocation occurs at low extracellular peptide concentration, whereas endocytosis, a saturable and cooperative phenomenon, is activated at higher concentrations. Translocation operates in a narrow time window, which implies a specific lipid/peptide co-import in cells. PMID:19833724

  18. Long-term radioimmunotherapy studies of Cu-64 anti-colon carcinoma monoclonal antibody (MAb)-1A3, intact and F(ab{prime}){sub 2} singly and in combination, in the GW39-hamster model

    SciTech Connect

    Connett, J.M.; Anderson, C.J.; Guo, L.W.

    1996-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that Cu-64 has potential for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The present study was undertaken to examine the therapeutic potential of Cu-64-benzyl-TETA-MAb 1A3, intact and F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragments, injected single or in combination. Using the model of hamsters carrying the GW39 human colon carcinoma in their thighs, we were interested in whether injecting Cu-64-MAb 1A3 intact and F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragments together would give improved RIT results compared to either agent alone due to the better tumor penetrating properties of F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragments and the higher uptake and long tumor residence time of intact MAbs. Hamsters were injected with either 1.5 mCi Cu-64-1A3, 1.5 mCi Cu-64-1A3 F(ab{prime}){sub 2} or a combination of 0.75 mCi Cu-64-1A3 intact and 0.75 mCi Cu-64-1A3 F(ab{prime}){sub 2}. These suboptimal doses of Cu-64 were administered in order to detect any enhanced RIT effects with the combination of Cu-64-labeled MAb and fragments. Control groups received saline along. Hamsters were sacrificed when tumors were > 10 g or after surviving for 6 months. Mean lifespans for hamsters treated with Cu-64-1A3 intact, F(ab{prime}){sub 2}, and the combination were 92 {plus_minus} 44 days, 104 {plus_minus} 54 days and 129 {plus_minus} 48 days respectively, compared to 32 {plus_minus} 5 days for the saline controls (p,0.001). 6 months following treatment 43% of the hamsters (3/7) treated with 1.5 mCi Cu-64 1A3 F(ab{prime}){sub 2}, and 50% of hamsters (5/10) treated with 0.75 mCi Cu-64-1A3 and 0.75 mCi Cu-64-1A3 F(ab{prime}){sub 2} in combination were alive and tumor free. Although tumor grown inhibition was also seen in the group receiving 1.5 mCi Cu-64 1A3 intact, only one hamster (1/7) survived tumor free to 6 months. Results show that Cu-64-1A3 F(ab{prime}){sub 2} as well as intact Cu-64-1A3 can increase survival and effect long term tumor inhibition.

  19. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  20. Magnetically-Guided Penetrant Applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Orlando G.

    1990-01-01

    Small wheeled vehicle moved inside nonmagnetic enclosure. Miniature magnetically guided truck uses foam-rubber sponge pads to apply penetrant fluid for inspection of welds in hidden surfaces of nonmagnetic tubes. Risk of explosion less than if electric motor used to drive vehicle. Inexpensive to make and made in range of sizes.

  1. Sequencing, Annotation and Analysis of the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Tchitchek, Nicolas; Safronetz, David; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Martens, Craig; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus) is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species. Results A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons). This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species. Conclusions This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies. PMID:25398096

  2. Penetration below a convective zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlburt, Neal E.; Toomre, Juri; Massaguer, Josep M.; Zahn, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to investigate how fully compressible nonlinear convection penetrates into a stably stratified zone beneath a stellar convection zone. Estimates are obtained of the extent of penetration as the relative stability S of the stable to the unstable zone is varied over a broad range. The model deals with a perfect gas possessing a constant dynamic viscosity. The dynamics is dominated by downward-directed plumes which can extend far into the stable material and which can lead to the excitation of a broad spectrum of internal gravity waves in the lower stable zone. The convection is highly time dependent, with the close coupling between the lateral swaying of the plumes and the internal gravity waves they generate serving to modulate the strength of the convection. The depth of penetration delta, determined by the position where the time-averaged kinetic flux has its first zero in the stable layer, is controlled by a balance between the kinetic energy carried into the stable layer by the plumes and the buoyancy braking they experience there. A passive scalar is introduced into the unstable layer to evaluate the transport of chemical species downward. Such a tracer is effectively mixed within a few convective overturning times down to a depth of delta within the stable layer. Analytical estimates based on simple scaling laws are used to interpret the variation of delta with S, showing that it first involves an interval of adiabatic penetration if the local Peclet number of the convection exceeds unity, followed by a further thermal adjustment layer, the depths of each interval scaling in turn as S(exp -1) and S(exp -1/4). These estimates are in accord with the penetration results from the simulations.

  3. Arachidonic and Linoleic Acid Derivatives Impact Oocyte ICSI Fertilization – A Prospective Analysis of Follicular Fluid and a Matched Oocyte in a ‘One Follicle – One Retrieved Oocyte – One Resulting Embryo’ Investigational Setting

    PubMed Central

    B?czkowski, Tomasz; Drozd, Arleta; Kazienko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate human oocyte ability to undergo fertilization and subsequent preimplantation embryonic development in relation to a wide panel of follicular fluid (FF) arachidonic acid derivatives (AAD) and linoleic acid derivatives (LAD) of prospectively selected patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methodology Study was designed as a two center (a university clinic and a private clinic) prospective study. 54 women of 181 consecutive couples undergoing ICSI were prospectively found to be eligible for analysis. 'One follicle – one retrieved oocyte – one resulting embryo' approach was used. Each individual follicle was aspirated independently and matched to an oocyte growing in this particular follicular milieu. FF samples were assessed for AAD and LAD by high-performance liquid chromatography; additionally, activity of secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Principal Findings Increased activity of sPLA2 and significantly higher AAD and LAD levels were found in FF of oocytes that did not show two pronuclei or underwent degeneration after ICSI in comparison to oocytes with the appearance of two pronuclei. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis identified acids with the highest sensitivity and specificity: 5oxo-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic, 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic, 9-hydroxyoctadecadieneoic and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic. No significant differences between AAD and LAD related to embryo quality were found. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated concentrations of AAD and LAD in FF at the time of oocyte retrieval significantly decrease the ability of oocytes to form pronuclei after ICSI. This may serve as a new tool for non-invasive assessment of oocyte developmental capacity. However, levels of AAD and LAD are not associated with subsequent embryo quality or pregnancy rate, and therefore more studies are needed to determine their usefulness in human IVF procedure. PMID:25763593

  4. Develop to Term Rat Oocytes Injected with Heat-Dried Sperm Heads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Bon; Park, Ki-Eun; Kwon, In-Kiu; Tripurani, Swamy K.; Kim, Keun Jung; Lee, Ji Hye; Niwa, Koji; Kim, Min Kyu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of rat oocytes in vitro and in vivo following intracytoplasmic injection of heads from spermatozoa heat-dried at 50°C for 8 h and stored at 4°C in different gas phases. Sperm membrane and chromosome are damaged by the process of heat-drying. Oocyte activation and cleavage of oocytes were worse in oocytes injected with spermatozoa heat-dried and stored for 1 week than unheated, fresh spermatozoa, but in heat-dried spermatozoa, there were no differences in these abilities of oocytes between the samples stored in nitrogen gas and in air. The oocytes injected with heat-dried spermatozoa stored for 1 week could develop to the morula and blastocyst stages without difference between the samples stored in nitrogen gas and in air after artificial stimulation. Cleavage of oocytes and development of cleaved embryos were higher when heat-dried spermatozoa were stored for 3 and 6 months in nitrogen gas than in air. However, the ability of injected oocytes to develop to the morula and blastocyst stages was not inhibited even when heat-dried spermatozoa stored in both atmosphere conditions for as long as 6 months were used. When 2-cell embryos derived from oocytes injected with heads from spermatozoa heat-dried and stored for 1 week and 1 month were transferred, each 1 of 4 recipients was conceived, and the conceived recipients delivered 1 live young each. These results demonstrate that rat oocytes can be fertilized with heat-dried spermatozoa and that the fertilized oocytes can develop to term. PMID:24223784

  5. Microtubulin configuration and mitochondrial distribution after ultra-rapid cooling of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rho, Gyu-Jin; Kim, Sena; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Balasubramanian, S; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Choe, Sang-Yong

    2002-12-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes, as a consequence of poor development of cryopreserved bovine oocytes in vitro, in order to enhance the application of genetic engineering. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the viability and ultra-structural changes of bovine oocytes cryopreserved by ultra rapid cooling methods. Oocytes that had been allowed to mature for 22 hr were exposed to a mixture of cryoprotectants (3.2 M ethylene glycol, 2.36 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 0.6 M sucrose), and were cryopreserved by very rapid cooling either within glass capillaries or as droplets on copper electron microscope grids. After being warmed, the oocytes were cultured in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium for an additional 2 hr. Viability was assessed by determining the development rate after fertilization with frozen-thawed semen from which motile sperm had been recovered using a Percoll density gradient, and by immunochemical evaluation of microtubule and mitochondrial morphology. Cleavage and development rates were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in oocytes cryopreserved by vitrification than in in vitro fertilization (IVF) control group, but did not differ in the open-pulled glass (OPG) or copper grid (CG) groups. In most oocytes cryopreserved by vitrification, the microtubules were partially or completely broken. Similarly mitochondria appeared to be abnormal compared to that of unfrozen oocytes. Oocytes cultured in IVM medium supplemented with both cytochalasin B (a protein synthesis inhibitor) and 2-mercaptoethanol (an antioxidant) showed less damage to microtubules, but not to mitochondria after cryopreservation. In conclusion, this study showed that bovine oocytes can be cryopreserved by vitrification within small droplets using CGs. While damage to microtubules and mitochondria may be involved in reduced viability, supplementation of IVM medium with cytochalasin B appears to enhance stabilization of microtubules during oocyte cryopreservation. PMID:12412049

  6. What Number of Oocytes Is Appropriate for Defining Poor Ovarian Response?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study attempted to derive an objective and sophisticated definition of poor ovarian response (POR). Materials and Methods A total of 176 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles (137 patients) with conventional ovarian stimulation during 2009 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Optimal oocyte number (total or mature) was determined by statistics-based (distribution of oocyte number) and prognosis-based approaches (prediction for IVF outcome). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to show what number of oocytes could predict IVF pregnancy and whether clinical and laboratory variables could predict newly defined POR. Results The 25th percentile of the distribution corresponded to total oocytes ?2 and mature oocyte ?1. The cut-off values for the prediction of IVF outcomes were total oocytes >5 and mature oocyte >1. Considering the incidence of POR (34.1%), a reasonable definition of POR was decided as total oocytes ?2 or mature oocyte ?1. For the prediction of this new definition, the extreme cut-off value (by setting a false positive rate of 5%) of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was ?0.76 ng/mL, which was better than serum follicle stimulating hormone or age. A new simple definition of POR was derived as total oocytes ?2 or mature oocyte ?1 in a previous cycle or a serum AMH level of ?0.76 ng/mL. When this simple criterion was re-applied to our data, the predictive performance was similar to the Bologna criteria. Conclusion We here propose a new definition of POR, which is simple and supported by statistical and prognostic analyses. PMID:25683999

  7. Subcellular Characterization of Porcine Oocytes with Different Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Ren, Liang; Liu, Di; Ma, Jian-Zhang; An, Tie-Zhu; Yang, Xiu-Qin; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dong-Jie; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Yun-Yun; Zhu, Meng; Bai, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro maturation (IVM) efficiency of porcine embryos is still low because of poor oocyte quality. Although brilliant cresyl blue positive (BCB+) oocytes with low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity have shown superior quality than BCB negative (-) oocytes with high G6PDH activity, the use of a BCB staining test before IVM is still controversial. This study aimed to shed more light on the subcellular characteristics of porcine oocytes after selection using BCB staining. We assessed germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, cortical granule (CG) migration, mitochondrial distribution, the levels of acetylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (AcH3K9) and nuclear apoptosis features to investigate the correlation between G6PDH activity and these developmentally related features. A pattern of chromatin surrounding the nucleoli was seen in 53.0% of BCB+ oocytes and 77.6% of BCB+ oocytes showed peripherally distributed CGs. After IVM, 48.7% of BCB+ oocytes had a diffused mitochondrial distribution pattern. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of AcH3K9 in the nuclei of blastocysts derived from BCB+ and BCB- oocytes; at the same time, we observed a similar incidence of apoptosis in the BCB+ and control groups. Although this study indicated that G6PDH activity in porcine oocytes was correlated with several subcellular characteristics such as germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, CG migration and mitochondrial distribution, other features such as AcH3K9 level and nuclear apoptotic features were not associated with G6PDH activity and did not validate the BCB staining test. In using this test for selecting porcine oocytes, subcellular characteristics such as the AcH3K9 level and apoptotic nuclear features should also be considered. Adding histone deacetylase inhibitors or apoptosis inhibitors into the culture medium used might improve the efficiency of IVM of BCB+ oocytes. PMID:26580437

  8. Expression of mammalian beta-adrenergic receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bahouth, S.W.; Malbon, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    Xenopus laevis oocytes are a useful transcription and expression system for DNA and RNA, respectively. Total cellular RNA was extracted from mouse lymphoma S49 cells and poly(A)/sup +/mRNA prepared by affinity chromatography of RNA on oligo(dT) cellulose. The membranes of S49 cells contain beta-adrenergic receptors that display pharmacological characteristics of beta/sub 2/-subtype. Xenopus laevis oocytes were injected with 50 ng of mRNA/oocyte. Expression of beta-adrenergic receptors in oocytes incubated for 30 hr after microinjection was assessed in membranes by radioligand binding using (/sup 3/H) dihydroalprenolol. The injected oocytes displayed 0.34 fmol receptor/oocyte as compared to 0.02 fmol receptor/oocyte in the control oocytes. The affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors in injected oocytes for this radioligand was 2 nM, a value similar to the affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors for DHA in S49 cell membranes. The potency of beta-adrenergic agonists in competing for DHA binding to oocytes membranes was isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepineprine, indicating that the expressed beta-adrenergic receptors were of the beta/sub 2/-subtype. The K/sub I/ of these agonists for the beta-adrenergic receptor in oocyte membranes was 0.03, 0.15 and 1.2 ..mu..M, respectively. The role of post-translational modification in dictating receptor subtype is analyzed using mRNA of beta/sub 1/- as well as beta/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors.

  9. Subcellular Characterization of Porcine Oocytes with Different Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bo; Ren, Liang; Liu, Di; Ma, Jian-Zhang; An, Tie-Zhu; Yang, Xiu-Qin; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dong-Jie; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Yun-Yun; Zhu, Meng; Bai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro maturation (IVM) efficiency of porcine embryos is still low because of poor oocyte quality. Although brilliant cresyl blue positive (BCB+) oocytes with low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity have shown superior quality than BCB negative (?) oocytes with high G6PDH activity, the use of a BCB staining test before IVM is still controversial. This study aimed to shed more light on the subcellular characteristics of porcine oocytes after selection using BCB staining. We assessed germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, cortical granule (CG) migration, mitochondrial distribution, the levels of acetylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (AcH3K9) and nuclear apoptosis features to investigate the correlation between G6PDH activity and these developmentally related features. A pattern of chromatin surrounding the nucleoli was seen in 53.0% of BCB+ oocytes and 77.6% of BCB+ oocytes showed peripherally distributed CGs. After IVM, 48.7% of BCB+ oocytes had a diffused mitochondrial distribution pattern. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of AcH3K9 in the nuclei of blastocysts derived from BCB+ and BCB? oocytes; at the same time, we observed a similar incidence of apoptosis in the BCB+ and control groups. Although this study indicated that G6PDH activity in porcine oocytes was correlated with several subcellular characteristics such as germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, CG migration and mitochondrial distribution, other features such as AcH3K9 level and nuclear apoptotic features were not associated with G6PDH activity and did not validate the BCB staining test. In using this test for selecting porcine oocytes, subcellular characteristics such as the AcH3K9 level and apoptotic nuclear features should also be considered. Adding histone deacetylase inhibitors or apoptosis inhibitors into the culture medium used might improve the efficiency of IVM of BCB+ oocytes. PMID:26580437

  10. CONCENTRATION DEPENDENT ACCUMULATION OF [3H]-DELTAMETHRIN IN SODIUM CHANNEL N AV1.2 EXPRESSING XENOPUS LAEVIS OOCYTES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of neuronal voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) by pyrethroid insecticides such as deltamethrin (DLT) has been widely studied using Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with VSSC. However, the extent of pyrethroid accumulation in VSSC-expressing oocytes is unknown....

  11. Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Khaki1, Amir; Batavani, Rouzali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Tahmasbian, Hamid; Belbasi, Abolfazl; Mokarizadeh, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 22 µg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH), 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 1 ?g/ml oestradiol, 50 ?g/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control), 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes) were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 ?l droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5?C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the percentage of oocytes apoptosis was 9.83, 9.54, 9.93, and 10.42%, respectively. Our results showed that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to buffalo IVM medium increased oocyte maturation, significantly, as compared with that in control group. However, addition of leptin to IVM medium had no significant influence on buffalo oocyte apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptos Conclusion: Our findings suggested that addition of 10 ng/ml leptin to IVM medium of buffalo oocyte can improve oocyte nuclear maturation. Furthermore, we showed that there is no relation between in vitro addition of leptin to buffalo oocyte IVM medium and oocyte apoptosis. PMID:24696768

  12. Differences Between Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Preference for the Sole Diet That

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Differences Between Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicusMaster University D. DiBattista (2002) reported that hamsters but not rats showed reduced preferences for the sole. The authors found that like golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), rats exhibited reduced preferences

  13. A 300,000-mol-wt Intermediate Filament-associated Protein in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21)Cells

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Robert D.

    A 300,000-mol-wt Intermediate Filament-associated Protein in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21)Cells HSI) preparations from the baby hamster kidney fibroblastic cell line (BHK-21) contain a number of minor antiserum against the 54,000- and 55,000-mol-wt BHK IF structural proteins; BHK cells, baby hamster kidney

  14. Expression and characterization of Syrian golden hamster p16, a homologue of human tumor suppressor p16INK4A

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Ming-Daw

    Expression and characterization of Syrian golden hamster p16, a homologue of human tumor suppressor hamsters have been demonstrated to share many morphologic and biological similarities with human pancreatic of this study was to investigate the fundamental biochemistry of hamster P16 protein. Using both in vivo

  15. The role of androgens in the mediation of seasonal territorial aggression in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    The role of androgens in the mediation of seasonal territorial aggression in male Siberian hamsters mechanisms mediating seasonal aggression. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) are an ideal study system that circulating gonadal steroids are not necessary to activate aggressive behavior in adult male hamsters. Further

  16. Changing P2X receptor localization on maturing sperm in the epididymides of mice, hamsters, rats, and

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    Changing P2X receptor localization on maturing sperm in the epididymides of mice, hamsters, rats on the head of imma- ture sperm in the human, mouse, hamster, and rat caput epididymidis. Design: Basic, mouse, hamster, and rat caput epididymidis. P2X4 receptor immunos- taining was also observed on the head

  17. The role of Period1 in non-photic resetting of the hamster circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    E-print Network

    Silver, Rae

    The role of Period1 in non-photic resetting of the hamster circadian pacemaker consistent with the non- photic phase response curve. Adult male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) obtained sacrificed. In this case, hamsters transferred to DD were placed in cages equipped with running wheels

  18. Exposure to short days, but not short-term melatonin, enhances humoral immunity of male Syrian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Introduction In addition to marked seasonal changes in reproductive species (e.g. deer mice, prairie voles, Siberian hamsters) adjust immune function in response to changes function of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and to determine the role of melatonin in mediating

  19. Short-day increases in aggression are independent of circulating gonadal steroids in female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) Melissa-Ann L. Scotti a,, Ned J. Place b , Gregory E. Demas, male Syrian and Siberian hamsters held in short days express heightened levels of aggression Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Studies were undertaken to determine female levels of aggression

  20. AMS 102: QUIZ 3 In the town of Rodentville, half of the households own a hamster, 30%

    E-print Network

    Retakh, Alexander

    AMS 102: QUIZ 3 SOLUTIONS In the town of Rodentville, half of the households own a hamster, 30% of all households own a gunia pig, and 35% of all households own neither a hamster, nor a guinea pig. (a) Determine the percentage of households that own both a hamster and a gunie pig. 100 - 35 = 65% of households

  1. Contributions of Endothermy to Huddling Behavior in Infant Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    E-print Network

    ) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Greta Sokoloff Indiana University Bloomington Mark S. Blumberg University of Iowa Infant Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) do not exhibit endogenous temperatures by huddling. Therefore, the ineffective huddling of infant hamsters may be due to the absence

  2. On the analysis of neonatal hamster tooth germs with the photon microprobe at Daresbury, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tros, G. H. J.; Van Langevelde, F.; Vis, R. D.

    1990-04-01

    Complementary to the micro-PIXE experiments performed on hamster tooth germs to elucidate the role of fluoride during the growth, the photon microprobe at Daresbury was used to obtain information on the distribution of Zn. The germs of fluoride-administered hamsters, together with a control group, were analyzed with the micro-synchrotron radiation fluorescence method (micro-SXRF).

  3. Corn fiber oil and sitostanol decrease cholesterol absorption independently of intestinal sterol transporters in hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering mechanism of corn fiber oil (CFO), ferulate phytostanyl esters (FPE) and parent compounds including sitostanol and ferulic acid in hamsters. Method: Seventy male golden syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to six experimental diets ...

  4. A Comparison of Hamster Anesthetics and Their Effect on Mosquito Blood Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hamsters or mice are often anesthetized when they are used as the hosts for insect feeding experiments. An experiment was done to determine if there was a difference in mosquito blood feeding success when fed on hamsters anesthetized using two commonly used protocols. The number of blood-fed females...

  5. OBSERVATIONS OF SYRIAN HAMSTER FETUSES AFTER EXPOSURE TO 2450-MHZ MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The teratogenic potential of microwaves was examined in a rodent species, the Syrian hamster. Exposure of hamsters to 2450-MHz CW microwaves at a power denisty of 20 mW/sq. cm. for 100 minutes daily on days 6-14 of gestation caused no significant change in fetal survival, body we...

  6. Effect of exercise on redistribution and clearance of inhaled particles from hamster lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, T.D.; Tryka, A.F.; Brain, J.D. )

    1990-03-01

    Does exercise alter the redistribution and clearance of particles from the lungs Sedentary hamsters and hamsters that were exercise trained by voluntary wheel running for the previous 5 wk were exposed to a 198Au-labeled aerosol for 25 min. Six trained and 6 sedentary animals were killed within 5 min after the exposure (day 0); the same number were killed 5 days later. The trained hamsters ran ad libitum during those 5 days. The lungs of all animals were excised, dried at total lung capacity, sliced into 1-mm-thick sections, and dissected into pieces that were counted for radioactivity and weighed. On day 0, trained hamsters had 80% more particles per milligram of lung than sedentary hamsters, although both were exposed under identical conditions of restraint. After five days, exercising hamsters cleared 38% of the particles present at day 0, whereas sedentary animals removed only 15%. Significant clearance was observed from the middle lung regions of sedentary hamsters and from all lung regions in exercising hamsters. We conclude that exercise can enhance the redistribution and clearance of particles from the lungs; the mechanisms responsible are as yet unclear.

  7. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster.

    PubMed

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster. PMID:26674551

  8. BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE MOUSE, HAMSTER, AND RAT EXPOSED TO RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: AN INTERSPECIES COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colonic temperatures of BALB/c and CBA/J mice, golden hamsters, and Sprague-Dawley rats were taken immediately after exposure for 90 min to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Exposures were made in 2450 MHz (mouse and hamster) or 600 MHz (rat) waveguide exposure systems while the dos...

  9. Citrus limonoids and flavonoids: extraction, antioxidant activity and effects on hamster plasma cholesterol distribution 

    E-print Network

    Yu, Jun

    2005-11-01

    hamsters was followed to determine the effect of citrus limonoids and flavonoids on plasma cholesterol. Hamsters fed with limonin, limonin 17-Beta-D-glucopyranoside and grapefruit pulp significantly inhibited the increase of LDL/HDL-cholesterol (36.6%, 52...

  10. Effects of wheel running on photoperiodic responses of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scherbarth, Frank; Petri, Ines; Steinlechner, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to artificial short days either with access to a running wheel (RW) or without. Within 6 weeks RW hamsters considerably increased their body mass, whereas controls showed the typical body mass reduction. Estimation of paired testis weights indicated a decelerated testis regression in RW hamsters. Subsequent locking of RWs for 9 weeks led to a decline in body mass of RW animals in parallel to controls. Daily torpor was almost completely missing in hamsters with initially unlocked wheels. During the final phase when RWs were again unlocked (3 weeks), body mass of exercising hamsters increased again, while controls reached the nadir in body mass. In comparison to equiponderate long-day (LD) controls the relative liver weight of RW hamsters was significantly increased unlike the relative heart weight. However, the latter tended to be higher than in sedentary LD hamsters. A growth-stimulating effect of wheel running was proven by elongated femora in exercising short-day (SD) hamsters compared to SD controls and suggested by exercise-induced elevation of body mass in a further experiment under continuous LD conditions, indicating a growth-promoting effect of wheel running independent from the photoperiod. PMID:18210127

  11. Lack of Negative Effects on Syrian Hamsters and Mongolian Gerbils Housed in the Same Secondary Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-01-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  12. DNA SYNTHESIS IN THE FERTILIZING HAMSTER SPERM NUCLEUS: SPERM TEMPLATE AVAILABILITY AND EGG CYTOPLASMIC CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the role of sperm template availability in the regulation of DNA synthesis, the morphological status of the fertilizing hamster sperm nucleus was correlated with its ability to synthesize DNA after in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Fertilized hamster eggs were incubat...

  13. Social defeat differentially affects immune responses in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Social defeat differentially affects immune responses in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus concentration as well as innate and acquired immune responses in adult male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus foot-shock decreases anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody titers and leukocyte numbers in mouse

  14. Long-term persistence of male copulatory behavior in castrated and photo-inhibited Siberian hamsters

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    Long-term persistence of male copulatory behavior in castrated and photo-inhibited Siberian the persistence of the ejaculatory reflex 19 weeks after orchidectomy in 40% of male Siberian hamsters maintained-independent mechanisms. D 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Photoperiod; Siberian hamster; Male

  15. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  16. Confocal fluorescence assessment of bioenergy/redox status of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes before and after in vitro maturation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reproductive biotechnologies in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) are less developed than in other livestock species. The in vitro maturation (IVM) technology is a fundamental step for in vitro embryo production (IVP), and its optimization could represent a way to increase the success rate of IVP. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bioenergy/oxidative status of dromedary camel oocytes before and after IVM by confocal microscopy 3D imaging. Methods Oocytes were retrieved by slicing ovaries collected at local slaughterhouses. Recovered oocytes were examined before and after IVM culture for nuclear chromatin configuration and bioenergy/oxidative status, expressed as mitochondria (mt) distribution and activity, intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels and distribution and mt/ROS colocalization. Results The mean recovery rate was 6 oocytes/ovary. After IVM, 61% of oocytes resumed meiosis and 36% reached the Metaphase II stage (MII). Oocyte bioenergy/redox confocal characterization revealed changes upon meiosis progression. Immature oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage were characterised by prevailing homogeneous mt distribution in small aggregates while MI and MII oocytes showed significantly higher rates of pericortical mt distribution organized in tubular networks (P?oocytes compared to GV stage oocytes was also observed. At any meiotic stage, homogeneous distribution of intracellular ROS was observed. Intracellular ROS levels also increased in MI (P?oocytes compared to GV stage oocytes. The mt/ROS colocalization signal increased in MI oocytes (P?oocytes are modified in relation with oocyte meiotic stage. These data may increase the knowledge of camel oocyte physiology, in order to enhance the efficiency of IVP procedures. PMID:24548378

  17. Effect of the apoptosis rate observed in oocytes and cumulus cells on embryo development in prepubertal goats.

    PubMed

    Anguita, B; Paramio, M T; Morató, R; Romaguera, R; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Mogas, T; Izquierdo, D

    2009-11-01

    Oocyte quality is the main factor that determines blastocyst yield; any factor that could affect it, such as apoptosis, could impair subsequent embryonic development. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of apoptosis in prepubertal goat oocytes and cumulus cells, assessed by Annexin-V staining and TUNEL assay, and their effect on embryo development. Oocyte-cumulus complexes (COCs) from slaughtered females were collected and classified depending on COC morphology as: Healthy (H) and Early Atretic (EA). Each one of these groups was classified depending on oocyte diameter: A: 110-125microm, B: 125-135microm and C: >135microm. The COCs were IVM for 27h, IVF with fresh semen and IVC for 8 days after insemination. Apoptosis analyses were performed before and after maturation. Annexin-positive oocytes decreased with diameter in the EA class (immature oocytes: A: 42.6%; B: 30.3%; C: 21%; IVM-oocytes: A: 17.5%; B: 4.8%; C: 0%), while TUNEL assay showed a decrease of apoptosis in the largest oocytes before and after IVM only in Healthy oocytes (immature oocytes: A: 51.5%; B: 43.3%; C: 12.1%; IVM-oocytes: A: 31.7%; B: 12%; C: 0%). Blastocyst rate increased with increasing oocyte diameter, and it was higher in H than in EA oocytes (Healthy; A: 0%; B: 5.3%; C: 14.4%; Early atretic: A: 0.3%; B: 4.1%; C: 5.1%). Oocyte diameter and COC morphology had no effect on the percentage of apoptosis in blastocyst cells. In conclusion, oocyte developmental competence in prepubertal goats is influenced by oocyte diameter and COC morphology. PMID:19217225

  18. Essential Role for Endogenous siRNAs during Meiosis in Mouse Oocytes

    E-print Network

    Stein, Paula; Rozhkov, Nikolay V.; Li, Fan; Cárdenas, Fabián L.; Davydenko, O.; Vandivier, Lee E.; Gregory, Brian D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Schultz, Richard M.

    2015-02-19

    association with any of the four AGO proteins. Dicer deletion in mouse oocytes leads to female infertility due to defects during meiosis I. Because mouse oocytes express both miRNAs and endo-siRNAs, this phenotype could be due to the absence of either class...

  19. Induction and inhibition of amphibian (Rana pipiens) oocyte maturation by protease inhibitor (TPCK).

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K; Schuetz, A W; San Francisco, S K

    1989-03-01

    We report for the first time that oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation are triggered in vitro in non-hormone-treated amphibian (Rana pipiens) ovarian follicles following transient exposure to synthetic chymotrypsin inhibitor N alpha-tosyl-L-phenylalanine-chloromethyl ketone (TPCK). The mechanism of action of TPCK in regulating oocyte maturation was investigated and compared to that induced by progesterone or pituitary hormone. Follicular oocytes failed to mature following continuous exposure to the same doses of TPCK in the presence or absence of progesterone. Continuous treatment of follicles with lower levels of TPCK occasionally induced GVBD in the absence of progesterone and augmented maturational effects of low levels of progesterone. TPCK induced maturation of intrafollicular oocytes without stimulating progesterone production and also induced maturation of naked oocytes. Stimulation of follicular progesterone synthesis following gonadotropin stimulation or addition of pregnenolone was inhibited by TPCK, indicating that TPCK affects metabolic processes in both the somatic and germinal components of the ovarian follicle. Oocyte maturation induced by either TPCK or progesterone was inhibited by cycloheximide, calcium-deficient medium, and forskolin. Results suggest that TPCK induces oocyte maturation independent of steroidogenesis via mechanisms similar to those triggered by progesterone involving protein synthesis, formation of cytoplasmic maturation-promoting factor (MPF), and changes in cAMP levels. Our data indicate that a chymotrypsin-like protease plays a role(s) in regulating the oocyte meiotic maturation process. PMID:2785078

  20. Mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation are induced by CCCP treatment of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Itami, N; Shiratsuki, S; Shirasuna, K; Kuwayama, T; Iwata, H

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial quality control system in porcine oocytes during meiotic maturation. Cumulus cell oocyte complexes (COCs) collected from gilt ovaries were treated with 10? ?M carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; a mitochondrial uncoupler) for 2 ?h. The CCCP treatment was found to significantly reduce ATP content, increase the amount of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and elevate reactive oxygen species levels in oocytes. When the CCCP-treated COCs were cultured further for 44? h in maturation medium, the ATP levels were restored and the parthenogenetic developmental rate of oocytes to the blastocyst stage was comparable with that of untreated COCs. To examine the effects of CCCP treatment of oocytes on the kinetics of mitochondrial DNA copy number (Mt number), COCs treated with 0 or 10 ??M CCCP were cultured for 44 ?h, after which the Mt number was determined by RT-PCR. CCCP treatment was found to increase the Mt number in the modified maturation medium in which mitochondrial degradation was inhibited by MG132, whereas CCCP treatment did not affect the Mt number in the maturation medium lacking MG132. The relative gene expression of TFAM was furthermore shown to be significantly higher in CCCP-treated oocytes than in untreated oocytes. Taken together, the finding presented here suggest that when the mitochondria are injured, mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation are induced, and that these processes may contribute to the recuperation of oocytes. PMID:25995440

  1. Imaging the zona pellucida of canine and feline oocytes using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lunn, Matthew O; Wright, Shirley J

    2009-02-01

    Ultrastructure of the zona pellucida (ZP) of canine and feline oocytes has not been fully investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate the potential use of the low vacuum scanning electron microscope (LVSEM) with oocytes. This required development of a method to prepare canine and feline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) for LVSEM to provide ultrastructural information on the ZP. COCs were collected from ovaries, and cumulus cells were either partially or completely removed to reveal the ZP. COCs and zona-intact oocytes were fixed at 4 degrees C for 1 h in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.4 and subsequently viewed wet or further processed by critical point drying, and viewed uncoated or sputter coated with gold. Although the spongy surface of the ZP was visible at low vacuum in uncoated oocytes, coated oocytes had more details at high vacuum. The ZP surface of canine and feline oocytes contained numerous various-sized, spherical or elliptical pores that narrowed centripetally splitting into several smaller, deep pores. The round to oblong cumulus cells tightly surrounded the ZP. Each corona radiata cumulus cell tapered into a thin projection that entered the ZP. Our detailed techniques will enable future studies connecting ultrastructural and molecular aspects of oocyte maturation and development in mammals. PMID:19144252

  2. Hierarchical Molecular Events Driven by Oocyte-Specific Factors Lead to Rapid and Extensive Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Jerome; Miyamoto, Kei; Pasque, Vincent; Allen, George E.; Bradshaw, Charles R.; Garrett, Nigel J.; Halley-Stott, Richard P.; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ohsumi, Keita; Gurdon, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nuclear transfer to oocytes is an efficient way to transcriptionally reprogram somatic nuclei, but its mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify a sequence of molecular events that leads to rapid transcriptional reprogramming of somatic nuclei after transplantation to Xenopus oocytes. RNA-seq analyses reveal that reprogramming by oocytes results in a selective switch in transcription toward an oocyte rather than pluripotent type, without requiring new protein synthesis. Time-course analyses at the single-nucleus level show that transcriptional reprogramming is induced in most transplanted nuclei in a highly hierarchical manner. We demonstrate that an extensive exchange of somatic- for oocyte-specific factors mediates reprogramming and leads to robust oocyte RNA polymerase II binding and phosphorylation on transplanted chromatin. Moreover, genome-wide binding of oocyte-specific linker histone B4 supports its role in transcriptional reprogramming. Thus, our study reveals the rapid, abundant, and stepwise loading of oocyte-specific factors onto somatic chromatin as important determinants for successful reprogramming. PMID:25066233

  3. REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Endocytosis in the mouse oocyte and its contribution to cAMP

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Endocytosis in the mouse oocyte and its contribution to cAMP signaling during-mediated endocytosis, but a continuously high level of cAMP is needed for meiotic arrest. The aim of this study was to examine whether receptor-mediated endocytosis occurs in the mouse oocyte and whether this could affect

  4. TGF-? and Insulin Signaling Regulate Reproductive Aging via Oocyte and Germline Quality Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shijing; Kleemann, Gunnar A.; Ashraf, Jasmine M.; Shaw, Wendy M.; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Reproductive cessation is perhaps the earliest aging phenotypes humans experience. Similarly, C. elegans’ reproduction ceases in mid-adulthood. Although somatic aging has been studied in both worms and humans, mechanisms regulating reproductive aging are not yet understood. Here we show that TGF-? Sma/Mab and Insulin/IGF-1 signaling regulate C. elegans reproductive aging by modulating multiple aspects of the reproductive process, including embryo integrity, oocyte fertilizability, chromosome segregation fidelity, DNA damage resistance, and oocyte and germline morphology. TGF-? activity regulates reproductive span and germline/oocyte quality non-cell-autonomously, and is temporally and transcriptionally separable from its regulation of growth. Chromosome segregation, cell cycle, and DNA damage response genes are upregulated in TGF-? mutant oocytes, decline in aged mammalian oocytes, and are critical for oocyte quality maintenance. Our data suggest that C. elegans and humans share many aspects of reproductive aging, including the correlation between reproductive aging and declining oocyte quality, and mechanisms determining oocyte quality. PMID:20946987

  5. MicroRNA expression profile in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes during late oogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During late oogenesis, the mammalian oocyte synthesizes and stores mRNA necessary to guide the early stages of embryo development prior to the activation of embryonic transcription. The oocyte also contains many post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that coordinate mRNA stability and translati...

  6. A Computational Model for Asynchronous Oocyte Growth Dynamics in Spawning Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes the development of a computational model that simulates a time course of oocyte growth and spawning for asynchronous spawning fish, based upon plasma vitellogenin concentrations and a critical oocyte size for spawning. The model provides a framework that...

  7. Osmolarity- and Stage-Dependent Effects of Glycine on Parthenogenetic Development of Pig Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    MIYOSHI, Kazuchika; MIZOBE, Yamato

    2014-01-01

    The osmolarities of media that are most effective for in vitro culture of mammalian oocytes and embryos are lower than that of oviductal fluid. Oocytes and embryos can survive the high physiological osmolarity in vivo perhaps owing to the presence of amino acids such as glycine, which serve as organic osmolytes in the female reproductive tract. In the present study, the effects of glycine on the parthenogenetic development of pig oocytes were examined in hypotonic or isotonic media. The results showed that culturing oocytes in isotonic media improved the cleavage rates (P<0.01) at 2 days in culture but inhibited any further development beyond cleavage when compared with the hypotonic media. However, addition of 4 mM glycine to the isotonic media resulted in improved blastocyst formation rates compared with that observed in the hypotonic media (P<0.01), and there was no inhibition of development beyond the cleavage stages in oocytes. The beneficial effects of glycine were observed only when oocytes were cultured in isotonic media and glycine was added at day 2 or 3 in culture. The results from the present study indicate that an isotonic medium with glycine is useful for in vitro culture of pig oocytes and that glycine may protect pig oocytes against the detrimental effects of increased osmolarity. PMID:24990770

  8. Embryotropic actions of follistatin: Paracrine and autocrine mediators of oocyte competence and embryo developmental progression*

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Sandeep; Lee, KyungBon; Zhenhua, Guo; Di, Liu; Folger, Joseph K.; Smith, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite several decades since the birth of the first test tube baby and the first calf derived from an in vitro fertilized embryo, the efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies remains less than ideal. Poor oocyte competence is a major factor limiting efficiency of in vitro embryo production. Developmental competence obtained during oocyte growth and maturation establishes the foundation of successful fertilization and pre-implantation embryonic development. Regulation of molecular and cellular events during fertilization and embryo development is mediated in part by oocyte derived factors acquired during oocyte growth and maturation and programmed by factors of follicular somatic cell origin. Available evidence supports an important intrinsic role for oocyte-derived follistatin and JY-1 proteins in mediating embryo developmental progression post fertilization and suggests that paracrine and autocrine actions of oocyte-derived GDF9 and BMP15 and follicular somatic cell derived members of the fibroblast growth factor family impact oocyte competence and subsequent embryo developmental progression post fertilization. An increased understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating oocyte competence and stage specific developmental events during early embryogenesis is crucial to further improvements in assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:24305175

  9. Effect of dimethylsulphoxide on fertilization of Bovine oocytes matured in vitro 

    E-print Network

    Wavra, Nanette Louise

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test the sensitivity of in vitro matured bovine oocytes to the addition of the cryoprotectant, DMSO, at room temperature and at O C. In the first experiment, oocytes were randomly assigned to either a 5, 10, 15...

  10. Osmolarity- and stage-dependent effects of glycine on parthenogenetic development of pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Mizobe, Yamato

    2014-01-01

    The osmolarities of media that are most effective for in vitro culture of mammalian oocytes and embryos are lower than that of oviductal fluid. Oocytes and embryos can survive the high physiological osmolarity in vivo perhaps owing to the presence of amino acids such as glycine, which serve as organic osmolytes in the female reproductive tract. In the present study, the effects of glycine on the parthenogenetic development of pig oocytes were examined in hypotonic or isotonic media. The results showed that culturing oocytes in isotonic media improved the cleavage rates (P<0.01) at 2 days in culture but inhibited any further development beyond cleavage when compared with the hypotonic media. However, addition of 4 mM glycine to the isotonic media resulted in improved blastocyst formation rates compared with that observed in the hypotonic media (P<0.01), and there was no inhibition of development beyond the cleavage stages in oocytes. The beneficial effects of glycine were observed only when oocytes were cultured in isotonic media and glycine was added at day 2 or 3 in culture. The results from the present study indicate that an isotonic medium with glycine is useful for in vitro culture of pig oocytes and that glycine may protect pig oocytes against the detrimental effects of increased osmolarity. PMID:24990770

  11. The effect of glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization and embryo development

    E-print Network

    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    The effect of glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization, and fertilization and developmen- tal capacity were examined in vitro. Corticosterone exposure during oocyte Fertilization Embryo development a b s t r a c t Increased glucocorticoid levels, due to medical therapy

  12. Quantitative Microinjection of Oocytes, Eggs, and Embryos Laurinda A. Jaffe and Mark Terasaki

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    1 Quantitative Microinjection of Oocytes, Eggs, and Embryos Laurinda A. Jaffe and Mark Terasaki for microinjection of oocytes, eggs and embryos using quantitative techniques initially used by Pierre de Fonbrune to echinoderm eggs by Yukio Hiramoto (see Hiramoto, 1962), and have been used and further developed by many

  13. Jia L. Song . Gary M. Wessel How to make an egg: transcriptional regulation in oocytes

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    stages to acquire a fertilization competent phenotype. This re- view will integrate the biology proliferation by mitosis, and initia- tion of meiosis I as primary oocytes. Oocytes may be arrested in the first prophase of meiosis from 12­50 years in humans, up to 3 years in frogs, and up to a year for most

  14. Cyclin B synthesis is required for sea urchin oocyte maturation Ekaterina Voronina,a

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    is completed prior to fertilization. This is different from oocytes of most animals such as mammals and amphibians in which fertilization reactivates an arrested meiotic cycle. Using a recently developed technique for the entry of G2-arrested oocytes into meiosis; however, it is required for the proper progression through

  15. Live imaging RNAi screen reveals genes essential for meiosis in mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pfender, Sybille; Kuznetsov, Vitaliy; Pasternak, Micha?; Tischer, Thomas; Santhanam, Balaji; Schuh, Melina

    2015-08-13

    During fertilization, an egg and a sperm fuse to form a new embryo. Eggs develop from oocytes in a process called meiosis. Meiosis in human oocytes is highly error-prone, and defective eggs are the leading cause of pregnancy loss and several genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome. Which genes safeguard accurate progression through meiosis is largely unclear. Here we develop high-content phenotypic screening methods for the systematic identification of mammalian meiotic genes. We targeted 774 genes by RNA interference within follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes to block protein expression from an early stage of oocyte development onwards. We then analysed the function of several genes simultaneously by high-resolution imaging of chromosomes and microtubules in live oocytes and scored each oocyte quantitatively for 50 phenotypes, generating a comprehensive resource of meiotic gene function. The screen generated an unprecedented annotated data set of meiotic progression in 2,241 mammalian oocytes, which allowed us to analyse systematically which defects are linked to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis, identifying progression into anaphase with misaligned chromosomes as well as defects in spindle organization as risk factors. This study demonstrates how high-content screens can be performed in oocytes, and allows systematic studies of meiosis in mammals. PMID:26147080

  16. Histochemical Characterization of Oocytes in the Pink Cuskeel (Genypterus blacodes).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stefanía; Petcoff, Gladys; Freijo, Roberto O; Portiansky, Enrique L; Barbeito, Claudio G; Macchi, Gustavo J; Díaz, Alcira O

    2015-08-01

    In the present study we histochemically and lectinhistochemically characterized the growing oocytes of the pink cuskeel (Genypterus blacodes). We used histochemical methods for the localization and characterization of glycoconjugates (GCs) and lectin histochemical techniques for the identification of specific sugar residues. We analyzed presence and distribution of GCs in the different structures of the growing follicles (cortical alveoli, globules, yolk granules and zona radiata). During the initial stage of vitellogenesis, the oocytes presented small yolk granules composed of GCs that gradually increased during exogenous vitellogenesis. These GCs contained moderate quantities of ?-D-mannose, D-glucose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. The cortical alveoli contained both neutral and carboxylated GCs, and lectin techniques detected N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose and L-fucose. The zona radiata showed a strong positive reaction to PAS and it reacted weakly with more specific techniques, such as KOH/PA*S and PA/Bh/KOH/PAS. This structure showed GCs with oxidizable vicinal diols, O-acyl sugars and sialic acid residues with different substitution types and presented N-acetylgalactosamine and L-fucose specific residues. The oocytes follicular envelope evidenced neutral and acidic non-sulfated GCs and high concentrations of ?-D-mannose, D-glucose, galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. The intergranular cytoplasmic GCs were mainly rich in ?-D-mannose, D-glucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. These results enhance the comprehension of the structure and functionality of the pink cuskeel ovarian follicles, and provide a useful tool for the study of this tissue in other teleost species. PMID:26245226

  17. Superovulation and in vitro oocyte maturation in three species of mice (Mus musculus, Mus spretus and Mus spicilegus)

    E-print Network

    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    fertilization of both superovulated and in vitro matured oocytes resulted in a high proportion of fertilizationSuperovulation and in vitro oocyte maturation in three species of mice (Mus musculus, Mus spretus Abstract Mouse oocytes can be obtained via superovulation or using in vitro maturation although several

  18. Bisphenol A Exposure during Oocyte Maturation in vitro Results in Spindle Abnormalities and Chromosome Misalignment in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jacqueline; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in humans is widespread, and BPA has been detected in a variety of samples including follicular fluid. BPA levels have been found to negatively correlate with the developmental potential of oocytes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and to induce meiotic abnormalities experimentally in human and mouse models. BPA may detrimentally affect oocyte maturation, and different concentrations of exposure can cause various outcomes. Because of the importance of oocyte maturation on developmental potential, disturbances during this time can significantly impact oocyte viability. Here, bovine oocytes were matured in vitro with and without BPA treatment of the media. The levels of BPA taken up by the oocytes were much lower than the initial exposure. Medium treatment with 30 ng/ml resulted in an average of 2.48 ng/ml BPA measured in mature oocytes. These oocytes exhibited decreased maturation and increased incidence of spindle abnormalities. Only 57.4% of oocytes exposed to 30 ng/ml BPA reached maturity compared to 72.4% of controls (p < 0.05). Mature oocytes following BPA exposure displayed increased abnormal spindle morphology (67.9%) and chromosome dispersal (60%) compared to all other groups analyzed (p < 0.05). Thus, exposure to BPA during in vitro oocyte maturation has the potential to decrease oocyte quality. PMID:25871885

  19. Mathematically optimized cryoprotectant equilibration procedures for cryopreservation of human oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Simple and effective cryopreservation of human oocytes would have an enormous impact on the financial and ethical constraints of human assisted reproduction. Recently, studies have demonstrated the potential for cryopreservation in an ice-free glassy state by equilibrating oocytes with high concentrations of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and rapidly cooling to liquid nitrogen temperatures. A major difficulty with this approach is that the high concentrations required for the avoidance of crystal formation (vitrification) also increase the risk of osmotic and toxic damage. We recently described a mathematical optimization approach for designing CPA equilibration procedures that avoid osmotic damage and minimize toxicity, and we presented optimized procedures for human oocytes involving continuous changes in solution composition. Methods Here we adapt and refine our previous algorithm to predict piecewise-constant changes in extracellular solution concentrations in order to make the predicted procedures easier to implement. Importantly, we investigate the effects of using alternate equilibration endpoints on predicted protocol toxicity. Finally, we compare the resulting procedures to previously described experimental methods, as well as mathematically optimized procedures involving continuous changes in solution composition. Results For equilibration with CPA, our algorithm predicts an optimal first step consisting of exposure to a solution containing only water and CPA. This is predicted to cause the cells to initially shrink and then swell to the maximum cell volume limit. To reach the target intracellular CPA concentration, the cells are then induced to shrink to the minimum cell volume limit by exposure to a high CPA concentration. For post-thaw equilibration to remove CPA, the optimal procedures involve exposure to CPA-free solutions that are predicted to cause swelling to the maximum volume limit. The toxicity associated with these procedures is predicted to be much less than that of conventional procedures and comparable to that of the corresponding procedures with continuous changes in solution composition. Conclusions The piecewise-constant procedures described in this study are experimentally facile and are predicted to be less toxic than conventional procedures for human oocyte cryopreservation. Moreover, the mathematical optimization approach described here will facilitate the design of cryopreservation procedures for other cell types. PMID:24649826

  20. Effect of centrifugation on early embryonic development and parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chung, J T; Downey, B R; Casper, R F; Chian, R C

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the fertilization, early developmental competence and capacity for parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes matured in vitro after centrifugation. Immature oocytes were cultured in tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 75 mIU mL(-1) FSH + LH at 5% CO2 to facilitate maturation. After culture for 24 or 30 h, the metaphase-II stage oocytes were centrifuged at 3000, 5000, 7000 or 10000g for 5 min before in vitro fertilization or parthenogenetic activation. Frozen-thawed bull semen was used for in vitro fertilization. For parthenogenetic activation, the oocytes were exposed to 20 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 5 min at room temperature. Fertilization rates were not different between control and treatment groups (87.7% v. 74.6%, 73.4%, 75.9% and 76.4% respectively). Also, there were no differences in early embryonic development between control and treatment groups (rates of blastocyst formation were 21.1% v 20.2%, 28.8%, 31.2% and 24.1% respectively). When the oocytes were centrifuged at various speeds alone, the activation rate of oocytes was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 10000g treatment group compared with control (10.8% v 0.0%). There were no differences in the activation rates of oocytes between control and treatment groups at speeds up to 7000g (70.9% v. 71.9%, 78.3% and 77.2% respectively) after centrifugation and stimulation with Ca(2+)-ionophore. However, the activation rate of oocytes was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 10000g treatment group compared with control (70.9% v. 83.1%). In addition, the percentage of activated oocytes with diploid formation was significantly higher in the oocytes after centrifugation at 10000g and stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187 than in the control (18.4% v 7.1%). These results indicate that centrifugation of oocytes matured in vitro has no detrimental effect on fertilization and subsequent early embryonic development. They also indicate that the oocytes might be parthenogenetically activated after centrifugation and that high-speed centrifugation may induce activation of some oocytes. The results suggest that the optimal speed for centrifugation of bovine oocytes might be < or = 7000g to enhance the visibility of nuclear elements for further micromanipulation. PMID:11833934

  1. Prolactin affects bovine oocytes through direct and cumulus-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Irina Y; Singina, Galina N; Volkova, Natalia A; Vejlsted, Morten; Zinovieva, Natalia A; Schmidt, Mette

    2014-11-01

    The available evidence points to participation of PRL in regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of the present study was to characterize pathways of PRL action on bovine oocytes. We analyzed (1) the presence of the PRL receptor and its mRNA isoforms in oocytes and cumulus cells; (2) the effect of PRL on meiosis resumption and the role of cumulus cells, the NO/NO synthase system, protein kinase C, and tyrosine kinases in this effect; and (3) PRL effects in the presence of gonadotropins on the developmental capacity of cumulus-free and cumulus-enclosed oocytes. The transcript and protein expression of the PRL receptor in the cells were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The nuclear status of oocytes was assessed after culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes (DOs) with or without PRL (5-500 ng/mL) for 7, 14, or 24 hours. Besides, DOs were incubated for 7 hours in the absence or the presence of PRL (50 ng/mL) and/or L-NAME (an inhibitor of NO synthase), genistein (an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases), or calpostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). After IVM in 2 different systems containing PRL (50 ng/mL) and/or gonadotropic hormones, a part of oocytes underwent IVF and IVC and the embryo development was tracked until the blastocyst stage. Messenger RNA of long and short isoforms of the PRL receptor was revealed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of the PRL receptor in oocytes and the cumulus investment. In the absence of gonadotropins (system 1), PRL retarded meiosis resumption in DOs but not in cumulus-enclosed oocytes, with this effect being short term, dose dependent, suppressed by L-NAME and genistein, and unaffected by calpostin. In systems containing gonadotropins, PRL did not affect nuclear maturation and the cleavage rate of cumulus-free and cumulus-enclosed oocytes. However, in the case of COCs, it raised the blastocyst yield both in system 2 (from 20.5%-40.9%, P < 0.01) and in system 3 (from 21.7%-33.9%, P < 0.05). The findings show for the first time the functioning of the direct pathway of PRL signaling into bovine oocytes, as confirmed by the expression of receptors of PRL and its direct meiosis-retarding effect involving activation of tyrosine kinases and NO synthase. Furthermore, this is the first demonstration that the beneficial effect of PRL on the oocyte developmental capacity is achieved via cumulus cells containing PRL receptors. PMID:25212395

  2. Cone penetration testing in polar snow

    E-print Network

    McCallum, Adrian Bruce

    2012-04-10

    of CPT data via Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and preliminary mini-cone penetrometer testing in Greenland. Analysis of results revealed that assessing the strength of polar snow via CPT is affected by numerous factors including penetration rate, cone...

  3. Fluorescent penetration enhancers for transdermal applications

    E-print Network

    Seto, Jennifer E.

    Chemical penetration enhancers are often used to enhance transdermal drug delivery. However, the fundamental mechanisms that govern the interactions between penetration enhancers and skin are not fully understood. Therefore, ...

  4. Weld penetration and defect control

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, B.A.

    1992-05-15

    Highly engineered designs increasingly require the use of improved materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. To obtain optimal performance from these engineered products, improved weld properties and joint reliability are a necessarily. This requirement for improved weld performance and reliability has led to the development of high-performance welding systems in which pre-programmed parameters are specified before any welding takes place. These automated systems however lack the ability to compensate for perturbations which arise during the welding process. Hence the need for systems which monitor and control the in-process status of the welding process. This report discusses work carried out on weld penetration indicators and the feasibility of using these indicators for on-line penetration control.

  5. Radiation sensitivity of small oocytes in immature mice. effect of gonadotropin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bager, S.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin on the survival of small oocytes of acutely irradiated immature mice was assessed by counting occytes on serial sections under the light microscope. Twenth-four hours after irradiation with 40 R the number of small oocytes was reduced to a few percent of that in unirradiated controls. The number of oocytes was a little higher in animals injected with gonadotropin before radiation exposure than in animals that were only irradiated. One week after radiation exposure very few small oocytes were seen in any of the irradiated ovaries regardless of treatment. Thus pregnant mare serum gonadotropin had no protective effect on the small oocytes of irradiated immature mice.

  6. [Role of hydration in ovulation of common frog oocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Skoblina, M N

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of ovulation of the common frog Rana temporaria oocytes with homologous pituitary extract caused an increase in their volume. Factors that are known to inhibit hydration in teleostean oocytes (potassium-free Ringer solution and inhibitor of Na+, K(+)-ATPase--ouabain), as well as use of aquaporin inhibitors (mercuric chloride and methylmethanethiosulphonate) inhibited also homologous pituitary extract-induced volume increase in follicle-enclosed oocytes and let to reduced percentage of ovulated oocytes. Volume of denuded oocytes remained unchanged in the course of maturation when exposed to progesterone or other treatments. The data obtained suggest that stimulation ofoocyte ovulation in the common frog caused an increase in their hydration that in necessary for their ovulation but this did not occur in denuded cells. PMID:24450177

  7. Ureteral Injury with Delayed Massive Hematuria after Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Oocyte Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrta?nik Bokal, Eda; Šalamun, Vesna; Gali?, Dejan; Smrkolj, Tomaž; Jan?ar, Nina

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of ureteral injury with delayed hematuria after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. A 28-year-old infertile patient with a history of previous laparoscopic resection of endometriotic nodes of both sacrouterine ligaments presented with abdominal pain one day after oocyte retrieval. Four days after oocyte retrieval, she presented with massive hematuria that reappeared 6 days after oocyte retrieval. Monopolar coagulation with wire electrode and insertion of a double-J-stent was performed during operative cystoscopy. The patient recovered completely after transfusion and had no signs of renal impairment after ureteric stent removal. This is the first report of ureteral injury after oocyte retrieval presenting itself with delayed massive hematuria and no signs of renal dysfunction or urinary leakage into retroperitoneal space. PMID:26146577

  8. Neural image analysis in the process of quality assessment: domestic pig oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Przyby?, J.; Kuzimska, T.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.; Przyby?, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.

    2014-04-01

    The questions related to quality classification of animal oocytes are explored by numerous scientific and research centres. This research is important, particularly in the context of improving the breeding value of farm animals. The methods leading to the stimulation of normal development of a larger number of fertilised animal oocytes in extracorporeal conditions are of special importance. Growing interest in the techniques of supported reproduction resulted in searching for new, increasingly effective methods for quality assessment of mammalian gametes and embryos. Progress in the production of in vitro animal embryos in fact depends on proper classification of obtained oocytes. The aim of this paper was the development of an original method for quality assessment of oocytes, performed on the basis of their graphical presentation in the form of microscopic digital images. The classification process was implemented on the basis of the information coded in the form of microphotographic pictures of the oocytes of domestic pig, using the modern methods of neural image analysis.

  9. Jeeps Penetrating a Hostile Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herb

    2009-01-01

    Several jeeps are poised at base camp on the edge of a desert aiming to escort one of them as far as possible into the desert, while the others return to camp. They all have full tanks of gas and share their fuel to maximize penetration. In a friendly desert it is best to leave caches of fuel along the way to help returning jeeps. We solve the…

  10. Distribution and metabolism of four different dimethylated arsenicals in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Naranmandura, Hua; Iwata, Katsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2010-05-15

    Arsenic toxicity and distribution are highly dependent on animal species and its chemical species. Recently, thioarsenical has been recognized in highly toxic arsenic metabolites, which was commonly found in human and animal urine. In the present study, we revealed the mechanism underlying the distribution and metabolism of non-thiolated and thiolated dimethylarsenic compounds such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA{sup V}), and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA{sup V}) after the administration of them into femoral vein of hamsters. DMA{sup V} and DMDTA{sup V} distributed in organs and body fluids were in their unmodified form, while DMA{sup III} and DMMTA{sup V} were bound to proteins and transformed to DMA{sup V} in organs. On the other hand, DMA{sup V} and DMDTA{sup V} were mostly excreted into urine as their intact form 1 h after post-injection, and more than 70% of the doses were recovered in urine as their intact form. By contrast, less than 8-14% of doses were recovered in urine as DMA{sup V}, while more than 60% of doses were distributed in muscles and target organs (liver, kidney, and lung) of hamsters after the injection of DMMTA{sup V} and DMA{sup III}. However, in red blood cells (RBCs), only a small amount of the arsenicals was distributed (less than 4% of the doses) after the injection of DMA{sup III} and DMMTA{sup V}, suggesting that the DMA{sup III} and DMMTA{sup V} were hardly accumulated in hamster RBCs. Based on these observations, we suggest that although DMMTA{sup V} and DMDTA{sup V} are thioarsenicals, DMMTA{sup V} is taken up efficiently by organs, in a manner different from that of DMDTA{sup V}. In addition, the distribution and metabolism of DMMTA{sup V} are like in manner similar to DMA{sup III} in hamsters, while DMDTA{sup V} is in a manner similar to DMA{sup V}.

  11. Quantitative mutagenesis and mutagen screening with Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, A.W.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Tan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented on the development of a specific gene mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cells/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system, and the utilization of this system to study structure-activity relationship affecting cytotoxicity and gene mutation by various carcinogens. Then, preliminary development and validation of a Multiplex CHO System for the simultaneous determination of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange in addition to cytotoxicity and gene mutation is presented. The potential use of a CHO/human cell hybrid system for measuring chromosomal deletion and loss is discussed.

  12. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  13. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in cumulus cells support oocyte maturation in bovine.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lazo, Laura; Brisard, Daphné; Elis, Sébastien; Maillard, Virginie; Uzbekov, Rustem; Labas, Valérie; Desmarchais, Alice; Papillier, Pascal; Monget, Philippe; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    Oocyte meiotic maturation requires energy from various substrates including glucose, amino acids, and lipids. Mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) ?-oxidation (FAO) in the oocyte is required for meiotic maturation, which is accompanied by differential expression of numerous genes involved in FAs metabolism in surrounding cumulus cells (CCs) in vivo. The objective was to elucidate components involved in FAs metabolism in CCs during oocyte maturation. Twenty-seven genes related to lipogenesis, lipolysis, FA transport, and FAO were chosen from comparative transcriptome analysis of bovine CCs before and after maturation in vivo. Using real-time PCR, 22 were significantly upregulated at different times of in vitro maturation (IVM) in relation to oocyte meiosis progression from germinal vesicle breakdown to metaphase-II. Proteins FA synthase, acetyl-coenzyme-A carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, perilipin 2, and FA binding protein 3 were detected by Western blot and immunolocalized to CCs and oocyte cytoplasm, with FA binding protein 3 concentrated around oocyte chromatin. By mass spectrometry, CCs lipid profiling was shown to be different before and after IVM. FAO inhibitors etomoxir and mildronate dose-dependently decreased the oocyte maturation rate in vitro. In terms of viability, cumulus enclosed oocytes were more sensitive to etomoxir than denuded oocytes. In CCs, etomoxir (150 ?M) led to downregulation of lipogenesis genes and upregulated lipolysis and FAO genes. Moreover, the number of lipid droplets decreased, whereas several lipid species were more abundant compared with nontreated CCs after IVM. In conclusion, FAs metabolism in CCs is important to maintain metabolic homeostasis and may influence meiosis progression and survival of enclosed oocytes. PMID:25058602

  14. Beta-oxidation is essential for mouse oocyte developmental competence and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Kylie R; Cashman, Kara; Russell, Darryl L; Thompson, Jeremy G; Norman, Robert J; Robker, Rebecca L

    2010-12-01

    Oocyte and embryo metabolism are closely linked with their subsequent developmental capacity. Lipids are a potent source of cellular energy, yet little is known about lipid metabolism during oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Generation of ATP from lipids occurs within mitochondria via beta-oxidation of fatty acids, with the rate-limiting step catalyzed by carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT1B), a process also requiring carnitine. We sought to investigate the regulation and role of beta-oxidation during oocyte maturation and preimplantation development. Expression of Cpt1b mRNA, assessed by real-time RT-PCR in murine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), increased following hormonal induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in vivo with human chorionic gonadotropin (5 IU) and in embryos reaching the blastocyst stage. Beta-oxidation, measured by the production of (3)H(2)O from [(3)H]palmitic acid, was significantly increased over that in immature COCs following induction of maturation in vitro with epidermal growth factor (3 ng/ml) and follicle-stimulating hormone (50 mIU/ml). The importance of lipid metabolism for oocyte developmental competence and early embryo development was demonstrated by assessing the rate of embryo development following inhibition or upregulation of beta-oxidation with etomoxir (an inhibitor of CPT1B) or L-carnitine, respectively. Inhibition of beta-oxidation during oocyte maturation or zygote cleavage impaired subsequent blastocyst development. In contrast, L-carnitine supplementation during oocyte maturation significantly increased beta-oxidation, improved developmental competence, and in the absence of a carbohydrate energy supply, significantly increased 2-cell cleavage. Thus, carnitine is an important cofactor for developing oocytes, and fatty acids are an important energy source for oocyte and embryo development. PMID:20686180

  15. The Effect of Lysophosphatidic Acid during In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes: Embryonic Development and mRNA Abundances of Genes Involved in Apoptosis and Oocyte Competence

    PubMed Central

    Boruszewska, Dorota; Torres, Ana Catarina; Kowalczyk-Zieba, Ilona; Batista, Mariana; Lopes-da-Costa, Luis; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether LPA can be synthesized and act during in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs). We found transcription of genes coding for enzymes of LPA synthesis pathway (ATX and PLA2) and of LPA receptors (LPAR 1–4) in bovine oocytes and cumulus cells, following in vitro maturation. COCs were matured in vitro in presence or absence of LPA (10?5?M) for 24?h. Supplementation of maturation medium with LPA increased mRNA abundance of FST and GDF9 in oocytes and decreased mRNA abundance of CTSs in cumulus cells. Additionally, oocytes stimulated with LPA had higher transcription levels of BCL2 and lower transcription levels of BAX resulting in the significantly lower BAX/BCL2 ratio. Blastocyst rates on day 7 were similar in the control and the LPA-stimulated COCs. Our study demonstrates for the first time that bovine COCs are a potential source and target of LPA action. We postulate that LPA exerts an autocrine and/or paracrine signaling, through several LPARs, between the oocyte and cumulus cells. LPA supplementation of maturation medium improves COC quality, and although this was not translated into an enhanced in vitro development until the blastocyst stage, improved oocyte competence may be relevant for subsequent in vivo survival. PMID:24729661

  16. The promoter of the oocyte-specific gene, Gdf9, is active in population of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells with an oocyte-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Lisa M; Silva, Celso P; Kostetskii, Igor; Radice, Glenn L; Strauss, Jerome F

    2008-06-01

    The study of germ cell-specific gene regulation in vitro is challenging. Here we report that the promoter of the oocyte-specific gene, Gdf9, is active in a population of cultured murine embryonic stem cells (ES) which have a phenotype resembling oocytes. The promoter region of the murine Gdf9 coupled to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was stably transfected into XX mouse ES cells. eGFP was expressed only in oocytes of chimeric mice generated from the transfected XX ES cells. The transfected ES cells were examined when cultured on feeder layers or as embryoid bodies. Large eGFP-positive cells, surrounded by a structure resembling a zona pellucida appeared transiently in cultures of the ES cells on feeder layers. Surprisingly, they were detectable on days 1 and 2 of culture but virtually absent on day 3. Addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to the media significantly increased the number of eGFP-positive cels resembling oocytes. Quantitative-time PCR demonstrated a parallel increase in Gdf9 and Zp3 mRNA with changes in the abundance of eGFP-positive cells. In embryoid body cultures, eGFP-positive cells appeared transiently and then re-appeared in regional clusters after 30-45 days of culture. These findings demonstrate that a population of cultured murine ES cells contain the transcriptional machinery to drive expression of an oocyte-specific gene, and that those cells phenotypically resemble oocytes. PMID:18593614

  17. Penetration depth of a superconducting superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Guimpel, J.; de la Cruz, F.; Murduck, J.; Schuller, I.K.

    1987-03-01

    We have measured the magnetic-flux expulsion of a superconducting superlattice and related it to the Meissner penetration depth. The temperature dependence of the penetration depth is in quantitative agreement with theoretical expectation based on mean-field theory. The zero-temperature penetration depth is found in excellent, quantitative agreement without adjustable parameters with theoretical predictions for dirty superconductors.

  18. A helium burst biolistic device adapted to penetrate fragile insect tissues

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean-Luc; Bardou, Jérôme; L'hoste, Sebastien; Mauchamp, Bernard; Chavancy, Gérard

    2001-01-01

    To compensate for the extremely low penetration efficiency of the original PDS/1000-He Bio Rad biolistic® device and the deleterious blast effect, design modifications have been made to the launching module. These modifications were evaluated on Bombyx mori embryos and fragile tissues, such as oocytes and imaginal wing disks. The original floppy macrocarrier was replaced by a rigid macrocarrier to avoid the effects of the helium blast. The efficiency of the gene gun bombardment was reinforced by the addition of a focusing nozzle. The reduced blast effect allowed us to carry out high-pressure shootings to small organs with improved penetration. This system allowed potentially all the internal embryonic tissues to be transfected with optimal survival rates. The new module was effective on tissues that are difficult to transfect, such as the epithelial wing disk that is covered by a peripodial membrane, and the ovarian follicle cells that lie under the ovariole cell membrane. The new macrocarrier allowed both an aqueous delivery of particles and an ethanolic dry delivery. No significant differences were noted between these two modes of delivery. The major improvement is the possibility of high pressure shooting correlated with appreciable penetration and a weak blast effect. PMID:15455069

  19. Taenia solium oncosphere adhesion to intestinal epithelial and Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H; Arana, Yanina; Barber, Dylan; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilu; Chile, Nancy; Kosek, Jon C; Kosek, Margaret; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando

    2007-11-01

    The specific mechanisms underlying Taenia solium oncosphere adherence and penetration in the host have not been studied previously. We developed an in vitro adhesion model assay to evaluate the mechanisms of T. solium oncosphere adherence to the host cells. The following substrates were used: porcine intestinal mucosal scrapings (PIMS), porcine small intestinal mucosal explants (PSIME), Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), epithelial cells from ileocecal colorectal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cells), and epithelial cells from colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells). CHO cells were used to compare oncosphere adherence to fixed and viable cells, to determine the optimum time of oncosphere incubation, to determine the role of sera and monolayer cell maturation, and to determine the effect of temperature on oncosphere adherence. Light microscopy, scanning microscopy, and transmission microscopy were used to observe morphological characteristics of adhered oncospheres. This study showed in vitro adherence of activated T. solium oncospheres to PIMS, PSIME, monolayer CHO cells, Caco-2 cells, and HCT-8 cells. The reproducibility of T. solium oncosphere adherence was most easily measured with CHO cells. Adherence was enhanced by serum-binding medium with >5% fetal bovine serum, which resulted in a significantly greater number of oncospheres adhering than the number adhering when serum at a concentration less than 2.5% was used (P < 0.05). Oncosphere adherence decreased with incubation of cells at 4 degrees C compared with the adherence at 37 degrees C. Our studies also demonstrated that T. solium oncospheres attach to cells with elongated microvillus processes and that the oncospheres expel external secretory vesicles that have the same oncosphere processes. PMID:17698575

  20. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised network, computers and devices can be penetrated through deployed exploits. This paper will illustrate the research done to test ability to penetrate a network without user interaction, in order to retrieve personal information from a targeted host.

  1. Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Z.; Harith, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of the past and present literature pertinent to laser effects on sperm motility parameters, improvement of oocyte maturation and characterization of semen in livestock. The aim was, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the animal reproduction scientific community in attempting some laser techniques that have not yet been fully exploited in the field of artificial insemination. With respect to the conventional methods, laser is a more sensitive and less costly technology that can be used for improving artificial insemination and embryo production system. Since 1980s, laser treatment came on the biological samples scene; its applications have continuously been developed thereafter. Exploitation of laser light by various researchers for improving the reproductive efficiency of sperm cells and the maturation rate in different livestock is demonstrated herein. Laser irradiation, in principal, can increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and consequently increases the energy provided to the cell. Since sperm motility and oocyte maturation depend on the energy consumption, an increase in the energy supply to the cells will be of great importance. In addition, the authors also discuss the use of laser spectrochemical analytical techniques, such as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF), in characterization of semen samples. PMID:26257928

  2. Calcium and actin in the saga of awakening oocytes.

    PubMed

    Santella, Luigia; Limatola, Nunzia; Chun, Jong T

    2015-04-24

    The interaction of the spermatozoon with the egg at fertilization remains one of the most fascinating mysteries of life. Much of our scientific knowledge on fertilization comes from studies on sea urchin and starfish, which provide plenty of gametes. Large and transparent, these eggs have served as excellent model systems for studying egg activation and embryo development in seawater, a plain natural medium. Starfish oocytes allow the study of the cortical, cytoplasmic and nuclear changes during the meiotic maturation process, which can also be triggered in vitro by hormonal stimulation. These morphological and biochemical changes ensure successful fertilization of the eggs at the first metaphase. On the other hand, sea urchin eggs are fertilized after the completion of meiosis, and are particularly suitable for the study of sperm-egg interaction, early events of egg activation, and embryonic development, as a large number of mature eggs can be fertilized synchronously. Starfish and sea urchin eggs undergo abrupt changes in the cytoskeleton and ion fluxes in response to the fertilizing spermatozoon. The plasma membrane and cortex of an egg thus represent "excitable media" that quickly respond to the stimulus with the Ca(2+) swings and structural changes. In this article, we review some of the key findings on the rapid dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton in the oocyte/egg cortex upon hormonal or sperm stimulation and their roles in the modulation of the Ca(2+) signals and in the control of monospermic fertilization. PMID:25998739

  3. Ultraviolet Light Induced Fade of Penetrant and Fluorescent Penetrant Indications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. D.

    2006-03-01

    While industry standards don't currently address the issue, one must be aware of the possible consequences of using ultraviolet light sources many times higher than the minimum specified intensity for FPI work. High UVA intensity, coupled with elevated specimen temperature and increased air flow, will fade a defect indication to a pale blue in minutes. Experimental work has shown that it is possible to reduce the brightness of a 0.060? long crack indication by half within 3.5 minutes with commonly used intensities. Elevating the penetrant's temperature or increasing the airflow caused UVA-illuminated fluorescent dye to fade more quickly.

  4. Genetics and imaging to assess oocyte and preimplantation embryo health.

    PubMed

    Warner, C M; Newmark, J A; Comiskey, M; De Fazio, S R; O'Malley, D M; Rajadhyaksha, M; Townsend, D J; McKnight, S; Roysam, B; Dwyer, P J; DiMarzio, C A

    2004-01-01

    Two major criteria are currently used in human assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to evaluate oocyte and preimplantation embryo health: (1) rate of preimplantation embryonic development; and (2) overall morphology. A major gene that regulates the rate of preimplantation development is the preimplantation embryo development (Ped) gene, discovered in our laboratory. In mice, presence of the Ped gene product, Qa-2 protein, results in a fast rate of preimplantation embryonic development, compared with a slow rate of preimplantation embryonic development for embryos that are lacking Qa-2 protein. Moreover, mice that express Qa-2 protein have an overall reproductive advantage that extends beyond the preimplantation period, including higher survival to birth, higher birthweight, and higher survival to weaning. Data are presented that suggest that Qa-2 increases the rate of development of early embryos by acting as a cell-signalling molecule and that phosphatidylinositol-32 kinase is involved in the cell-signalling pathway. The most likely human homologue of Qa-2 has recently been identified as human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G. Data are presented which show that HLA-G, like Qa-2, is located in lipid rafts, implying that HLA-G also acts as a signalling molecule. In order to better evaluate the second criterion used in ART (i.e. overall morphology), a unique and innovative imaging microscope has been constructed, the Keck 3-D fusion microscope (Keck 3DFM). The Keck 3DFM combines five different microscopic modes into a single platform, allowing multi-modal imaging of the specimen. One of the modes, the quadrature tomographic microscope (QTM), creates digital images of non-stained transparent cells by measuring changes in the index of refraction. Quadrature tomographic microscope images of oocytes and preimplantation mouse embryos are presented for the first time. The digital information from the QTM images should allow the number of cells in a preimplantation embryo to be counted non-invasively. The Keck 3DFM is also being used to assess mitochondrial distribution in mouse oocytes and embryos by using the k-means clustering algorithm. Both the number of cells in preimplantation embryos and mitochondrial distribution are related to oocyte and embryo health. New imaging data obtained from the Keck 3DFM, combined with genetic and biochemical approaches, have the promise of being able to distinguish healthy from unhealthy oocytes and embryos in a non-invasive manner. The goal is to apply the information from our mouse model system to the clinic in order to identify one and only one healthy embryo for transfer back to the mother undergoing an ART procedure. This approach has the potential to increase the success rate of ART and to decrease the high, and undesirable, multiple birth rate presently associated with ART. PMID:15740696

  5. Embryo development and structural analysis of in vitro matured bovine oocytes vitrified in flexipet denuding pipettes.

    PubMed

    Morató, R; Izquierdo, D; Paramio, M T; Mogas, T

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different vitrification carrier systems for oocyte cryopreservation. In vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes were vitrified in open pulled straws (OPS) or flexipet denuding pipettes (FDP), and the effects of cryopreservation determined on the cytoskeletal components and developmental capacity of the oocytes. Three experimental groups were established according to whether the oocytes were vitrified in OPS (OPS group), FDP (FDP group) or left untreated (CTR group). Twenty two hours after the onset of maturation, sub-groups of 2-4 oocytes were pre-equilibrated in 1 mL of Hepes-TCM 199 with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) (HM), 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 30 s. The oocytes were then transferred to a 20-microL drop of HM containing 20% DMSO, 20% EG and 0.5 M of sucrose, which was used to load the OPS or FDP before their immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Oocytes were thawed by plunging the OPS or FDP into 0.25 M sucrose in HM, and then placed for 5 min each in 0.15 and 0 M sucrose in HM. After warming, spindle configuration, chromosome distribution and embryo development were assessed. Frozen-thawed semen was used for fertilization. Zygotes were denuded at 22 h post-insemination, and cultured in SOF medium for 9 days at 38.5 degrees C in a 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 atmosphere. All experiments were performed using both cow and calf oocytes to establish sensitivity differences. After in vitro fertilization and culture, oocytes in the FDP group showed a lower cleavage rate than those in the OPS or control groups (P<0.05), while blastocysts were only obtained in the OPS group, at a lower rate than controls. After warming, double fluorescent staining revealed higher rates of spindle and chromosome abnormalities in the FDP group compared to the OPS group (P<0.05). No differences between cow and calf oocytes were observed in the different experiments. Our results indicate that the carrier system affects the capacity of IVM oocytes to survive cryopreservation. Unexpectedly, the flexipet denuding pipette failed to improve results and high rates of clustered chromatin and abnormal spindles were observed in calf and cow oocytes vitrified by the FDP method. In conclusion, the use of the flexipet denuding pipette modifies the cytoskeletal components and compromises the developmental capacity of in vitro matured calf and cow oocytes. PMID:18755504

  6. Extended in vitro maturation affects gene expression and DNA methylation in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Julia; Mattern, Felix; Aldag, Patrick; Bernal-Ulloa, Sandra Milena; Schneider, Tamara; Haaf, Thomas; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-10-01

    To mimic post-ovulatory ageing, we have extended the in vitro maturation (IVM) phase to 48 h and examined effects on (i) developmental potential, (ii) expression of a panel of developmentally important genes and (iii) gene-specific epigenetic marks. Results were compared with the 24 h IVM protocol (control) usually employed for bovine oocytes. Cleavage rates and blastocyst yields were significantly reduced in oocytes after extended IVM. No significant differences were observed in the methylation of entire alleles in oocytes for the genes bH19, bSNRPN, bZAR1, bOct4 and bDNMT3A. However, we found differentially methylated CpG sites in the bDNMT3Ls locus in oocytes after extended IVM and in embryos derived from them compared with controls. Moreover, embryos derived from the 48 h matured oocyte group were significantly less methylated at CpG5 and CpG7 compared with the 24 h group. CpG7 was significantly hypermethylated in embryos produced from the control oocytes, but not in oocytes matured for 48 h. Furthermore, methylation for CpG5-CpG8 of bDNMT3Ls was significantly lower in oocytes of the 24 h group compared with embryos derived therefrom, whereas no such difference was found for oocytes and embryos of the in vitro aged group. Expression of most of the selected genes was not affected by duration of IVM. However, transcript abundance for the imprinted gene bIGF2R was significantly reduced in oocytes analyzed after extended IVM compared with control oocytes. Transcript levels for bPRDX1, bDNMT3A and bBCLXL were significantly reduced in 4- to 8-cell embryos derived from in vitro aged oocytes. These results indicate that extended IVM leads to ageing-like alterations and demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms are critically involved in ageing of bovine oocytes, which warrants further studies into epigenetic mechanisms involved in ageing of female germ cells, including humans. PMID:26155800

  7. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  8. Role of luteinizing hormone in luteotropic complex of pregnant hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, H.; Greenwald, G.S.

    1987-04-01

    Hamsters were hypophysectomized on day 4 of pregnancy and injected subcutaneously on days 4-7 with various combinations of 200 ..mu..g prolactin (Prl), 10 ..mu..g follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 20 ..mu..g luteinizing hormone (LH) in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to decrease its rate of absorption or in saline. End points for luteal function on day 8 were maintenance of pregnancy, serum progesterone (P/sub 4/), luteal weight, and luteal binding for human chorionic gonadotropin, FSH, and Prl. After hypophysectomy, a drastic decline occurred in all parameters including an 89% decrease in luteal weight. Injection of Prl did not maintain pregnancy nor serum P/sub 4/ but partially maintained luteal weight and human chorionic gonadotropin binding sites per corpus luteum. The minimal luteotropic complex of Prl and FSH was effective in maintaining pregnancy and significantly increased serum P/sub 4/ and Prl and FSH receptors but not to control levels. Thus, the luteotropic activity of LH was only demonstrable when it was injected in a long-acting form; when delivered as a bolus, LH (saline) was luteolytic. P/sub 4/ and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay. Radioiodinated gonadotropins were prepared. The percentage of tracer reacting with an excess of receptor were 51% of /sup 125/I-FSH and 45.9% of /sup 125/I-hCG using whole homogenates of hamster ovaries.

  9. Macrophages exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi induce Lyme arthritis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Du Chateau, B K; England, D M; Callister, S M; Lim, L C; Lovrich, S D; Schell, R F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which Lyme arthritis is induced has not been elucidated. In this study, we showed that macrophages have a direct, effector role in the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis. Severe destructive arthritis was induced in recipients of macrophages obtained from Borrelia burgdorferi-vaccinated and nonvaccinated hamsters exposed to Formalin-inactivated B. burgdorferi in vitro and then challenged with the Lyme spirochete. Swelling of the hind paws was detected within 8 h of infection, increased rapidly, and peaked at 21 h. This initial swelling decreased, and by day 4 only slight swelling was detected. Severe swelling of the hind paws was detected 8 days after infection and increased rapidly, with peak swelling occurring on day 11. Histopathologic examination affirmed that macrophages exposed to Formalin-inactivated spirochetes induced a severe destructive Lyme arthritis. The onset and severity of the severe destructive arthritis were dependent on the number of macrophages transferred. By contrast, macrophages not exposed to Formalin-inactivated B. burgdorferi failed to induce severe destructive arthritis in recipients after challenge with B. burgdorferi. Similarly, severe destructive arthritis was not detected in recipients of macrophages injected with spirochetal growth medium. Our results also showed that transferred macrophages could not protect hamsters from infection with B. burgdorferi, as spirochetes were readily recovered from their tissues when cultured. These findings demonstrate that macrophages exposed to B. burgdorferi are directly involved in the induction of Lyme arthritis. PMID:8698477

  10. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise. PMID:23333554

  11. Social forces can impact the circadian clocks of cohabiting hamsters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J; Indic, Premananda; Schwartz, William J

    2014-03-22

    A number of field and laboratory studies have shown that the social environment influences daily rhythms in numerous species. However, underlying mechanisms, including the circadian system's role, are not known. Obstacles to this research have been the inability to track and objectively analyse rhythms of individual animals housed together. Here, we employed temperature dataloggers to track individual body temperature rhythms of pairs of cohabiting male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in constant darkness and applied a continuous wavelet transform to determine the phase of rhythm onset before, during, and after cohabitation. Cohabitation altered the predicted trajectory of rhythm onsets in 34% of individuals, representing 58% of pairs, compared to 12% of hamsters single-housed as 'virtual pair' controls. Deviation from the predicted trajectory was by a change in circadian period (?), which tended to be asymmetric-affecting one individual of the pair in nine of 11 affected pairs-with hints that dominance might play a role. These data implicate a change in the speed of the circadian clock as one mechanism whereby social factors can alter daily rhythms. Miniature dataloggers coupled with wavelet analyses should provide powerful tools for future studies investigating the principles and mechanisms mediating social influences on daily timing. PMID:24500164

  12. Comparison of rat and hamster hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Barfknect, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated marked differences in the capacity of hepatocytes from rats or hamsters to mediate the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens to genotoxic (i.e., mutagenic) products. Thus far, very few investigations of species differences in DNA repair have been performed. Therefore, a comparison of the relative extent of DNA repair elicited by various genotoxic chemicals in rat and hamster hepatocyes was conducted, using the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair (HPC/DR) assay. Of the ll chemicals tested, eight were more potent in inducing DNA repair in hamster hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. Dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, pararosaniline hydrochloride, 1-naphthylamine, benzidine and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane were all active in hamster hepatocytes at a concentration at least ten times less than the lowest effective concentration in rat hepatocytes. The direct-acting alkylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate, was equipotent inducing DNA repair in both rat and hamster hepatocytes, indicating that the differences in DNA repair observed for the other chemicals were probably not a result of species differences in DNA repair capacities. In contrast, 1-nitropyrene produced a greater DNA repair response in rat hepatocyes than hamster hepatocytes, while the bacterial mutagen 3-(chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride was inactive in both hepatocyte systems. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using hamster hepatocytes in the HPC/DR assay and illustrate the utility of performing the assay with hepatocytes from more than one species.

  13. Hamster Weight Patterns Predict the Intensity and Course of Schistosoma haematobium Infection.

    PubMed

    Le, Thien-Linh P; Boyett, Deborah M; Hurley-Novatny, Amelia; Hsieh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Although Syrian golden hamsters are widely used as hosts for experimental infection by Schistosoma haematobium , surprisingly little is known about the course of infection and associated intensity (as defined by measures of parasite burden). As such, we sought to define inexpensive, simple, noninvasive, and accurate methods for assessing and predicting the severity of disease in S. haematobium -infected hamsters in order to prevent premature hamster sacrifice and unexpected morbidity and mortality. Through monitoring the weight and behavior of infected hamsters, we determined that the weight-loss patterns of infected hamsters are highly correlated with commonly used measures of the severity of infection (i.e., numbers of eggs passed in the stool, worm burdens, and total egg yields). In contrast, we found no significant correlation between hamster weight-loss patterns and egg yields from liver and intestinal tissues. Our findings suggest that a more complex relationship exists among worm burden, fecundity, and egg passage in the feces than previously appreciated. Regardless, our data may be useful for workers seeking to optimize harvests of S. haematobium eggs and worms from infected hamsters for downstream applications. PMID:26186584

  14. Fractured zona oocytes in in-vitro fertilization cycles stimulated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue and human menopausal gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, I; Calhaz-Jorge, C; Leal, F; Barata, M; Coelho, A P

    1993-04-01

    In order to assess the possible influence of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue and human menopausal gonadotrophin on the occurrence of fractured zona oocytes (FZOs) in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles, we analysed 267 consecutive cycles in 199 patients. In 87 cycles, at least one fractured zona oocyte was recovered, and in 180 cycles only intact zona oocytes (IZOs) were recovered. FZOs represented 5.8% of all oocytes retrieved and 14.8% when only cycles with FZOs were considered. Serum oestradiol concentrations were significantly higher at day -3 and day -2 (P < 0.02) in cycles yielding at least one fractured zona oocyte compared to IZO cycles (day 0 = retrieval day), and there was a higher incidence of G terminal pattern of oestradiol curve (P < 0.01) in cycles with FZOs. The mean numbers of all oocytes retrieved and of mature oocytes were significantly higher in FZO than in IZO cycles (P < 0.001). The fertilization rate of mature oocytes was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in cycles with one or more oocytes with fractured zonae. There was no significant difference in the number of embryos transferred, pregnancy and abortion rates in both groups. We conclude that although the occurrence of fractured zona oocytes is a frequent event, it does not affect the overall results of our IVF programme. Zona pellucida fragility may be the result of over-maturation of some oocytes. PMID:8501194

  15. Management of penetrating brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

  16. Effects of Aroclor 1254 on In Vivo Oocyte Maturation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShuZhen; Jiang, LiGang; Meng, XiaoQian; Han, XiaoYing; Cheng, Dong; Zhang, TianLiang; Miao, YiLiang

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are stable, lipophilic compounds that accumulate in the environment and in the food chain. Though some studies provided evidence that PCBs had adverse effects on reproductive function, most of these results were from in vitro models. Therefore we investigated the effect of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCBs mixture) treatments on in vivo maturation and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. In the present study, female ICR mice were treated with different doses (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCB mixture) once every 72 hours by intraperitoneal injection for 9 days. After three treatments of Aroclor 1254, the mice were superovulated to collect oocytes one day after the last exposure. The effects of Aroclor 1254 on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation embryonic development were investigated. Immunofluorescence-stained oocytes were observed under a confocal microscope to assess the effects of Aroclor 1254 on spindle morphology. Parthenogenic activation and the incidence of cumulus apoptosis in cumulus-oocyte complexes were observed as well. Oocytes exposed to different doses of Aroclor 1254 in vivo were associated with a significant decrease in outgrowth potential, abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of parthenogenetic activation of ovulated oocytes. Furthermore, the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells was increased after exposed to Aroclor 1254. These results may provide reference for the treatment of reproductive diseases such as infertility or miscarriage caused by environmental contaminants. PMID:25013911

  17. Endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide is involved in porcine oocyte maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nevoral, Jan; Žalmanová, Tereza; Zámostná, Kate?ina; Kott, Tomáš; Ku?erová-Chrpová, Veronika; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Gelaude, Armance; Procházka, Radek; Orsák, Matyáš; Šulc, Miloslav; Klein, Pavel; Dvo?áková, Markéta; Weingartová, Ivona; Víghová, Aurélia; Hošková, Kristýna; Krej?ová, Tereza; Jílek, František; Petr, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, one of three known gasotransmitters, is involved in physiological processes, including reproductive functions. Oocyte maturation and surrounding cumulus cell expansion play an essential role in female reproduction and subsequent embryonic development. Although the positive effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on maturing oocytes are well known, the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide, which is physiologically released by enzymes, has not yet been described in oocytes. In this study, we observed the presence of Cystathionine ?-Synthase (CBS), Cystathionine ?-Lyase (CTH) and 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase (3-MPST), hydrogen sulfide-releasing enzymes, in porcine oocytes. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production was detected in immature and matured oocytes as well as its requirement for meiotic maturation. Individual hydrogen sulfide-releasing enzymes seem to be capable of substituting for each other in hydrogen sulfide production. However, meiosis suppression by inhibition of all hydrogen sulfide-releasing enzymes is not irreversible and this effect is a result of M-Phase/Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activity inhibition. Futhermore, cumulus expansion expressed by hyaluronic acid (HA) production is affected by the inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production. Moreover, quality changes of the expanded cumuli are indicated. These results demonstrate hydrogen sulfide involvement in oocyte maturation as well as cumulus expansion. As such, hydrogen sulfide appears to be an important cell messenger during mammalian oocyte meiosis and adequate cumulus expansion. PMID:26456342

  18. Unifying theory of adult resting follicle recruitment and fetal oocyte arrest.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman

    2015-10-01

    One of the biggest mysteries of ovarian physiology is what controls the emergence of adult primordial follicles from the resting stage, and their steady depletion over the woman's lifetime. A related mystery is why do early oogonia begin meiosis in the fetus and then suddenly arrest for most of fetal and adult life. If fetal oocyte arrest did not occur after meiotic activation, there would be no oocytes left in the female baby by the time she is born. Similarly, without a steady controlled release in the adult ovary of resting follicles, the adult woman would run out of her eggs prematurely and have an early menopause. Could there be a similarity between what causes fetal oocyte arrest and what causes adult oocyte recruitment? The answer begins with the observation of a sudden massive recruitment of primordial follicles after human ovarian transplantation, and the embryologic discoveries about oocyte activation and the time of differentiation of cortex and medulla. The unifying theory is that ovarian cortical tissue pressure controls both fetal oocyte arrest and adult oocyte recruitment. PMID:26276043

  19. Impaired Oocyte Quality Induced by Dehydroepiandrosterone Is Partially Rescued by Metformin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Yu, Yang; Gao, Jiangman; Li, Rong; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Hongcui; Zhao, Yue; Qiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of hyperandrogenism on oocyte quality using a murine PCOS model induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and further explored the effect of metformin treatment. Female BALB/c mice were treated with a vehicle control or DHEA (6 mg /100 g body weight) or DHEA plus metformin (50 mg /100 g body weight) for 20 consecutive days. DHEA-induced mice resembled some characters of human PCOS, such as irregular sexual cycles and polycystic ovaries. After the model validation was completed, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved and subsequent analyses of oocyte quality were performed. DHEA-treated mice yielded fewer MII oocytes, which displayed decreased mtDNA copy number, ATP content, inner mitochondrial membrane potential, excessive oxidative stress and impaired embryo development competence compared with those in control mice. Metformin treatment partially attenuated those damages, as evidenced by the increased fertilization and blastocyst rate, ATP content, GSH concentration and GSH/GSSG ratio, and decreased reactive oxygen species levels. No significant difference in normal spindle assembly was observed among the three groups. During in vitro maturation (IVM), the periods of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body (PB1) extrusion were extended and the maturation rate of GVBD oocytes was decreased in DHEA mice compared with controls. Metformin treatment decreased the time elapsed of GVBD while had no effect on PB1 extrusion. These results indicated that excessive androgen is detrimental to oocyte quality while metformin treatment is, directly or indirectly, beneficial for oocyte quality improvement. PMID:25811995

  20. Vitrification as a method for genome resource banking oocytes from the endangered Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Czarny, N A; Rodger, J C

    2010-06-01

    Populations of Australia's largest terrestrial marsupial carnivore, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), are rapidly declining in the wild due to Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (TDFTD). One tool which can reduce the loss of genetic diversity is genome resource banking. This study examines the application of an oocyte vitrification protocol, initially developed in a model marsupial carnivore, to the endangered Tasmanian devil. Ovarian tissue was transported to the laboratory on ice from Tasmania which took up to 48 h. Individual granulosa oocyte complexes (GOC) were isolated enzymatically and the viability of oocytes from primary GOC was assessed immediately following isolation or after exposure to cold shock, vitrification and thawing media without exposure to liquid nitrogen or the full vitrification and thawing process. There was no decline in oocyte viability following cold shock or exposure to the vitrification and thawing media. Following the full vitrification and thawing process there was a decline in oocyte viability (chi(2)=20.0, P<0.001) but approximately 70% of oocytes remained viable. This study provides further evidence that oocyte vitrification is a promising strategy for genome resource banking in carnivorous marsupials and suggests that it should be considered in conservation plans for the survival of the iconic Tasmanian devil. PMID:20219455

  1. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  2. Brain natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide maintain porcine oocyte meiotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Yang, Ye; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qian; Wang, Huarong; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Meijia; Xia, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) serves as a key control system during mouse oocyte maturation. We used pig models (in vitro and in vivo) to explore the role played by the natriuretic peptide family in porcine oocyte maturation. We reported the expression and location of natriuretic peptide system in different stages of porcine antral follicles. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and CNP were expressed primarily in granulosa cells, whereas brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPRB) receptor were expressed in granulosa cells (both cumulus and mural granulosa cells) and thecal internal cells, and the natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) receptor predominantly in thecal cells. Upon in vitro culture, BNP and CNP maintained meiotic arrest of oocytes associated with cumulus cells. The expression levels of BNP, CNP, and the NPRB receptor increased upon treatment of prepubertal gilts with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin and decreased upon subsequent human chorionic gonadotropin injection. Such dynamic changes in the expression of natriuretic peptides and their receptor paralleled the proportions of oocytes exhibiting nuclear maturation in vivo. These data indicated that BNP and CNP co-contributed to maintaining porcine meiotic arrest under physiological condition and lutenizing hormone (LH) relieved this inhibitory effect by decreasing the expression levels of BNP and CNP in vivo. Our present work, combined with previous data, improved the understanding of the oocyte meiotic arrest mechanisms and further revealed that natriuretic peptides serve as oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) to inhibit oocyte maturation in mammals. PMID:24912131

  3. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS, TRANSPORT, AND PACKAGING OF PROTEINACEOUS YOLK IN OOCYTES OF ORCONECTES IMMUNIS

    PubMed Central

    Ganion, L. R.; Kessel, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The incorporation of leucine-3H into either ovarian or oocyte proteins occurs throughout vitellogenesis, but is at a maximum during early phases of this process. The labeling of ovarian and oocyte proteins is inhibited with cycloheximide. Oocytes are permeable to actinomycin D, and this drug does not affect the incorporation of amino acids into oocyte proteins but does block oocyte RNA synthesis. By means of both light microscope and high resolution radioautography, it has been demonstrated that the initial incorporation of leucine-3H under both in vitro and in vivo conditions occurs in elements of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the oocyte. Under pulse-chase conditions, the label subsequently becomes associated with intracisternal (precursor yolk) granules now aggregated within the cisternae of the connected smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. By 7 days, mature yolk globules are extensively labeled. The results of experiments designed to assess the possible contribution of maternal blood proteins to yolk deposition indicate that such a contribution is minimal. It is concluded that the crayfish oocyte is programmed for and capable of synthesizing the massive store of proteinaceous yolk present in the egg at the end of oogenesis. PMID:5061951

  4. High revivability of vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes after recovery culture with ?-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Ikuko; Tagiri, Miho; Ogawa, Hayato; Tashima, Kazuya; Takashima, Seiji; Hara, Hiromasa; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes can be improved by antioxidant treatment during recovery culture. In experiment 1, one of the two antioxidants (either l-ascorbic acid or ?-tocopherol) was added as a supplement to the recovery culture medium to which postwarming oocytes were exposed for 2?h before IVF. The exposure to ?-tocopherol had a positive effect on rescuing the oocytes as assessed by the blastocyst yield 8 days after the IVF (35.1-36.3% vs 19.2-25.8% in untreated postwarming oocytes). Quality of expanding blastocysts harvested on Day 8 was comparable between ?-tocopherol-treated vitrification group and fresh control group in terms of total cell number and chromosomal ploidy. In experiment 2, level of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial activity, and distribution of cortical granules in ?-tocopherol-treated postwarming oocytes were assessed. No obvious differences from the control data were found in these parameters. However, the treatment with ?-tocopherol increased the percentage of zygotes exhibiting normal single aster formation (90.3% vs 48.0% in untreated postwarming oocytes; 10?h post-IVF). It was concluded that ?-tocopherol treatment of vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes during recovery culture can improve their revivability, as shown by the high blastocyst yield and the higher mean total cell number in the blastocysts. PMID:25628440

  5. Identification and characterization of an oocyte factor required for development of porcine nuclear transfer embryos

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Kei; Nagai, Kouhei; Kitamura, Naoya; Nishikawa, Tomoaki; Ikegami, Haruka; Binh, Nguyen T.; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Mai; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Minami, Naojiro; Yamada, Masayasu; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Miyake, Masashi; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Imai, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming of differentiated cells can be induced by oocyte factors. Despite numerous attempts, these factors and mechanisms responsible for successful reprogramming remain elusive. Here, we identify one such factor, necessary for the development of nuclear transfer embryos, using porcine oocyte extracts in which some reprogramming events are recapitulated. After incubating somatic nuclei in oocyte extracts from the metaphase II stage, the oocyte proteins that were specifically and abundantly incorporated into the nuclei were identified by mass spectrometry. Among 25 identified proteins, we especially focused on a multifunctional protein, DJ-1. DJ-1 is present at a high concentration in oocytes from the germinal vesicle stage until embryos at the four-cell stage. Inhibition of DJ-1 function compromises the development of nuclear transfer embryos but not that of fertilized embryos. Microarray analysis of nuclear transfer embryos in which DJ-1 function is inhibited shows perturbed expression of P53 pathway components. In addition, embryonic arrest of nuclear transfer embryos injected with anti–DJ-1 antibody is rescued by P53 inhibition. We conclude that DJ-1 is an oocyte factor that is required for development of nuclear transfer embryos. This study presents a means for identifying natural reprogramming factors in mammalian oocytes and a unique insight into the mechanisms underlying reprogramming by nuclear transfer. PMID:21482765

  6. Nicotinamide: a Class III HDACi Delays In Vitro Aging of Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Ah Reum; KISHIGAMI, Satoshi; AMANO, Tomoko; MATSUMOTO, Kazuya; WAKAYAMA, Teruhiko; HOSOI, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Postovulatory mammalian oocyte developmental potential decreases with aging in vivo and in vitro. Aging oocytes typically show cellular fragmentation and chromosome scattering with an abnormally shaped spindle over time. Previously, it was shown that histone acetylation in the mouse oocyte increased during aging and that treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor for class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhanced the acetylation, that is, aging. In this study, we examined the effect of nicotinamide (NAM), an inhibitor for class III HDACs, on in vitro aging of mouse oocytes as well as TSA. We found that treatment with NAM significantly inhibited cellular fragmentation, spindle elongation and astral microtubules up to 48 h of culture. Although presence of TSA partially inhibited cellular fragmentation and spindle elongation up to 36 h of culture, treatment with TSA induced chromosome scattering at 24 h of culture and more severe cellular fragmentation at 48 h of culture. Further, we found that ?-tubulin, a nonhistone protein, increased acetylation during aging, suggesting that not only histone but nonhistone protein acetylation may also increase with oocyte aging. Thus, these data indicate that protein acetylation is abnormally regulated in aging oocytes, which are associated with a variety of aging phenotypes, and that class I/II and class III HDACs may play distinct roles in aging oocytes. PMID:23474603

  7. Promotion of EGF receptor signaling improves the quality of low developmental competence oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Ritter, Lesley J; Rose, Ryan D; Thompson, Jeremy G; Smitz, Johan; Mottershead, David G; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2015-07-15

    Oocytes acquire developmental competence with progressive folliculogenesis. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) from small antral follicles have inherent low competence and are poorly responsive to amphiregulin (AREG) which normally mediates oocyte maturation and ovulation. Using low competence porcine COCs, in an in vitro AREG-induced oocyte maturation system, the combined exposure to N(6),2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (B15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (G9) was necessary to enhance the rate of oocyte meiotic maturation and blastocyst formation. Furthermore, the combination of cAMP+B15+G9 enabled AREG-stimulated cumulus expansion and increased expression of the matrix-related genes HAS2, TNFIPA6 and PTGS2. Additionally, the combination enhanced p-ERK1/2 which is downstream of the EGF receptor. The enhanced nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation rates with the combinational treatment were ablated by an EGF receptor phosphorylation inhibitor. These results indicate that cAMP and oocyte-secreted factors cooperate to promote EGF receptor functionality in developing COCs, representing a key component of the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence. PMID:25981108

  8. The effect of glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization and embryo development.

    PubMed

    González, Raquel; Ruiz-León, Yolanda; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2010-02-01

    Increased glucocorticoid levels, due to medical therapy or stress-related, may affect reproduction via the hypothalamus-pituitary-axis or directly at the oocyte level. We examined the effects of natural (corticosterone) or synthetic (dexamethasone) glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte maturation and underlying changes in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation patterns. Fertilization and progression up to the blastocyst stage were also evaluated. Oocytes were exposed to corticosterone or dexamethasone (0, 0.25, 2.5, 25 or 250microM) for 17h during in vitro maturation. After maturation, ERK-1/2 activation in oocytes was assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in vitro. Corticosterone exposure during oocyte maturation significantly decreased progression to metaphase II, fertilization and embryo development at the highest concentration. Corticosterone caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of ERK-1/2 activation, with the highest concentration resulting in considerable inhibition of oocyte ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and no blastocyst development. In contrast, dexamethasone had no effect on maturation, fertilization and cleavage, and no effect was seen on ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these in vitro findings, high glucocorticoid levels may have consequences for subsequent development, although a short exposure to physiologic or stress-related glucocorticoid levels may not represent a hazard to meiosis progression of the oocyte. PMID:19733225

  9. The functional role of oxytocin in the induction of oocyte meiotic resumption in cattle.

    PubMed

    De Cesaro, M P; Trois, R L; Gutierrez, K; Siqueira, L; Rigo, M L; Glanzner, W G; Oliveira, J F; Gonçalves, P B

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of oxytocin (OT) in the progesterone (P4) and prostaglandins (PGs) pathway to induce oocyte meiotic resumption. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15 h to determine the effects of different doses of OT or atosiban (ATO; oxytocin receptor antagonist) on oocyte meiotic resumption. In another experiment, we examined the effect of the interaction between P4, OT and PGs on the regulatory cascade of the oocyte meiotic resumption. Oxytocin at 1 ?m was effective in inducing meiotic resumption in oocytes co-cultured with follicular cells (84.0%), not differing from the positive control group (74.4%). Atosiban inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the positive effect of OT on the meiotic resumption (27.6% metaphase I with 10 ?m of ATO, which did not differ from the 25.5% of the negative control group). Furthermore, a third experiment showed that P4 was able to induce oocyte meiotic resumption, which was inhibited by ATO. However, the OT positive effect was not blocked by mifepristone (P4 antagonist), but was inhibited by indomethacin (a non-selective PTGS2 inhibitor). Collectively, these data suggest a sequential role of P4, OT and PGs in the induction of oocyte meiotic resumption. PMID:23691948

  10. Differential nuclear remodeling of mammalian somatic cells by Xenopus laevis oocyte and egg cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Alberio, Ramiro; Johnson, Andrew D.; Stick, Reimer; Campbell, Keith H.S. . E-mail: keith.campbell@nottingham.ac.uk

    2005-07-01

    The mechanisms governing nuclear reprogramming have not been fully elucidated yet; however, recent studies show a universally conserved ability of both oocyte and egg components to reprogram gene expression in somatic cells. The activation of genes associated with pluripotency by oocyte/egg components may require the remodeling of nuclear structures, such that they can acquire the features of early embryos and pluripotent cells. Here, we report on the remodeling of the nuclear lamina of mammalian cells by Xenopus oocyte and egg extracts. Lamin A/C is removed from somatic cells incubated in oocyte and egg extracts in an active process that requires permeable nuclear pores. Removal of lamin A/C is specific, since B-type lamins are not changed, and it is not dependent on the incorporation Xenopus egg specific lamin III. Moreover, transcriptional activity is differentially regulated in somatic cells incubated in the extracts. Pol I and II transcriptions are maintained in cells in oocyte extracts; however, both activities are abolished in egg extracts. Our study shows that components of oocyte and egg extracts can modify the nuclear lamina of somatic cells and that this nuclear remodeling induces a structural change in the nucleus which may have implications for transcriptional activity. These experiments suggest that modifications in the nuclear lamina structure by the removal of somatic proteins and the incorporation of oocyte/egg components may contribute to the reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei and may define a characteristic configuration of pluripotent cells.

  11. Ultrastructural Interactions and Genotoxicity Assay of Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Courbiere, Blandine; Auffan, Mélanie; Rollais, Raphaël; Tassistro, Virginie; Bonnefoy, Aurélie; Botta, Alain; Rose, Jérôme; Orsière, Thierry; Perrin, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation. We performed in vitro assays on mature mouse oocytes incubated with CeO2 ENPs to study (1) physicochemical biotransformation of ENPs in culture medium; (2) ultrastructural interactions with follicular cells and oocytes using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); (3) genotoxicity of CeO2 ENPs on follicular cells and oocytes using a comet assay. DNA damage was quantified as Olive Tail Moment. We show that ENPs aggregated, but their crystal structure remained stable in culture medium. TEM showed endocytosis of CeO2 ENP aggregates in follicular cells. In oocytes, CeO2 ENP aggregates were only observed around the zona pellucida (ZP). The comet assay revealed significant DNA damage in follicular cells. In oocytes, the comet assay showed a dose-related increase in DNA damage and a significant increase only at the highest concentrations. DNA damage decreased significantly both in follicular cells and in oocytes when an anti-oxidant agent was added in the culture medium. We hypothesise that at low concentrations of CeO2 ENPs oocytes could be protected against indirect oxidative stress due to a double defence system composed of follicular cells and ZP. PMID:24185910

  12. Increase in multidrug transport activity is associated with oocyte maturation in sea stars*

    PubMed Central

    Roepke, Troy A.; Hamdoun, Amro M.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report on the presence of efflux transporter activity before oocyte maturation in sea stars and its upregulation after maturation. This activity is similar to the multidrug resistance (MDR) activity mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters. In sea star oocytes the efflux activity, as measured by exclusion of calcein-am, increased two-fold 3 h post-maturation. Experiments using specific and non-specific dyes and inhibitors demonstrated that the increase in transporter activity involves an ABCB protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and an ABCC protein similar to the MDR-associated protein (MRP)-like transporters. Western blots using an antibody directed against mammalian P-gp recognized a 45 kDa protein in sea star oocytes that increased in abundance during maturation. An antibody directed against sea urchin ABCC proteins (MRP) recognized three proteins in immature oocytes and two in mature oocytes. Experiments using inhibitors suggest that translation and microtubule function are both required for post-maturation increases in transporter activity. Immunolabeling revealed translocation of stored ABCB proteins to the plasma cell membrane during maturation, and this translocation coincided with increased transport activity. These MDR transporters serve protective roles in oocytes and eggs, as demonstrated by sensitization of the oocytes to the maturation inhibitor, vinblastine, by MRP and PGP-specific transporter inhibitors. PMID:17118011

  13. Zearalenone exposure affects mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Xu, Yin-Xue; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a metabolite of Fusarium and is a common contaminant of grains and foodstuffs. ZEN acts as a xenoestrogen and is considered to be cytotoxic, tissue toxic, and genotoxic, which causes abortions and stillbirths in humans and animals. Since estrogens affect oocyte maturation during meiosis, in this study we investigated the effects of ZEN on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation. Our results showed that ZEN-treated oocyte maturation rates were decreased, which might be due to the disrupted cytoskeletons: (1) ZEN treatment resulted in significantly more oocytes with abnormal spindle morphologies; (2) actin filament expression and distribution were also disrupted after ZEN treatment, which was confirmed by the aberrant distribution of actin regulatory proteins. In addition, cortical granule-free domains (CGFDs) were disrupted after ZEN treatment, which indicated that ZEN may affect mouse oocyte fertilization capability. ZEN reduced mouse granulosa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by MTT assay and TUNEL apoptosis analysis, which may be another cause for the decreased oocyte maturation. Thus, our results demonstrated that exposure to zearalenone affected oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation in mouse. PMID:24733567

  14. Functional enucleation of porcine oocytes for somatic cell nuclear transfer using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuetemeyer, K.; Lucas-Hahn, A.; Petersen, B.; Hassel, P.; Lemme, E.; Niemann, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2010-02-01

    Cloning of several mammalian species has been achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer over the last decade. However, this method still results in very low efficiencies originating from biological and technical aspects. The highly-invasive mechanical enucleation belongs to the technical aspects and requires considerable micromanipulation skill. In this paper, we present a novel non-invasive method for combined oocyte imaging and automated functional enucleation using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. After three-dimensional imaging of Hoechst-labeled porcine oocytes by multiphoton microscopy, our self-developed software automatically determined the metaphase plate position and shape. Subsequent irradiation of this volume with the very same laser at higher pulse energies in the low-density-plasma regime was used for metaphase plate ablation. We show that functional fs laser-based enucleation of porcine oocytes completely inhibited further embryonic development while maintaining intact oocyte morphology. In contrast, non-irradiated oocytes were able to develop to the blastocyst stage without significant differences to control oocytes. Our results indicate that fs laser systems offer great potential for oocyte imaging and enucleation as a fast, easy to use and reliable tool which may improve the efficiency of somatic cell clone production.

  15. Cumulin, an Oocyte-secreted Heterodimer of the Transforming Growth Factor-? Family, Is a Potent Activator of Granulosa Cells and Improves Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Mottershead, David G; Sugimura, Satoshi; Al-Musawi, Sara L; Li, Jing-Jie; Richani, Dulama; White, Melissa A; Martin, Georgia A; Trotta, Andrew P; Ritter, Lesley J; Shi, Junyan; Mueller, Thomas D; Harrison, Craig A; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2015-09-25

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation, and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes. We found that the potent synergistic actions of GDF9 and BMP15 on GC can be attributed to the formation of a heterodimer, which we have termed cumulin. Structural modeling of cumulin revealed a dimerization interface identical to homodimeric GDF9 and BMP15, indicating likely formation of a stable complex. This was confirmed by generation of recombinant heterodimeric complexes of pro/mature domains (pro-cumulin) and covalent mature domains (cumulin). Both pro-cumulin and cumulin exhibited highly potent bioactivity on GC, activating both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways and promoting proliferation and expression of a set of genes associated with oocyte-regulated GC differentiation. Cumulin was more potent than pro-cumulin, pro-GDF9, pro-BMP15, or the two combined on GC. However, on cumulus-oocyte complexes, pro-cumulin was more effective than all other growth factors at notably improving oocyte quality as assessed by subsequent day 7 embryo development. Our results support a model of activation for human GDF9 dependent on cumulin formation through heterodimerization with BMP15. Oocyte-secreted cumulin is likely to be a central regulator of fertility in mono-ovular mammals. PMID:26254468

  16. Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor MG132 during the End of Oocyte Maturation Improves Oocyte Competence for Development after Fertilization in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Eunsong; Bonilla, Luciano; Francis, Jasmine; Koh, Jin; Block, Jeremy; Chen, Sixue; Hansen, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of the oocyte involves nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that include post-translational processing of proteins. The objective was to investigate whether inhibition of proteasomes during maturation would alter competence of the bovine oocyte for fertilization and subsequent development. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in the presence or absence of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 from either 0–6 h or 16–22 h after initiation of maturation. Treatment with MG132 early in maturation prevented progression to meiosis II and reduced fertilization rate and the proportion of oocytes and cleaved embryos that became blastocysts. Conversely, treatment with MG132 late in maturation improved the percentage of oocytes and cleaved embryos that became blastocysts without affecting nuclear maturation or fertilization rate. Optimal results with MG132 were achieved at a concentration of 10 µM – effects were generally not observed at lower or higher concentrations. Using proteomic analysis, it was found that MG132 at the end of maturation increased relative expression of 6 proteins and decreased relative expression of 23. Among those increased by MG132 that are potentially important for oocyte competence are GAPDH, involved in glycolysis, TUBA1C, needed for organellar movement, and two proteins involved in protein folding (P4HB and HYOU1). MG132 decreased amounts of several proteins that exert anti-apoptotic actions including ASNS, HSP90B1, PDIA3 and VCP. Another protein decreased by MG132, CDK5, can lead to apoptosis if aberrantly activated and one protein increased by MG132, P4HB, is anti-apoptotic. Finally, the pregnancy rate of cows receiving embryos produced from oocytes treated with MG132 from 16–22 h of maturation was similar to that for control embryos, suggesting that use of MG132 for production of embryos in vitro does not cause a substantial decrease in embryo quality. PMID:23144909

  17. Cytoplasmic regionalization in starfish oocyte occurrence and localization of cytoplasmic determinants responsible for the formation of archenteron and primary mesenchyme in starfish ( asterias amurensis) oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shicui; Wu, Xianhan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Renxue; Wu, Shangqin

    1990-09-01

    Starfish oocytes with intact germinal vesicles (GVs) were cut along desired planes with glass needles or ligated using silk thread loops into two parts and allowed to mature in vitro, and inseminated. The experimental results showed that (1) only the parts with GVs or partial GV contents (PGVCs) cleaved, those without any GV materials did not; but nucleated and non-nucleated fragments cut from mature eggs were able to divide; (2) the development of animal parts of oocytes containing GVs or PGVCs was like that of animal fragments of matured oocytes with female pronuclei; most of them gave rise to permanent blastulae, and just a few formed ectodermal vesicles with a little primary mesenchyme; (3) a large part of vegetal fragments with GVs or PGVCs, and the vegetal parts of mature eggs without female pronuclei developed into small but normal embryos; (4) the fragments containing GVs or PGVCs obtained from the oocytes along a plane parallel to the animal-vegetal (A-V) axis developed as normally as the halves (with or without female pronuclei) severed from mature eggs along the same axis. Based on the data above, it was concluded that (1) the non-chromatin materials in the oocyte GVs are indispensable for successful fertilization and cleavage of starfish eggs; (2) some factor (s) located asymmetrically in the vegetal hemispheres of starfish oocytes is (are) responsible for formation of the archenteron and primary mesenchyme. It is evident from the above findings that the oocyte cytoplasm of the starfish had already regionalized before the GV break-down.

  18. Resveratrol Improves the Mitochondrial Function and Fertilization Outcome of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    TAKEO, Shun; SATO, Daichi; KIMURA, Koji; MONJI, Yasunori; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; KAWAHARA-MIKI, Ryoka; IWATA, Hisataka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to address the effect of resveratrol-mediated upregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) during oocyte maturation on mitochondrial function, the developmental ability of oocytes and on mechanisms responsible for blockage of polyspermic fertilization. Oocytes collected from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and 0 or 20 µM resveratrol (Res). We examined the effect of Res on SIRT1 expression in in vitro-matured oocytes (Exp 1); fertilization and developmental ability (Exp 2); mitochondrial DNA copy number (Mt number), ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in matured oocytes (Exp 3); and the time required for proteinase to dissolve the zona pellucida following in vitro fertilization (as a marker of zona pellucida hardening), as well as on the distribution of cortical granules before and after fertilization (Exp 4). In Exp 1, the 20 µM Res treatment upregulated protein expression of SIRT1 in oocytes. In Exp 2, Res treatment improved the ratio of normal fertilization and the total cell number of blastocysts. In Exp 3, Res treatment significantly increased the ATP content in matured oocytes. Additionally, Res increased the overall Mt number and mitochondrial membrane potential, but the effect was donor-dependent. In Exp 4, Res-induced zona hardening improved the distribution and exocytosis of cortical granules after in vitro fertilization. In conclusion, Res improved the quality of oocytes by improving mitochondrial quantity and quality. In addition, Res added to the maturation medium enhanced SIRT1 protein expression in oocytes and improved fertilization via reinforcement of the mechanisms responsible for blockage of polyspermic fertilization. PMID:24390595

  19. The effect of temporary meiotic attenuation on the in vitro maturation outcome of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, T; Khalifa, E; Mostafa, S; Hussein, M; Bedaiwy, M; Ahmady, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of delaying maturation by extended culture of immature bovine oocytes in prematuration medium (PMC) containing single maturation inhibitor on their meiotic resumption and embryonic development. Bovine immature oocytes were cultured in M199 containing 10 ?M of either inhibitor (roscovitine, cilostamide, or forskolin) for either 72 or 120 h followed by up to 48 h in maturation media supplemented with 7.5 IU follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)/luteinizing hormone (LH). Two control groups were used. In untreated control, immature oocytes were cultured in the same medium as the experimental group without any inhibitors. In the FSH/LH control group, oocytes were cultured directly in the maturation medium supplemented with FSH/LH up to 48 h. In vitro matured oocytes were then inseminated with frozen-thawed bull sperm. Fertilization, defined as two-cell division 48 h post-insemination, and blastocyst formation were recorded. Total maturation rate for the 72-h group was 73%, 70%, 66%, and 69% for roscovitine, forskolin, cilostamide, and FSH/LH control, respectively, with no significant difference indicating that inhibitors have no negative effect on the oocyte maturation rate. The total fertilization rate for the 72-h group revealed that cilostamide (47%) and roscovitine (35%) were significantly higher than FSH/LH control (20%). The total blastocyst formation rates per inseminated oocytes revealed that among treatment groups, roscovitine (20%) had significantly higher rate than forskolin (9%). Overall, 72-h exposure period had better outcomes than 120 h in all the treated groups. In conclusion, prematuration culture of the bovine oocytes in the presence of maturation inhibitor for 72-h period at 10 ?M concentration is sufficient in improving the bovine oocyte developmental competence. PMID:25784604

  20. Trout coelomic fluid suitability as Goldfish oocyte extender can be determined by a simple turbidity test.

    PubMed

    Depince, A; Marandel, L; Goardon, L; Le Bail, P-Y; Labbe, C

    2011-06-01

    Regeneration technologies such as androgenesis, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and nuclear transfer require that handling conditions do not alter oocyte ability to sustain embryo development. One important parameter in the maintenance of oocyte quality in fish is the possibility to prevent oocytes activation during manipulation. In Cyprinid, such activation is known to be delayed when Salmonid coelomic fluid is used as incubation medium. Coelomic fluid however is a biological fluid whose ability to sustain oocyte quality during in vitro incubation may be variable. The purpose of the present work was to explore this variability using Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) coelomic fluid (TCF) and Goldfish (Carassius auratus) oocytes, and to set up a test which would reflect TCF suitability for Goldfish oocyte incubation. We showed that different TCF induced very different development rates after oocyte incubation for 30 min at 20 °C: at 24h post fertilization (pf) and at hatching, rates ranged between 35% and 110% of the non-incubated controls. When TCF (1 volume) was mixed with tap water (9 volumes), a precipitate developed whose extent was measured by spectrophotometry. This turbidity test proved to be highly correlated to development rates after Goldfish oocyte incubation in TCF (r(2) = 0.83 at hatching, n = 150): TCF with the highest turbidity (> 1.5 absorbance unit at 400 nm) were the ones which altered the most the development rates after incubation (less than 50 % at hatching). This easy and rapid turbidity test can therefore be used as a reliable estimator of TCF suitability for Goldfish oocyte incubation and manipulation. PMID:21356550

  1. Melatonin protects porcine oocyte in vitro maturation from heat stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, ZhenZhen; He, ChangJiu; Zhu, KuanFeng; Xu, ZhiYuan; Ma, Teng; Tao, JingLi; Liu, GuoShi

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule which plays an important role in animal reproductive activities. Because of the increased global warming, the impact of heat stress (HS) on stockbreeding has become an inevitable issue to be solved. To investigate the potential effects of melatonin on the in vitro maturation of porcine oocyte under the HS, a HS model for porcine oocyte maturation has been used in this study and the different concentrations of melatonin (10(-6) -10(-9)  m) were also tested for their protective effects on oocytes. The polar body rate, the index of the nuclear maturation of the oocytes, and the cleavage rate as well as the blastocyst rate were measured to evaluate the developmental competence of the oocytes after parthenogenetic activation (PA). The results showed that HS [in vitro maturation (IVM) 20-24 hr, 42°C] significantly reduced the polar body rate of oocytes and the blastocyte rate of porcine PA embryos, while melatonin (10(-7)  m) application not only improved polar body rate and blastocyte rate, but also preserved the normal levels of steroid hormone which is disrupted by HS. The presence of melatonin (10(-7)  m) during the oocyte maturation under the HS reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, enhanced glutathione (GSH) production, inhibited cell apoptosis, and increased the gene expressions of SIRT1, AKT2, and Polg2. Importantly, the endogenously occurring melatonin of cumulus-oocyte complexes was significantly induced by HS. The results indicated that melatonin application effectively protected the oocytes from HS. These observations warranted the further studies in vivo regarding to improve the reproductive activities of animals under the global warming environment. PMID:26291611

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid improves porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin Yu; Jiang, Yong; Lin, Tao; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Jae Eun; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a member of the phospholipid autacoid family, is present in human follicular fluid. The aim of the present study was to compare the developmental competence of porcine embryos created via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) in culture medium supplemented with LPA, in comparison with a control group. The effects of LPA on porcine oocyte maturation and pre-implantation embryonic development were also examined. Addition of 10??M LPA to the oocyte maturation medium significantly increased the proportion of oocytes reaching metaphase I (MI) or metaphase II (MII), and enhanced embryonic developmental potential. When present during oocyte maturation, LPA significantly increased the abundance of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in MI and MII oocytes, showing that LPA enhanced nuclear maturation via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In addition, Cyclin B1 levels were elevated in MI- and MII-stage oocytes, suggesting that LPA plays a role in both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes. After fertilization, the frequency of polyspermy in embryos obtained using LPA-treated oocytes was less than that in the control group. Further, blastocyst formation and blastocyst cell number were enhanced and apoptosis was reduced upon LPA treatment of embryos created either by IVF and PA. LPA treatment of blastocysts derived by IVF or PA resulted in increased expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2L1 gene while reducing expression of the pro-apoptotic genes BAX and CASP3. Together, our data indicate that LPA supplementation improves porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent in vitro development of pre-implantation embryos. PMID:25564987

  3. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit during Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Bellier, S; Dubois, M F; Nishida, E; Almouzni, G; Bensaude, O

    1997-01-01

    Xenopus laevis oogenesis is characterized by an active transcription which ceases abruptly upon maturation. To survey changes in the characteristics of the transcriptional machinery which might contribute to this transcriptional arrest, the phosphorylation status of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1 subunit) was analyzed during oocyte maturation. We found that the RPB1 subunit accumulates in large quantities from previtellogenic early diplotene oocytes up to fully grown oocytes. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RPB1 subunit was essentially hypophosphorylated in growing oocytes from Dumont stage IV to stage VI. Upon maturation, the proportion of hyperphosphorylated RPB1 subunits increased dramatically and abruptly. The hyperphosphorylated RPB1 subunits were dephosphorylated within 1 h after fertilization or heat shock of the matured oocytes. Extracts from metaphase II-arrested oocytes showed a much stronger CTD kinase activity than extracts from prophase stage VI oocytes. Most of this kinase activity was attributed to the activated Xp42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a MAP kinase of the ERK type. Making use of artificial maturation of the stage VI oocyte through microinjection of a recombinant stable cyclin B1, we observed a parallel activation of Xp42 MAP kinase and phosphorylation of RPB1. Both events required protein synthesis, which demonstrated that activation of p34(cdc2)off kinase was insufficient to phosphorylate RPB1 ex vivo and was consistent with a contribution of the Xp42 MAP kinase to RPB1 subunit phosphorylation. These results further support the possibility that the largest RNA polymerase II subunit is a substrate of the ERK-type MAP kinases during oocyte maturation, as previously proposed during stress or growth factor stimulation of mammalian cells. PMID:9032270

  4. Factors affecting the survival, fertilization, and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after vitrification using glass capillaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Wan, Fachun

    2009-09-01

    Cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes is an important way to provide a steady source of materials for research and practice of parthenogenetic activation, in vitro fertilization, and nuclear transfer. However, oocytes cryopreservation has not been common used, as there still are some problems waiting to be solved on the repeatability, safety, and validity. Then, it is necessary to investigate the damage occurred from vitrification and find a way to avoid or repair it. In this study, mouse mature oocytes were firstly pretreated in different equilibrium media, such as 5% ethylene glycol (EG) + 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 10% EG + 10% DMSO, and 15% EG + 15% DMSO in TCM199 supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively, and then oocytes were transferred into vitrification solution (20% EG, 20% DMSO, 0.3 M sucrose, and 20% FCS in TCM199, M2, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, and 0.9% saline medium, respectively) and immediately loaded into glass capillaries to be plunged into liquid nitrogen. After storage from 1 h to 1 wk, they were diluted in stepwise sucrose solutions. The surviving oocytes were stained for cortical granule, meiotic spindles, and chromosomes. Oocytes without treatments were used as controls. The results showed that oocytes pretreated in 5% EG +5% DMSO group for 3-5 min or in 10% EG + 10% DMSO group for 1-3 min were better than other treatments. Oocytes vitrified in TCM199 as basic medium showed higher survival and better subsequent embryonic development than other groups. When the concentration of FCS in vitrification solution reduced below 15%, the rates of survival, fertilization, and developing to blastocyst declined dramatically. The inner diameter (0.6 mm) of glass capillaries and amount of vitrification solution (1-3 microl) achieved more rapid cooling and warming and so reduce the injury to oocytes. Cropreservation led to the exocytosis of cortical granule of oocytes (about 10%) and serious disturbance of microtubules and chromosomes. With 2 h incubation, the microtubules could repolymerize and the rate of fertilization in vitro was much higher than those of 1 and 3 h incubation groups. In conclusion, the protection of basic medium and FCS to oocytes during cryopreservation and sufficient cooling and warming rates using glass capillaries have profound effects on oocytes survival and subsequent embryonic development competence. The appropriate time for fertilization in vitro may be related to the recovery of spindles after incubation and avoiding ageing in the whole process. PMID:19343459

  5. Oocyte Scoring Enhances Embryo-Scoring in Predicting Pregnancy Chances with IVF Where It Counts Most

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaroni-Tealdi, Emanuela; Barad, David H.; Albertini, David F.; Yu, Yao; Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Russell, Helena; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gleicher, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Context Our center’s quality improvement optimization process on many occasions anecdotally suggested that oocyte assessments might enhance embryo assessment in predicting pregnancy chances with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Objective To prospectively compare a morphologic oocyte grading system to standard day-3 morphologic embryo assessment. Design, Setting, Patients We prospectively investigated in a private academically-affiliated infertility center 94 consecutive IVF cycles based on 6 criteria for oocyte quality: morphology, cytoplasm, perivitelline space (PVS), zona pellucida (ZP), polar body (PB) and oocyte size, each assigned a value of -1 (worst), 0 (average) or +1 (best), so establishing an average total oocyte score (TOS). Embryo assessment utilized grade and cell numbers of each embryo on day-3 after oocyte retrieval. Clinical pregnancy was defined by presence of at least one intrauterine gestational sac. Interventions Standard IVF cycles in infertile women. Main Outcome Measures Predictability of pregnancy based on oocyte and embryo-grading systems. Results Average age for all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 years; mean oocyte yield was 7.97± 5.76; Patient specific total oocyte score (PTOS) was -1.05 ± 2.24. PTOS, adjusted for patient age, was directly related to odds of increased embryo cell numbers (OR 1.12, P = 0.025), embryo grade (OR 1.19, P < 0.001) and clinical pregnancy [OR 1.58 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.02), P < 0.001]. Restricting the analysis to day three embryos of high quality (8-cell/ good grades), TOS was still predictive of clinical pregnancy (OR 2.08 (95%CI 1.26 to 3.44, P = 0.004). Among the 69 patients with embryos of Grade 4 or better available for transfer 23 achieved Clinical Pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to the 69 transfers with good quality embryos (? Grade 4) the Oocyte Scoring System (TOS) (AUC±SE 0.863±0.044, oocyte score) provided significantly greater predictive value for clinical pregnancy compared to the embryo grade alone (AUC 0.646 ± 0.072, embryo grade) p = 0.015. Conclusions Oocyte-scoring, thus, provides useful clinical information especially in good prognosis patients with large numbers of high quality embryos. This finding appears of particular importance at a time when many IVF centers are committing sizable investments to closed incubation systems with time-lapse photography, which are exclusively meant to define embryo morphology. PMID:26630267

  6. Short-day response in Djungarian hamsters of different circadian phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Schöttner, Konrad; Schmidt, Maren; Hering, Anke; Schatz, Juliane; Weinert, Dietmar

    2012-05-01

    In Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) bred at the authors' institute, a certain number of animals show activity patterns incompatible with proper entrainment of their endogenous circadian pacemaker to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle. Even though the activity-offset in these animals is stably coupled to "light-on," activity-onset is increasingly delayed, leading to a compression of the activity time (?). If ? falls below a critical value, the circadian rhythm in these so called delayed activity-onset (DAO) hamsters starts to free-run and finally breaks down. Animals then show an arrhythmic activity pattern (AR hamsters). Previous studies revealed the mechanisms of photic entrainment have deteriorated (DAO) or the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) does not generate a rhythmic signal (AR). The aim of the present study was to investigate the consequences that these deteriorations have upon photoperiodic time measurement. Animals were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14L/10D (long day, LD) regimen. Locomotor activity was recorded continuously using passive infrared motion detectors. Body mass, testes size, and fur coloration were measured weekly or biweekly to further quantify the photoperiodic reaction. In a first experiment, adult male wild-type (WT), DAO, and AR hamsters were transferred initially to a 16L/8D cycle. After 3-4 wks, the light period was shortened symmetrically by 8 h. After 14 wks, none of the DAO and AR hamsters, and only 1 of 8 WT hamsters showed short-day (SD) traits. Therefore, in a second experiment, hamsters were transferred to SD conditions (8L/16D cycle) for 8 wks directly from standard LD conditions. In 6 of 7 WT hamsters, activity time expanded, body mass and testes size decreased, and fur coloration changed from summer to winter pelage. In contrast, none of the DAO and AR hamsters displayed an SD response. In a third experiment, DAO and AR hamsters were kept in constant darkness (DD) for 8 and 14 wks. After 8 wks, DAO hamsters showed a similar photoperiodic reaction to WT hamsters that had been kept for 8 wks under SD conditions. However, the level of adaptation was still less compared to WT hamsters, but this difference was not apparent after 14 wks. In contrast, AR animals did not display any photoperiodic reaction, even after 14 wks in DD. Type VI phase response curves (PRCs) were constructed to better understand the mechanism behind the SD response. In WT hamsters, the photosensitive phase, where light pulses induce phase shifts, was lengthened in SD condition. In DAO hamsters, in contrast, the PRCs were similar under LD and SD conditions with a compressed photosensitive phase corresponding to ?. Also, "light-on" induced only weak phase advances of activity-onset, insufficient to compensate for the long endogenous period. The results show that physiological mechanisms necessary for seasonal adaptation are working in DAO hamsters and that it is the inadequate interaction of the LD cycle with the SCN that prevents the photoperiodic reaction. AR hamsters, on the other hand, are incapable of measuring photoperiodic time due to a complete disruption of circadian rhythmicity. PMID:22515562

  7. Heparin and penicillamine-hypotaurine-epinephrine (PHE) solution during bovine in vitro fertilization procedures impair the quality of spermatozoa but improve normal oocyte fecundation and early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, F S; Barretto, L S S; Arruda, R P; Perri, S H V; Mingoti, G Z

    2014-01-01

    The presence of heparin and a mixture of penicillamine, hypotaurine, and epinephrine (PHE) solution in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) media seem to be a prerequisite when bovine spermatozoa are capacitated in vitro, in order to stimulate sperm motility and acrosome reaction. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the addition of heparin and PHE during IVF on the quality and penetrability of spermatozoa into bovine oocytes and on subsequent embryo development. Sperm quality, evaluated by the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes and mitochondrial function, was diminished (P<0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE. Oocyte penetration and normal pronuclear formation rates, as well as the percentage of zygotes presenting more than two pronuclei, was higher (P<0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE. No differences were observed in cleavage rates between treatment and control (P>0.05). However, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was increased in the presence of heparin and PHE (P>0.05). The quality of embryos that reached the blastocyst stage was evaluated by counting the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers and total number of cells; the percentage of ICM and TE cells was unaffected (P>0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that while the supplementation of IVF media with heparin and PHE solution impairs spermatozoa quality, it plays an important role in sperm capacitation, improving pronuclear formation, and early embryonic development. PMID:23949783

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Assessment to Determine Oocyte and Embryo Viability.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, Elpida; Wells, Dagan

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondria are the key regulators of multiple vital cellular processes, including apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, and the generation of ATP via the metabolic pathway known as oxidative phosphorylation. Unlike other cellular organelles, mitochondria contain one or more copies of their own genome (mtDNA). The mtDNA encodes a total of 13 genes with critical functions in cellular metabolism. The energy required to support the normal progress of preimplantation embryo development is provided in the form of ATP generated by the mitochondria. It has been suggested that cellular bioenergetic capacity and suboptimal levels of mitochondria-generated ATP could contribute to a variety of embryo developmental defects, and therefore adversely affect in vitro fertilization success rates. During this review, we discuss the role of mitochondria and their genome during oogenesis and early embryo development. We also assess whether analysis of mitochondria and their genome could be used as biomarkers to determine oocyte quality and embryo viability. PMID:26565384

  9. Clinical complications after transvaginal oocyte retrieval: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Siristatidis, C; Chrelias, C; Alexiou, A; Kassanos, D

    2013-01-01

    There are little systematic data reported in the literature on complications observed after transvaginal oocyte retrieval (OR) guided by ultrasound. We report our experience in 542 in vitro fertilisation cycles. The frequency of severe complications in our patients was 0.72%; of these, two cases were bronchospasm during anaesthesia (0.36%) and two were cases of intraperitoneal bleeding (0.36%); minor vaginal bleeding was the most frequent complication (18.08%), which was treated easily. Through this retrospective analysis, it is evident that clinical suspicion is of particular importance in detecting post-OR complications on one hand, but on the other these complications are rare and most are treated conservatively. PMID:23259882

  10. Deletion of Mylk1 in oocytes causes delayed morula-to-blastocyst transition and reduced fertility without affecting folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation in mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiu-Xia; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Qi, Shu-Tao; Wang, Zhong-Wei; Hu, Meng-Wen; Ma, Xue-Shan; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Schatten, Heide; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    The mammalian oocyte undergoes two rounds of asymmetric cell divisions during meiotic maturation and fertilization. Acentric spindle positioning and cortical polarity are two major factors involved in asymmetric cell division, both of which are thought to depend on the dynamic interaction between myosin II and actin filaments. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), encoded by the Mylk1 gene, could directly phosphorylate and activate myosin II. To determine whether MLCK was required for oocyte asymmetric division, we specifically disrupted the Mylk1 gene in oocytes by Cre-loxP conditional knockout system. We found that Mylk1 mutant female mice showed severe subfertility. Unexpectedly, contrary to previously reported in vitro findings, our data showed that oocyte meiotic maturation including spindle organization, polarity establishment, homologous chromosomes separation, and polar body extrusion were not affected in Mylk1(fl/fl);GCre(+) females. Follicular development, ovulation, and early embryonic development up to compact morula occurred normally in Mylk1(fl/fl);GCre(+) females, but deletion of MLCK caused delayed morula-to-blastocyst transition. More than a third of embryos were at morula stage at 3.5 Days Postcoitum in vivo. The delayed embryos could develop further to early blastocyst stage in vitro on Day 4 when most control embryos reached expanded blastocysts. Our findings provide evidence that MLCK is linked to timely blastocyst formation, though it is dispensable for oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:25761595

  11. The Promoter of the Oocyte-Specific Gene, Gdf9, is Active in a Population of Cultured Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells with an Oocyte-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Lisa M.; Silva, Celso P.; Kostetskii, Igor; Radice, Glenn L.; Strauss, Jerome F.

    2008-01-01

    The study of germ cell-specific gene regulation in vitro is challenging. Here we report that the promoter of the oocyte-specific gene, Gdf9, is active in a population of cultured murine embryonic stem cells (ES) which have a phenotype resembling ooocytes. The promoter region of the murine Gdf9 coupled to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was stably transfected into XX mouse ES cells. eGFP was expressed only in oocytes of chimeric mice generated from the transfected XX ES cells. The transfected ES cells were examined when cultured on feeder layers or as embryoid bodies. Large eGFP-positive cells, surrounded by a structure resembling a zona pellucida appeared transiently in cultures of the ES cells on feeder layers. Surprisingly, they were detectable on days 1 and 2 of culture but virtually absent on day 3. Addition of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to the media significantly increased the number of eGFP-positive cels resembling oocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated a parallel increase in Gdf9 and Zp3 mRNA with changes in the abundance of eGFP-positive cells. In embryoid body cultures, eGFP-positive cells appeared transiently and then re-appeared in regional clusters after 30?45 days of culture. These findings demonstrate that a population of cultured murine ES cells contain the transcriptional machinery to drive expression of an oocyte-specific gene, and that those cells phenotypically resemble oocytes. PMID:18593614

  12. Testings of the ostial patency and penetrance.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, T

    1977-06-01

    In the present study, consisting of 118 cases of maxillary sinusitis with retention of secretion, ostial patency and penetrance were examined three times during each examination, natively, postsuctionally and postirrigationally, by using consecutive measuring technique. Results indicate that, when both ostial respiratory patency and sniff/blow penetrance were tested in these afore-mentioned three phases at each examination that the information gained about ostial patency and penetrance is most representative when the most normal of these results, i.e. the optimal result, is taken as the finding. This is particularly important when testing the ostial penetrance. Observed inconsistencies between the results of the patency and penetrance tests are apparently due to the different pressures used in testing ostial patency and penetrance. PMID:918515

  13. An NSF rotator's perspective: view from inside the hamster wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2015-03-01

    Duncan McBride served as my unofficial mentor during my time at NSF as a ``rotator'' (or, in NSF-speak, an IPA, short for an Intergovernmental Personnel Act assignee), from fall 2012 through summer of 2013. A rotator's main job is to help keep the wheels of the grant submission process turning, shepherding individual proposal jackets through the submission cycle. While most proposals are eventually ``Declined'' it is the few that are funded that evoke the most vivid memories of my time there. I hope to relay a little bit about what that was like on a daily basis, to give one hamster's take on the machinations of the NSF machine, and testify to Duncan McBride's critical role in establishing physics as the leader in disciplinary based educational research (DBER). It was a heady experience in many ways, despite the sheer girth of proposal jackets to be processed and the uncertain footing upon which federal employees tread these days.

  14. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.; Matthews, R.; Ercal, N.; Krishnan, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine demonstrating a radioprotective effect. The radioprotectant effect of glutamine for CHO cells was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results support the idea that glutamine protects body systems such as the gut more directly as a radioprotector as opposed to a more indirect route, such as preventing bacterial translocation from the gut. 16 refs.

  15. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  16. X-ray microanalysis of hamster tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.J.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelia are of great interest if we are to understand the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystic fibrosis in which ion transport is abnormal. Concentrations of elements were determined in various subcellular regions of normal or isoproterenol-treated hamster tracheal epithelium, using X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Samples of trachea were taken from animals under anesthesia and either frozen in situ or dissected and plunge frozen. Concentrations of Mg, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were higher in cytoplasm and nuclei of control epithelial cells in dissected samples than in cryoneedle samples. Following treatment with isoproterenol, a large decrease in the concentration of Cl was observed. The results confirm that cyclic AMP-regulated chloride secretion is unaffected by anesthesia.

  17. Estrogen suppresses melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation of hamster spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    FUJINOKI, Masakatsu; TAKEI, Gen L.

    2015-01-01

    Hamster sperm hyperactivation is enhanced by progesterone, and this progesterone-enhanced hyperactivation is suppressed by 17?-estradiol (17?E2) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although it has been indicated that melatonin also enhances hyperactivation, it is unknown whether melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation is also suppressed by 17?E2 and GABA. In the present study, melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation was significantly suppressed by 17?E2 but not by GABA. Moreover, suppression of melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation by 17?E2 occurred through non-genomic regulation via the estrogen receptor (ER). These results suggest that enhancement of hyperactivation is regulated by melatonin and 17?E2 through non-genomic regulation. PMID:25959801

  18. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T4U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T3U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using SVI-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T4U, and a 204% increase in T3U. The much greater increase in T3U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T3U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T4U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed.

  19. Estrogen suppresses melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation of hamster spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fujinoki, Masakatsu; Takei, Gen L

    2015-01-01

    Hamster sperm hyperactivation is enhanced by progesterone, and this progesterone-enhanced hyperactivation is suppressed by 17?-estradiol (17?E2) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although it has been indicated that melatonin also enhances hyperactivation, it is unknown whether melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation is also suppressed by 17?E2 and GABA. In the present study, melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation was significantly suppressed by 17?E2 but not by GABA. Moreover, suppression of melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation by 17?E2 occurred through non-genomic regulation via the estrogen receptor (ER). These results suggest that enhancement of hyperactivation is regulated by melatonin and 17?E2 through non-genomic regulation. PMID:25959801

  20. Circadian organization of the estrous cycle of the golden hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, K; Zucker, I

    1976-01-01

    In constant dim illumination the hamster estrous cycle free-runs with a period that is a quadruple multiple of the concurrently recorded rhythm of wheel-running activity; both activity and estrous cycles are generated by biological clocks. Maintenance of stable phase angle differences between heat onset and running onset before and after treatment with deuterium oxide suggests that a common circadian system generates periodicities in estrus and activity. An organization of the estrous cycle is proposed in which the stimulus for the ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone is generated by a circadian system that includes the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Various possible interactions of estradiol and photoperiod with the neurogenic stimulus for the luteinizing hormone surge are described and implications of different types of circadian organization of the estrous cycle for theories of sexual differentiation are considered. Images PMID:1066703

  1. Monitoring Weld Penetration Via Gas Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coby, J. Ben, Jr.; Todd, Douglas M.

    1991-01-01

    Welding monitor uses pressure on back side of weldment to monitor penetration of weld. Sudden drop on pressure chart means weld pool has fully penetrated; sudden rise means pool no longer extends through joint. Devised to ensure full penetration along full lengths of weld joints, when direct observation of back sides by visual inspection, x rays, or fiber optics not possible. Used in initial development of welding parameters or during production as safeguard.

  2. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D’Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis. PMID:26555143

  3. Constitutive overexpression of a growth-regulated gene in transformed Chinese hamster and human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anisowicz, A.; Bardwell, L.; Sager, R.

    1987-10-01

    Comparison by subtractive hybridization of mRNAs revealed a moderately abundant message in highly tumorigenic CHEF/16 cells present at very low levels in closely related nontumorigenic CHEF/18 cells. After cloning and sequencing the corresponding cDNA, computer comparison showed closest homology with the human connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III). The human tumor cell cDNA hybridizing with the Chinese hamster clone was isolated, sequenced, and found to have closer similarity to the Chinese hamster gene than to CTAP III. Thus, the cloned cDNAs from Chinese hamster and human cells represent a different gene, named gro. Studies of its transcriptional regulation have shown that expression is tightly regulated by growth status in normal Chinese hamster and human cells and relaxed in the tumorigenic cells so far examined.

  4. Survival and yields of chromosome aberrations in hamster and human lung cells irradiated by alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Cohn, P.; Min, T.

    1996-02-01

    The effects of {alpha}-particle irradiation on hamster and human lung cells have been studied. In both cases two end points were taken, cell death and the induction of chromosome aberrations. The hamster cells were common stock V79 cells; the human ones were freshly derived from fetal material. For both types of cells, the survival curves could be described by straight lines in the conventional exponential plot, with values of D{sub 0} of 0.78 and 0.37 Gy for the hamster and human cells, respectively. The rate of induction of chromosome aberrations could also be described by straight lines with slopes of 0.30 and 0.62 aberration per cell per gray. Thus, for this second end point also, it appears that human cells are twice as sensitive to the effects of {alpha}-particle irradiation as hamster cells. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. WALNUTS REDUCE AORTIC ET-1 MRNA LEVELS IN HAMSTERS FED A HIGH FAT, ATHEROGENIC DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walnut consumption is associated with CVD (coronary vascular disease) risk reduction, however the mechanisms responsible remain incompletely understood. Recent clinical studies suggest they involve nonlipid-related effects on endothelial function. Golden Syrian hamsters were fed for 26 weeks with ...

  6. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURE TO AMOSITE AND CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays of amosite, short range (SR), intermediate range (IR) or intermediate range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamsters. Amosite and both forms o...

  7. Active Hypothermic Growth: A Novel Means For Increasing Total Interferon-? Production by Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    E-print Network

    Stephen R., Fox

    When grown under hypothermic conditions, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells become growth arrested in the G?/G? phase of the cell cycle and also often exhibit increased recombinant protein production. In this study, we ...

  8. Chinese hamster ovary cells can produce galactose-?-1,3-galactose antigens on proteins

    E-print Network

    Bosques, Carlos J

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the manufacture of biotherapeutics, in part because of their ability to produce proteins with desirable properties, including 'human-like' glycosylation profiles. For ...

  9. Diet-induced metabolic hamster model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    E-print Network

    Bhathena, Jasmine; Kulamarva, Arun; Martoni, Christopher; Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Paul, Arghya; Prakash, Satya

    2011-06-03

    Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Hamsters, unlike rats or mice, respond well to diet-induced obesity, increase body mass and adiposity on group housing...

  10. Langerhans cell function dictates induction of contact hypersensitivity or unresponsiveness to DNFB in Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Streilein, J.W.; Bergstresser, P.R.

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between distribution and function of Langerhans cells within the epidermis and the capacity of cutaneous surfaces to promote the induction of contact hypersensitivity to DNFB have been examined in inbred Syrian hamsters. In a manner very similar to previous findings in mice, the results indicate that hamster cutaneous surfaces deficient in normally functioning Langerhans cells, naturally (cheek pouch epithelium) or artificially (after perturbation with ultraviolet light), are inefficient at promoting DNFB sensitization. Instead, DNFB applied to these regions of skin results in the induction of a state of specific unresponsiveness. Viable lymphoid cells from unresponsive hamsters can transfer the unresponsiveness to naive hamsters suggesting that active suppression is at least partly responsible, probably mediated by T lymphocytes.

  11. AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER DURING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF CLORGYLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic administration of clorgyline, a type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, leads to a decrease in peritoneal (i.e., core) temperature of golden hamsters. o better understand the mechanisms of clorgyline's thermoregulatory effects, autonomic and behavioral thermoregulatory effect...

  12. The daily melatonin pattern in Djungarian hamsters depends on the circadian phenotype.

    PubMed

    Schöttner, Konrad; Simonneaux, Valérie; Vuillez, Patrick; Steinlechner, Stephan; Pévet, Paul; Weinert, Dietmar

    2011-12-01

    Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) bred at the Institute of Halle reveal three different circadian phenotypes. The wild type (WT) shows normal locomotor activity patterns, whereas in hamsters of the DAO (delayed activity onset) type, the activity onset is continuously delayed. Since the activity offset in those hamsters remains coupled to "light-on," the activity time becomes compressed. Hamsters of the AR (arrhythmic) type are episodically active throughout the 24 h. Previous studies showed that a disturbed interaction of the circadian system with the light-dark (LD) cycle contributes to the phenomenon observed in DAO hamsters. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, the authors investigated the daily melatonin rhythm, as it is a reliable marker of the circadian clock. Hamsters were kept individually under standardized laboratory conditions (LD 14:10, T=22°C±2°C, food and water ad libitum). WT, DAO (with exactly 5 h delay of activity onset), and AR hamsters were used for pineal melatonin and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) measurement. Pineal melatonin content was determined at 3 time points: 4 h after "light-off" [D+4], 1 h before "light-on" [L-1], and 1h after "light-on" [L+1]). The 24-h profile of melatonin secretion was investigated by transferring the animals to metabolic cages for 27?h to collect urine at 3-h intervals for aMT6s analysis. WT hamsters showed high pineal melatonin content during the dark time (D+4, L-1), which significantly decreased at the beginning of the light period (L+1). In contrast, DAO hamsters displayed low melatonin levels during the part of the dark period when animals were still resting (D+4). At the end of the dark period (L-1), melatonin content increased significantly and declined again when light was switched on (L+1). AR hamsters showed low melatonin levels, comparable to daytime values, at all 3 time points. The results were confirmed by aMT6s data. WT hamsters showed a marked circadian pattern of aMT6s excretion. The concentration started to increase 3?h after "light-off" and reached daytime values 5 h after "light-on." In DAO hamsters, in contrast, aMT6s excretion started about 6?h later and reached significantly lower levels compared to WT hamsters. In AR animals, aMT6s excretion was low at all times. The results clearly indicate the rhythm of melatonin secretion in DAO hamsters is delayed in accord with their delayed activity onset, whereas AR hamsters display no melatonin rhythm at all. Since the regulatory pathways for the rhythms of locomotor activity and melatonin synthesis (which are downstream from the suprachiasmatic nucleus [SCN]) are different but obviously convey the same signal, we conclude that the origin of the phenomenon observed in DAO hamsters must be located upstream of the SCN, or in the SCN itself. PMID:22080732

  13. Temperature dependence of gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters exposed to short day lengths

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    melatonin signals. melatonin; hibernation; body mass; refractoriness; photope- riodism; food hoarding SYRIAN in day lengths below this value (10). In short days, hamsters enter hibernation if kept at low ambient

  14. Diet-induced metabolic hamster model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    E-print Network

    Paul, Arghya

    2011-06-03

    Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Hamsters, unlike rats or mice, respond well to diet-induced obesity, increase body mass and adiposity ...

  15. West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a model for West Nile encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, S. Y.; Guzman, H.; Zhang, H.; Travassos da Rosa, A. P.; Tesh, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a new hamster model for West Nile (WN) virus encephalitis. Following intraperitoneal inoculation of a New York isolate of WN virus, hamsters had moderate viremia of 5 to 6 days in duration, followed by the development of humoral antibodies. Encephalitic symptoms began 6 days after infection; about half the animals died between the seventh and 14th days. The appearance of viral antigen in the brain and neuronal degeneration also began on the sixth day. WN virus was cultured from the brains of convalescent hamsters up to 53 days after initial infection, suggesting that persistent virus infection occurs. Hamsters offer an inexpensive model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of WN virus encephalitis. PMID:11585537

  16. Vacuolation and mineralisation as dominant age-related findings in hamster brains.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Ingo; Wohlsein, Peter; Ernst, Heinrich; Germann, Paul-Georg; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are laboratory animals increasingly used for research and toxicological studies. Despite the need for an adequate knowledge of spontaneously occurring lesions, studies investigating the background pathology of different organ systems in hamsters are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of spontaneous, age-dependent lesions in the central nervous system of this species. Multiple brain and spinal cord transverse sections of 520 hamsters of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age were investigated using histology and immunohistochemistry. Vacuolation of grey matter neuropil and mineralisation especially in the brain stem were the most prominent findings. They gradually increased in severity and frequency with age. Vacuolation and mineralisation affected approximately 100% and 50% of 24-month-old hamsters, respectively. In addition, pigment deposition and mast cell infiltration were commonly detected. Whether vacuolation and mineralisation represent an incidental finding or are related to a cognitive dysfunction syndrome remains to be determined. PMID:22257562

  17. Embryotoxic response produced by inorganic mercury in different strains of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, T.F.

    1981-02-01

    This report compares the mercury-induced embryotoxicity among one noninbred and five inbred strains of hamsters. A single dose of mercuric acetate was injected into pregnant hamsters on the morning of the 8th gestation day. Treated and control animals were killed on either the 12th or 15th gestation day and studied for the types and frequency of external and internal abnormalities as well as the incidence of resorption sites. The hamster strains exhibited significant resorption rates as well as a variety of abnormalities including edema, retardation, ventral wall defects, pericardial cavity distention, cleft palate, hydrocephalus, and heart defects. Significant but varied interstrain differences were observed for most of these indicators of mercury-induced embryotoxicity. The results of this study were compared with prior work in which the same hamster strains were exposed to cadmium or lead.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE AGE EFFECTS ON MEIOTIC CHROMOSOMAL RECOMBINATION AND SEGREGATION IN ARMENIAN HAMSTER SPERMATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Armenian hamsters (Cricetulus migratorius; 2N:22) were evaluated for age effects upon meiotic recombination and aneuploidy incidence. Primary spermatocytes from young and old animals revealed similar chiasma frequencies. The incidence of terminal-type chiasmata in sex bivale...

  19. Resveratrol-induced mitochondrial synthesis and autophagy in oocytes derived from early antral follicles of aged cows

    PubMed Central

    SUGIYAMA, Miyako; KAWAHARA-MIKI, Ryoka; KAWANA, Hirosuke; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial numbers increase during oocyte growth. In this study, we collected oocytes and granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) from early antral follicles (EAFs) of aged cows (> 120 months of age) and examined the effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial generation, degradation, and quality in oocytes grown in vitro. We also examined the effects of resveratrol on gene expression of the granulosa cells. Resveratrol (20 µM) enhanced the expression of SIRT1 and induced autophagy in both granulosa cells and oocytes derived from aged cows. Culturing the OGCs with resveratrol increased mitochondrial DNA copy numbers in oocytes grown in vitro. Furthermore, resveratrol increased the ATP content in oocytes and improved the developmental ability of the oocytes to the blastocyst stage. Gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, as evaluated by next-generation sequencing technology, revealed that resveratrol enhanced the expression of EIF2-related genes but downregulated the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-, inflammation-, and cholesterol homeostasis-related genes in granulosa cells. In conclusion, resveratrol affected both oocytes and granulosa cells derived from aged cows and improved the quality of oocytes grown in vitro through upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation in growing oocytes and conditioning of granulosa cells. PMID:25866375

  20. Astaxanthin present in the maturation medium reduces negative effects of heat shock on the developmental competence of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Luu, Vien Viet; Morita, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Nii, Masahiro; Peter, Augustine T; Otoi, Takeshige

    2015-06-01

    Astaxanthin, one of the most common carotenoids, elicits antioxidant effects on cellular viability and embryonic development. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on maturation, fertilization and development of porcine oocytes matured in vitro under heat stress conditions, and then fertilized and cultured under standard conditions. Porcine oocytes were cultured in maturation medium supplemented with different concentrations of astaxanthin (0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1 ppm) for 46 h at either 38.5 or 41 °C. In comparison to oocytes cultured at 38.5 °C, the exposure of porcine oocytes to 41.0 °C during in vitro maturation (IVM) significantly inhibited maturation and development of fertilized oocytes to the blastocyst stage. Supplementation of maturation medium with astaxanthin (0.5 ppm) significantly improved oocyte maturation, fertilization and development to the blastocysts stage in both oocyte groups. However, the total cell number and apoptosis index of blastocysts did not differ among groups. Moreover, astaxanthin (0.5 ppm) significantly increased the rate of oocytes that reached metaphase II and decreased proportion of apoptotic oocytes exposed to H2O2 (1.0mM) during IVM. In summary, we demonstrated that supplementation of maturation medium with astaxanthin (0.5 ppm) exerted antioxidative effects and improved the ability of maturation, fertilization, and development of porcine oocytes exposed to heat stress. PMID:26051456