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1

Hamstring muscle strain.  

E-print Network

??Background: Acute hamstring strains are common injuries in different sports. They are often serious, causing long rehabilitation times and a proneness for re-injury. Preliminary observations… (more)

Askling, Carl

2008-01-01

2

Effects of prior hamstring strain injury on strength, flexibility, and running mechanics  

E-print Network

Effects of prior hamstring strain injury on strength, flexibility, and running mechanics Amy Silder at the musculotendon junction following a hamstring strain injury, which could influence re-injury risk. The purpose subjects with a previous hamstring injury (N5 months prior) participated in a magnetic resonance (MR

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

3

Hamstring injuries of the hip.  

PubMed

Hamstring injuries can be classified with regard to the site of involvement. Traumatic disorders at the proximal bone-tendon origin are best defined as avulsion injuries, such as ischial tuberosity fractures and hamstring tendon tears. Musculotendinous lesions include muscle strains and muscle contusions. Most hamstring injuries occur after in-direct trauma from excessive stretching or forceful contraction, leading to avulsion injuries or muscle strains and tears. Insufficient warm-up, lack of flexibility, inadequate muscle strength and endurance, or abnormal contraction and running may predispose to such injuries. In the event of blunt direct trauma, a muscle contusion, intramuscular hematoma, myositis ossificans, or compartment syndrome may develop. PMID:16275576

Bencardino, Jenny T; Mellado, José M

2005-11-01

4

Flexibility and posture assessment in relation to hamstring injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posture and flexibility were assessed in 34 athletes. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) a noninjured group that did not have a history of hamstring strain injury within the previous 12 months; (2) an injured group that had a history of hamstring strain within the previous 12 months. Ten postural components were assessed: head erectness; shoulder symmetry; spinal curvature;

L Hennessey; A W Watson

1993-01-01

5

Clinical and Morphological Changes Following 2 Rehabilitation Programs for Acute Hamstring Strain Injuries: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. OBJECTIVES To assess differences between a progressive agility and trunk stabilization rehabilitation program and a progressive running and eccentric strengthening rehabilitation program in recovery characteristics following an acute hamstring injury, as measured via physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND Determining the type of rehabilitation program that most effectively promotes muscle and functional recovery is essential to minimize reinjury risk and to optimize athlete performance. METHODS Individuals who sustained a recent hamstring strain injury were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 rehabilitation programs: (1) progressive agility and trunk stabilization or (2) progressive running and eccentric strengthening. MRI and physical examinations were conducted before and after completion of rehabilitation. RESULTS Thirty-one subjects were enrolled, 29 began rehabilitation, and 25 completed rehabilitation. There were few differences in clinical or morphological outcome measures between rehabilitation groups across time, and reinjury rates were low for both rehabilitation groups after return to sport (4 of 29 subjects had reinjuries). Greater craniocaudal length of injury, as measured on MRI before the start of rehabilitation, was positively correlated with longer return-to-sport time. At the time of return to sport, although all subjects showed a near-complete resolution of pain and return of muscle strength, no subject showed complete resolution of injury as assessed on MRI. CONCLUSION The 2 rehabilitation programs employed in this study yielded similar results with respect to hamstring muscle recovery and function at the time of return to sport. Evidence of continuing muscular healing is present after completion of rehabilitation, despite the appearance of normal physical strength and function on clinical examination. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 1b–. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2013;43(5):284-299. Epub 13 March 2013. doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4452 PMID:23485730

SILDER, AMY; SHERRY, MARC A.; SANFILIPPO, JENNIFER; TUITE, MICHAEL J.; HETZEL, SCOTT J.; HEIDERSCHEIT, BRYAN C.

2013-01-01

6

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics  

E-print Network

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics Amy Silder1, Scott B risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle injuries are frequent in sporting activities, with hamstring injuries particularly common among athletes

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

7

Hamstring Strength and Morphology Progression after Return to Sport from Injury  

E-print Network

Hamstring Strength and Morphology Progression after Return to Sport from Injury JENNIFER L. Hamstring Strength and Morphology Progression after Return to Sport from Injury. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc-five athletes who experienced an acute hamstring strain injury participated after completion of a controlled

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

8

Does lumbo-pelvic dysfunction predispose to hamstring strain in professional soccer players?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: It has been reported that hamstring strain in athletes is commonly followed by subsequent hamstring strains (Am. J. Sports Med. 30(2) (2002) 199). The current management of these injuries is oftentimes unsuccessful and may plague the athlete throughout their sporting career. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that hamstring strain can be a “symptom” secondary

Matthew Wallden; Nick Walters

2005-01-01

9

Preseason Hamstring Muscle Weakness Associated with Hamstring Muscle Injury in Australian Footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring muscle strain is the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules Football, accounting for 16% of play ing time missed as a result of injury. Thirty-seven pro fessional footballers from an Australian Football League team had preseason measurements of ham string and quadriceps muscle concentric peak torque at 60, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec measured on a Cybex 340 dynamometer. Players

John Orchard; John Marsden; Stephen Lord; David Garlick

1997-01-01

10

CONSERVATIVE REHABILITATION OF SCIATIC NERVE INJURY FOLLOWING HAMSTRING TEAR  

PubMed Central

Study Design: Resident's case report Background: There have been only a few case reports in the literature mentioning sciatic nerve injury following a hamstring tear. In previous cases surgical intervention was performed to debride scar tissue around the sciatic nerve with the goal of full return to function for the patient. Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to describe the conservative interventions that allowed for recovery from a hamstring tear with sciatic nerve involvement. Case Description: The subject was a 53 year old female who developed foot drop and weakness in the common fibular nerve distribution following a grade 3 hamstring injury sustained during Nordic skiing. Nerve function and strength gradually returned over the course of several months of conservative rehabilitation which included on neural gliding and strengthening exercises. Outcomes: At 18 months post injury, the subject had returned to 95% of full sport function and 98% of full function with activities of daily living, as rated by the Hip Outcome Scale, and had full strength with manual muscle testing. Isokinetic testing revealed strength deficits of 11–23% in knee flexion peak torque at 60 degrees/second and 180 degrees/second respectively. Discussion: Sciatic nerve injury is a rare, but important potential consequence of severe hamstring strains. Clinicians should be cognizant of the potential injury to the nerve tissue following hamstring strains, so they may be dealt with in a prompt and appropriate manner. The use of neural gliding may be worth considering for a prophylactic effect following hamstring strains. PMID:21589670

Reuteman, Paul

2010-01-01

11

Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify risk factors for hamstring injury at the community level of Australian football. Methods: A total of 126 community level Australian football players participated in this prospective cohort study. To provide baseline measurements, they completed a questionnaire and had a musculoskeletal screen during the 2000 preseason. All were monitored over the season. Injury surveillance and exposure data were collected for the full season. Survival analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hamstring injury. Results: A hamstring injury was the first injury of the season in 20 players (16%). After adjustment for exposure, increasing age and decreased quadriceps flexibility were identified as significant independent predictors of the time to sustaining a hamstring injury. Older age (?23 years) was associated with an increased risk of hamstring injury (RR 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 14.0; p = 0.044). Players with increased quadriceps flexibility (as measured by the modified Thomas test) were less likely to sustain a hamstring injury (RR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in the development of hamstring injury prevention strategies and to identify Australian football players at increased risk of hamstring injury. PMID:15665208

Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Bennell, K; Wajswelner, H

2005-01-01

12

Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if athletes with a history of hamstring strain injury display lower levels of surface EMG (sEMG) activity and median power frequency in the previously injured hamstring muscle during maximal voluntary contractions. Recreational athletes were recruited, 13 with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury and 15 without prior injury. All athletes undertook isokinetic dynamometry testing of the knee flexors and sEMG assessment of the biceps femoris long head (BF) and medial hamstrings (MHs) during concentric and eccentric contractions at ±180 and ±60°s(-1). The knee flexors on the previously injured limb were weaker at all contraction speeds compared to the uninjured limb (+180°s(-1)p=0.0036; +60°s(-1)p=0.0013; -60°s(-1)p=0.0007; -180°s(-1)p=0.0007) whilst sEMG activity was only lower in the BF during eccentric contractions (-60°s(-1)p=0.0025; -180°s(-1)p=0.0003). There were no between limb differences in MH sEMG activity or median power frequency from either BF or MH in the injured group. The uninjured group showed no between limb differences in any of the tested variables. Secondary analysis comparing the between limb difference in the injured and the uninjured groups, confirmed that previously injured hamstrings were mostly weaker (+180°s(-1)p=0.2208; +60°s(-1)p=0.0379; -60°(-1)p=0.0312; -180°s(-1)p=0.0110) and that deficits in sEMG were confined to the BF during eccentric contractions (-60°s(-1)p=0.0542; -180°s(-1)p=0.0473). Previously injured hamstrings were weaker and BF sEMG activity was lower than the contralateral uninjured hamstring. This has implications for hamstring strain injury prevention and rehabilitation which should consider altered neural function following hamstring strain injury. PMID:23290179

Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Dear, Nuala M; Shield, Anthony J

2013-06-01

13

Clinical predictors of time to return to competition and of recurrence following hamstring strain in elite Australian footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate early clinical predictors of time to return to competition and of recurrence following hamstring strain.DesignProspective observational study.SettingElite level of Australian football competition.Participant59 players who suffered a hamstring strain in 2002 season.PredictorsClinical assessment by a physiotherapist and questionnaire.Main outcome measuresTime taken to return to play and recurrence of hamstring injury within 3 weeks.ResultsPlayers taking more than 1 day to

Price Warren; Belinda J Gabbe; Michal Schneider-Kolsky; Kim L Bennell

2010-01-01

14

Self-reported hamstring injuries in student-dancers.  

PubMed

Dancing involves powerful movements as well as flexibility exercises, both of which may be related to specific injuries to the musculo-tendinosus tissue, e.g., the hamstring muscle complex. In this study, the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries to the rear thigh in dancers was investigated retrospectively by means of a questionnaire. All but one (n = 98) of the student-dancers (age 17-25 years) at the Ballet Academy in Stockholm participated. The results demonstrated that, during the past 10 years, every third dancer (34%) reported that they had acute injuries and every sixth dancer (17%) had overuse injuries to the rear thigh. Most (91%) of the acute injuries were subjectively located to an area close to tuber ischiadicum. The majority (88%) stated that the acute injury occurred during slow activities in flexibility training, e.g., splits, and only a few (12%) in powerful movements. Continuing problems were reported by 70% of the acutely injured dancers. Many of the dancers neglected their acute injury (14 did not even stop the ongoing dance activity) and they also greatly underestimated the recovery time. Only 4 dancers (12%) received acute medical assistance. Thus the results, based on the recollection of the subjects, indicated that stretching could induce severe strain injuries to the proximal hamstrings in dancers. Extrapolating these results to the practice, it can be recommended that stretching exercises be executed with caution in connection with dancing sessions and training, and that, information about the seriousness and acute treatment of such injuries be added to the student-dancers' curriculum. PMID:12199872

Askling, C; Lund, H; Saartok, T; Thorstensson, A

2002-08-01

15

Hamstring Injuries--An Examination of Possible Causes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of research, the following characteristics appear to be important factors relative to precluding hamstring strains in sprinters: bilaterality relative to hamstring and quadricep strength development, optimum strength ratios between ipsilateral antagonists throughout the range of movement, and above-normal hip-joint flexibility. (JD)

Liemohn, Wendell

16

Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study: Prevention of hamstring strains in soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

who did not (relative risk (RR) 5 1.53, P 5 0.22), nor was there a difference compared with the baseline data (RR 5 0.89, P 5 0.75). The incidence of hamstring strains was lower in teams who used the eccentric training program compared with teams that did not use the program (RR 5 0.43, P 5 0.01), as well as

A. Arnason; T. E. Andersen; I. Holme; L. Engebretsen; R. Bahr

2007-01-01

17

Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was

Wayne T Hoskins; Henry P Pollard

2005-01-01

18

The effects of aponeurosis geometry on strain injury susceptibility explored with a 3D muscle model$  

E-print Network

) is the most commonly injured hamstring muscle. It is thought that acute injuries result from large strains muscles more injury prone are not well understood. For example, amongst the bilateral hamstring muscles hamstrings injuries (Armfield et al., 2006). Previous investigations have reported that injury in the BFLH

Blemker, Silvia Salinas

19

Prophylaxis and management of hamstring muscle injuries in intercollegiate football players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring muscle strains were responsible for the loss of playing time of a significant number of football players at the University of Nebraska in the early 1970s. After the acquisition of a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer, the number of injuries was noted to decrease. A retro spective study was performed over the period 1973 to 1982.Players in Group I, from

Thomas M. Heiser; Jerry Weber; George Sullivan; Patrick Clare; Rae R. Jacobs

1984-01-01

20

The effects of multidirectional soccer-specific fatigue on markers of hamstring injury risk.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of multidirectional soccer-specific fatigue on hamstring muscle strength and angle of peak torque. Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players (mean+/-S.D.: age: 21.3+/-2.9 years; height 185.0+/-8.7 cm; body mass 81.6+/-6.7 kg) completed the SAFT(90), a multidirectional, intermittent 90-min exercise protocol based on data from English Championship soccer matches. Prior to exercise (t(0)), at half-time (t(45)) and post-exercise (t(105)), subjects performed three maximal dominant limb isokinetic contractions (Biodex, System 3) at 120 degrees s(-1) through a 90 degrees range for concentric and eccentric knee flexors and concentric knee extensors. Analysis of variance revealed significant time dependant reductions in gravity corrected eccentric hamstring peak torque, and consequently in the functional hamstring:quadriceps ratio (P<0.01). Eccentric hamstring peak torque decreased significantly during each half (t(0): 272.0+/-43.2; t(45): 240.4+/-43.3; t(105): 226.3+/-45.7 Nm). The functional hamstring:quadriceps ratio also decreased significantly during each half (t(0): 116.6+/-21.2; t(45): 107.1+/-17.6; t(105): 98.8+/-20.3%). There were no significant changes in concentric hamstring or quadriceps peak torque observed during SAFT(90) (P>0.05). Data analysis also revealed significant differences for Angle of Peak Torque for eccentric hamstrings (P<0.05) which was significantly higher at the end of each half (t(45): 37+/-15; t(105): 38+/-18 degrees ) than the pre-exercise value (t(0): 28+/-12 degrees ). There was a time dependant decrease in peak eccentric hamstring torque and in the functional strength ratio which may have implications for the increased predisposition to hamstring strain injury during the latter stages of match-play. PMID:18976956

Small, K; McNaughton, L; Greig, M; Lovell, R

2010-01-01

21

Strain within the anterior cruciate ligament during hamstring and quadriceps activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to measure strain in the ACL during simulated: (1) hamstring activity alone, (2) quadriceps activity alone, and (3) simultaneous quadriceps and hamstring activity. Seven knee speci mens removed from cadavers were studied. Heavy sutures applied to load cells were attached to the hamstring and quadriceps tendons. Loads were then applied manually (hamstrings) and\\/or with

P. Renström; S. W. Arms; T. S. Stanwyck; R. J. Johnson; M. H. Pope

1986-01-01

22

A survey of flexibility training protocols and hamstring strains in professional football clubs in England  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relation between current flexibility training protocols, including stretching, and hamstring strain rates (HSRs) in English professional football clubs. Method: Questionnaire based data on flexibility training methods and HSRs were collected from 30 English professional football clubs in the four divisions during the 1998/99 season. Data were coded and analysed using cross tabulation, correlation, and multiple regression. Results: Flexibility training protocols were characterised by wide variability, with static stretching the most popular stretching technique used. Hamstring strains represented 11% of all injuries and one third of all muscle strains. About 14% of hamstring strains were reinjuries. HSRs were highest in the Premiership (13.3 (9.4)/1000 hours) with the lowest rates in Division 2 (7.8 (2.9)/1000 hours); values are mean (SD). Most (97%) hamstring strains were grade I and II, two thirds of which occurred late during training/matches. Forwards were injured most often. Use of the standard stretching protocol (SSP) was the only factor significantly related to HSR (r = –0.45, p = 0.031) in the correlation analysis, suggesting that the more SSP is used, the lower the HSR. About 80% of HSR variability was accounted for by stretching holding time (SHT), SSP, and stretching technique (STE) in the multiple regression equation: HSR = 37.79 – (0.33SHT – 10.05SSP + 2.24STE) ± 2.34. SHT (negatively correlated with HSR) was the single highest predictor, and accounted for 30% of HSR variability, and an additional 40% in combination with SSP. Conclusions: Flexibility training protocols in the professional clubs were variable and appeared to depend on staffing expertise. Hamstring stretching was the most important training factor associated with HSR. The use of SSP, STE, and SHT are probably involved in a complex synergism which may reduce hamstring strains. Modification of current training patterns, especially stretching protocols, may reduce HSRs in professional footballers. PMID:15273168

Dadebo, B; White, J; George, K

2004-01-01

23

Conceptual framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring strains.  

PubMed

High-speed running accounts for the majority of hamstring strains in many sports. The terminal swing phase is believed to be the most hazardous as the hamstrings are undergoing an active lengthening contraction in a long muscle length position. Prevention-based strength training mainly focuses on eccentric exercises. However, it appears crucial to integrate other parameters than the contraction type. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present a conceptual framework based on six key parameters (contraction type, load, range of motion, angular velocity, uni-/bilateral exercises, kinetic chain) for the hamstring's strength exercise for strain prevention. Based on the biomechanical parameters of sprinting, it is proposed to use high-load eccentric contractions. The movement should be performed at a slow to moderate angular velocity and focused at the knee joint, while the hip is kept in a large flexion position in order to reach a greater elongation stress of the hamstrings than in the terminal swing phase. In this way, we believe that, during sprinting, athletes would be better trained to brake the knee extension effectively in the whole range of motion without overstretch of the hamstrings. Finally, based on its functional application, unilateral open kinetic chain should be preferred. PMID:24062275

Guex, Kenny; Millet, Grégoire P

2013-12-01

24

Risk factors for hamstring injuries in male soccer players: a systematic review of prospective studies.  

PubMed

Hamstring injuries are common injuries in soccer players. In view of the high incidence and the serious consequences, identifying risk factors related to hamstring injuries is essential. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify risk factors for hamstring injuries in male adult soccer players. PubMed, Embase/Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched, and prospective studies investigating risk factors for hamstring injuries in adult male soccer players were included. The methodological quality of the included articles was assessed using a standardized set of predefined criteria. Seven of the 11 studies identified, involving a total of 1775 players and 344 hamstring injuries, met the inclusion criteria. All but one of the included studies met at least five of nine methodological criteria, causing them to be qualified as 'high quality'. The included studies used univariate as well as multivariate analyses to identify risk factors for hamstring injury. The results from the multivariate analyses suggest that previous hamstring injury is most strongly related to hamstring injury. Conflicting evidence is found for age and hamstring length or flexibility as risk factors for the occurrence of hamstring injuries. PMID:22724435

van Beijsterveldt, A M C; van de Port, I G L; Vereijken, A J; Backx, F J G

2013-06-01

25

Isokinetic strength testing does not predict hamstring injury in Australian Rules footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and imbalance to hamstring injury using a prospective observational cohort study METHOD: A total of 102 senior male Australian Rules footballers aged 22.2 (3.6) years were tested at the start of a football season. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of both legs

K. Bennell; H. Wajswelner; P. Lew; A. Schall-Riaucour; S. Leslie; D. Plant; J. Cirone

1998-01-01

26

The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present

Kieran O'Sullivan; Brian O'Ceallaigh; Kevin O'Connell; Amir Shafat

2008-01-01

27

Radiographic imaging of muscle strain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed our experience with computed tomogra phy and magnetic resonance imaging of acute muscle strain injury. We imaged 50 athletes (average age, 28 years; range, 17 to 42) who had an acute muscle strain involving either the adductor, hamstring, quadriceps, or triceps surae muscles. Computed tomography (axial imaging) was used from 1982 to 1987 for 27 athletes. Spin-echo magnetic

Kevin P. Speer; John Lohnes; William E. Garrett

1993-01-01

28

Hamstring Musculotendon Dynamics during Stance and Swing Phases of High Speed Running  

E-print Network

Abstract Introduction--Hamstring strain injuries are common in sports that involve high speed running. It remains uncertain whether the hamstrings are susceptible to injury during late swing phase, when the hamstrings most susceptible to injury during swing phase when compared to stance phase. This information

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

29

Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 35553562 The effect of speed and influence of individual muscles on hamstring  

E-print Network

with running speed. We conclude that hamstring strain injury during sprinting may be related to the performance shortening cycle; Forward dynamic simulation 1. Introduction Acute hamstring strain injuries are commonly, erector spinae, illiopsoas) reduced hamstring re-injury rates compared to a stretching and strengthening

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

30

Unilateral Lower Limb Injury: Its Long-Term Effects on Quadriceps, Hamstring, and Plantarflexor Muscle Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holder-Powell HM, Rutherford OM. Unilat- eral lower limb injury: its long-term effects on quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:717-720. Objective: To ascertain if long-term deficits in quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength remain after unilateral lower-limb musculoskeletal injury and to quantify whether improvements in performance continue once a subject concludes rehabilitation and returns to everyday

Heather M. Holder-Powell; Olga M. Rutherford

31

The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of hamstring injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To conduct a detailed analysis of hamstring injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons.Methods: Club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs annotated player injuries over two seasons. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each clubs’ current injury status.Results: Completed injury records for the two competitive seasons were

C Woods; R D Hawkins; S Maltby; M Hulse; A Thomas; A Hodson

2004-01-01

32

The management of hamstring injury--Part 1: Issues in diagnosis.  

PubMed

Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in sports involving rapid acceleration and maximum speed running. Injury typically occurs in an acute manner through an eccentric mechanism at the terminal stages of the swing phase of gait. Biceps femoris is most commonly injured. Re-injury rates are high and management is a challenge given the complex multi-factorial aetiology. The high rates of hamstring injury and re-injury may result from a lack of high-quality research into the aetiological factors underlying injury. Re-injury may also result from inaccuracy in diagnosis that results from the potential multi-factorial causes of these conditions. Inaccuracy in diagnosis could lead to multiple potential diagnoses that may result in the implementation of variable management protocols. Whilst potentially useful, such variability may also lead to the implementation of sub-optimal management strategies. Previous hamstring injury is the most recognized risk factor for injury, which indicates that future research should be directed at preventative measures. Much anecdotal and indirect evidence exists to suggest that several non-local factors contribute to injury, which may be addressed through the application of manual therapy. However, this connection has been neglected in previous research and literature. This paper will explore and speculate on this potential connection and offer some new contributive factors for hamstring injury management. This first paper of a two part series on hamstring injury will explore diagnostic issues relevant to hamstring injury and the second will investigate various established and speculative management approaches. PMID:15922230

Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry

2005-05-01

33

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Eccentric Strength Training in the Prevention of Hamstring Muscle Strains in Otherwise Healthy Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring strains are the most common soft-tissue injury observed in recreational and athletic activities, yet no consensus exists regarding appropriate primary and secondary strategies to prevent these strains. Eccentric exercise has been reported to reduce the incidence of ham-string strains but its role has not been clearly defined. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of eccentric exercise in preventing hamstring strains. Data Sources Online databases, including MED-LINE, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles. Each database was searched from the earliest date to July 2007. Study Selection Selection criteria included diagnosis of hamstring strain, otherwise healthy individuals, and at least one group receiving an eccentric exercise intervention. Seven articles {three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four cohort studies} met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction Data were extracted using a customized form. Methodological rigor of included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale and Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Data Synthesis Studies were grouped by eccentric exercise intervention protocol: hamstring lowers, isokinetic strengthening, and other strengthening. A best-evidence synthesis of pooled data was qualitatively summarized. Conclusions Findings suggest that eccentric training is effective in primary and secondary prevention of hamstring strains. Study heterogeneity and poor methodological rigor limit the ability to provide clinical recommendations. Further RCTs are needed to support the use of eccentric training protocols in the prevention of hamstring strains. PMID:21509129

Cheong, Krystie; Grant, Andrew; Beers, Amanda; Moizumi, Trevor

2008-01-01

34

Morphology of hamstring torque-time curves following ACL injury and reconstruction: mechanisms and implications.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) status on hamstring force steadiness, peak hamstring strength, quadriceps (antagonist) activation, and physical performance, and (ii) to evaluate the associations of physical performance with hamstring steadiness and hamstring strength. Thirteen subjects with unilateral deficiency of the ACL (ACLD), 39 matched subjects with unilateral reconstructed ACL (ACLR; n = 25 with bone-patella tendon-bone (ACLR-PT) graft and n = 14 with combined semitendinosus and gracilis tendon (ACLR-STGT) graft) and 33 control subjects participated. Each subject performed maximal-effort isokinetic knee flexion repetitions at 180°?s(-1) with electromyography (EMG) electrodes attached to their medial and lateral quadriceps muscles. Physical performance was assessed using the single-limb long hop for distance. Wavelet-derived mean instantaneous frequency (Mif) of flexor torque-time curves was significantly (p?hamstrings strength (i.e., peak torque produced) or quadriceps antagonist EMG activity. Positive correlations were identified between hamstrings force steadiness and quadriceps antagonist activity for ACLD (r = ?0.797), ACLR-PT (r = 0.467), and ACLR-STGT (r?=?0.628) subjects. For ACLR-STGT subjects, reduced hamstrings force steadiness associated with poorer long-hop performance (r?=?-0.695). Reduced steadiness amongst ACLR-STGT subjects may reflect motor output variability of the antagonist (i.e., quadriceps dyskinesia) and/or agonist musculature-a maladaptive feature which potentially contributes to poorer single-limb hop performance. Measures of hamstring force steadiness in combination with traditional measures of peak hamstring strength provide valuable clinical information regarding knee joint function following ACL injury/ACLR. PMID:21259335

Bryant, Adam L; Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao

2011-06-01

35

MRI observations at return to play of clinically recovered hamstring injuries  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that MRI of fresh hamstring injuries have diagnostic and prognostic value. The clinical relevance of MRI at return to play (RTP) has not been clarified yet. The aim of this study is to describe MRI findings of clinically recovered hamstring injuries in amateur, elite and professional athletes that were cleared for RTP. Methods We obtained MRI of 53 consecutive athletes with hamstring injuries within 5?days of injury and within 3?days of RTP. We assessed the following parameters: injured muscle, grading of injury, presence and extent of intramuscular signal abnormality. We recorded reinjuries within 2?months of RTP. Results MRIs of the initial injury showed 27 (51%) grade 1 and 26 (49%) grade 2 injuries. Median time to RTP was 28?days (range 12–76). On MRI at RTP 47 athletes (89%) had intramuscular increased signal intensity on fluid-sensitive sequences with a mean longitudinal length of 77?mm (±53) and a median cross-sectional area of 8% (range 0–90%) of the total muscle area. In 22 athletes (42%) there was abnormal intramuscular low-signal intensity. We recorded five reinjuries. Conclusions 89% of the clinically recovered hamstring injuries showed intramuscular increased signal intensity on fluid-sensitive sequences on MRI. Normalisation of this increased signal intensity seems not required for a successful RTP. Low-signal intensity suggestive of newly developed fibrous tissues is observed in one-third of the clinically recovered hamstring injuries on MRI at RTP, but its clinical relevance and possible association with increased reinjury risk has to be determined. PMID:24255767

Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Tol, Johannes L; Almusa, Emad; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Verhaar, Jan A N; Hamilton, Bruce; Maas, Mario

2014-01-01

36

Excellent reliability for MRI grading and prognostic parameters in acute hamstring injuries  

PubMed Central

Background Categorical grading and other measurable MRI parameters are frequently utilised for predicting the outcome of hamstring injuries. However, the reliability and smallest detectable difference (SDD) have not been previously evaluated. It therefore remains unclear if the variability in previously reported results reflects reporting variation or actual injury status. Methods 25 hamstring injuries were scored by two experienced radiologists using the Peetrons grading and specific prognostic MRI parameters: distance from ischial tuberosity (cm), extent (cranio to caudal, anterior to posterior, medial to lateral; (cm)), maximum cross-sectional area (%), volume (cm3) of the oedema. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability was calculated along with the SDDs for each scale variable. Results There were 3 Grade 0 (12%), 11 grade 1 (44%), 9 grade 2 (36%) and 2 grade 3 (8%) injuries. Cronbach's ? values for grading were 1.00 (inter) and 0.96 (intra), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the prognostic MRI parameters were between 0.77 and 1.0. The SDDs varied between each parameter. Conclusions Excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability was found for grading and prognostic MRI parameters in acute hamstring injuries. In daily practice and research, we can be confident that scoring hamstring injuries by experienced radiologists is reproducible. The documented SDDs allow meaningful clinical inferences to be made when assessing observed and reported changes in MRI status. PMID:24037670

Hamilton, B; Whiteley, R; Almusa, E; Roger, B; Geertsema, C; Tol, Johannes L

2014-01-01

37

Unilateral lower limb injury: Its long-term effects on quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To ascertain if long-term deficits in quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength remain after unilateral lower-limb musculoskeletal injury and to quantify whether improvements in performance continue once a subject concludes rehabilitation and returns to everyday activities. The relation between the size of decrement and limb dominance, type of injury, and time since injury was also considered.Design: Isometric and\\/or dynamic

Heather M. Holder-Powell; Olga M. Rutherford

1999-01-01

38

Activation and aponeurosis morphology affect in vivo muscle tissue strains near the myotendinous junction  

E-print Network

t Hamstring strain injury is one of the most common injuries in athletes, particularly for sports that involve. & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Hamstring strain injury is one of the most the established prevalence of acute hamstring strain injury in sport, the factors contributing to the high

Blemker, Silvia Salinas

39

At return to play following hamstring injury the majority of professional football players have residual isokinetic deficits  

PubMed Central

Background There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate isokinetic measurements in MRI-positive hamstring injuries. Methods Isokinetic measurements of professional football players were obtained after completing a standardised rehabilitation programme. An isokinetic strength deficit of more than 10% compared with the contralateral site was considered abnormal. Reinjuries within 2?months were recorded. Results 52 players had a complete set of isokinetic testing before clinical discharge. There were 27 (52%) grade 1 and 25 (48%) grade 2 injuries. 35 of 52 players (67%) had at least one of the three hamstring-related isokinetic parameters that display a deficit of more than 10%. The percentage of players with 10% deficit for hamstring concentric 60°/s, 300°/s and hamstring eccentric was respectively 39%, 29% and 28%. There was no significant difference of mean isokinetic peak torques and 10% isokinetic deficits in players without reinjury (N=46) compared with players with reinjury (N=6). Conclusions When compared with the uninjured leg, 67% of the clinically recovered hamstring injuries showed at least one hamstring isokinetic testing deficit of more than 10%. Normalisation of isokinetic strength seems not to be a necessary result of the successful completion of a football-specific rehabilitation programme. The possible association between isokinetic strength deficit and increased reinjury risk remains unknown. PMID:24493666

Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod

2014-01-01

40

Strains and Sprains  

MedlinePLUS

... Knee Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Sports Medicine Center Knee Injuries A to Z: Sprain, Wrist Broken Bones, Sprains, ... Exercise Safety Achilles Tendonitis Hamstring Strain Ankle Sprains Knee Injuries Strains and Sprains Contact Us Print Additional resources ...

41

Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme.  

PubMed

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

2014-06-01

42

Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme  

PubMed Central

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

2014-01-01

43

Early Surgical Repair of Acute Complete Rupture of the Proximal Hamstring Tendons  

PubMed Central

Hamstring injuries are common forms of muscle strains in athletes but a complete rupture of a proximal hamstring origin is rare. Often there is a considerable delay in diagnosis and stringent treatment because of its rarity, difficulty in clinical diagnosis, and initial attempts of conservative care. We report two cases of acute complete rupture of the proximal hamstring tendons treated with early surgical repair. The diagnosis and treatment of this unusual injury are discussed. PMID:21909474

Kwak, Ho Yoon; Choi, Yun Sun; Jang, Mun Suk

2011-01-01

44

Proximal hamstring avulsion in a professional soccer player.  

PubMed

Acute hamstring strains are a common athletic injury, which may be treated non-operatively with a satisfactory outcome. A complete proximal hamstring avulsion is a rare and potentially career ending injury to an elite athlete. For these high demand patients, surgical reattachment should be immediately undertaken to shorten return to sport and to improve functional outcome. This report describes the occurrence of a complete avulsion of the proximal hamstrings in a professional footballer during an international match. We highlight the clinical presentation, the appropriate diagnostic investigations, the surgical technique and the rehabilitation protocol for this injury. The successful surgical reattachment of the common hamstring tendon was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging done 5 months after repair and allowed the player a full return to competition at 6 months after surgery. Hamstrings isokinetic peak torque was 80% at 6 months and 106% at 11 months after repair comparing with the uninjured side. PMID:22926296

Sonnery-Cottet, B; Archbold, P; Thaunat, M; Fayard, J-M; Canuto, S M G; Cucurulo, T

2012-12-01

45

Effectiveness of injury prevention programs on developing quadriceps and hamstrings strength of young male professional soccer players.  

PubMed

Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength. PMID:24511347

Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

2013-12-18

46

Computational Models Predict Larger Muscle Tissue Strains at Faster Sprinting Speeds  

E-print Network

to the BFlh muscle's higher injury susceptibility at faster speeds. Key Words: ACUTE STRAIN INJURY, HAMSTRINGS that the hamstring muscles are highly susceptible to acute injury while sprinting, the amount of local strain., Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 776­786, 2014. Introduction: Proximal biceps femoris musculotendon strain injury

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

47

Intrinsic risk factors of non-contact quadriceps and hamstring strains in soccer: a prospective study of 100 professional players  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo identify the intrinsic risk factors of non-contact strains in the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles of professional soccer players via a cohort prospective design.MethodsA total of 100 professional soccer players (aged 19.4–27.8 years) from four professional teams underwent a composite musculoskeletal assessment at preseason. Intrinsic risk factors included dichotomies of asymmetries in muscle strength, flexibility, proprioception, anthropometry and knee joint

Konstantinos Fousekis; Elias Tsepis; Peter Poulmedis; Spyros Athanasopoulos; George Vagenas

2011-01-01

48

Hamstring Muscle Kinematics during Treadmill Sprinting  

E-print Network

,10,14). Despite the frequency of hamstring muscle injuries dur- ing sprinting, it remains unclear when in the gaitHamstring Muscle Kinematics during Treadmill Sprinting DARRYL G. THELEN1 , ELIZABETH S. CHUMANOV1. M. BEST, S. C. SWANSON, L. LI, M. YOUNG, and B. C. HEIDERSCHEIT. Hamstring Muscle Kinematics during

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

49

Hamstring rehabilitation.  

E-print Network

??Objective: To evaluate the methodological quality of hamstring rehabilitation studies found in the current literature. Data Sources: Pubmed (1950- 2006), MEDLINE, CINAHL (1982- 2007), CINAHL… (more)

Siegel, Lori L.

2007-01-01

50

The effects of ACL injury on quadriceps and hamstring torque, work and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess isokinetic torque, work and power between non-injured, ACL (anterior cruciate ligament)-deficient and ACL-reconstructed individuals. Ten healthy, non-injured individuals, seven unilateral ACL-deficient individuals and six unilateral ACL-reconstructed individuals were assessed for isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength at 1.05 and 3.14 rad ·s -1 . Peak torque, total work, average power and the ratio

Danny M. Pincivero; Brandan M. Heller; Su-I Hou

2002-01-01

51

The effects of multidirectional soccer-specific fatigue on markers of hamstring injury risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of multidirectional soccer-specific fatigue on hamstring muscle strength and angle of peak torque. Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players (mean±S.D.: age: 21.3±2.9 years; height 185.0±8.7cm; body mass 81.6±6.7kg) completed the SAFT90, a multidirectional, intermittent 90-min exercise protocol based on data from English Championship soccer matches. Prior to exercise (t0), at half-time

K. Small; L. McNaughton; M. Greig; R. Lovell

2010-01-01

52

Progression of mechanical properties during on-field sprint running after returning to sports from a hamstring muscle injury in soccer players.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the consequences of an acute hamstring injury on performance and mechanical properties of sprint-running at the time of returning to sports and after the subsequent ~2 months of regular soccer training after return. 28 semi-professional male soccer players, 14 with a recent history of unilateral hamstring injury and 14 without prior injury, participated in the study. All players performed two 50-m maximal sprints when cleared to return to play (Test 1), and 11 injured players performed the same sprint test about 2 months after returning to play (Test 2). Sprint performance (i.?e., speed) was measured via a radar gun and used to derive linear horizontal force-velocity relationships from which the following variables obtained: theoretical maximal velocity (V(0)), horizontal force (F(H0)) and horizontal power (Pmax). Upon returning to sports the injured players were moderately slower compared to the uninjured players. F H0 and Pmax were also substantially lower in the injured players. At Test 2, the injured players showed a very likely increase in F(H0) and Pmax concomitant with improvements in early acceleration performance. Practitioners should consider assessing and training horizontal force production during sprint running after acute hamstring injuries in soccer players before they return to sports. PMID:24424959

Mendiguchia, J; Samozino, P; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Brughelli, M; Schmikli, S; Morin, J-B; Mendez-Villanueva, A

2014-07-01

53

Isokinetic Hamstring: Quadriceps Strength Ratio in Males and Females: Implications for ACL Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although high rates of ACL injuries are seen in contact sports, the majority of injuries occur as a result of a no contact mechanism. The mechanism causing this injury usually falls into one of three categories: planting and cutting, straight knee landing, and one-step stop landing with the knee in hyperextension. Depending on the specific parameters of the group assessed,

Meghan Eileen Lyons

2006-01-01

54

Elevated gastrocnemius forces compensate for decreased hamstrings forces during the weight-acceptance phase of single-leg jump landing: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.  

PubMed

Approximately 320,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the United States each year are non-contact injuries, with many occurring during a single-leg jump landing. To reduce ACL injury risk, one option is to improve muscle strength and/or the activation of muscles crossing the knee under elevated external loading. This study?s purpose was to characterize the relative force production of the muscles supporting the knee during the weight-acceptance (WA) phase of single-leg jump landing and investigate the gastrocnemii forces compared to the hamstrings forces. Amateur male Western Australian Rules Football players completed a single-leg jump landing protocol and six participants were randomly chosen for further modeling and simulation. A three-dimensional, 14-segment, 37 degree-of-freedom, 92 muscle-tendon actuated model was created for each participant in OpenSim. Computed muscle control was used to generate 12 muscle-driven simulations, 2 trials per participant, of the WA phase of single-leg jump landing. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis showed both the quadriceps and gastrocnemii muscle force estimates were significantly greater than the hamstrings (p<0.001). Elevated gastrocnemii forces corresponded with increased joint compression and lower ACL forces. The elevated quadriceps and gastrocnemii forces during landing may represent a generalized muscle strategy to increase knee joint stiffness, protecting the knee and ACL from external knee loading and injury risk. These results contribute to our understanding of how muscle?s function during single-leg jump landing and should serve as the foundation for novel muscle-targeted training intervention programs aimed to reduce ACL injuries in sport. PMID:25218505

Morgan, Kristin D; Donnelly, Cyril J; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

2014-10-17

55

THE ROLE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING IN ATHLETIC REHABILITATION: TENDINOPATHY, HAMSTRING STRAINS, AND ACL RECONSTRUCTION  

PubMed Central

The benefits and proposed physiological mechanisms of eccentric exercise have previously been elucidated and eccentric exercise has been used for well over seventy years. Traditionally, eccentric exercise has been used as a regular component of strength training. However, in recent years, eccentric exercise has been used in rehabilitation to manage a host of conditions. Of note, there is evidence in the literature supporting eccentric exercise for the rehabilitation of tendinopathies, muscle strains, and in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation. The purpose of this Clinical Commentary is to discuss the physiologic mechanism of eccentric exercise as well as to review the literature regarding the utilization of eccentric training during rehabilitation. A secondary purpose of this commentary is to provide the reader with a framework for the implementation of eccentric training during rehabilitation of tendinopathies, muscle strains, and after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21655455

Reiman, Michael

2011-01-01

56

An axonal strain injury criterion for traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational models are often used as tools to study traumatic brain injury. The fidelity of such models depends on the incorporation\\u000a of an appropriate level of structural detail, the accurate representation of the material behavior, and the use of an appropriate\\u000a measure of injury. In this study, an axonal strain injury criterion is used to estimate the probability of diffuse

Rika M. Wright; K. T. Ramesh

57

Evaluation and Imaging of an Untreated Grade III Hamstring Tear: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Muscle strains are one of the most common complaints treated by physicians. High-force lengthening contractions can produce\\u000a very high forces resulting in pain and tissue damage; such strains are the most common cause of muscle injuries. The hamstring\\u000a muscles are particularly susceptible as they cross two joints and regularly perform lengthening contractions during running.\\u000a We describe a patient with return

Brett B. Clark; David Jaffe; R. Frank Henn; Richard M. Lovering

58

Hamstring Muscle Fatigue and Central Motor Output during a Simulated Soccer Match  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine changes in hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a 90-minute simulated soccer match, and the concomitant changes in hamstring maximal torque and rate of torque development. Method Eight amateur male soccer players performed a 90-minute simulated soccer match, with measures performed at the start of and every 15-minutes during each half. Maximal torque (Nm) and rate of torque development (RTD; Nm.s–1) were calculated from maximal isometric knee flexor contractions performed at 10° of flexion. Hamstring peripheral fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting twitch (RT). Hamstring central motor output was quantified from voluntary activation (%) and normalized biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MH) electromyographic amplitudes (EMG/M). Results Maximal torque was reduced at 45-minutes by 7.6±9.4% (p<0.05). RTD in time intervals of 0–25, 0–50, and 0–75 ms post-contraction onset were reduced after 15-minutes in the first-half between 29.6 to 46.2% (p<0.05), and were further reduced at the end of the second-half (p<0.05). Maximal EMG/M was reduced for biceps femoris only concomitant to the time-course of reductions in maximal torque (p?=?0.007). The rate of EMG rise for BF and MH was reduced in early time periods (0–75 ms) post-contraction onset (p<0.05). No changes were observed for the size and shape of the RT, indicating no hamstring peripheral fatigue. Conclusion Centrally mediated reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development provide insight into factors that may explain hamstring injury risk during soccer. Of particular interest were early reductions during the first-half of hamstring rate of torque development, and the decline in maximal EMG/M of biceps femoris in the latter stages of the half. These are important findings that may help explain why the hamstrings are particularly vulnerable to strain injury during soccer. PMID:25047547

Marshall, Paul W. M.; Lovell, Ric; Jeppesen, Gitte K.; Andersen, Kristoffer; Siegler, Jason C.

2014-01-01

59

Partial rupture of the hamstring muscle complex: a literature review on treatment options.  

PubMed

Injuries of the hamstring muscle complex (HMC) often affect athletes participating in specific sporting activities. Mild injuries that constitute a mere strain of the muscle can be managed symptomatically, while severe injuries often require surgical intervention to precipitate a return to function. Neglected injuries usually result in a long-term functional impairment. Therefore, surgical reconstruction of the HMC is advised for both partial and complete lesions. Without acute repair, a chronic lesion referred to as hamstring syndrome can result due to dysfunction of the HMC. Surgical intervention is usually recommended. A case of a chronic severe partial injury to the HMC managed conservatively in a 49-year old female is presented to illustrate the level of function that can be achieved after non-operative management. The clinical and radiological findings are presented 18 months post-injury along with a review of the current literature. There are no previous reports in the literature describing this scenario. This case indicates the need for re-evaluation in treatment options in partial hamstring muscle ruptures. A surgical treatment of partial rupture should be considered more often as an adequate treatment option and cofactors that influence the prognosis must be revealed. The indication of surgical intervention should be re-evaluated within the first months in case of conservative treatment. PMID:24077940

Horst, Klemens; Dienstknecht, T; Sellei, R M; Pape, H C

2014-04-01

60

Electrophysiological Assessment of Injury to the Infra-patellar Branch(es) of the Saphenous Nerve during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Medial Hamstring Auto-grafts: Vertical versus Oblique Harvest Site Incisions  

PubMed Central

Background It was suggested that the direction of incision for medial hamstring tendons harvesting influences the incidence of injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN), a common complication following arthroscopically-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Objectives The main purpose of current study was to compare the incidence of IPBSN injury between vertical and oblique incisions utilizing electrophysiological evaluation. Patients and Methods There were 60 patients underwent arthroscopically-assisted ACLR assigned to two equal vertical or oblique incision groups, randomly. One year postoperatively, the patients were electrophysiologically examined to detect whether IPBSN is injured. The Lysholm score was completed. The patients' satisfaction with surgical outcomes determined utilizing visual analogue scale (VAS). Finally, two groups were compared and the effect of IPBSN injury on function and satisfaction was investigated. Results The incidence of IPBSN injury was higher in the vertical group (4 patients vs. 10 patients), but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean of Lysholm and VAS scores were the same. Also, the mean of Lysholm score was the same in patients with and without IPBSN injury. However, patients without IPBSN injury were more satisfied (8.9 ± 9 vs. 7.4 ± 1.1; P < 0.001). Conclusions IPBSN injury is a common complication following arthroscopically-assisted ACLR and, if not significant, oblique direction of the incision is associated with decreased incidence of the injury. IPBSN injury has no effect on the function but because of the disturbance with patients' satisfaction, authors believe the oblique incision is preferable to avoid the nerve injury during medial hamstring tendons harvesting. PMID:24693521

Tavakoli Darestani, Reza; Bagherian Lemraski, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Kamrani-Rad, Amin

2013-01-01

61

Sex differences in perceived importance of hamstring stretching among high school athletes.  

PubMed

Adolescent athletes completed a hamstring stretching technique and opinion survey and were measured for hamstring extensibility during preparticipation examination. Hamstring muscle group stretching practices, extensibility, and perception of importance to injury prevention, athletic performance, warming-up, cooling down, and coaches were contrasted by sex. As expected, girls displayed greater hamstring muscle group flexibility than boys. Boys and girls reported similar hamstring stretch repetitions and stretch duration. Boys scored hamstring stretching as being more important to improved athletic performance and to their coaches than did girls. Differences were not evident between groups for prevention of injury, warm-up, or cool-down. The lower perception of hamstring stretching importance for improving athletic performance and a lesser perception of hamstring stretching importance to their coaches suggests that adolescent female athletes and their coaches may not fully understand the value of static hamstring stretching. Modified hamstring stretching technique may selectively increase hamstring extensibility among girls without contributing to increasing capsuloligamentous knee joint laxity. PMID:15446622

Nyland, John; Kocabey, Yavuz; Caborn, David N M

2004-08-01

62

Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.  

PubMed

Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention that increased core muscle size and function resulted in fewer games missed due to injury. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of eccentric hamstring exercise in decreasing hamstring injury rate in ARF players was unsuccessful due to poor compliance from muscle soreness; a progressive eccentric training intervention for ARF should be given future consideration. Jump and landing training reduced injury risk in junior ARF players and it would be advisable to include this component as part of a neuromuscular training intervention. A multifaceted programme of sport-specific drills for hamstring flexibility while fatigued, sport skills that load the hamstrings and high-intensity interval training to mimic match playing conditions showed some success in reducing the incidence of hamstring injuries in ARF. A countermeasure designed to reduce injury risk is more likely to be adopted by coaches and players if it also has the scope to enhance performance. PMID:23529288

Hrysomallis, Con

2013-05-01

63

Will early reconstruction prevent abnormal kinematics after ACL injury? Two-year follow-up using dynamic radiostereometry in 14 patients operated with hamstring autografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Previous studies have reported that Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction does not restore normal tibial rotation\\u000a in patients with chronic instability and repeated episodes of giving way. We hypothesised that early ACL reconstruction, using\\u000a quadruple hamstring autografts, before the pivoting episodes had occurred, would protect the knee joint from developing abnormal\\u000a kinematics with increased external tibial rotation during flexion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fourteen

Jonas Isberg; Eva Faxén; Gauti Laxdal; Bengt I. Eriksson; Johan Kärrholm; Jon Karlsson

64

A Stochastic Model of Knee Angle in Response to Electrical Stimulation of the Quadriceps and Hamstrings Muscles  

E-print Network

and Hamstrings Muscles Cheryl L. Lynch* and Milos R. Popovic* *Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups is presented. This model includes uncertainty due to fatigue and day cord injury I. INTRODUCTION Functional electrical stimulation (FES) uses short electrical pulses

Popovic, Milos R.

65

Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Autograft in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

We introduce an anatomic reconstruction technique for the medial patellofemoral ligament using a free hamstring autograft in skeletally immature patients. We dock the 2 ends of the graft in the superior-medial patella using sockets and secure the femoral graft attachment in a socket tunnel distal to the physis. This technique minimizes the risk of injury to the growth plate and still enables accurate and successful anatomic positioning of the hamstring autograft. PMID:23875142

Ladenhauf, Hannah N.; Berkes, Marschall B.; Green, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

66

Developments in the Use of the Hamstring/Quadriceps Ratio for the Assessment of Muscle Balance  

PubMed Central

Isokinetic moment ratios of the hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q) muscle groups, and their implication in muscle imbalance, have been investigated for more than three decades. The conventional concentric H/Q ratio with its normative value of 0.6 has been at the forefront of the discussion. This does not account for the joint angle at which moment occurs and the type of muscle action involved. Advances towards more functional analyses have occurred such that previous protocols are being re-examined raising questions about their ability to demonstrate a relationship between thigh muscle imbalance and increased incidence or risk of knee injury. This article addresses the function of the hamstring-quadriceps ratio in the interpretation of this relationship using the ratios Hecc/Qcon (ratio of eccentric hamstring strength to concentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee extension) and Hcon/Qecc (ratio of concentric hamstring strength to eccentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee flexion). PMID:24701125

Coombs, Rosalind; Garbutt, Gerard

2002-01-01

67

Hamstring graft preparation using a modified rolling hitch technique.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double-looped hamstring autograft is a common procedure in orthopaedic practice. However, during placement of the running, locking stitches at each end of the harvested tendons, the surgeon may face several potential obstacles, including the risk of damaging the tendon, predisposing the surgeon to needle-stick injury, and extended time consumption. We report a modified rolling hitch technique for hamstring graft preparation that is quick, cost-saving, and needleless as an alternative method. The original rolling hitch technique uses a traditional knot that attaches a rope to an object; the modified rolling hitch technique was created by adding 1 more turn before finishing with a half-hitch, which may prevent suture slippage off the tendon, thus providing sufficient fixation of the suture-tendon construct. PMID:25126495

Hong, Chih-Kai; Chang, Chih-Hsun; Chiang, Chen-Hao; Jou, I-Ming; Su, Wei-Ren

2014-06-01

68

Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

1983-01-01

69

Fatigue effects on quadriceps and hamstrings activation in dancers performing drop landings.  

PubMed

Fatigue may reduce a dancer's ability to maintain the muscle synergies required for stable human movement. Therefore, fatigue presents as a potential risk factor for injury in dancers. Activation patterns of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups in athletic populations have been consistently reported to alter in response to fatigue during landing tasks. It is unknown whether dancers demonstrate similar muscle activation patterns, nor if dancers respond to fatiguing protocols, with regard to muscle activation, in the same manner as their athletic counter-parts. The purpose of this study was to assess quadriceps and hamstrings activation levels in a cohort of dancers performing drop landings before and after completion of a dance-specific fatigue protocol, the High Intensity Dance Performance Fitness Test. Quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction ratios significantly increased between pre- and post-fatigue conditions in a similar fashion to that reported in the literature. Therefore, the neuromuscular activation of the knee extensors and flexors in dancers changed in response to the dance-specific fatiguing protocol. Furthermore, quadriceps and hamstrings co-contraction ratios were substantially greater than previously reported in other athletic populations, due to low hamstrings activation levels. Future investigation of dancer biomechanical adaptations to fatigue would be beneficial to further examine the potential implications for injury risk. PMID:24069945

McEldowney, Kasey M; Hopper, Luke S; Etlin-Stein, Hannah; Redding, Emma

2013-09-01

70

A New Concept For Isokinetic Hamstring: Quadriceps Muscle Strength Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally, the hamstring:quadriceps strength ratio is calculated by dividing the maximal knee flexor (hamstring) moment by the maximal knee extensor (quadriceps) moment measured at identical angular velocity and contraction mode. The agonist-antagonist strength relationship for knee extension and flexion may, however, be better described by the more functional ratios of eccentric hamstring to concentric quadriceps moments (extension), and concentric hamstring

Per Aagaard; Erik B. Simonsen; S. Peter Magnusson; Benny Larsson; Poul Dyhre-Poulsen

1998-01-01

71

Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury.  

PubMed

This study examined the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In the first part of the study, using a comprehensive, standardized questionnaire, 89 athletes (100 knees) were interviewed about the events surrounding their ACL injury. A noncontact mechanism was reported in 71 (72%) knees and a contact injury in 28 (28%) knees; one patient was unsure if there was any contact. Most of the injuries were sustained at footstrike with the knee close to full extension. Noncontact mechanisms were classified as sudden deceleration prior to a change of direction or landing motion, while contact injuries occurred as a result of valgus collapse of the knee. Hamstring flexibility parameters revealed a statistically higher level of laxity in the injured athletes compared with a matched group of 28 controls. In the second part of the study, videotapes of 27 separate ACL disruptions were reviewed and confirmed that most noncontact injuries occur with the knee close to extension during a sharp deceleration or landing maneuver. Because the knee is in a position to allow the extensor mechanism to strain the ACL and maximum, eccentric muscle force conditions usually apply, the quadriceps may play an important role in ACL disruption. Passive protection of the ACL by the hamstring muscles may be reduced in patients with above-average flexibility. PMID:10875418

Boden, B P; Dean, G S; Feagin, J A; Garrett, W E

2000-06-01

72

Hamstring Strains: Basic Science and Clinical  

E-print Network

, Wisconsin Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear PROFESSIONALS TO SEARCH FOR IMPROVED POSTINJURY REHABILITATION STRATEGIES. ATHLETES MAY SHOW POSTINJURY for the sports medicine and performance team that help return athletes to sport with reduced risk for recurrent

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

73

Submaximal fatigue of the hamstrings impairs specific reflex components and knee stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most serious sports-related injuries and requires long recovery\\u000a time. The quadriceps and hamstring muscles are functionally important to control stability of the knee joint complex. Fatigue,\\u000a however, is an important factor that may influence stabilizing control and thus cause ACL injuries. The objective of this\\u000a study was therefore to

Mark Melnyk; Albert Gollhofer

2007-01-01

74

Relationship between muscle volume and muscle torque of the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The muscle torque per unit volume of the hamstrings on the injured and uninjured sides in patients with ACL reconstruction were compared with participants with no history of knee injury to examine whether a similar mechanism leading to quadriceps weakness exists in the hamstrings of these patients. The study population consisted of 18 and 52 patients at hamstring volume was measured on MRI. To identify the muscle torque per unit volume, the peak torque of knee flexion was divided by the hamstring volume. Most muscle torque per unit volume indexes were not significantly different between the patients at hamstrings of the patients. The results of this study indicated that the mechanism of muscle weakness of the hamstrings after reconstruction was different from that of the quadriceps, although the precise mechanism remains to be determined. PMID:18964233

Konishi, Yu; Fukubayashi, Toru

2010-01-01

75

Strain-Related Differences after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present study directly compares the effects of experimental brain injury in two commonly used rat strains: Fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley. We previously found that Fisher rats have a higher mortality rate and more frequent seizure attacks at the same injury level than Sprague-Dawley rats. Although strain differences in rats are commonly accepted as contributing to variability among studies, there is a paucity of literature addressing strain influence in experimental neurotrauma. Therefore this study compares outcome measures in two rat strains following lateral fluid percussion injury. Fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats were monitored for changes in physiological measurements, intracranial pressure, and electroencephalographic activity. We further analyzed neuronal degeneration and cell death in the injured brain using Fluoro-Jade-B (FJB) histochemistry and caspase-3 immunostaining. Behavioral studies using the beam walk and Morris water maze were conducted to characterize strain differences in both motor and cognitive functional recovery following injury. We found that Fisher rats had significantly higher intracranial pressure, prolonged seizure activity, increased FJB-positive staining in the injured cortex and thalamus, and increased caspase-3 expression than Sprague-Dawley rats. On average, Fisher rats displayed a greater amount of total recording time in seizure activity and had longer ictal durations. The Fisher rats also had increased motor deficits, correlating with the above results. In spite of these results, Fisher rats performed better on cognitive tests following injury. The results demonstrate that different rat strains respond to injury differently, and thus in preclinical neurotrauma studies strain influence is an important consideration when evaluating outcomes. PMID:20392137

Rolfe, Andrew; Register, David; Levasseur, Joseph E.; Churn, Severn B.; Sun, Dong

2010-01-01

76

What are the risk factors for groin strain injury in sport? A systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Groin injury is among the most common cited injuries in the sports of ice hockey, soccer, Australian Rules football, calisthenics and cricket. There are very few prospective studies examining risk factors for groin strain injury in sport. There is support for an association of previous injury and greater abductor to adductor strength ratios as well as sport specificity of training and pre-season sport-specific training, as individual risk factors in groin strain injury in athletes. Core muscle weakness or delayed onset of transversus abdominal muscle recruitment may increase the risk of groin strain injury. Debate exists in the literature regarding the role of adductor strength and length as well as age and/or sport experience as risk factors for groin injury. There is no strong evidence to support a causal association for any of these risk factors and groin injury. PMID:17887812

Maffey, Lorrie; Emery, Carolyn

2007-01-01

77

Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hamstring eccentric isokinetic strength and unilateral hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of static and dynamic lower limb stretching routines: (a) on peak torque, total external work and joint angle at peak torque of the hamstrings during maximal eccentric isokinetic leg flexion; (b) on unilateral hamstring to quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios; as well as (c) to determine whether static and dynamic routines elicit similar responses. A total of 49 active adults completed the following intervention protocols in a randomised order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control condition), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. After the stretching or control intervention, eccentric isokinetic peak torque, the angle of peak torque and total external work were assessed with participants prone at 1.04 and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Unilateral strength ratios of the knee were also recorded. Measures were compared via a fully-within-groups factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no main effects for eccentric isokinetic peak torque, angle of peak torque, total external work and unilateral H/Q strength ratios. The results suggest that dynamic and static stretching has no influence on eccentric strength profile and unilateral H/Q strength ratios and hence both forms of stretching do not reduce these two primary risk factors for muscle injury. PMID:23230900

Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz De Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

2013-01-01

78

Brain-on-a-chip microsystem for investigating traumatic brain injury: Axon diameter and mitochondrial membrane changes play a significant role in axonal response to strain injuries  

PubMed Central

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a devastating consequence of traumatic brain injury, resulting in significant axon and neuronal degeneration. Currently, therapeutic options are limited. Using our brain-on-a-chip device, we evaluated axonal responses to DAI. We observed that axonal diameter plays a significant role in response to strain injury, which correlated to delayed elasticity and inversely correlated to axonal beading and axonal degeneration. When changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were monitored an applied strain injury threshold was noted, below which delayed hyperpolarization was observed and above which immediate depolarization occurred. When the NHE-1 inhibitor EIPA was administered before injury, inhibition in both hyperpolarization and depolarization occurred along with axonal degeneration. Therefore, axonal diameter plays a significant role in strain injury and our brain-on-a-chip technology can be used both to understand the biochemical consequences of DAI and screen for potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25101309

Dolle, Jean-Pierre; Morrison, Barclay; Schloss, Rene S.; Yarmush, Martin L.

2014-01-01

79

Collagen quantification across human skeletal muscles  

E-print Network

based prevention of hamstring injuries in sport. Br J Sportsthe hamstrings have the highest rate of re-injury 77,78 .hamstrings, with the exception of rectus femoris. A previous study showed RF strain injuries

Lin, Evie Ya Hui

2011-01-01

80

Musculoskeletal Symptomnatology and Repetitive Strain Injuries in Diagnostic Medical SonographersA Pilot Study in Washington and Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive strain injuries are beginning to be widely recognized as a serious occupational risk for sonographers. The goal of this study was to establish the incidence of musculoskeletal symptomatology and repetitive strain injuries in sonographers from Washington state and Oregon and to correlate certain physical attributes, work load, and work habits with the reporting rates of musculoskeletal symptomatology and repetitive

Martin Necas

1996-01-01

81

Strain Variability, Injury Distribution, and Seizure Onset in a Mouse Model of Stroke in the Immature Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal stroke is an important cause of neurologic morbidity and cerebral palsy. Recently, we have determined that in postnatal day 12 CD1 mice unilateral carotid ligation alone results in seizures and brain injury. We have shown that, in this model, seizure scores correlate with brain injury scores. We have applied this model to another strain of mice to assess strain-related

Anne M. Comi; Michael V. Johnston; Mary Ann Wilson

2005-01-01

82

DISEASE-SPECIFIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ACUTE OZONE-INDUCED INJURY AND INFLAMMATION IN EIGHT RAT STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Susceptibility to environmental pollutant-induced injuries may be influenced by presence of disease and genetic make-up. To identify disease-specific susceptibility phenotype, we used eight rat strains with or without genetic cardiovascular disease. Male 12-15 wk old Sprague Dawl...

83

Estimation of ligament strains and joint moments in the ankle during a supination sprain injury.  

PubMed

This study presents the ankle ligament strains and ankle joint moments during an accidental injury event diagnosed as a grade I anterior talofibular ligament (ATaFL) sprain. A male athlete accidentally sprained his ankle while performing a cutting motion in a laboratory setting. The kinematic data were input to a three-dimensional rigid-body foot model for simulation analyses. Maximum strains in 20 ligaments were evaluated in simulations that investigated various combinations of the reported ankle joint motions. Temporal strains in the ATaFL and the calcaneofibular ligament (CaFL) were then compared and the three-dimensional ankle joint moments were evaluated from the model. The ATaFL and CaFL were highly strained when the inversion motion was simulated (10% for ATaFL and 12% for CaFL). These ligament strains were increased significantly when either or both plantarflexion and internal rotation motions were added in a temporal fashion (up to 20% for ATaFL and 16% for CaFL). Interestingly, at the time strain peaked in the ATaFL, the plantarflexion angle was not large but apparently important. This computational simulation study suggested that an inversion moment of approximately 23 N m plus an internal rotation moment of approximately 11 N m and a small plantarflexion moment may have generated a strain of 15-20% in the ATaFL to produce a grade I ligament injury in the athlete's ankle. This injury simulation study exhibited the potentially important roles of plantarflexion and internal rotation, when combined with a large inversion motion, to produce a grade I ATaFL injury in the ankle of this athlete. PMID:23654290

Wei, Feng; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Chan, Kai-Ming; Haut, Roger C

2015-02-01

84

Musculotendon variability influences tissue strains experienced by the biceps femoris long head muscle during high-speed running.  

PubMed

The hamstring muscles frequently suffer injury during high-speed running, though the factors that make an individual more susceptible to injury remain poorly understood. The goals of this study were to measure the musculotendon dimensions of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) muscle, the hamstring muscle injured most often, and to use computational models to assess the influence of variability in the BFlh's dimensions on internal tissue strains during high-speed running. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired over the thigh in 12 collegiate athletes, and musculotendon dimensions were measured in the proximal free tendon/aponeurosis, muscle and distal free tendon/aponeurosis. Finite element meshes were generated based on the average, standard deviation and range of BFlh dimensions. Simulation boundary conditions were defined to match muscle activation and musculotendon length change in the BFlh during high-speed running. Muscle and connective tissue dimensions were found to vary between subjects, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 17±6% across all dimensions. For all simulations peak local strain was highest along the proximal myotendinous junction, which is where injury typically occurs. Model variations showed that peak local tissue strain increased as the proximal aponeurosis width narrowed and the muscle width widened. The aponeurosis width and muscle width variation models showed that the relative dimensions of these structures influence internal muscle tissue strains. The results of this study indicate that a musculotendon unit's architecture influences its strain injury susceptibility during high-speed running. PMID:25189094

Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Blemker, Silvia S

2014-10-17

85

Mouse strain differences in susceptibility to sporidesmin-induced biliary tract injury.  

PubMed

Biliary tract injury was examined in four inbred strains of mice orally dosed with 500 micrograms of the fungal toxin sporidesmin. Semiquantitative histological analysis was used to assess the grade of necroinflammatory changes in the gall bladder, intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree and lobular parenchyma. Injury was greatest in the C57BL/6 and C3H strain mice and was least in SJL/J mice. In these strains injury was greatest at 4 days and had regressed by 10 days. In BALB/c mice the damage, although similar to that in SJL/J mice at 4 days, persisted at the same severity at day 10 and was accompanied by periductal fibrosis and occasionally by obliteration of ducts typical of sclerosing cholangitis. Analysis of the time-course of development of the lesions in C57BL/6 mice showed that the primary target for the toxin is the biliary epithelium. The severity of the lesions within the liver increased centripetally and the worst affected ducts were found at the confluence of the lobar ducts with the common bile duct. The variation in the degree of damage and rate of healing between strains may be due to differences in sporidesmin excretion in bile or interactions with biliary epithelial cells and/or efficacy of protective cellular repair mechanisms. PMID:2215091

Bhathal, P S; Jordan, T W; Mackay, I R

1990-08-01

86

Relationship between physical strain during standardised ADL tasks and physical capacity in men with spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe physical strain during activities of daily living (ADL), 44 men with spinal cord injuries (C4-L5) performed a set of standardised tasks. The physical strain was defined as the highest heart rate response expressed as a percentage of the individual heart rate reserve (%HRR). The physical strain averaged over the subjects who performed all tasks (n = 24) was

T W J Janssen; C A J M van Oers; H E J Veeger; A P Hollander; L H V van der Woude; R H Rozendal

1994-01-01

87

Clinically Relevant Injury Patterns After an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Provide Insight Into Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background The functional disability and high costs of treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have generated a great deal of interest in understanding the mechanism of noncontact ACL injuries. Secondary bone bruises have been reported in over 80% of partial and complete ACL ruptures. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify ACL strain under a range of physiologically relevant loading conditions and (2) to evaluate soft tissue and bony injury patterns associated with applied loading conditions thought to be responsible for many noncontact ACL injuries. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seventeen cadaveric legs (age, 45 ± 7 years; 9 female and 8 male) were tested utilizing a custom-designed drop stand to simulate landing. Specimens were randomly assigned between 2 loading groups that evaluated ACL strain under either knee abduction or internal tibial rotation moments. In each group, combinations of anterior tibial shear force, and knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments under axial impact loading were applied sequentially until failure. Specimens were tested at 25° of flexion under simulated 1200-N quadriceps and 800-N hamstring loads. A differential variable reluctance transducer was used to calculate ACL strain across the anteromedial bundle. A general linear model was used to compare peak ACL strain at failure. Correlations between simulated knee injury patterns and loading conditions were evaluated by the ?2 test for independence. Results Anterior cruciate ligament failure was generated in 15 of 17 specimens (88%). A clinically relevant distribution of failure patterns was observed including medial collateral ligament tears and damage to the menisci, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Only abduction significantly contributed to calculated peak ACL strain at failure (P = .002). While ACL disruption patterns were independent of the loading mechanism, tibial plateau injury patterns (locations) were significantly (P = .002) dependent on the applied loading conditions. Damage to the articular cartilage along with depression of the midlateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with knee abduction moments, while cartilage damage with depression of the posterolateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with internal tibial rotation moments. Conclusion The current findings demonstrate the relationship between the location of the tibial plateau injury and ACL injury mechanisms. The resultant injury locations were similar to the clinically observed bone bruises across the tibial plateau during a noncontact ACL injury. These findings indicate that abduction combined with other modes of loading (multiplanar loading) may act to produce ACL injuries. Clinical Relevance A better understanding of ACL injury mechanisms and associated risk factors may improve current preventive, surgical, and rehabilitation strategies and limit the risk of ACL and secondary injuries, which may in turn minimize the future development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:23144366

Levine, Jason W.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.

2014-01-01

88

Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:22687721

Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

2012-01-01

89

Endoscopic Proximal Hamstring Repair and Ischial Bursectomy  

PubMed Central

With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:23766996

Dierckman, Brian D.; Guanche, Carlos A.

2012-01-01

90

Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hamstrings' response times.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study were to (a) investigate acute effects of static and dynamic lower limb stretching routines on total response time, pre-motor time and motor time of the medial and lateral hamstrings during maximal eccentric isokinetic knee flexion; and (b) determine whether static and dynamic routines elicit similar responses. A total of 38 active adults completed the following intervention protocols in a randomised order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control condition), (b) static stretching and (c) dynamic stretching. After the stretching or control intervention, total response time, pre-motor time and motor time of the medial and lateral hamstrings were assessed during eccentric knee flexion movements with participants prone. Measures were compared via a mixed-design factorial ANOVA. There were no main effects for total response time, pre-motor time and motor time. The results suggest that dynamic and static stretching has no influence on hamstrings response times (total response time, pre-motor time and motor time) and hence neither form of stretching reduces this primary risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. PMID:24405028

Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz de Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

2014-01-01

91

Five-Strand Hamstring Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Four-strand hamstring autograft is a common choice for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A potential disadvantage of hamstring autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is the inherent variability in graft diameter. Multiple studies have shown increased revision rates when using an undersized hamstring graft. Using an EndoButton (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) for femoral tunnel fixation, we convert a standard quadrupled hamstring graft into a 5-strand graft by creating 3 equal strands of the typically larger semitendinosus combined with a double-stranded gracilis. This technique may help alleviate some surgeon reluctance to use a hamstring graft by providing an intraoperative “bailout” option for an unexpectedly small tendon. On the basis of current data, increasing the diameter of the graft in these situations may decrease revision rates.

Lavery, Kyle P.; Rasmussen, Jeffrey F.; Dhawan, Aman

2014-01-01

92

COMMON OVERUSE INJURIES ATTRIBUTED TO CYCLING, AND WAYS TO MINIMIZE THESE INJURIES  

E-print Network

1 COMMON OVERUSE INJURIES ATTRIBUTED TO CYCLING, AND WAYS TO MINIMIZE THESE INJURIES Cervical overuse injuries associated with cycling long distances. 1. Cervical and upper back pain. 2. Low back pain of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. Each of these will be discussed with suggestions of bike fitting, staying

93

The Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Leg Rotation during Knee Extension  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise. PMID:24259833

Kimura, Atsushi

2013-01-01

94

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Clinical Outcomes of Patella Tendon and Hamstring Tendon Grafts  

PubMed Central

An injury to the ACL can result in significant functional impairment. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 new ACL injuries occur each year. Surgeons employ numerous techniques for reconstruction of the ACL. Of critical importance is the source of the graft to replace the damaged ACL. The graft choices include autografts (the patient's own tissue), allografts (donor tendon), and synthetic/prosthetic ligaments. Tissue harvest sites for autografting include the middle third of the patella tendon, the quadriceps tendon, semitendinosus tendon, gracilis tendon, iliotibial band, tensor fascia lata, and the Achilles tendon. Selection of the type of graft material is predicated upon the tissue's ability to tolerate high levels of stress. Likewise, the clinical presentation and functional outcome is related to the graft material selected. This manuscript specifically examined the patella tendon and hamstring tendon grafts. Numerous manuscripts that studied the outcomes of these graft materials were compiled to help the clinician appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the graft materials. Outcome measures such as thigh circumference, knee range of motion, isokinetic strength, knee stability, pain, and vertical jump/1-leg hop were incorporated. The purpose of this manuscript was to compare and contrast the clinical presentation of patients who underwent an ACL reconstruction using the patella tendon versus the hamstring tendons. This information can be valuable to the clinician when considering the rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction. PMID:24701126

Gulick, Dawn T.; Yoder, Heather N.

2002-01-01

95

Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09). In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket). It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’) are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season), perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury) have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is unlikely to be reduced in future years, teams may need to develop a squad rotation for fast bowlers, similar to pitching staff in baseball, to reduce the injury rates for fast bowlers. Consideration should be given to rule changes which may reduce the impact of injury. In particular, allowing the 12th man to play as a full substitute in first class cricket (and therefore take some of the bowling workload in the second innings) would probably reduce bowling injury prevalence in cricket. PMID:24198544

Orchard, John; James, Trefor; Kountouris, Alex; Portus, Marc

2010-01-01

96

Strain Inhomogeneity in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament  

E-print Network

be needed to predict injury ofthe anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), Richmond, CA 94804 this work tested the application ofa number of loads important to injury etiology of the ACL. To provide the data for testing, moments, quadriceps, and hamstrings forces. Various combinations of these loads Davis, CA 95616 were also

Hull, Maury

97

Functional assessment after acute and chronic complete ruptures of the proximal hamstring tendons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonoperative treatment of acute or chronic complete ruptures of the proximal hamstring tendons leads to functional impairment in sports activities. The objective of the study was to evaluate the functional status after primary and delayed surgical treatment including objective (isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle testing, hamstring flexibility) and subjective parameters (overall satisfaction, postoperative sports level). A total of eight patients

Peter U. Brucker; Andreas B. Imhoff

2005-01-01

98

The management of bilateral high hamstring tendinopathy with ASTYM® treatment and eccentric exercise: a case report.  

PubMed

High hamstring tendinopathy (HHT) is an overuse injury that occurs most commonly in runners. The management of HHT is often challenging and the research supporting many interventions is limited. Eccentric exercise has been proven effective in the treatment of various tendinopathies but has not been thoroughly studied with HHT. Soft tissue mobilization, including ASTYM, is often utilized in the treatment of tendinopathies, though there is limited evidence supporting this approach. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a patient referred to physical therapy with bilateral HHT. The patient was a 41-year-old recreational runner that had an insidious onset of right buttock pain 12 months prior to initiating therapy and left buttock pain 9 months prior. Her primary complaints included an inability to run, pain with prolonged or brisk walking, and pain with sitting on hard surfaces. The patient was treated in physical therapy two times per week for 16 visits with treatment focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening and ASTYM. By her eighth visit, the patient was able to walk 2·5 miles without pain and by her 12 visit, she was able to jog 1 mile before the onset of pain. After 16 visits, the patient reported that she was approximately 95% improved, was able to run 2·5 miles without pain, and had no pain with sitting on hard surfaces. This case suggests that eccentric exercise combined with ASTYM may be an effective treatment for HHT. PMID:23904753

McCormack, Joshua R

2012-08-01

99

The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if hamstring tightness was an increased risk in plantar fasciitis. It was thought that there is an increased risk of plantar fasciitis when hamstring tightness is present. A total of 105 patients (68 women, 37 men) were included in the study, 79 of whom were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the presence of plantar fasciitis, equinus, and calcaneal spurs were assessed. The popliteal angle was measured using standard diagnostic techniques. Without controlling for covariates, BMI, the presence of a calcaneal spur, tightness in the gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius-soleus, and hamstring all had statistically significant association with plantar fasciitis. After controlling for covariates, patients with hamstring tightness were about 8.7 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis (P < .0001). Patients with BMI >35 were approximately 2.4 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis compared with those with BMI <35 (P = .04). This study demonstrates that hamstring tightness plays a significant role in the presence of plantar fasciitis and should be addressed along with equinus and obesity when providing treatment to patients with this diagnosis. PMID:21368068

Labovitz, Jonathan M; Yu, Jenny; Kim, Chul

2011-06-01

100

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592)  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. Methods and design A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18?years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16?weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16?weeks. The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. Conclusion This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592 PMID:22866670

2012-01-01

101

Group training with healthy computing practices to prevent repetitive strain injury (RSI): a preliminary study.  

PubMed

This pilot study investigated whether group training, in which participants become role models and coaches, would reduce discomfort as compared to a nontreatment Control Group. Sixteen experimental participants participated in 6 weekly 2-hr group sessions of a Healthy Computing program whereas 12 control participants received no training. None of the participants reported symptoms to their supervisors nor were they receiving medical treatment for repetitive strain injury prior to the program. The program included training in ergonomic principles, psychophysiological awareness and control, sEMG practice at the workstation, and coaching coworkers. Using two-tailed t tests to analyze the data, the Experimental Group reported (1) a significant overall reduction in most body symptoms as compared to the Control Group and (2) a significant increase in positive work-style habits, such as taking breaks at the computer, as compared to the Control Group. This study suggests that employees could possibly improve health and work style patterns based on a holistic training program delivered in a group format followed by individual practice. PMID:15707257

Peper, Erik; Gibney, Katherine H; Wilson, Vietta E

2004-12-01

102

Quantitative evaluation of anterior tibial translation during isokinetic motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using either patellar or hamstring tendon grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 79 patients with unilateral injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The patients were randomly allocated\\u000a to reconstruction with autologous patellar bone-tendon-bone (BTB) grafts (49 knees) or hamstring tendon (ST) grafts (30 knees).\\u000a We measured anterior tibial translation (ATT) during isokinetic concentric contraction exercise 18–20 months after surgery\\u000a using a computerized electrogoniometer. In both groups the highest ATT during

N. Sato; H. Higuchi; M. Terauchi; M. Kimura; K. Takagishi

2005-01-01

103

Gender dimorphic ACL strain in response to combined dynamic 3D knee joint loading: Implications for ACL injury risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

While gender-based differences in knee joint anatomies\\/laxities are well documented, the potential for them to precipitate gender-dimorphic ACL loading and resultant injury risk has not been considered. To this end, we generated gender-specific models of ACL strain as a function of any six degrees of freedom (6DOF) knee joint load state via a combined cadaveric and analytical approach. Continuously varying

Kiyonori Mizuno; Jack T. Andrish; Antonie J. van den Bogert; Scott G. McLean

2009-01-01

104

Development of a strain rate dependent material model of human cortical bone for computer-aided reconstruction of injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Computer-aided methods such as finite-element simulation offer a great potential in the forensic reconstruction of injury mechanisms. Numerous studies have been performed on understanding and analysing the mechanical properties of bone and the mechanism of its fracture. Determination of the mechanical properties of bones is made on the same basis used for other structural materials. The mechanical behaviour of bones is affected by the mechanical properties of the bone material, the geometry, the loading direction and mode and of course the loading rate. Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of cortical bone has been well demonstrated in literature studies, but as many of these were performed on animal bones and at non-physiological strain rates it is questionable how these will apply in the human situations. High strain-rates dominate in a lot of forensic applications in automotive crashes and assault scenarios. There is an overwhelming need to a model which can describe the complex behaviour of bone at lower strain rates as well as higher ones. Some attempts have been made to model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of the bone at high strain rates using constitutive mathematical models with little demonstrated success. The main objective of the present study is to model the rate dependent behaviour of the bones based on experimental data. An isotropic material model of human cortical bone with strain rate dependency effects is implemented using the LS-DYNA material library. We employed a human finite element model called THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety), developed by Toyota R&D Labs and the Wayne State University, USA. The finite element model of the human femur is extracted from the THUMS model. Different methods have been employed to develop a strain rate dependent material model for the femur bone. Results of one the recent experimental studies on human femur have been employed to obtain the numerical model for cortical femur. A forensic application of the model is explained in which impacts to the arm have been reconstructed using the finite element model of THUMS. The advantage of the numerical method is that a wide range of impact conditions can be easily reconstructed. Impact velocity has been changed as a parameter to find the tolerance levels of injuries to the lower arm. The method can be further developed to study the assaults and the injury mechanism which can lead to severe traumatic injuries in forensic cases. PMID:24529781

Asgharpour, Zahra; Zioupos, Peter; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

2014-03-01

105

Elastographic Imaging of Strain Distribution in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and at the LigamentBone Insertions  

E-print Network

intervention is required following ligament injury. Two types of autografts commonly utilized to replace the ACL include the bone­patellar ten- don­bone graft and the hamstring tendon (HT) graft. The HT has

Lu, Helen H.

106

Copyright @ 2006 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Neuromusculoskeletal Models Provide Insights  

E-print Network

. The insights gained are relevant for improving the scientific basis of hamstring strain injury prevention to sport (9). These observations highlight the prevalence of hamstring strain injuries and the challenge in preventing the initial injury and subsequent reinjury. The residual effects of a prior hamstring strain may

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

107

The role of neural tension in hamstring flexibility.  

PubMed

Resistance to stretch, electromyographic (EMG) response to stretch, stretch discomfort and maximum range of motion (ROM) were measured during passive hamstring stretches performed in the slump test position (neural tension stretch) and in the upright position (neutral stretch) in eight healthy subjects. Stretches were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at 5°/s with the test thigh flexed 40° above the horizontal, and the seat back at 90° to the horizontal. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the medial and lateral hamstrings during stretches. Knees were passively extended to maximum stretch tolerance with test order (neural tension vs neutral) alternated between legs. For neural tension stretches, the cervical and thoracic spine were manually flexed. Maximum ROM was 8° less for the neural tension stretch vs the neutral stretch (P<0.01). Resistance to stretch was 14-15% higher for the neural tension stretch vs the neutral stretch (P<0.001) at common joint angles in the final third of ROM. Stretch discomfort and EMG response were unaffected by neural tension. In conclusion, an increased passive resistance to stretch with the addition of neural tension during passive hamstring stretch despite no change in the EMG response indicates that passive extensibility of neural tissues can limit hamstring flexibility. PMID:20738821

McHugh, M P; Johnson, C D; Morrison, R H

2012-04-01

108

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... control of the knee by the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles in the legs. Researchers are very interested in studying this particular factor since it may be the easiest to modify. HOW DO ACL INJURIES OCCUR? Careful study of videos of athletes tearing ...

109

Direct measurement of intervertebral disc maximum shear strain in six degrees of freedom: Motions that place disc tissue at risk of injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intervertebral disc specimens were tested to determine the regions of largest maximum shear strain (MSS) experienced by disc tissues in each of three principal displacements and three rotations, and to identify the physiological rotations and displacements that may place the disc at greatest risk for large tissue strains and injury. Tearing of disc annulus may be initiated by large

J. J. Costi; I. A. Stokes; M. Gardner-Morse; J. P. Laible; H. M. Scoffone; J. C. Iatridis

2007-01-01

110

Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps Strength Capacity in Professional Soccer Players with Different Conventional Isokinetic Muscle Strength Ratios  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength imbalance can be an important factor in hamstrings muscle strain. A hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio based on concentric peak torque values (Hcon:Qcon) has traditionally been used to describe the potential for knee-joint destabilization. Because certain standard actions in soccer are explosive, the analysis of the H/Q strength ratio based on the rate of torque development (Hrtd:Qrtd) might also be useful in the evaluation of joint stability. The objective of this study was to compare the Hrtd:Qrtd between professional soccer players with heterogeneous values of Hcon:Qcon. Thirty-nine professional soccer players took part in the following procedures on different days: 1) Familiarization session with the isokinetic dynamometer, and 2) Two maximal isometric actions and five maximal concentric actions at 60°·s-1 for hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q). Participants were ranked according to their Hcon:Qcon ratio. The median third was excluded to form a high torque group (HTG), and a low torque group (LTG). Peak isometric (H) and concentric (H and Q) torques and rate of torque development (H) were significantly greater in the HTG group. Similarly, Hcon:Qcon (0.68 ± 0.02 vs. 0.52 ± 0.03) and Hrtd:Qrtd (0.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.43 ± 0.16) were significantly greater in the HTG group than in the LTG group. There was no significant correlation between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd. It can be concluded that Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms. Thus, the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd to an athlete’s individual evaluation might be different. Key pointsSoccer players with high (0.66-0.70) and low (0.50-0.54) conventional concentric hamstrings:quadriceps ratios (Hcon:Qcon) tend to demonstrate similar profiles (i.e., high and low, respectively) in their rate of the torque development H/Q ratio (Hrtd:Qrtd).The lack of a significant relationship between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd suggests that these ratios are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms.Preseason screening programs that monitor hamstrings:quadriceps ratios should recognize that the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrfd:Qrfd to an athlete’s individual evaluation might be different. PMID:24149348

Greco, Camila C.; Da Silva, Wendell L.; Camarda, Sergio R.A.; Denadai, Benedito S.

2012-01-01

111

The study of the neurophysiology of high strain rate nerve injury  

E-print Network

The study of the mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) processes at the cellular level is vital to obtain characterization of nerve cell damage after mechanical deformation. This understanding is needed to find feasible therapeutic targets...

Yang, In Hong

2004-09-30

112

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling  

E-print Network

to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. Materials have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon­scar volumes were evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

113

Moderate Dynamic Compression Inhibits Pro-Catabolic Response of Cartilage to Mechanical Injury, TNF-? and IL-6, but Accentuates Degradation Above a Strain Threshold  

PubMed Central

Objective Traumatic joint injury can initiate early cartilage degeneration in the presence of elevated inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-? and IL-6). The positive/negative effects of post-injury dynamic loading on cartilage degradation and repair in vivo is not well-understood. This study examined the effects of dynamic strain on immature bovine cartilage in vitro challenged with TNF-? + IL-6 and its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) with/without initial mechanical injury. Methods Groups of mechanically injured or non-injured explants were cultured in TNF-? + IL-6/sIL-6R for 8 days. Intermittent dynamic compression was applied concurrently at 10%, 20%, or 30% strain amplitude. Outcome measures included sGAG loss (DMMB), aggrecan biosynthesis (35S-incorporation), aggrecanase activity (Western blot), chondrocyte viability (fluorescence staining) and apoptosis (nuclear blebbing via light microscopy), and gene expression (qPCR). Results In bovine explants, cytokine-alone and injury-plus-cytokine treatments markedly increased sGAG loss and aggrecanase activity, and induced chondrocyte apoptosis. These effects were abolished by moderate 10% and 20% strains. However, 30% strain-amplitude greatly increased apoptosis and had no inhibitory effect on aggrecanase activity. TNF+IL-6/sIL-6R downregulated matrix gene expression and upregulated expression of inflammatory genes, effects that were rescued by moderate dynamic strains but not by 30% strain. Conclusions Moderate dynamic compression inhibits the pro-catabolic response of cartilage to mechanical injury and cytokine challenge, but there is a threshold strain-amplitude above which loading becomes detrimental to cartilage. Our findings support the concept of appropriate loading for post-injury rehabilitation. PMID:24007885

Li, Yang; Frank, Eliot H.; Wang, Yang; Chubinskaya, Susan; Huang, Han-Hwa; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

2013-01-01

114

Basic Science The effects of needle puncture injury on microscale shear strain  

E-print Network

factor injection and cell therapies. However, there is somewhat of a paradox as needle punctures are also com- monly used to induce degeneration in the IVD. In animal models, these injuries affect both051146 and R21AR054867), NASA/VSGC (NNX07AK92A), and NSF (DMR- 0606040), and technical assistance from Dr

Cohen, Itai

115

The management of bilateral high hamstring tendinopathy with ASTYM(R) treatment and eccentric exercise: a case report  

PubMed Central

High hamstring tendinopathy (HHT) is an overuse injury that occurs most commonly in runners. The management of HHT is often challenging and the research supporting many interventions is limited. Eccentric exercise has been proven effective in the treatment of various tendinopathies but has not been thoroughly studied with HHT. Soft tissue mobilization, including ASTYM, is often utilized in the treatment of tendinopathies, though there is limited evidence supporting this approach. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a patient referred to physical therapy with bilateral HHT. The patient was a 41-year-old recreational runner that had an insidious onset of right buttock pain 12 months prior to initiating therapy and left buttock pain 9 months prior. Her primary complaints included an inability to run, pain with prolonged or brisk walking, and pain with sitting on hard surfaces. The patient was treated in physical therapy two times per week for 16 visits with treatment focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening and ASTYM. By her eighth visit, the patient was able to walk 2·5 miles without pain and by her 12 visit, she was able to jog 1 mile before the onset of pain. After 16 visits, the patient reported that she was approximately 95% improved, was able to run 2·5 miles without pain, and had no pain with sitting on hard surfaces. This case suggests that eccentric exercise combined with ASTYM may be an effective treatment for HHT. PMID:23904753

McCormack, Joshua R

2012-01-01

116

Variation of hamstrings lengths and velocities with walking speed Kiran J. Agarwal-Harding a  

E-print Network

history: Accepted 18 January 2010 Keywords: Cerebral palsy Gait Walking speed Hamstrings Speed with cerebral palsy, is frequently treated with surgical lengthening of the hamstrings. To assist in surgical as speed-matched controls for comparison to 74 subjects with cerebral palsy who walked in crouch gait. Our

Delp, Scott

117

The effects of hamstring stretching on range of motion: A systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: Systematic literature review. Objective: Investigate the literature regarding the most effective positions, techniques, and durations of stretching to improve hamstring muscle flexibility. Background: Hamstring stretching is popular among physical therapists, athletic trainers, and fitness\\/coaching professionals; however, numerous stretching methodologies have been proposed in the literature. This fact establishes a need to systematically summarize available evidence in an attempt

Laura C. Decoster; Joshua Cleland; Carolann Altieri; Pamela J. Russell

2005-01-01

118

Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and knee function 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison between bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon autografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing clinical studies have not proven which graft is to be preferred in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.\\u000a In recent years, bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons have been the most frequently used graft types. Muscle strength\\u000a deficit is one of the consequences after ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in\\u000a hamstring and quadriceps muscle

Riitta Lautamies; Arsi Harilainen; Jyrki Kettunen; Jerker Sandelin; Urho M. Kujala

2008-01-01

119

Imaging "Brain Strain" in Youth Athletes with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Dual-Task Performance.  

PubMed

Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common cause of injury in youth athletes. Much of what is known about the sequelae of mTBI is yielded from the adult literature, and it appears that it is mainly those with persistent post-injury symptoms who have ongoing cognitive and neural abnormalities. However, most studies have employed single-task paradigms, which may not be challenging enough to uncover subtle deficits. We sought to examine the neural correlates of dual-task performance in male athletes aged 9-15 years using a functional neuroimaging protocol. Participants included 13 youths with a history of mTBI three to six months prior to testing and 14 typically-developing controls. All participants completed a working memory task in isolation (single-task) and while completing a concurrent motor task (dual-task); neural activity during performance was then compared between groups. Although working memory performance was similar during the single-task condition, increased working memory load resulted in an altered pattern of neural activation in key working memory areas (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices) in youth with mTBI relative to controls. During the dual-task condition, accuracy was similar between groups but injured youth performed slower than typically-developing controls, suggesting a speed-accuracy tradeoff in the mTBI group only. The injured youths also exhibited abnormal recruitment of brain structures involved in both working memory and dual-tasking. These data show that the dual-task paradigm can uncover functional impairments in youth with mTBI who are not highly symptomatic and who do not exhibit neuropsychological dysfunction. Moreover, neural recruitment abnormalities were noted in both task conditions, which we argue suggests mTBI-related disruptions in achieving efficient cognitive control and allocation of processing resources. PMID:24902051

Sinopoli, Katia J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wells, Greg; Fait, Philippe; Ptito, Alain; Taha, Tim; Keightley, Michelle

2014-11-15

120

Basso Mouse Scale for locomotion detects differences in recovery after spinal cord injury in five common mouse strains.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered mice are used extensively to examine molecular responses to spinal cord injury (SCI). Inherent strain differences may confound behavioral outcomes; therefore, behavioral characterization of several strains after SCI is warranted. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale (BBB) for rats has been widely used for SCI mice, but may not accurately reflect their unique recovery pattern. This study's purpose was to develop a valid locomotor rating scale for mice and to identify strain differences in locomotor recovery after SCI. We examined C57BL/6, C57BL/10, B10.PL, BALB/c, and C57BL/6x129S6 F1 strains for 42 days after mild, moderate, and severe contusive SCI or transection of the mid thoracic spinal cord. Contusions were created using the Ohio State University electromagnetic SCI device which is a displacement-driven model, and the Infinite Horizon device, which is a force-driven model. Attributes and rankings for the Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion (BMS) were determined from frequency analyses of seven locomotor categories. Mouse recovery differed from rats for coordination, paw position and trunk instability. Disagreement occurred across six expert raters using BBB (p < 0.05) but not BMS to assess the same mice. BMS detected significant differences in locomotor outcomes between severe contusion and transection (p < 0.05) and SCI severity gradations resulting from displacement variations of only 0.1 mm (p < 0.05). BMS demonstrated significant face, predictive and concurrent validity. Novice BMS raters with training scored within 0.5 points of experts and demonstrated high reliability (0.92-0.99). The BMS is a sensitive, valid and reliable locomotor measure in SCI mice. BMS revealed significantly higher recovery in C57BL/10, B10.PL and F1 than the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains after moderate SCI (p < 0.05). The differing behavioral response to SCI suggests inherent genetic factors significantly impact locomotor recovery and must be considered in studies with inbred or genetically engineered mouse strains. PMID:16689667

Basso, D Michele; Fisher, Lesley C; Anderson, Aileen J; Jakeman, Lyn B; McTigue, Dana M; Popovich, Phillip G

2006-05-01

121

An Efficacy Study of One Pre-placement Screening Program with Respect to Strain\\/Sprain Injury Incidence and Severity In Nursery Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this study was to compare incidence and severity of strain\\/sprain injuries at two Oregon nurseries to the state calculations. The workforce of these nurseries was largely comprised of seasonal employees performing labor jobs requiring strenuous activity. Retrospective data from April 1990 - April 2000 from both the nurseries and the state was used to make comparisons.

Darin S. Borter; Christopher J. Hoekstra

2001-01-01

122

Double-stranded hamstring graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Current techniques for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction do not completely reproduce the anatomy and function of the ACL. They address only the anteromedial bundle and do not fully restore ACL function throughout the range of motion. Current grafts control anterior tibial subluxation near extension, but are less efficacious in providing rotatory stability. Recently, several authors have suggested reconstructing not just the anteromedial bundle but also the posterolateral bundle. This technical note describes a double-bundle ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons routed through 2 tibial and 2 femoral independent tunnels. PMID:15483556

Bellier, Guy; Christel, Pascal; Colombet, Philippe; Djian, Patrick; Franceschi, Jean Pierre; Sbihi, Abdou

2004-10-01

123

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 40 | number 2 | february 2010 | 67 [ clinical commentary  

E-print Network

- third of the hamstring injuries will recur with the greatest risk during the initial 2 weeks following a premature return to sport,85 or a com- bination of both. The occurrence of hamstring strain injuries during,70 a perception supported by the objective findings of 2 separate hamstring injury cases.41,84 During the second

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

124

Lower hamstring extensibility in men compared to women is explained by differences in stretch tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether passive hamstring tissue stiffness and/or stretch tolerance explain the relationship between sex and hamstring extensibility. Methods Ninety healthy participants, 45 men and 45 women (mean?±?SD; age 24.6?±?5.9 years, height 1.72?±?0.09 m, weight 74.6?±?14.1 kg) volunteered for this study. The instrumented straight leg raise was used to determine hamstring extensibility and allow measurement of stiffness and stretch tolerance (visual analog pain score, VAS). Results Hamstring extensibility was 9.9° greater in women compared to men (p?=?0.003). VAS scores were 16 mm lower in women (p?=?0.001). Maximal stiffness (maximal applied torque) was not different between men and women (p?=?0.42). Passive stiffness (slope from 20-50° hip flexion) was 0.09 Nm.°-1 lower in women (p?=?0.025). For women, linear and stepwise regression showed that no predictor variables were associated with hamstring extensibility (adjusted r2?=?-0.03, p?=?0.61). For men, 44% of the variance in hamstring extensibility was explained by VAS and maximal applied torque (adjusted r2?=?0.44, p?hamstring extensibility, but this relationship is only manifest in men. PMID:25000977

2014-01-01

125

The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65?years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n?=?53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n?=?53); and no low back pain (n?=?53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P?=?0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P?=?0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P?=?0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean?=?158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean?=?165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability. PMID:22294848

Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

2011-01-01

126

Strain within the native and reconstructed MPFL during knee flexion.  

PubMed

There is little published data on the strain within the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and medial retinaculum through knee motion. This study was undertaken to evaluate the three-dimensional strain across the MPFL in the native state, using a proprietary visible-light stereophotogrammetry (VLS) system, and to compare the findings to the strain in a MPFL injury model and in two different reconstructed states. This is a controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric knees were marked along the MPFL and medial retinaculum, placed in an activity simulator, and taken through a range a motion. A proprietary VLS system was used to calculate the strain across the medial retinaculum and MPFL at 10 different degrees of knee flexion. This process was repeated in an MPFL injury model, as well as after standardized reconstruction of the MPFL using hamstring autograft performed in both 20 and 45 degrees of flexion. Averaged over all the measurement sites, the maximum principal strain (?1) within the native MPFL increased rapidly from full extension to 120 degrees of flexion. The highest value of ?1 (87%) was observed at 120 degrees of knee flexion in the MPFL region. The largest change in strain occurred between 25 and 30 degrees (10% increase). The strain patterns in the knees reconstructed at 45 degrees of flexion more closely resembled the strain in the native state than did the strain in the knees reconstructed at 20 degrees. Strain within the native MPFL increases as the knee flexion angle increases, with the largest change occurring between 25 and 30 degrees. Reconstruction of the MPFL at 45 degrees is preferable to reconstruction at 20 degrees as the strain across the medial retinaculum more closely resembles the strain in the native state. Knowledge of the strain across the MPFL should allow for more accurate reconstruction of the MPFL, potentially reducing the risk of patellar maltracking or cartilage overload. The proprietary VLS system used in this study has many potential uses for experimental analysis of strain in the human body. PMID:24122436

McCulloch, Patrick C; Bott, Aaron; Ramkumar, Prem N; Suarez, Alexander; Isamaily, Sabir K; Daylamani, Daniel; Noble, Philip C

2014-04-01

127

Injuries in professional football: current concepts.  

PubMed

Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. PMID:24225523

Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

2013-01-01

128

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios in college football players: A high velocity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios were assessed on 60 in tercollegiate football players at functional speeds of 90, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec on the Cybex II. The ratio rose as velocity of exercise increased and the quadriceps was stronger than the hamstrings at all speeds. The flexor\\/extensor ratio differed bilaterally at all speeds with ratio lower for the dominant knee.The study helped establish

Maureen G. Stafford; William A. Grana

1984-01-01

129

Contributors to Fatigue Resistance of the Hamstrings and Quadriceps in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to elucidate relationships between quadriceps and hamstrings voluntary muscle fatigue and upper motor lesion impairments in cerebral palsy in order to gain a better understanding of their contribution to the observed fatigue resistance. Methods Seventeen ambulatory subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 17.0, SD = 4.8 years) were recruited. Quantitative measures of strength, spasticity, cocontraction, and stiffness for both muscle groups were collected on an isokinetic dynamometer and entered in a factor analysis. The resulting factors were used as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis with quadriceps and hamstrings fatigue as dependent variables. Findings Five independent factors explained 90% of the variance. In order of loadings, higher hamstring cocontraction and spasticity and lower hamstring strength were associated with lower levels of hamstring fatigue. Higher quadriceps cocontraction and lower quadriceps strength were the most predictive of lower levels of quadriceps fatigue. Interpretation Greater motor impairments of the agonist muscle, particularly cocontraction, spasticity, and weakness, were associated with lower rates of muscle fatigue of the same muscle during performance of a voluntary fatigue protocol for the hamstrings and quadriceps. Muscles are highly adaptable; therefore, the results of this study suggest that the observed fatigue resistance may be due to the effect of the primary neural insult on motor unit recruitment and rate modulation or the result of secondary adaptations to spasticity, weakness, or excessive cocontraction. PMID:19264384

Moreau, Noelle G; Li, Li; Geaghan, James P; Damiano, Diane L

2009-01-01

130

Effects of voluntary wheel running on the kidney at baseline and after ischaemia–reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury: a strain difference comparison  

PubMed Central

Exercise-induced vascular endothelial adaptations in the kidney are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the impact of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the abundance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC SOD), in kidney and lung, and other SOD isoforms and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), in kidney. We also determined whether VWR influences susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague–Dawley and Fisher 344 rats, VWR or sedentary for 12 weeks, were subjected to AKI (uninephrectomy (UNX) and 35 min of left kidney ischaemia–24 h reperfusion, IR). We measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF), and analysed renal structural injury. Running was comparable between strains and VWR reduced body weight. In Sprague–Dawley rats, VWR reduced eNOS and EC SOD, but increased Mn SOD in kidney. Similar changes were seen after 6 weeks of VWR in Sprague–Dawley rats. In Fisher 344 rats, VWR increased eNOS, all SOD isoforms and TAC in kidney. Both strains increased eNOS and EC SOD in lung with VWR. Compared to UNX alone, UNX-IR injury markedly reduced renal function for both strains; however, in the Sprague–Dawley rats, VWR exacerbated falls in GFR and RPF due to UNX-IR, whereas in the Fisher 344 rats, GFR was unaffected by VWR. Some indices of renal structural injury due to UNX-IR tended to be worse in SD vs. F344. Our study demonstrates that genetic background influences the effect of exercise on kidney eNOS and EC SOD, which in turn influence the susceptibility to AKI. PMID:23266936

Moningka, Natasha C; Cunningham, Mark W; Sterling, Myrline; West, Crystal A; Verlander, Jill W; Croker, Byron P; Ahlgren, Joslyn; Hayward, Linda; Baylis, Chris

2013-01-01

131

Sport-Specific Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Summer Olympics in 2004 the most frequent musculoskeletal injuries consisted of muscle strains, mainly of biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, adductors and rectus femoris, stress fractures (located mainly in the tibia, navicular bone and metatarsals) and knee injuries including isolated meniscal tears, ACL ruptures followed by more complex ligamentous injuries. Subtle muscle strains could be depicted by ultrasound whereas MRI

Olympia Papakonstantinou; Alexis D. Kelekis; Nikolaos L. Kelekis; Dimitrios A. Kelekis

132

Repetitive strain injury.  

PubMed

Pain in the forearm is relatively common in the community. In the workplace forearm pain is associated with work involving frequent repetition, high forces, and prolonged abnormal postures. Nevertheless, other factors are involved in the presentation and the continuation of the pain. Notable among these factors are psychosocial issues and the workplace environment-the attitude to workers and their welfare, the physical conditions, and design of the job. Primary prevention may be effective but active surveillance is important with early intervention and an active management approach. Physical treatments have not been extensively evaluated. In the established case, management should be multidisciplinary, addressing physical aspects of the job but also addressing the "yellow, blue, and black flags" which should be viewed as obstacles to recovery. For the worker "on sick" a dialogue should be established between the worker, the primary care physician, and the workplace. Return to work should be encouraged and facilitated by medical interventions and light duty options. Rehabilitation programmes may be of use in chronic cases. PMID:15299151

Helliwell, P S; Taylor, W J

2004-08-01

133

Repetitive strain injury  

PubMed Central

Pain in the forearm is relatively common in the community. In the workplace forearm pain is associated with work involving frequent repetition, high forces, and prolonged abnormal postures. Nevertheless, other factors are involved in the presentation and the continuation of the pain. Notable among these factors are psychosocial issues and the workplace environment—the attitude to workers and their welfare, the physical conditions, and design of the job. Primary prevention may be effective but active surveillance is important with early intervention and an active management approach. Physical treatments have not been extensively evaluated. In the established case, management should be multidisciplinary, addressing physical aspects of the job but also addressing the "yellow, blue, and black flags" which should be viewed as obstacles to recovery. For the worker "on sick" a dialogue should be established between the worker, the primary care physician, and the workplace. Return to work should be encouraged and facilitated by medical interventions and light duty options. Rehabilitation programmes may be of use in chronic cases. PMID:15299151

Helliwell, P; Taylor, W

2004-01-01

134

A comparison of early and delayed arthroscopically-assisted reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using hamstring autograft.  

PubMed

Delayed rather than early reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is the current recommended treatment for injury to this ligament since it is thought to give a better functional outcome. We randomised 105 consecutive patients with injury associated with chondral lesions no more severe than grades 1 and 2 and/or meniscal tears which only required trimming, to early (< two weeks) or delayed (> four to six weeks) reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using a quadrupled hamstring graft. All operations were performed by a single surgeon and a standard rehabilitation regime was followed in both groups. The outcomes were assessed using the Lysholm score, the Tegner score and measurement of the range of movement. Stability was assessed by clinical tests and measurements taken with the KT-1000 arthrometer, with all testing performed by a blinded uninvolved experienced observer. A total of six patients were lost to follow-up, with 48 patients assigned to the delayed group and 51 to the early group. None was a competitive athlete. The mean interval between injury and the surgery was seven days (2 to 14) in the early group and 32 days (29 to 42) in the delayed group. The mean follow-up was 32 months (26 to 36). The results did not show a statistically significant difference for the Lysholm score (p = 0.86), Tegner activity score (p = 0.913) or the range of movement (p = 1). Similarly, no distinction could be made for stability testing by clinical examination (p = 0.56) and measurements with the KT-1000 arthrometer (p = 0.93). Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament gave a similar clinical and functional outcome whether performed early (< two weeks) or late at four to six weeks after injury. PMID:20357328

Raviraj, A; Anand, A; Kodikal, G; Chandrashekar, M; Pai, S

2010-04-01

135

Comparative Study of Hamstring and Quadriceps Strengthening Treatments in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50–65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013274

Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohsen; Alenazi, Aqeel M.

2014-01-01

136

Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis in Relation to Hamstring and Quadriceps Strength  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65?years of age (57.65 ± 4.78?years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA. PMID:24396198

Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Al-Johani, Ahmed H.; Zakaria, Abdul Rahim; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Kachanathu, SJ

2013-01-01

137

The relationship between hamstring muscle extensibility and spinal postures varies with the degree of knee extension.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle extensibility and sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in cyclists while adopting several postures. A total of 75 male cyclists were recruited for this study (34.79 ± 9.46 years). Thoracic and lumbar spine and pelvic tilt were randomly measured using a Spinal Mouse. Hamstring muscle extensibility was determined in both legs by a passive knee extension test. Low relationships were found between hamstring muscle extensibility and spinal parameters (thoracic and lumbar curvature, and pelvic tilt) in standing, slumped sitting, and on the bicycle (r = .19; P > .05). Significant but low relationships were found in maximal trunk flexion with knees flexed (r = .29; P < .05). In addition, in the sit-and-reach test, low and statistically significant relationships were found between hamstring muscle extensibility for thoracic spine (r = -.23; P = .01) and (r = .37; P = .001) for pelvic tilt. In conclusion, hamstring muscle extensibility has a significant relationship in maximal trunk flexion postures with knees flexed and extended, but there are no relationships while standing or on the bicycle postures. PMID:23343818

Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid, Fernando

2013-12-01

138

A 10-week randomized trial comparing eccentric vs. concentric hamstring strength training in well-trained soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the effects of a 10-week training program with two different exercises - traditional hamstring curl (HC) and Nordic hamstrings (NH), a partner exercise focusing the eccentric phase - on muscle strength among male soccer players. Methods: Subjects were 21 well- trained players who were randomized to NH training (n 5 11) or HC training (n 5 10).

Roald Mjolsnes; Arni Arnason; Tor osthagen; Truls Raastad; Roald Bahr

2004-01-01

139

Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque and the hamstrings-to-quadriceps conventional and functional ratios.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has shown acute static stretching may decrease hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios. However, the effects of static stretching on the functional H:Q ratio, which uses eccentric hamstrings muscle actions, have not been investigated. This study examined the acute effects of hamstrings and quadriceps static stretching on leg extensor and flexor concentric peak torque (PT), leg flexor eccentric PT, and the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. Twenty-two women (mean ± SD age=20.6 ± 1.9 years; body mass=64.6 ± 9.1 kg; height=164.5 ± 6.4 cm) performed three maximal voluntary unilateral isokinetic leg extension, flexion, and eccentric hamstring muscle actions at the angular velocities of 60 and 180°/s before and after a bout of hamstrings, quadriceps, and combined hamstrings and quadriceps static stretching, and a control condition. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time × condition) were used to analyze the leg extension, flexion, and eccentric PT as well as the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. Results indicated that when collapsed across velocity, hamstrings-only stretching decreased the conventional ratios (P<0.05). Quadriceps-only and hamstrings and quadriceps stretching decreased the functional ratios (P<0.05). These findings suggested that stretching may adversely affect the conventional and functional H:Q ratios. PMID:21672027

Costa, P B; Ryan, E D; Herda, T J; Walter, A A; Defreitas, J M; Stout, J R; Cramer, J T

2013-02-01

140

The effect of walking speed on hamstrings length and lengthening velocity in children with spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy often walk with reduced knee extension in terminal swing, which can be associated with short length or slow lengthening velocity of hamstrings muscles during gait. This study investigated the role of two factors that may contribute to such short and slow hamstrings: walking speed and spasticity. 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy and 11 matched typically

Marjolein M. van der Krogt; Caroline A. M. Doorenbosch; Jaap Harlaar

2009-01-01

141

Precise localization of the motor nerve branches to the hamstring muscles: An aid to the conduct of neurolytic procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the precise locations of the motor branches and motor points to the hamstring musculature and define these locations in relation to bony landmarks.Design: Descriptive study of adult cadaver limb dissection. The number, location, and course of the motor branches and motor points to each hamstring muscle from the sciatic nerve were defined relative to bony landmarks.Setting: Department

Paola M. P. Seidel; Geoffrey K. Seidel; Bruce M. Gans; Marcel Dijkers

1996-01-01

142

The Relationship of the Sit and Reach Test to Criterion Measures of Hamstring and Back Flexibility in Young Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested 100 female adolescents to determine the relationships of the sit and reach test, a component of the Health Related Fitness Test, with back and hamstring flexibility. Findings indicate the sit and reach test is moderately related to hamstring flexibility but not to back and low back flexibility. (Author/MT)

Jackson, Allen W.; Baker, Alice A.

1986-01-01

143

Functional and Neuromuscular Changes in the Hamstrings After Drop Jumps and Leg Curls  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key Points Hamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise. It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise. Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime. PMID:24149148

Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut

2013-01-01

144

Scheduling Meeting of August 20, 2013 Number and rate of TRC and DART cases by FY -Includes Employees & Subcontractors  

E-print Network

) Employee strained hamstring after jumping off lift gate. Employee diagnosed with tendonitis after diagnosed with tendonitis after performing repetitive task. #12;Injuries: Division Category Case Date Date

Quigg, Chris

145

Effects of different probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on bacterial translocation and liver injury in an acute liver injury model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Septic complications represent frequent causes of morbidity in liver diseases and following hepatic operations. Most infections are caused by the individual own intestinal microflora. The intestinal microflora composition is important in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the human gastrointestinal tract, but their influence on liver in different situations is unclear. We therefore studied the effect of different Lactobacillus strains and

Diya Adawi; Siv Ahrné; Göran Molin

2001-01-01

146

Avulsion of the hamstring muscles from the ischial tuberosity. A report of two cases.  

PubMed

In two rare cases with avulsion of the hamstring muscles from the ischial tuberosity without fracture of the ischium, the clinical features were: (1) sudden onset of pain in the buttock; (2) difficulty on standing after trauma; (3) a palpable defect and tenderness on the area distal from the ischial tuberosity; and (4) weakness of flexion of the knee with a loss of normal outline of the hamstring muscles on the dorsal aspect of the knee. There was no roentgenologic evidence of fracture of the ischium. Surgical repair with reattachment of avulsed muscles to the ischium and proximal tendinous sheaths of the muscles restored function or corrected deformity. PMID:3383481

Ishikawa, K; Kai, K; Mizuta, H

1988-07-01

147

Sciatic Nerve Injury Caused by a Stretching Exercise in a Trained Dancer  

PubMed Central

Sciatic nerve injury after stretching exercise is uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old female trained dancer who developed sciatic neuropathy primarily involving the tibial division after routine stretching exercise. The patient presented with dysesthesia and weakness of the right foot during dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The mechanism of sciatic nerve injury could be thought as hyperstretching alone, not caused by both hyperstretching and compression. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of the right sciatic neuropathy from the gluteal fold to the distal tibial area, and partial tear of the left hamstring origin and fluid collection between the left hamstring and ischium without left sciatic nerve injury. Recovery of motor weakness was obtained by continuous rehabilitation therapy and some evidence of axonal regeneration was obtained by follow-up electrodiagnostic testing performed at 3, 5, and 12 months after injury. PMID:24466525

Shim, Ho Yong; Bae, Keun Hwan; Park, Seok Min; Lee, Ju Kang; Park, Ki Deok

2013-01-01

148

284 | may2013 | volume43 | number5 | journaloforthopaedic&sportsphysicaltherapy [ research report  

E-print Network

] A cute hamstring strain injuries are common in sports involving high-speed movements.7,11,14,24,32 Many sustained a recent hamstring strain injury were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 rehabilitation programs: (1- string injury and are advocated by many to be included as part of rehabilitation following an acute

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

149

Piriformis syndrome surgery causing severe sciatic nerve injury.  

PubMed

Piriformis syndrome is a controversial entrapment neuropathy in which the sciatic nerve is thought to be compressed by the piriformis muscle. Two patients developed severe left sciatic neuropathy after piriformis muscle release. One had a total sciatic nerve lesion, whereas the second had a predominantly high common peroneal nerve lesion. Follow-up studies showed reinnervation of the hamstrings only. We conclude that piriformis muscle surgery may be hazardous and result in devastating sciatic nerve injury. PMID:22922582

Justice, Phillip E; Katirji, Bashar; Preston, David C; Grossman, Gerald E

2012-09-01

150

Estimation of hamstring tendon slack length for knee flexor moment approximations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model to estimate hamstring tendon slack length for knee flexor moment approximations. The muscle force is very sensitive to the tendon slack length. To predict a tendon slack length, exact muscle parameters are needed. But it is difficult to measure all of the muscle parameters from human body. So we propose the algorithm which finds the

Hyun Woo Uhm; Han Soon Choi; Yoonsu Nam

2009-01-01

151

Hamstring tendon fixation using interference screws: a biomechanical study in calf tibial bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been shown that graft fixation close to the ACL insertion site is optimal in order to increase anterior knee stability. Hamstring tendon fixation using interference screws offers this possibility and a round threaded titanium interference screw has been previously developed. The use of a round threaded biodegradable interference screw may be equivalent. In addition, to increase initial

A Weiler; RF Hoffmann; AC Stähelin; HJ Bail; CJ Siepe; NP Südkamp

1998-01-01

152

Journal of Biomechanics 34 (2001) 437447 Rotational moment arms of the medial hamstrings and adductors  

E-print Network

with cerebral palsy frequently walk with a crouched, internally rotated gait. Spastic medial hamstrings. Introduction Children with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive internal rotation of the hip. Spastic exhibited by 21 subjects with cerebral palsy and excessive hip internal rotation. We found

Delp, Scott

153

Alterations of hamstring muscle properties in patients with varying severity of spastic cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

: How does the altered neuronal input of muscle contraction associated with spastic cerebral palsy: Spastic muscle in cerebral palsy is in a pathologic state that has fundamentally different mechanicalAlterations of hamstring muscle properties in patients with varying severity of spastic cerebral

Gleeson, Joseph G.

154

Human hamstring muscles adapt to eccentric exercise by changing optimum length  

Microsoft Academic Search

BROCKETT, C. L., D. L. MORGAN, and U. PROSKE. Human hamstring muscles adapt to eccentric exercise by changing optimum length. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 5, 2001, pp. 783-790. Purpose: It is now established that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle fiber damage and to delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the days after exercise. However, a second bout

CAMILLA L. BROCKETT; DAVID L. MORGAN; UWE PROSKE

2001-01-01

155

Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key PointsOverall sit-and-reach tests have a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility, but they have a low mean validity for estimating lumbar extensibility.Among all the sit-and-reach test protocols, the Classic sit-and-reach test seems to be the best option to estimate hamstring extensibility.End scores (e.g., the Classic sit-and-reach test) are a better indicator of hamstring extensibility than the modifications that incorporate fingers-to-box distance (e.g., the Modified sit-and-reach test).When angular tests such as straight leg raise or knee extension tests cannot be used, sit-and-reach tests seem to be a useful field test alternative to estimate hamstring extensibility, but not to estimate lumbar extensibility. PMID:24570599

Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

2014-01-01

156

Rotator Cuff Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

Connors, G. Patrick

157

Influence of Hamstring and Abdominal Muscle Activation on a Positive Ober's Test in People with Lumbopelvic Pain  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of hamstring and abdominal activation on pain levels as measured by the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) and hip range of motion as measured by Ober's Test in people with lumbopelvic pain. Methods: Thirteen participants with lumbopelvic pain and positive Ober's Tests completed an exercise developed by the Postural Restoration Institute™ to recruit hamstrings and abdominal muscles. Results: There was a significant increase in passive hip-adduction angles (p<0.01) and decrease in pain (p<0.01) immediately after the intervention. Conclusion: Specific exercises that activate hamstrings and abdominal muscles appear to immediately improve Ober's Test measurements and reduce pain as measured by the NPS in people with lumbo-pelvic pain. Hamstring/abdominal activation, rather than iliotibial band stretching, may be an effective intervention for addressing lumbopelvic pain and a positive Ober's Test. PMID:24381375

Tenney, H. Rich; DeBord, Aaron

2013-01-01

158

MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs.

Kimura, Akihiko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 641-8509 Wakayama (Japan); Ishida, Yuko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 641-8509 Wakayama (Japan); Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Kanazawa University Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa (Japan); Wada, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medical Science and Division of Blood Purification, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Yokoyama, Hitoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medical Science and Division of Blood Purification, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Mukaida, Naofumi [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Kanazawa University Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa (Japan); Kondo, Toshikazu [Department of Forensic Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 641-8509 Wakayama (Japan)]. E-mail: kondot@wakayama-med.ac.jp

2005-02-15

159

A randomized controlled trial for the effect of passive stretching on measures of hamstring extensibility, passive stiffness, strength, and stretch tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure hamstring extensibility, stiffness, stretch tolerance, and strength following a 4-week passive stretching program. Randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two healthy participants were randomly assigned to either a 4-week stretching program consisting of 4 hamstring and hip stretches performed 5 times per week, or a non-stretching control group. Hamstring extensibility and stiffness were measured before and after training using the instrumented

Paul W. M. Marshall; Anthony Cashman; Birinder S. Cheema

2011-01-01

160

Differences in the electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles during maximal eccentric knee flexion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of the knee joint angle and angular velocity on hamstring muscles’ activation patterns\\u000a during maximum eccentric knee flexion contractions. Ten healthy young males (23.4 ± 1.3 years) performed eccentric knee flexion\\u000a at constant velocities of 10, 60, 180, and 300 deg\\/s in random order. The eccentric knee flexion torque and the surface electromyographic\\u000a (EMG) activity of the biceps femoris

Ayako Higashihara; Takashi Ono; Jun Kubota; Toru Fukubayashi

2010-01-01

161

A dynamic warm-up model increases quadriceps strength and hamstring flexibility.  

PubMed

Research suggests that static stretching can negatively influence muscle strength and power and may result in decreased functional performance. The dynamic warm-up (DWU) is a common alternative to static stretching before physical activity, but there is limited research investigating the effects of a DWU. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of a DWU and static stretching warm-up (SWU) on muscle flexibility, strength, and vertical jump using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-five volunteers were randomly assigned into a control (CON), SWU, or DWU group. All participants rode a stationary bicycle for 5 minutes and completed a 10-minute warm-up protocol. During this protocol, the DWU group performed dynamic stretching and running, the SWU group performed static stretching, and the CON group rested. Dependent variables were measured immediately before and after the warm-up protocol. A digital inclinometer measured flexibility (degrees) for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and hip flexor muscles. An isokinetic dynamometer measured concentric and eccentric peak torque (N·m/kg) for the hamstrings and quadriceps. A force plate was used to measure vertical jump height (meters) and power (watts). In the DWU group, there was a significant increase in hamstring flexibility (pretest: 26.4 ± 13.5°, posttest: 16.9 ± 9.4°; p < .0001) and eccentric quadriceps peak torque (pretest: 2.49 ± 0.83 N·m/kg, posttest: 2.78 ± 0.69 N·m/kg; p = 0.04). The CON and SWU did not significantly affect any flexibility, strength, or vertical jump measures (p > 0.05). The DWU significantly improved eccentric quadriceps strength and hamstrings flexibility, whereas the SWU did not facilitate any positive or negative changes in muscle flexibility, strength, power, or vertical jump. Therefore, the DWU may be a better preactivity warm-up choice than an SWU. PMID:22446678

Aguilar, Alain J; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Brown, Cathleen N; Herman, Daniel C; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Padua, Darin A

2012-04-01

162

Tunnel widening in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective evaluation of hamstring and patella tendon grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a prospective series evaluating the incidence and degree of tunnel widening in a well-matched series of patients\\u000a receiving a hamstring or patella tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. We correlated tunnel widening\\u000a with clinical factors, knee scores, KT-1000 and isokinetic muscle strength to determine the clinical significance of this\\u000a finding. Seventy-three patients at least 12 months

M. G. Clatworthy; P. Annear; J.-U. Bulow; R. J. Bartlett

1999-01-01

163

Effects of joint angle, electrodes and waveform on electrical stimulation of the quadriceps and hamstrings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isometric twitch moments of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded in 20 normal subjects at 40 cells of a superimposed\\u000a grid. Results were compared at 15, 45, and 75 of knee flexion. Bipolar stimulation at 6 pairs of cells was performed to determine\\u000a the effect of electrode size, waveform, and polarity on moments. The quadriceps had one region of excitability

Donald R. McNeal; Lucinda L. Baker

1988-01-01

164

Concurrent validity of clinical tests for measuring hamstring flexibility in school age children.  

PubMed

The objectives were 1) to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in children and adolescents; 2) to examine the relative contribution of the spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and hamstring flexibility on the sit-and-reach (SR) score; and 3) to determine the validity of the sit-and-reach test through both active and passive hip flexion tests. 118 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years; 60 males and 58 females) were tested for sit-and-reach (SR), passive straight leg raise (PSLR) and active straight leg raise (ASLR). The spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were assessed during the SR test by means of the Spinal Mouse system. Females showed a statistically greater anterior pelvic tilt, distance reached in the SR test and hip flexion in both PSLR and ASLR tests than males. The pelvic tilt independently explained more than 60% of the variance (distance reached in the SR test) and in conjunction with lumbar flexion explained more than 80% of the variance. In conclusion, the pelvic tilt is the main determinant of SR test in school age children. The SR test can be considered an appropriate and valid test for evaluating pelvic tilt and lumbar flexion in school age children, but not to measure hamstring flexibility. PMID:24424962

Muyor, J M; Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Kotyra, M

2014-07-01

165

Effects of Motorized vs Non-Motorized Treadmill Training on Hamstring/Quadriceps Strength Ratios  

PubMed Central

Previous literature suggests that muscular involvement and biomechanical changes elicit different responses between overground and treadmill training. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of training on two different treadmill designs on the conventional (CR; concentric only) and functional (FR; eccentric to concentric) hamstring and quadriceps strength ratios. Fifteen men and sixteen women were randomly divided into three groups: motorized (MT), non-motorized (NMT) or control (C). Subjects completed pre and post-test isokinetic concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring testing of both legs. Subjects completed 4 weeks of training on their respective treadmills with mileage increasing ½ mile each week, beginning with 2 miles. The C group did not participate in any training. The CR revealed a significant two way interaction of group x time with MT increasing (pre: 0.80 ± 0.09 to post: 0.84 ± 0.09), NMT decreasing (pre: 0.76 ± 0.13 to post: 0.74 ± 0.10), and C showing no change (pre: 0.79 ± 0.10 to post: 0.79 ± 0.09. The FR revealed a significant two way interaction of speed x sex with the FR increasing as speeds increased for men (60 degrees.s-1: 1.04 ± 0.11; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.66 ± 0.27; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.36 ± 0.45) and women (60 degrees.s-1: 1.05 ± 0.16; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.90 ± 0.26; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.75 ± 0.47) but women increased greater relative to men. Training mode elicited a specific change in concentric hamstring and quadriceps strength resulting in specific changes to the CR; however, neither training mode had an effect on eccentric hamstrings nor the FR. Special attention should be given to the mode of endurance training when the goal is to alter the hamstring/quadriceps CR. Key points Specificity of treadmill training had different effects on concentric strength. Specificity of treadmill training had little or no effect on eccentric strength. Conventional and functional strength ratios may give different results based on training mode. Four weeks is long enough for strength results to be apparent in untrained people. PMID:24137064

Franks, Kelly A.; Brown, Lee E.; Coburn, Jared W.; Kersey, Robert D.; Bottaro, Martim

2012-01-01

166

Localized bioimpedance to assess muscle injury.  

PubMed

Injuries to lower limb muscles are common among football players. Localized bioimpedance analysis (BIA) utilizes electrical measurements to assess soft tissue hydration and cell membrane integrity non-invasively. This study reports the effects of the severity of muscle injury and recovery on BIA variables. We made serial tetra-polar, phase-sensitive 50 kHz localized BIA measurements of quadriceps, hamstring and calf muscles of three male football players before and after injury and during recovery until return-to-play, to determine changes in BIA variables (resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA)) in different degrees of muscle injury. Compared to non-injury values, R, Xc and PA decreased with increasing muscle injury severity: grade III (23.1%, 45.1% and 27.6%), grade II (20.6%, 31.6% and 13.3%) and grade I (11.9%, 23.5% and 12.1%). These findings indicate that decreases in R reflect localized fluid accumulation, and reductions in Xc and PA highlight disruption of cellular membrane integrity and injury. Localized BIA measurements of muscle groups enable the practical detection of soft tissue injury and its severity. PMID:23354019

Nescolarde, L; Yanguas, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Rodas, G

2013-02-01

167

C. Jessie Jones, Roberta E. Rikli, Julie Max, and Guillermo Nofall. (1998). The Reliability and Validity of a Chair Sit-and-Reach Test as a Measure of Hamstring Flexibility in Older Adults. Research  

E-print Network

and Validity of a Chair Sit-and-Reach Test as a Measure of Hamstring Flexibility in Older Adults. Research of hamstring flexibility in older adults. CSR performance was also compared to sit-and-reach (SR) and back-saver sit-and-reach (BSR) measures of hamstring flexibility. To estimate reliability, 76 men and women (M

de Lijser, Peter

168

Significant Effect of Gender on Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Strength Ratio and Static Balance in Prepubescent Children From 7 to 12 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A number of studies have reported lower muscular strength of the hamstring and the quadriceps and better postural control in female compared with male athletes. Whether those differences are innate and also exist in children and adolescents or are caused by training and participation in different sports is unknown.Hypothesis: Gender differences in hamstring and quadriceps muscular strength and static

Inger Holm; Nina Vøllestad

2008-01-01

169

Leg Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... They are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

170

Plasma microRNAs are sensitive indicators of inter-strain differences in the severity of liver injury induced in mice by a choline- and folate-deficient diet  

SciTech Connect

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, conserved, tissue-specific regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes and play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between inter-individual differences in susceptibility to NAFLD and altered miRNA expression is largely unknown. In view of this, the goals of the present study were (i) to determine whether or not individual differences in the extent of NAFLD-induced liver injury are associated with altered miRNA expression, and (ii) assess if circulating blood miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the noninvasive evaluation of the severity of NAFLD. A panel of seven genetically diverse strains of inbred male mice (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, 129S/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 weeks. This diet induced liver injury in all mouse strains; however, the extent of NAFLD-associated pathomorphological changes in the livers was strain-specific, with A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ mice being the least sensitive and WSB/EiJ mice being the most sensitive. The morphological changes in the livers were accompanied by differences in the levels of hepatic and plasma miRNAs. The levels of circulating miR-34a, miR-122, miR-181a, miR-192, and miR-200b miRNAs were significantly correlated with a severity of NAFLD-specific liver pathomorphological features, with the strongest correlation occurring with miR-34a. These observations suggest that the plasma levels of miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury and susceptibility to NAFLD. -- Highlights: ? Choline- and folate-deficiency induces a strain-specific fatty liver injury in mice. ? The extent of liver pathology was accompanied by the changes in microRNA expression. ? The levels of circulating microRNAs mirror the magnitude of fatty liver injury. ? Plasma microRNAs may be sensitive noninvasive indicators of the fatty liver injury.

Tryndyak, Volodymyr P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Latendresse, John R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Montgomery, Beverly [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ross, Sharon A. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

2012-07-01

171

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait. PMID:23363928

2013-01-01

172

The effects of injury prevention warm-up programmes on knee strength in male soccer players.  

PubMed

The study investigates the effects of the 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programmes on knee strength in male soccer players. Under-21-year-old players (n=36) were divided equally into: the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programmes were performed for 24 sessions (20-25 min each). The hamstrings and quadriceps strength were measured bilaterally at 60°·s(-1), 180°·s(-1) and 300°·s(-1). The concentric quadriceps peak torque (PT) of the 11+ increased by 27.7% at 300°·s(-1) in the dominant leg (p<0.05). The concentric quadriceps PT of HarmoKnee increased by 36.6%, 36.2% and 28% in the dominant leg, and by 31.3%, 31.7% and 20.05% at 60°·s(-1), 180°·s(-1) and 300°·s(-1) in the non-dominant leg respectively. In the 11+ group the concentric hamstring PT increased by 22%, 21.4% and 22.1% at 60°·s(-1), 180°·s(-1) and 300°·s(-1), respectively in the dominant leg, and by 22.3%, and 15.7% at 60°·s(-1) and 180°·s(-1), in the non-dominant leg. In the HarmoKnee group the hamstrings in the dominant leg showed an increase in PT by 32.5%, 31.3% and 14.3% at 60°·s(-1), 180°·s(-1) and 300°·s(-1), and in the non-dominant leg hamstrings PT increased by 21.1% and 19.3% at 60°·s(-1) and 180°·s(-1) respectively. The concentric hamstrings strength was significantly different between the 11+ and control groups in the dominant (p=0.01) and non-dominant legs (p=0.02). The HarmoKnee programme enhanced the concentric strength of quadriceps. The 11+ and HarmoKnee programmes are useful warm-up protocols for improving concentric hamstring strength in young professional male soccer players. The 11+ programme is more advantageous for its greater concentric hamstring strength improvement compared to the HarmoKnee programme. PMID:24795499

Daneshjoo, A; Mokhtar, Ah; Rahnama, N; Yusof, A

2013-12-01

173

Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

2012-01-01

174

Stretching versus strength training in lengthened position in subjects with tight hamstring muscles: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stretching is used to modify muscle length. However, its effects seem to be temporary. There is evidence in animal models that strengthening in a lengthened position may induce long lasting changes in muscle length. The objective of this study was to compare changes in hamstrings flexibility, peak torque angle and stretch tolerance after two training programs: stretching and strengthening in

Cecília F. Aquino; Sérgio T. Fonseca; Gabriela G. P. Gonçalves; Paula L. P. Silva; Juliana M. Ocarino; Marisa C. Mancini

2010-01-01

175

Isokinetic Evaluation of Internal\\/External Tibial Rotation Strength after the Use of Hamstring Tendons for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Evaluation of the knee after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the use of the semitendinosus and gracilis (hamstring) autografts has primarily focused on flexion and extension strength. The semitendinosus and gracilis muscles contribute to internal tibial rotation, and it has been suggested that harvest of these tendons for the purpose of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction contributes to

Tanya Armour; Lorie Forwell; Robert Litchfield; Alexandra Kirkley; Ned Amendola; Peter J. Fowler

2004-01-01

176

Do the hamstrings and adductors contribute to excessive internal rotation of the hip in persons with cerebral palsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive internal rotation of the hip. Spastic medial hamstrings or adductors are presumed to contribute to the excessive internal rotation in some patients; however, the capacity of these muscles to produce internal rotation during walking in individuals with cerebral palsy has not been adequately investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine

Allison S Arnold; Deanna J Asakawa; Scott L Delp

2000-01-01

177

Model to estimate hamstrings behavior in cerebral palsy patients: As a pre-surgical clinical diagnosis tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crouch gait is the most common motion abnormality in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents a new biomechanical model based on a simple rescaling and adjustment to CP patients who develop crouch gait by subject-specific anthropometric data. The model estimates the length of hamstrings, as the distance between the origin and insertion of the muscle, and the velocity

E. P. Ravera; M. J. Crespo; P. A. Catalfamo; Braidot Ariel Andrés

2010-01-01

178

Ballet injuries: the Australian experience.  

PubMed

There is a distinct difference between ballet injuries and sports injuries in general, and the sports medicine physician needs to study the technique of dance and the specific injuries that it may produce in order to treat dancers effectively. In Australia, which is typical of other countries where ballet is performed, ballet injuries include strained lumbar muscles, sprained ankle, Achilles tendinitis, clicking hip, jumper's knee, chondromalacia, stress fractures, patellar subluxation, and other knee and tendon problems. PMID:6652700

Quirk, R

1983-11-01

179

[Isokinetic assessment with two years follow-up of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendons].  

PubMed

This retrospective multicentric study was designed to assess the outcome of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles two years after Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare muscles recovery depending on the type of graft and individual variables like age, gender, level of sport, but also in terms of discomfort, pain and functional score. The results focused on the subjective and objective IKDC scores, SF36, the existence or not of subjective disorders and their location. The review included isokinetic muscle tests concentric and eccentric extensors/flexors but also internal rotators/external rotators with analysis of mean work and mean power. One hundred and twenty-seven patients were included with an average age 29 years (+/-10). They all had an ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendon with single or double bundles. In the serie, the average muscles deficit at two years was 10% for the flexors and extensors but with a significant dispersion. Significant differences were not noted in the mean values of all parameters in term of sex or age (over 30 years or not), neither the type of sport, nor of clinical assessment (Class A and B of objective IKDC score), nor the existence of anterior knee pain. There was a relationship between the level of extensor or flexor recovery and the quality of functional results with minimal muscle deficits close to 5% if the IKDC score was over 90 and deficits falling to 15% in the group with IKDC score less than 90. The type of reconstruction (patellar tendon versus hamstrings) had an influence on the muscle deficit. For extensors, the recovery was the same in the two groups, more than 90% at two years and the distribution of these two populations by level of deficit was quite the same. For flexors, residual deficits were significantly higher in the hamstrings group on the three studied parameters whatever the speed and the type of contraction (concentric or eccentric) with an average deficit of 14 to 18%, while, in the patellar tendon group, there was a dominance over the opposite side of 2 to 3% in concentric contraction. The hamstrings deficit appears to be "harvest dependent". For internal rotators, a significantly higher deficit is observed in eccentric contraction for the hamstrings group. The residual hamstrings deficits were related to the number of tendons harvested: -7% when there was no harvest, 7% with one tendon harvested and 17% with two tendons harvested. The relationship between the level of recovery of the quadriceps muscle and hamstrings at two years and the quality of functional results incite, regarding the significantly higher deficit of flexors in ACL reconstructions with hamstrings, to change the rehabilitation programs and especially on early rehabilitation of hamstrings in eccentric mode in the early weeks postoperative considering the harvest site as an equivalent of muscle tear. PMID:19046696

Condouret, J; Cohn, J; Ferret, J-M; Lemonsu, A; Vasconcelos, W; Dejour, D; Potel, J-F

2008-12-01

180

The Interaction of Trunk-Load and Trunk-Position Adaptations on Knee Anterior Shear and Hamstrings Muscle Forces During Landing  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Because anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can occur during deceleration maneuvers, biomechanics research has been focused on the lower extremity kinetic chain. Trunk mass and changes in trunk position affect lower extremity joint torques and work during gait and landing, but how the trunk affects knee joint and muscle forces is not well understood. Objective: To evaluate the effects of added trunk load and adaptations to trunk position on knee anterior shear and knee muscle forces in landing. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one participants (10 men: age ?=? 20.3 ± 1.15 years, height ?=? 1.82 ± 0.04 m, mass ?=? 78.2 ± 7.3 kg; 11 women: age ?=? 20.0 ± 1.10 years, height ?=? 1.72 ± 0.06 m, mass ?=? 62.3 ± 6.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 sets of 8 double-leg landings under 2 conditions: no load and trunk load (10% body mass). Participants were categorized into one of 2 groups based on the kinematic trunk adaptation to the load: trunk flexor or trunk extensor. Main Outcome Measure(s): We estimated peak and average knee anterior shear, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius forces with a biomechanical model. Results: We found condition-by-group interactions showing that adding a trunk load increased peak (17%) and average (35%) knee anterior shear forces in the trunk-extensor group but did not increase them in the trunk-flexor group (peak: F1,19 ?=? 10.56, P ?=? .004; average: F1,19 ?=? 9.56, P ?=? .006). We also found a main effect for condition for quadriceps and gastrocnemius forces. When trunk load was added, peak (6%; F1,19 ?=? 5.52, P ?=? .030) and average (8%; F1,19 ?=? 8.83, P ?=? .008) quadriceps forces increased and average (4%; F1,19 ?=? 4.94, P ?=? .039) gastrocnemius forces increased, regardless of group. We found a condition-by-group interaction for peak (F1,19 ?=? 5.16, P ?=? .035) and average (F1,19 ?=? 12.35, P ?=? .002) hamstrings forces. When trunk load was added, average hamstrings forces decreased by 16% in the trunk-extensor group but increased by 13% in the trunk-flexor group. Conclusions: Added trunk loads increased knee anterior shear and knee muscle forces, depending on trunk adaptation strategy. The trunk-extensor adaptation to the load resulted in a quadriceps-dominant strategy that increased knee anterior shear forces. Trunk-flexor adaptations may serve as a protective strategy against the added load. These findings should be interpreted with caution, as only the face validity of the biomechanical model was assessed. PMID:20064042

Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

2010-01-01

181

Validity and responsiveness of the test of athletes with knee injuries: the new criterion based functional performance test instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of the new criterion-based test instrument test\\u000a for athletes with knee-injuries (TAK) which has been evaluated for reliability in an earlier study. Thirty-five subjects between\\u000a 18 and 50 years were included in the study. They were all anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed and operated with\\u000a hamstrings graft. The test-occasions were

Karin Björklund; Lena Andersson; Nils Dalén

2009-01-01

182

Shoulder injuries during alpine skiing.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed alpine skiing injuries at a destination ski resort during three seasons to characterize the incidence and types of shoulder injuries. A total of 3451 injuries in 3247 patients were reviewed. The overall injury rate was 4.44 injuries per 1000 skier-days. Injuries to the upper extremity represented 29.1% (N = 1004) of all alpine ski injuries. Injuries involving the shoulder complex (393 injuries in 350 patients) accounted for 39.1% of upper extremity injuries and 11.4% of all alpine skiing injuries. The rate of shoulder injury was 0.51 injuries per 1000 skier-days. Patients with shoulder injuries had a mean age of 35.4 years, and the male-to-female ratio of these patients was 3:1. Falls represented the most common mechanism of shoulder injury (93.9%) in addition to collisions with skiers (2.8%), pole planning (2.3%), and collisions with trees (1%). The most common shoulder injuries were rotator cuff strains (24.2%), anterior glenohumeral dislocations or subluxations (21.6%), acromioclavicular separations (19.6%), and clavicle fractures (10.9%). Less common shoulder injuries included greater tuberosity fractures (6.9%), trapezius muscle strains (6.4%), proximal humeral fractures (3.3%), biceps tendon strains (2.3%), glenoid fractures (1.5%), scapular fractures (1%), humeral head fractures (1%), sternoclavicular separations (0.5%), an acromial fracture (0.3%), a posterior glenohumeral dislocation (0.3%), and a biceps tendon dislocation (0.3%). PMID:8883689

Kocher, M S; Feagin, J A

1996-01-01

183

British athletics muscle injury classification: a new grading system.  

PubMed

The commonly used muscle injury grading systems based on three grades of injury, representing minor, moderate and complete injuries to the muscle, are lacking in diagnostic accuracy and provide limited prognostic information to the clinician. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals for alternative grading systems. While there is recent evidence regarding the prognostic features of muscle injuries, this evidence has not often been incorporated into the grading proposals. The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification proposes a new system, based on the available evidence, which should provide a sound diagnostic base for therapeutic decision-making and prognostication. Injuries are graded 0-4 based on MRI features, with Grades 1-4 including an additional suffix 'a', 'b' or 'c' if the injury is 'myofascial', 'musculo-tendinous' or 'intratendinous'. Retrospective and prospective studies in elite track and field athletes are underway to validate the classification for use in hamstring muscle injury management. It is intended that this grading system can provide a suitable diagnostic framework for enhanced clinical decision-making in the management of muscle injuries and assist with future research to inform the development of improved prevention and management strategies. PMID:25031367

Pollock, Noel; James, Steven L J; Lee, Justin C; Chakraverty, Robin

2014-09-01

184

SA 2004-2005, Recordable Injuries, SELF ASSESSMENT YEAR 2 2004-2005  

E-print Network

Drop guard rail Labor shop Strain Bus driver Shoulder strain custodian Back strain twisting HVAC Jul Procure- ment Shoulder strain Stuck drawer Back injury Moving files Laceration Custodian Back strain

185

Imaging of muscle injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature.\\u000a Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology\\u000a of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension\\u000a within the

G. Y. El-Khoury; E. A. Brandser; M. H. Kathol; D. S. Tearse; J. J. Callaghan

1996-01-01

186

Reducing muscle injuries and reinjuries in one italian professional male soccer team  

PubMed Central

Summary Background. The incidence rate of muscle injuries and re-injuries in professional elite soccer players actually is very high and may interfere with the fate of a championship. Purpose. To investigate the effect of a two-tiered injury prevention programme on first injury and re-injury incidence in top level male soccer players. Study design Case Series Study. Muscle injuries and re-injuries sustained by a group of 36 soccer player of an italian elite soccer team have been collected during 2010–2011 season. These data have been compared with those collected during the previous season in the same elite soccer team. Results. A total of 64 injuries occurred, 36 (56%) of which during practice and 28 (44%) during matches. Muscle injuries accounted for 31.3% of the total (n=20), 70% (n=14) of which occurred during practice and 30% (n=6) during matches. Hamstring were the muscles most often injured (n=11) In all, 3 re-injuries occurred (15% of muscle injuries). No early re-injuries occurred. The incidence was 2.5 injuries/1000 hours and the burden was 37 days absence/1000 hours. Conclusions. Through the implementation of a group and personalized injury prevention program, we were able to reduce the total number of muscle injuries and days absent because of injury, in a team of elite soccer players, as compared to the previous season. Specifically, muscle injuries accounted for 31% of all injuries, as compared to 59% of all injuries sustained by the team during the previous season. The number of injuries/1000 hours of exposure was reduced by half (from 5.6 to 2.5) and the days absent/1000 hours fell from 106 to 37. PMID:24596697

Melegati, Gianluca; Tornese, Davide; Gevi, Maurizio; Trabattoni, Alessandro; Pozzi, Grazia; Schonhuber, Herbert; Volpi, Piero

2013-01-01

187

The effect of accelerated, brace free, rehabilitation on bone tunnel enlargement after ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons: a CT study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of bone tunnel enlargement following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is not yet clearly understood.\\u000a Many authors hypothesized that aggressive rehabilitation protocols may be a potential factor for bone tunnel enlargement, especially in reconstructions performed with hamstrings autograft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate\\u000a the effect of a brace free rehabilitation on the tunnel enlargement after

Antonio Vadalà; Raffaele Iorio; Angelo De Carli; Giuseppe Argento; Vincenzo Di Sanzo; Fabio Conteduca; Andrea Ferretti

2007-01-01

188

The importance of quadriceps and hamstring muscle loading on knee kinematics and in-situ forces in the ACL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of hamstring co-contraction with quadriceps on the kinematics of the human knee joint and the in-situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during a simulated isometric extension motion of the knee. Cadaveric human knee specimens (n=10) were tested using the robotic\\/universal force–moment sensor (UFS) system and measurements of knee kinematics and in-situ forces in

G Li; T. W Rudy; M Sakane; A Kanamori; C. B Ma; S. L.-Y Woo

1999-01-01

189

Maximal peak torque as a predictor of angle-specific torques of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study assessed the relationship between the isokinetic peak torque (PT) (speed of movement 1.05 and 3.14 rads–1) and the angle-specific torques (ASTs) at 0.26 and 1.31 rad of knee flexion in multiple contractions of the quadriceps and hamstrings in 70 individuals with a chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency and 78 individuals with a chronic medial collateral ligament (MCL)

P. Kannus; M. Jiirvinen; M. Lehto

1991-01-01

190

Comparison of hamstring muscle behavior for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patient and normal subject during local marching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to investigate the hamstring muscle activity after the surgery by carrying out an electromyography experiment on the hamstring and to compare the behavior of the ACL muscle activity between ACL patient and control subject. Electromyography (EMG) is used to study the behavior of muscles during walking activity. Two hamstring muscles involved which are semitendinosus and bicep femoris. The EMG data for both muscles were recorded while the subject did maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and marching. The study concluded that there were similarities between bicep femoris of the ACL and control subjects. The analysis showed that the biceps femoris muscle of the ACL subject had no abnormality and the pattern is as normal as the control subject. However, ACL patient has poor semitendinosus muscle strength compared to that of control subject because the differences of the forces produced. The force of semitendinosus value for control subject was two times greater than that of the ACL subject as the right semitendinosus muscle of ACL subject was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that was injured.

Amineldin@Aminudin, Nurul Izzaty Bt.; Rambely, A. S.

2014-09-01

191

Cross Pins versus Endobutton Femoral Fixation in Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Minimum 4-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to compare cross-pin fixation and Endobutton femoral fixation for hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with respect to clinical and radiographic results, including tunnel widening and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and Methods Between August 2002 and August 2005, 126 autogenous hamstring ACL reconstructions were performed using either cross pins or Endobutton for femoral fixation. Fifty-six of 75 patients in the cross-pin group and 35 of 51 patients in the Endobutton group were followed up for a minimum of 4 years. We compared the clinical and radiological results between the groups using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation form, the KT-2000 arthrometer side to side difference, the amount of tunnel widening and the advancement of OA on radiographs. Results There were no significant differences in the IKDC grades between the groups at the 4 year follow-up. There was no significant difference in the side to side difference according to KT-2000 arthrometer testing. Also, there were no significant differences in terms of tunnel widening or advancement of OA on radiographs. Conclusions Endobutton femoral fixation showed good results that were comparable to those of cross pins fixation in hamstring ACL reconstruction. PMID:22570850

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Geon-Hyeong; Ahn, Chi-Young

2012-01-01

192

Cutaneous receptive field and morphological properties of hamstring flexor alpha-motoneurones in the rat.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recordings have been made from twenty antidromically identified posterior biceps femoris/semitendinosus (p.b.s.t.) hamstring flexor alpha-motoneurones in the decerebrate-spinal rat. The hamstring motoneurones had either low or no spontaneous background activity. In nineteen of the twenty cells high-frequency phasic responses could be elicited by stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw with firm pressure or pinch. There was no response to light touch or brush. Contralateral cutaneous mechanoreceptive fields with higher thresholds and weaker responses were present in 70% of the motoneurones. Noxious heating of the ipsilateral hind paw produced excitatory responses in six of eight cells tested and two of these cells also responded to heating of the contralateral hind paw. Stimulation of the ipsilateral sural nerve at graded strengths that successively activated A beta, A delta and C afferents produced excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) at progressively longer latencies in the motoneurones. The C-fibre induced e.p.s.p. lasted up to 200 ms. Horseradish peroxidase was injected into ten motoneurones and in seven cases full reconstructions of dendritic field, cell body and axon could be made. In agreement with previous reports from studies in the cat, the dendritic fields of rat motoneurones are very extensive in the rostrocaudal, mediolateral and dorsoventral planes. The general pattern of dendritic branching for each motoneurone in this functionally homogeneous population was uniformly organized. Three major spatial orientations were always present: a rostrocaudally restricted series of dendrites emerging from the cell body and directed dorsolaterally towards the dorsolateral funiculus with branches in the lateral dorsal horn, a laterally, and a ventromedially directed series of branches arranged obliquely in the ventral horn, both of which were distributed rostrocaudally for equal distances from the cell body. Many of these dendritic branches terminated within the lateral and ventral white columns. Although the sizes of the rat flexor motoneurones' somas (51 +/- 4.9 micron, S.E., n = 10) were similar to those of cat lumbosacral alpha-motoneurones, the tip-to-tip rostrocaudal extent of their dendritic fields (1130 +/- 34 micron, S.E., n = 7) was half that reported in the cat. These results are discussed in terms of the organization of the cutaneous flexor withdrawal reflex in the rat. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:4032299

Cook, A J; Woolf, C J

1985-01-01

193

Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

194

Dance Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... them just as susceptible to injury as are football players. In particular, as the majority of professional ... used, especially shoes Individual dancer’s body alignment Prior history of injury Nutritional deficiencies HOW CAN DANCE INJURIES ...

195

Groin Injuries in Sports Medicine  

PubMed Central

Context: An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Persistent groin pain and muscle imbalance may lead to athletic pubalgia. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database from 1990 to 2009, as well as a manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Results: Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey and soccer players throughout the world, approximately 10% to 11% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries have been linked to hip muscle weakness, a previous injury to that area, preseason practice sessions, and level of experience. This injury may be prevented if these risk factors are addressed before each season. Conclusion: Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for athletes, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. If groin pain persists, the possibility of athletic pubalgia needs to be explored, because of weakening or tears in the abdominal wall muscles. A diagnosis is confirmed by exclusion of other pathology. PMID:23015943

Tyler, Timothy F.; Silvers, Holly J.; Gerhardt, Michael B.; Nicholas, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

196

Injury Rates and Profiles of Elite Competitive Weightlifters  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine injury types, natures, anatomical locations, recommended amount of time missed, and injury rates during weightlifting training. Design and Setting: We collected and analyzed medical injury records of resident athletes and during numerous training camps to generate an injury profile. Subjects: Elite US male weightlifters who were injured during training at the United States Olympic Training Centers. Measurements: United States Olympic Training Center weightlifting injury reports from a 6-year period were analyzed. Data were expressed as percentages and were analyzed via x2 tests. Results: The back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders accounted for the most significant number of injuries (64.8%). The types of injuries most prevalent in this study were strains and tendinitis (68.9%). Injuries of acute (59.6%) or chronic (30.4%) nature were significantly more common than recurrent injuries and complications. The recommended number of training days missed for most injuries was 1 day or fewer (90.5%). Injuries to the back primarily consisted of strains (74.6%). Most knee injuries were tendinitis (85.0%). The majority of shoulder injuries were classified as strains (54.6%). Rates of acute and recurring injuries were calculated to be 3.3 injuries/1000 hours of weightlifting exposure. Conclusions: The injuries typical of elite weightlifters are primarily overuse injuries, not traumatic injuries compromising joint integrity. These injury pattems and rates are similar to those reported for other sports and activities. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558570

Calhoon, Gregg; Fry, Andrew C.

1999-01-01

197

Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, BAMC 07-18, Isolated from a Combat Injury Wound  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important infectious agent of surgical sites and combat wounds. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance are common impediments to the healing of chronic infections. Here, we report the genome sequence of a highly multidrug-resistant strain of K. pneumoniae, BAMC 07-18, isolated from a combat wound of a soldier. PMID:25428975

Van Laar, Tricia A.; Chen, Tsute; Childers, Brandon M.; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.

2014-01-01

198

Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin sisters with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures  

PubMed Central

Objective A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Methods Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton–Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Results Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Conclusions Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width. PMID:19158132

Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S

2014-01-01

199

Injuries in Women's Ice Hockey: Special Considerations.  

PubMed

Ice hockey is a popular collision sport with a growing number of female athletes participating each year. As participation among girls and women continues to increase, it will be important to recognize common injuries occurring during women's games. Despite difference in the rules that prohibit body checking in women's and girls' games, injury profiles are similar to those of their male counterparts. Concussions, contusions, acromioclavicular joint injuries, ligamentous knee injuries, and muscle strains occur during women's ice hockey games, with groin strains accounting for the most common practice injury. This article will review both injury rates and common injuries occurring in women's ice hockey, with a focus on the observed concussion rate and groin injuries. PMID:25391093

Abbott, Kristin

2014-01-01

200

A pain in the backside: a case report of coxa saltans occurring at the proximal hamstring origin.  

PubMed

Coxa saltans occurring at the proximal hamstring origin has been rarely reported in the literature. It is better known as occurring at the iliotibial band or the iliopsoas tendon. We report a case of coxa saltans due to subluxation of the origin of the long head of biceps femoris tendon at the ischial tuberosity. This was successfully treated using a mini-open surgical technique. Six weeks postoperatively, the snapping and the associated pain were abolished and the patient was able to resume their participation in athletic activities. PMID:24500825

Shur, Natalie; Dandachli, Wael; Findlay, Iain; Beech, Zine; Bankes, Marcus J K

2014-01-01

201

Injuries to athletes with disabilities: identifying injury patterns.  

PubMed

Participation in sport activities for people with disabilities continues to gain in popularity. With participation in sports, there is an inherent risk of injury. A review of current sport epidemiological studies was used and we concluded that injury patterns for this population are similar to those for athletes without disabilities. Injury data from Paralympic competitions dating back to 1976 indicate that most elite athletes with disabilities seek medical care for illness and musculo-skeletal injuries. However, there are very limited injury data regarding Winter Paralympic events or skiing injuries. For those athletes who participate in Summer Paralympic events, abrasions, strains, sprains and contusions are more common than fractures and dislocations. However, location of injuries appears to be disability and sport dependent. Lower extremity injuries are more common in ambulatory athletes (visually impaired, amputee, cerebral palsy) and upper extremity injuries are more frequent in athletes who use a wheelchair. While it appears that the majority of the injuries occurring in this population are minor in nature, inconsistencies in the definition of injury in the literature make this conclusion tenuous. When injuries are expressed as time lost in participation, 52% of injuries resulted in 7 days lost or less, 29% in 8 to 21 days lost and 19% in greater than 22 days lost. The only prospective study addressing injury rates of athletes with disabilities in a manner consistent with other sport epidemiological studies found an injury rate of 9.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AE). This injury rate is less than American football (10.1 to 15/1000 AE) and soccer (9.8/1000 AE), and greater than basketball (7.0/1000 AE). It is unclear whether comparative statistics such as these take into consideration the number of illness and injury episodes that resulted from the disability. Further complicating epidemiological studies for athletes with disabilities is the definition of the population and samples of convenience which are frequently used. These samples are often not representative of the multiplicity of disability conditions, levels of competition and range of sport activities available. Prospective studies comparing athletes to sedentary control individuals to measure differences in injury rates, type and frequency between and within disability groups, sports and levels of competition are desperately needed to further the knowledge of injury trends and develop and establish accurate injury prevention programmes. PMID:10966152

Ferrara, M S; Peterson, C L

2000-08-01

202

Fatigue and rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in professional soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue induced by an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise on different hamstrings/quadriceps (H:Q) ratios of soccer players. Twenty-two male professional soccer players (23·1 ± 3·4 year) performed maximal eccentric (ecc) and concentric (con) contractions for knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60° s(-1) and 180° s(-1) to assess conventional (H(con) :Q(con)) and functional (H(ecc) :Q(con)) ratios. Additionally, they performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction for KE and KF, from which the maximal muscle strength, rate of force development (RFD) and RFD H:Q strength ratio (RFDH:Q) were extracted. Thereafter, subjects were performed an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise and a posttest similar to the pretest. There was significant reduction in H(con) :Q(con) (0·60 ± 0·06 versus 0·58 ± 0·06, P<0·05) and in H(ecc) :Q(con) (1·29 ± 0·2 versus 1·16 ± 0·2, P<0·01) after the soccer-specific exercise. However, no significant difference between Pre and Post exercise conditions was found for RFDH:Q at 0-50 (0·53 ± 0·23 versus 0·57 ± 0·24, P>0·05) and 0-100 ms (0·53 ± 0·17 versus 0·55 ± 0·17, P>0·05). In conclusion, H:Q strength ratios based on peak force values are more affected by fatigue than RFDH:Q obtained during early contraction phase. Thus, fatigue induced by soccer-specific intermittent protocol seems not reduce the potential for knee joint stabilization during the initial phase of voluntary muscle contraction. PMID:23216761

Greco, Camila C; da Silva, Wendell L; Camarda, Sérgio R A; Denadai, Benedito S

2013-01-01

203

Skateboard injuries.  

PubMed

The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum. PMID:2377116

Cass, D T; Ross, F

1990-08-01

204

Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Injury Prevention Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español ER 101 Where Should I Go? Check In Medical ... Admission to the Hospital Issues You Should Know ER Heroes Home > Health News > Injury Prevention About Emergencies ...

205

Ankle flexibility and injury patterns in dancers.  

PubMed

Lower-extremity injuries are common among dancers and cause significant absences from rehearsals and performances. For this study of lower-extremity injuries in 101 ballet and 47 modern dance students, injuries requiring medical attention sustained over 1 academic year were associated with the following data obtained at the beginning of the school year: ankle flexibility, sex, dance discipline, previous injury, body mass index, and years of training. Eighty-three of the 148 students (age range, 12 to 28 years) reported prior lower-limb injuries, the most common being ankle sprains (28% of all dancers). Previous leg injuries correlated significantly with lower dorsiflexion measurements and with more new injuries. Female students had greater ankle and first metatarsophalangeal flexibility. Modern dancers had greater ankle inversion. Ninety-four students sustained 177 injuries during the study, including 75 sprains or strains and 71 cases of tendinitis. Thirty-nine percent (N = 69) were ankle injuries; 18% (N = 33) were knee injuries; 23% (N = 40) were foot injuries; and 20% (N = 35) were either hip or thigh injuries. Sixty-seven percent (N = 78) of the injured students were ballet dancers. Age, years of training, body mass index, sex, and ankle range of motion measurement had no predictive value for injury; previous injury and dance discipline both correlated with increased risk of injury. PMID:8947396

Wiesler, E R; Hunter, D M; Martin, D F; Curl, W W; Hoen, H

1996-01-01

206

Is the modified Tardieu scale in semi-standing position better associated with knee extension and hamstring activity in terminal swing than the supine Tardieu?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven children diagnosed with spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I-II) and seven healthy comparison children participated in the study. An instrumented MTS in supine and semi-standing position and an instrumented gait assessment were conducted. Results showed that spasticity-related outcomes of the semi-standing MTS do not show better associations with terminal swing characteristics of gait than the same outcomes of the supine MTS in children with spastic CP. Only the passive restricted knee angle from the supine MTS was strongly associated with the maximum knee extension during gait (r(s)=0.99; p <0.001), suggesting that hamstrings length is more important for terminal swing behaviour than hamstrings spasticity. PMID:18384387

Faber, Irene R; Nienhuis, Bart; Rijs, Nique P A M; Geurts, Alexander C H; Duysens, Jacques

2008-05-01

207

The role of estimating muscle-tendon lengths and velocities of the hamstrings in the evaluation and treatment of crouch gait  

E-print Network

February 2005; accepted 17 March 2005 Abstract Persons with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive. # 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cerebral palsy; Gait; Hamstrings; Musculoskeletal among children with cerebral palsy, is characterized by excessive knee flexion during the terminal swing

Delp, Scott

208

Selective contribution of each hamstring muscle to anterior cruciate ligament protection and tibiofemoral joint stability in leg-extension exercise: a simulation study.  

PubMed

A biomechanical model was developed to simulate the selective effect of the co-contraction force provided by each hamstring muscle on the shear and compressive tibiofemoral joint reaction forces, during open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises. This model accounts for instantaneous values of knee flexion angle [Formula: see text], angular velocity and acceleration, and for changes in magnitude, orientation, and application point of external resistance. The tibiofemoral shear force (TFSF) largely determines the tensile force on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Biceps femoris is the most effective hamstring muscle in decreasing the ACL-loading TFSF developed by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. In this range, the semimembranosus generates the dominant tibiofemoral compressive force, which enhances joint stability, opposes anterior/posterior tibial translations, and protects cruciate ligaments. The semitendinosus force provides the greatest decreasing gradient of ACL-loading TFSF for [Formula: see text], and the greatest increasing gradient of tibiofemoral compressive force for [Formula: see text]. However, semitendinosus efficacy is strongly limited by its small physiological section. Hamstring muscles behave as a unique muscle in enhancing the PCL-loading TFSF produced by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. The levels of hamstrings co-activation that suppress the ACL-loading TFSF considerably shift when the knee angular acceleration is changed while maintaining the same level of knee extensor torque by a concurrent adjustment in the magnitude of external resistance. The knowledge of the specific role and the optimal activation level of each hamstring muscle in ACL protection and tibiofemoral stability are fundamental for planning safe and effective rehabilitative knee-extension exercises. PMID:23670482

Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

2013-09-01

209

Tracheobronchial injury.  

PubMed

Tracheobronchial injuries (TBI) can be challenging to diagnose, manage, and definitively treat. They encompass a heterogeneous group of injuries that are often associated with other injuries. Although relatively rare, diagnosis and treatment of TBI often requires skillful and creative airway management, careful diagnostic evaluation, and operative repairs that are often resourceful and necessarily unique to the given injury. An experienced surgeon with a high level of suspicion and the liberal use of bronchoscopy constitute the major tools necessary for diagnosing and treating these injuries. Most TBI can be repaired primarily using a tailored surgical approach and techniques specific to the injury. Associated injuries are common, and surgeons must be knowledgeable in treating a wide variety of physiologic abnormalities, especially those involving the chest wall and lung parenchyma, if a successful outcome is to be achieved in the management of these often challenging patients. PMID:18420127

Johnson, Scott B

2008-01-01

210

Acute traumatic injuries in automotive manufacturing.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle manufacturing, with its varied tasks, challenging work environment, and diverse worker populations, presents many hazards to employees. This study examined routinely collected surveillance data from a major motor vehicle manufacturer to identify injury types, high-risk workers, causes of injury, and factors associated with work loss. Injury and personnel data were used to calculate injury rates. Injury data were from the routinely collected medical and safety surveillance system on occupational injuries. The number of persons working in the plants was estimated using year-end personnel reports. Key word searches supplementing the analyses provided insight into the specific circumstances of injury. The most common injuries were sprains/strains (39% of the total), lacerations (22%), and contusions (15%). Forty-nine percent of the injuries resulted in one or more lost or restricted workdays; 25% resulted in 7 or more lost or restricted workdays. The injuries most likely to result in work loss were amputations, hernias and fractures. Sprains/strains accounted for 65% of all lost workdays. Injury rates ranged from 13.8 per 100 person-years at stamping plants to 28.7 at parts depots. Even within similar types of plants, injury rates varied widely, with a twofold difference among the individual assembly plants in overall injury rates. Injury surveillance systems with descriptive data on injury events shed light on the circumstances under which certain types of injuries occur and can provide the basis for preventive interventions. Sources of variation and potential biases are discussed, providing guidance for those interested in designing and using surveillance systems for occupational injuries. PMID:9750941

Warner, M; Baker, S P; Li, G; Smith, G S

1998-10-01

211

Hip, Pelvis and Groin Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pelvis is the focus of marked biomechanical stresses during all athletic activity. It is an extremely complex anatomical\\u000a area consisting of many powerful muscle groups as well as joints with varying degrees of mobility. Proximal thigh muscle strain\\u000a is the most acute frequent injury in most running sports (from athletics to soccer). Overuse injuries affecting tendons, the\\u000a symphyseal region

Philip Robinson

212

Knee flexion to extension peak torque ratios and low-back injuries in highly active individuals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate for possible relationships between knee flexion to extension peak torque ratios (F1/Ext(rat)) and low-back injuries in highly active males and females. Forty-eight male (age 25.9 +/- 4.5 years) and 41 female (age 27.3 +/- 2.6 years) competitive rowers, and 20 male (age 26.6 +/- 6.0 years) professional ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Each subject performed a test of lumbar and knee flexor flexibility, isokinetic dynamometry and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Flexibility was assessed by using the sit-and-reach test. Knee flexion to extension peak torques were bilaterally monitored at the angular velocities of 1.04 and 4.19 rad x s(-1). The questionnaire was designed to obtain information regarding the number of days off action (e.g., training, competition, and rehearsals), due to low-back injuries, for the 12-month period prior to testing. Results revealed significant negative correlation coefficients between knee F1/Ext(rat), obtained at 1.04 rad x s(-1), and days off physical activity for oarsmen (r = - 0.69; p < 0.01), oarswomen (r = -0.62; p < 0.01) and male dancers (r = -0.57; p < 0.05). No such correlations were found for either knee F1/ Ext(rat) obtained at the angular velocity of 4.19 rad x s(-1) or between the sit-and-reach test results and low-back injuries. A sub-group of 22 female rowers was re-tested after a 6-8 month period, during which a special hamstring strength training programme was introduced. The main conclusions were: a) the lower the F1/Ext(rat) the greater the degree of low-back injury, b) at least in female rowers, 6-8 months of hamstring strength training can contribute to a reduction of the incidence of low-back injury, and c) isokinetic assessment of quadriceps and hamstrings obtained at lower compared to higher angular velocities is more prognostic of low back injury. PMID:9231847

Koutedakis, Y; Frischknecht, R; Murthy, M

1997-05-01

213

Sports medicine in children: common overuse injuries.  

PubMed

With millions of children participating in high-intensity sports activities at a young age, overuse injuries are seen commonly by family physicians. Little Leaguer's shoulder, swimmer's shoulder, Little Leaguer's elbow, snapping hip, and shin splints are 5 overuse injuries frequently sustained by pediatric athletes. Physicians managing these injuries require a basic understanding of the underlying sport-related strain on the body. Diagnosis is clinical for most patients, and management typically is conservative. The physician must be able to differentiate these conditions from more significant injuries that necessitate further imaging and referral. For most patients, monitoring and limiting the repetitive activity can prevent the occurrence of these injuries. PMID:24555726

Fountain, Lorna B

2014-02-01

214

Feet injuries in rock climbers  

PubMed Central

While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

Schoffl, Volker; Kupper, Thomas

2013-01-01

215

Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing  

PubMed Central

Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. Methods—One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. Results—A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (p?0.01). Soft tissue trauma was the most common type of injury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (p?0.05). Annual injury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. Conclusions—The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less. Key Words: injury rates; Muay Thai kick boxing PMID:11579062

Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M

2001-01-01

216

Skiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

Bartlett, L. H.

1975-01-01

217

Combined in vivo/in vitro method to study anteriomedial bundle strain in the anterior cruciate ligament using a dynamic knee simulator.  

PubMed

The mechanism of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is not well understood. It is partly because previous studies have been unable to relate dynamic knee muscle forces during sports activities such as landing from a jump to the strain in the ACL. We present a combined in vivo/in vitro method to relate the muscle group forces to ACL strain during jump-landing using a newly developed dynamic knee simulator. A dynamic knee simulator system was designed and developed to study the sagittal plane biomechanics of the knee. The simulator is computer controlled and uses six powerful electromechanical actuators to move a cadaver knee in the sagittal plane and to apply dynamic muscle forces at the insertion sites of the quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle groups and the net moment at the hip joint. In order to demonstrate the capability of the simulator to simulate dynamic sports activities on cadaver knees, motion capture of a live subject landing from a jump on a force plate was performed. The kinematics and ground reaction force data obtained from the motion capture were input into a computer based musculoskeletal lower extremity model. From the model, the force-time profile of each muscle group across the knee during the movement was extracted, along with the motion profiles of the hip and ankle joints. This data was then programmed into the dynamic knee simulator system. Jump-landing was simulated on a cadaver knee successfully. Resulting strain in the ACL was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT). Our results show that the simulator has the capability to accurately simulate the dynamic sagittal plane motion and the dynamic muscle forces during jump-landing. The simulator has high repeatability. The ACL strain values agreed with the values reported in the literature. This combined in vivo/in vitro approach using this dynamic knee simulator system can be effectively used to study the relationship between sagittal plane muscle forces and ACL strain during dynamic activities. PMID:24231822

Cassidy, Karla; Hangalur, Gajendra; Sabharwal, Preet; Chandrashekar, Naveen

2013-03-01

218

Head Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... in long-term damage. One of the most common reasons kids get concussions is through sports , so make sure yours wear appropriate protective gear and don't let them continue to play if they've had a head injury. If your child sustains an injury to the ...

219

Genital injury  

MedlinePLUS

Genital injury in young girls may be caused by placing items into the vagina. Young girls (usually less than 4 years of age) may ... assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the ... In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having ...

220

Athletic Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family physicians routinely treat many athletic injuries in their clinical practice. The benefits of long-term exercise in the prevention of common illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and falls in the elderly are well established. With the increased interest in fitness in the general population, the number of people resuming more active exercise as they age is increasing. Injuries sustained

Michael L. Tuggy; Cora Collette Breuner

221

Rowing Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

2012-01-01

222

Cervical intervertebral disc injury during simulated frontal impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical disc injury due to frontal impact has been observed in both clinical and biomechanical investigations; however, there is a lack of data that elucidate the mechanisms of disc injury during these collisions. The goals of the current study were to determine the peak dynamic disc annular tissue strain and disc shear strain during simulated frontal impact of the whole

S. Ito; P. C. Ivancic; A. M. Pearson; Y. Tominaga; S. E. Gimenez; W. Rubin; Manohar M. Panjabi

2005-01-01

223

High school football injuries: Identifying the risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This epidemiologic survey of the literature on the factors contributing to the high number of high school football injuries consolidates the current information on the characteristics and risk factors associated with these injuries. To reduce the incidence of knee sprains and strains, the most common injuries to this population, the following preventive recommendations are pre sented : 1) optimum maintenance

Brian Halpern; Nancy Thompson; Walton W. Curl; James R. Andrews; Stephen C. Hunter; John R. Boring

1987-01-01

224

Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking on Pelvic Anterior Tilt Angle, Hamstring Muscle Length, and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Seated Workers with Flat-back Syndrome  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of inclined treadmill walking on pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance of seated workers with flat-back syndrome. [Subjects] Eight seated workers with flat-back syndrome who complained of low-back pain in the L3–5 region participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed a walking exercise on a 30° inclined treadmill. We measured the pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance before and after inclined treadmill walking. [Results] Anterior pelvic tilt angle and active knee extension angle significantly increased after inclined treadmill walking. Trunk extensor and flexor muscle endurance times were also significantly increased compared to the baseline. [Conclusion] Inclined treadmill walking may be an effective approach for the prevention or treatment of low-back pain in flat-back syndrome. PMID:25013282

Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

225

The reliability of a method for measuring the anterior cruciate ligament-hamstring reflex: an objective assessment of functional knee instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture leads to mechanical and functional knee instability. Functional instability is likely\\u000a attributable to a sensorimotor deficit. In previous studies, a method has been introduced which allows this deficit to be\\u000a objectively assessed using ACL-hamstring reflex measurements. There is evidence that subjectively stable and unstable patients\\u000a with ACL rupture can be objectively distinguished by this method.

Markus Schoene; Christoph Spengler; Baerbel Fahrbacher; Julia Hartmann; Marc Melnyk; Benedikt Friemert

2009-01-01

226

Biomechanical evaluation of patellar and hamstring tendon graft fixation for anterior cruciat ligament reconstruction using a poly-(D, L-lactide) interference screw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous hamstring tendons are being performed more frequently and\\u000a satisfactory results have been reported. Advantages such as low donor site morbidity and ease of harvest as well as disadvantages\\u000a like low initial construct stiffness have been described. Recently, it has been demonstrated that graft fixation close to\\u000a the original ACL insertion sites increases

A. Weiler; R. F. G. Hoffmann; N. P. Südkamp; C. J. Siepe; N. P. Haas

1999-01-01

227

Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests as a measure of hamstring extensibility in athletes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (a) to determine and compare the concurrent hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests in different athletes (tennis players, kayakers, canoeists, and cyclists); (b) to determine the criterion-related validity of the pelvic tilt assessed by the Spinal Mouse system as a measure of hamstring flexibility in athletes; and (c) to evaluate the influence of spinal posture, pelvic tilt, and hamstring muscle flexibility in the SR and TT scores. Twenty-four tennis players, 30 canoeists, 43 kayakers, and 44 cyclists were recruited. Passive straight leg raise (PSLR), SR, and TT tests were randomly performed. Spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system when the maximal trunk flexion was achieved in the SR and TT tests. Tennis players and cyclists showed moderate correlations between PSLR with respect to SR (? = 0.78 and ? = 0.76, respectively) and TT (? = 0.77 and ? = 0.74, respectively). Correlations were slightly lower in canoeists (SR, ? = 0.64; TT, ? = 0.75). Kayakers showed the lowest correlation values (SR, ? = 0.53; TT, ? = 0.57). Correlation values between PSLR and pelvic tilt angle in both the SR and TT tests were ? < 0.70 in all the groups of athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed a high variance explained from pelvic tilt and lumbar spine in the SR score. In conclusion, the SR and TT tests can be appropriate measures to determine spine flexibility and pelvic tilt range of motion but not to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in tennis players, canoeists, kayakers, and cyclists. PMID:24476746

Muyor, José M; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

2014-02-01

228

Back Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... but might include medicines, icing, bed rest, physical therapy, or surgery. You might be able to prevent some back injuries by maintaining a healthy weight, lifting objects with your legs, and using lower-back support when you sit.

229

Injury Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 2012 1998 Electrocutions Associated With Consumer Products July 17, 2012 2000 Electrocutions Associated with Consumer Products (9999) ... Furniture and Decor Injury Statistics Other Sports July 17, 2012 Unpowered Scooters July 10, 2012 Trampolines May ...

230

Strain Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Structural geology laboratory on strain analysis. Emphasizes basic methods for determining strain from points, lines, ellipses, and polygons. Introduces two-dimensional strain using hyperboloidal geometry and projections. Students use the computer program EllipseFit to digitize and analyze images. Higher level material on hyperboloidal contouring, pre-strain fabrics, and three-dimensional analysis may be included.

Vollmer, Frederick

231

Shoulder Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The shoulder plays a vital role in many sporting activities and is vulnerable to injury both through direct acute trauma and\\u000a through chronic repetitive injury. These are particularly seen in overhead throwing athletes. The shoulder joint is dependent\\u000a on both the rotator cuff and the labroligamentous complex to maintain its stability and these structures are important in\\u000a the pathophysiology of

Andrew J. Grainger; Phillip F. J. Tirman

232

Cricket injuries.  

PubMed

English and Australian cricket teams on tour used to travel by ship, and many enjoying shipboard life, reached their destination considerably overweight and thus unfit and vulnerable to injury in their sport. Now they travel by air and most national teams employ a fitness coach to supervise sessions of rigorous exercise before and during the season. However the international cricket season is longer than it was and the incidence of overuse injuries is increasing. PMID:6497768

Corrigan, A B

1984-08-01

233

Resorbable screws versus pins for optimal transplant fixation (SPOT) in anterior cruciate ligament replacement with autologous hamstring grafts: rationale and design of a randomized, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial [ISRCTN17384369  

PubMed Central

Background Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common injuries to the knee joint. Arthroscopic ACL replacement by autologous tendon grafts has established itself as a standard of care. Data from both experimental and observational studies suggest that surgical reconstruction does not fully restore knee stability. Persisting anterior laxity may lead to recurrent episodes of giving-way and cartilage damage. This might at least in part depend on the method of graft fixation in the bony tunnels. Whereas resorbable screws are easy to handle, pins may better preserve graft tension. The objective of this study is to determine whether pinning of ACL grafts reduces residual anterior laxity six months after surgery as compared to screw fixation. Design/ Methods SPOT is a randomised, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial conducted at a single academic institution. Eligible patients are scheduled to arthroscopic ACL repair with triple-stranded hamstring grafts, conducted by a single, experienced surgeon. Intraoperatively, subjects willing to engage in this study will be randomised to transplant tethering with either resorbable screws or resorbable pins. No other changes apply to locally established treatment protocols. Patients and clinical investigators will remain blinded to the assigned fixation method until the six-month follow-up examination. The primary outcome is the side-to-side (repaired to healthy knee) difference in anterior translation as measured by the KT-1000 arthrometer at a defined load (89 N) six months after surgery. A sample size of 54 patients will yield a power of 80% to detect a difference of 1.0 mm ± standard deviation 1.2 mm at a two-sided alpha of 5% with a t-test for independent samples. Secondary outcomes (generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life, magnetic resonance imaging morphology of transplants and devices) will be handled in an exploratory fashion. Conclusion SPOT aims at showing a reduction in anterior knee laxity after fixing ACL grafts by pins compared to screws. PMID:15723704

Stengel, Dirk; Matthes, Gerrit; Seifert, Julia; Tober, Volker; Mutze, Sven; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bauwens, Kai; Wich, Michael; Casper, Dirk

2005-01-01

234

Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.  

PubMed

Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

Fish, R M

2000-01-01

235

Development of an injury surveillance system for the Canadian forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Canadian military. The 2008\\/2009 Health and Lifestyle Information Survey (HLIS) found that in the preceding 12 months 23% of Canadian Forces (CF) personnel had sustained a repetitive strain injury and 21% an acute injury. These injuries were mainly attributed to physical training\\/sports\\/Adventure training. CF occupational fitness requirements necessitate participation

M N Valle; E Payne

2010-01-01

236

Sports injuries during one academic year in 6799 Irish school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of the sports injuries occurring in 6799 children between the ages of 10 and 18 were recorded during the course of one academic year (September to June). One hundred sixteen injuries were noted: 29 sprains, 20 fractures, 18 strains, 14 contusions, 10 wounds, 7 dislocations, and 18 other injuries. On average these injuries resulted in 0.47 days of hospitalization,

A. W. S. Watson

1984-01-01

237

Rectus femoris muscle injuries in football: a clinically relevant review of mechanisms of injury, risk factors and preventive strategies.  

PubMed

Quadriceps muscle strains frequently occur in sports that require repetitive kicking and sprinting, and are common in football in its different forms around the world. This paper is a review of aetiology, mechanism of injury and the natural history of rectus femoris injury. Investigating the mechanism and risk factors for rectus femoris muscle injury aims to allow the development of a framework for future initiatives to prevent quadriceps injury in football players. PMID:22864009

Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Idoate, Fernando; Myer, Gregory D

2013-04-01

238

Natural Strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

Freed, Alan D.

1995-01-01

239

Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES  

E-print Network

Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES: Knee injuries can be acute or chronic in nature. A direct blow or twisting of the knee accounts for most acute injuries. Chronic problems arise from overuse of the joint, such as contact sports or any repetitive movements involving the knee can increase risk for injury. TREATING KNEE

Virginia Tech

240

Traumatic musculotendinous injuries of the knee: diagnosis with MR imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of acute traumatic musculotendinous injuries of the knee. Three discrete categories of acute injuries to the musculotendinous unit can be defined: muscle contusion, myotendinous strain, and tendon avulsion. Among the quadriceps muscles, the rectus femoris is the most susceptible to injury at the myotendinous junction due to its superficial location, predominance of type II fibers, eccentric muscle action, and extension across two joints. Among the muscles of the pes anserinus, the sartorius is the most susceptible to strain injury due to its superficial location and biarticular course. The classic fusiform configuration of the semimembranosus along with a propensity for eccentric actions also make it prone to strain injury. MR imaging findings associated with rupture of the iliotibial tract include discontinuity and edema, which are best noted on coronal images. The same mechanism of injury that tears the arcuate ligament from its fibular insertion can also result in avulsion injury of the biceps femoris. The gastrocnemius muscle is prone to strain injury due to its action across two joints and its superficial location. Injuries of the muscle belly and myotendinous junction of the popliteus are far more common than tendinous injuries. PMID:11046166

Bencardino, J T; Rosenberg, Z S; Brown, R R; Hassankhani, A; Lustrin, E S; Beltran, J

2000-10-01

241

CRANIOCEREBRAL INJURIES  

PubMed Central

The postconcussion syndrome is a definite entity, and the patient's complaints are due to legitimate injury. The following three factors contribute to the symptomatology: 1. Headaches, caused by the associated sprain of the cervical spine with resultant radiculitis—giving rise to muscle spasm and suboccipital headaches. 2. Vertigo, due to trauma of the vestibular and labyrinthine apparatus. 3. A vasomotor imbalance and instability resulting from the reaction to “stress.” In treatment of an unconscious patient great care must be taken to prevent anoxia and to balance the fluids and electrolytes. If coma develops following brain injury, hemorrhage into the cerebellar fossa as well as above the tentorium must be considered. PMID:13304695

Seletz, Emil

1956-01-01

242

Preventing Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

243

Shoulder injuries from alpine skiing and snowboarding. Aetiology, treatment and prevention.  

PubMed

There has been a decrease in the overall injury rate and the rate of lower extremity injuries for alpine skiing, with a resultant increase in the ratio of upper extremity to lower extremity injuries. Upper extremity injuries account for 20 to 35% of all injuries during alpine skiing and nearly 50% of all injuries during snowboarding. The most common upper extremity injuries during skiing are sprain of the thumb metacarpal-phalangeal joint ulnar collateral ligament, and the most common in snowboarding is wrist fracture. Shoulder injuries from skiing and snowboarding have been less well characterised. With the increased ratio of upper to lower extremity injuries during alpine skiing and the boom in popularity of snowboarding, shoulder injuries will be seen with increasing frequency by those who care for alpine sport injuries. Shoulder injuries account for 4 to 11% of all alpine skiing injuries and 22 to 41% of upper extremity injuries. The rate of shoulder injuries during alpine skiing is 0.2 to 0.5 injuries per thousand skier-days. During snowboarding, shoulder injuries account for 8 to 16% of all injuries and 20 to 34% of upper extremity injuries. Falls are the most common mechanism of shoulder injury, in addition to pole planting during skiing and aerial manoeuvres during snowboarding. Common shoulder injuries during skiing and snowboarding are glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff strains, acromioclavicular separations and clavicle fractures. Less common shoulder injuries include greater tuberosity fractures, trapezius strains, proximal humerus fractures, biceps strains, glenoid fractures, scapula fractures, humeral head fractures, sterno-clavicular separations, acromion fractures and biceps tendon dislocation. Prevention of shoulder injuries during skiing and snowboarding may be possible through interventions in education and technique, conditioning and equipment and environment. PMID:9554030

Kocher, M S; Dupré, M M; Feagin, J A

1998-03-01

244

The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football--analysis of preseason injuries  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To conduct a detailed analysis of preseason football injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons. Methods: Club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs annotated player injuries. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each club's current injury status. Results: 17% (1025) of the total number of injuries over the two seasons were sustained during the preseason, the mean number of days absent per injury was 22.3 days. Younger age groups (17–25 yrs) were more likely to sustain a preseason injury than more experienced players (26–35+) (p<0.01). There were relatively more "slight" and "minor" injuries (as defined in the methodology), overuse, and tendon related injuries sustained during preseason compared to the in season (p<0.01). The thigh (23%), knee (17%), and ankle (17%) were the most common locations for injuries during the preseason, there was a relatively greater number of lower leg injuries (15%) during the preseason (p<0.05). Achilles tendonitis was most prevalent in the preseason, with 33% of all Achilles related injuries sustained during this period (p<0.01). Muscle strains were the most common injury during preseason (37%). Rectus femoris muscle strains were observed twice as frequently during the preseason relative to the in season (p<0.01). Ligament sprains were the second most common injury during preseason (19%). Non-contact mechanisms were the cause of significantly more injuries during the preseason (p<0.01), with relatively more preseason injuries sustained while running or shooting (p<0.01). For 70% of the injuries reported during the preseason, the ground condition was described as dry. Conclusions: Players are at a greater risk of slight and minor injuries, overuse injuries, lower leg injuries (especially the Achilles tendon) and rectus femoris strains during the preseason period. Prevention of preseason injury is important to ensure availability of players for the commencement of the season and to decrease the risk of injury later in the season, we recommend the implementation of a risk management policy for this purpose. Areas requiring further investigation include methods of prevention for the common preseason injuries that have been identified, a detailed analysis of preseason and closed season training programmes, and a smaller study involving exposure data. PMID:12453838

Woods, C; Hawkins, R; Hulse, M; Hodson, A; Andersen, T; Bahr, R

2002-01-01

245

Personal risk factors for injury in recreational and old?timer ice hockey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine factors related to injury for adult recreational and old?timer hockey players. Four hundred and thirty?one players from 5 hockey leagues were followed during an entire hockey season. Risk factor regression equations for facial injury, body contact injury, sprain\\/strain injury, and all injuries were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of

Donald C. Voaklander; L. Duncan Saunders; H. Arthur Quinney

1998-01-01

246

Pathophysiology of Acute Exercise-Induced Muscular Injury: Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Acute muscular injury is the most common injury affecting athletes and those participating in exercise. Nearly everyone has experienced soreness after unaccustomed or intense exercise. Clinically, acute strains and delayed-onset muscle soreness are very similar. The purpose of this paper is to review the predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, structural changes, and biochemical changes associated with these injuries. Laboratory and clinical findings are discussed to help athletic trainers differentiate between the two conditions and to provide a background knowledge for evaluation, prevention, and treatment of exercise-induced muscular injury. PMID:16558305

Page, Phillip

1995-01-01

247

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD).  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with CVD susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic CVD will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...

248

Diagnosis and management of quadriceps strains and contusions  

PubMed Central

Injuries to the quadriceps muscle group occur frequently in sports and athletic activities. Muscle strains and contusions constitute the majority of these injuries. The clinical presentation and assessment of quadriceps strains and contusions are reviewed along with discussion of appropriate imaging used in diagnosis. Treatment protocols for acute injuries are reviewed including rehabilitation techniques frequently utilized during recovery. Special consideration is given to discussing the criteria for return to sports for athletes after injury. Myositis ossificans is a potentially disabling complication from quadriceps contusions and risk factors, prevention, and treatment are reviewed. PMID:21063497

2010-01-01

249

Accident Report Form Victim's Name  

E-print Network

: Transported By: First Aid By: Witness Phone: Method of Transportation: ID# Male Female Time of Injury: am/Scrape Sprain Strain Nose Bleed Loss of Consciousness Other: Foot Ankle Shin Knee Hamstring Quadracepts Groin Finger L R L R Possible Nature of Injury Check Part of Body Injured Place an "X" on Injured Area Release

Amin, S. Massoud

250

Martial Arts Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. Data sources: The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. Main results: In general, the absolute

W. Pieter

2005-01-01

251

Injuries in the 1987 national amateur volleyball tournament.  

PubMed

In a prospective study of injuries in the 1987 United States Volleyball Association's national tournament, we found 154 injuries in 1520 participants during 7812 hours of play. The injury rate in this study was 1.97/100 hours of play. Before the tournament, the participants' history was taken, and during the week of participation, records were kept of every player who presented with an injury. Players ranged in age from 17 to 60 and competed in five age/gender groups. Females had an injury rate of 2.3 and males had an injury rate of 1.7. The highest injury rate was seen in the men's open division, ages 17 to 35 (2.7), and the lowest rate was seen in the men's Golden Masters, ages 46 and up (1.5). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries occurred during the tournament and 21% were considered to be chronic injuries with an acute exacerbation. The upper extremities accounted for 20% of the injuries. The ankle (17.6%), low back (14.2%), and knee (11%) were the most common injury sites. Strains (36%) and sprains (28%) were the most frequent types of injury. Only eight (5.2%) injuries resulted in more than 5 days of time loss. Two of these injuries involved the knee and two others required surgery. It is likely that in studies relying upon retrospective methods, fewer of the less severe injuries are found, thereby leading to an overestimation of the percentages of knee and ankle injuries and the proportion of severe injuries. The clinician contemplating providing care for a high-level tournament should expect a preponderance of minor injuries occurring in a variety of anatomical locations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2126673

Schafle, M D; Requa, R K; Patton, W L; Garrick, J G

1990-01-01

252

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries  

PubMed Central

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-01-01

253

A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

2004-09-01

254

Foot and Ankle Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acute injuries of the ankle and nontraumatic injuries of the foot are common in the adolescent age group, particularly in\\u000a running and jumping sports such as basketball, soccer, and volleyball. Although many injuries are diagnosed as sprains, skeletally\\u000a immature athletes may sustain physeal injuries and growth-related injuries. To properly diagnose and manage ankle and foot\\u000a injuries in growing athletes, physicians

Angus M. McBryde; Mark D. Locke; John P. Batson

255

Effects of Field Location, Time in Competition, and Phase of Play on Injury Severity in High School Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of competitive intensity, represented by the variables time in competition, phase of play, and field location, on injury severity in U.S. high school football. The injury rate was higher in competition than practice (RR?=?4.75, 95% CI: 4.34–5.20). Mild and moderate injuries were frequently lower leg\\/foot\\/ankle sprains\\/strains and concussions. Severe injuries were frequently knee Sprains\\/strains and

Ellen E. Yard; R. Dawn Comstock

2009-01-01

256

Contractional Strain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use gesture to describe the bulk deformation and local deformation apparent in images of a contractional analog experiment. Students then calculate bulk shortening and bulk thickening for the experiment and describe the structures accommodating that strain.

Ormand, Carol

257

Leg Strain  

MedlinePLUS

... have come apart. Symptoms Symptoms of a strained leg muscle can include: Muscle pain and tenderness, especially after an activity that stretches or violently contracts the muscle. Pain usually increases when you move ...

258

Basketball Injuries: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses reasons for the increase in basketball-related injuries, describes common injuries, outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment, and offers recovery and prevention strategies. (IAH)

Apple Jr., David F.

1988-01-01

259

Ankle Injury TYPES OF ANKLE INJURIES  

E-print Network

aids Depending upon severity of injury an X-ray or other imaging study may be needed. RICE SYSTEM R is suggested. Swelling and bruising is expected following an ankle injury. Applying the RICE system can reduce of Ankle Injuries Quick Treatment: Knee Pain RICE System Rehabilitation Exercises Patient Information

Virginia Tech

260

Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-10-01

261

Injuries in students of three different dance techniques.  

PubMed

As with any athlete, the dancer has a high risk for injury. Most studies carried out relate to classical and modern dance; however, there is a lack of reports on injuries involving other dance techniques. This study is an attempt to determine the differences in the incidence, the exposure-related rates, and the kind of injuries in three different dance techniques. A prospective study about dance injuries was carried out between 2004 and 2007 on students of modern, Mexican folkloric, and Spanish dance at the Escuela Nacional de Danza. A total of 1,168 injuries were registered in 444 students; the injury rate was 4 injuries/student for modern dance and 2 injuries/student for Mexican folkloric and Spanish dance. The rate per training hours was 4 for modern, 1.8 for Mexican folkloric, and 1.5 injuries/1,000 hr of training for Spanish dance. The lower extremity is the most frequent structure injured (70.47%), and overuse injuries comprised 29% of the total. The most frequent injuries were strain, sprain, back pain, and patellofemoral pain. This study has a consistent medical diagnosis of the injuries and is the first attempt in Mexico to compare the incidence of injuries in different dance techniques. To decrease the frequency of student injury, it is important to incorporate prevention programs into dance program curricula. More studies are necessary to define causes and mechanisms of injury, as well as an analysis of training methodology, to decrease the incidence of the muscle imbalances resulting in injury. PMID:20795335

Echegoyen, Soledad; Acuña, Eugenia; Rodríguez, Cristina

2010-06-01

262

Pediatric burn injuries  

PubMed Central

Pediatric burns comprise a major mechanism of injury, affecting millions of children worldwide, with causes including scald injury, fire injury, and child abuse. Burn injuries tend to be classified based on the total body surface area involved and the depth of injury. Large burn injuries have multisystemic manifestations, including injuries to all major organ systems, requiring close supportive and therapeutic measures. Management of burn injuries requires intensive medical therapy for multi-organ dysfunction/failure, and aggressive surgical therapy to prevent sepsis and secondary complications. In addition, pain management throughout this period is vital. Specialized burn centers, which care for these patients with multidisciplinary teams, may be the best places to treat children with major thermal injuries. This review highlights the major components of burn care, stressing the pathophysiologic consequences of burn injury, circulatory and respiratory care, surgical management, and pain management of these often critically ill patients. PMID:23181206

Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

2012-01-01

263

The effects of multiple daily applications of ice to the hamstrings on biochemical measures, signs, and symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage.  

PubMed

There is inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of cryotherapy for the treatment of exercised-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Small sample sizes and treatment applications that did not correspond to evidence-based practice are limitations in previous studies that may have contributed to these equivocal findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of daily multiple applications of ice on EIMD throughout the 72-hour recovery period, an icing protocol that more closely resembles current clinical practice. Thirty-three subjects were assigned to either the cryotherapy group (n = 23) or control group (n = 10). The EIMD was induced through repeated isokinetic eccentric contractions of the right hamstring muscle group. The experimental group received ice immediately after induction of EIMD and continued to ice thrice a day for 20 minutes throughout the 72 hours; the control group received no intervention. Isometric torque, hamstring length, pain, and biochemical markers (creatine kinase [CK], alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Both groups demonstrated a significant change (p < 0.05) in all dependent variables compared with that at baseline, but there was no difference between groups except for pain. The cryotherapy group had significantly (p = 0.048) less pain (3.0 ± 2.1 cm) compared with the control (5.35 ± 2.5 cm) at 48 hours. Although not statistically significant, the cryotherapy group had a greater range of motion and lower CK and AST means at 72 hours compared with that of the control group. Repeated applications of ice can decrease the pain associated with EIMD significantly at 48 hours post EIMD. Although the results may not be unique, the methodology in this study was distinctive in that we used a larger sample size and an icing protocol similar to current recommended treatment practice. PMID:23364294

Oakley, Elizabeth T; Pardeiro, Rafael B; Powell, Joseph W; Millar, Audrey L

2013-10-01

264

Traumatic brain injury using mouse models.  

PubMed

The use of mouse models in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has several advantages compared to other animal models including low cost of breeding, easy maintenance, and innovative technology to create genetically modified strains. Studies using knockout and transgenic mice demonstrating functional gain or loss of molecules provide insight into basic mechanisms of TBI. Mouse models provide powerful tools to screen for putative therapeutic targets in TBI. This article reviews currently available mouse models that replicate several clinical features of TBI such as closed head injuries (CHI), penetrating head injuries, and a combination of both. CHI may be caused by direct trauma creating cerebral concussion or contusion. Sudden acceleration-deceleration injuries of the head without direct trauma may also cause intracranial injury by the transmission of shock waves to the brain. Recapitulation of temporary cavities that are induced by high-velocity penetrating objects in the mouse brain are difficult to produce, but slow brain penetration injuries in mice are reviewed. Synergistic damaging effects on the brain following systemic complications are also described. Advantages and disadvantages of CHI mouse models induced by weight drop, fluid percussion, and controlled cortical impact injuries are compared. Differences in the anatomy, biomechanics, and behavioral evaluations between mice and humans are discussed. Although the use of mouse models for TBI research is promising, further development of these techniques is warranted. PMID:24493632

Zhang, Yi Ping; Cai, Jun; Shields, Lisa B E; Liu, Naikui; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Shields, Christopher B

2014-08-01

265

Martial arts injuriesThe results of a five year national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5 year national survey of martial arts was done using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Seventy-four percent of the injuries involved the extremities and 95% were mild to moderate in nature. Even though most of the injury types were contusions\\/abrasions (36%), lacerations (14%), and sprains\\/strains (28%), 15% were dislocations and frac tures. Five percent of all injuries

R. B. Birrer; S. P. Halbrook

1988-01-01

266

Shoulder Injuries During Alpine Skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed alpine skiing injuries at a destination ski resort during three seasons to charac terize the incidence and types of shoulder injuries. A total of 3451 injuries in 3247 patients were reviewed. The overall injury rate was 4.44 injuries per 1000 skier- days. Injuries to the upper extremity represented 29.1% (N = 1004) of all alpine ski injuries.

Mininder S. Kocher; John A. Feagin

1996-01-01

267

[Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].  

PubMed

This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:23446953

Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

2013-03-01

268

A possible role for integrin signaling in diffuse axonal injury.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, investigators have attempted to establish the pathophysiological mechanisms by which non-penetrating injuries damage the brain. Several studies have implicated either membrane poration or ion channel dysfunction pursuant to neuronal cell death as the primary mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that traumatic stimulation of integrins may be an important etiological contributor to mild Traumatic Brain Injury. In order to study the effects of forces at the cellular level, we utilized two hierarchical, in vitro systems to mimic traumatic injury to rat cortical neurons: a high velocity stretcher and a magnetic tweezer system. In one system, we controlled focal adhesion formation in neurons cultured on a stretchable substrate loaded with an abrupt, one dimensional strain. With the second system, we used magnetic tweezers to directly simulate the abrupt injury forces endured by a focal adhesion on the neurite. Both systems revealed variations in the rate and nature of neuronal injury as a function of focal adhesion density and direct integrin stimulation without membrane poration. Pharmacological inhibition of calpains did not mitigate the injury yet the inhibition of Rho-kinase immediately after injury reduced axonal injury. These data suggest that integrin-mediated activation of Rho may be a contributor to the diffuse axonal injury reported in mild Traumatic Brain Injury. PMID:21799943

Hemphill, Matthew A; Dabiri, Borna E; Gabriele, Sylvain; Kerscher, Lucas; Franck, Christian; Goss, Josue A; Alford, Patrick W; Parker, Kevin Kit

2011-01-01

269

A Possible Role for Integrin Signaling in Diffuse Axonal Injury  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, investigators have attempted to establish the pathophysiological mechanisms by which non-penetrating injuries damage the brain. Several studies have implicated either membrane poration or ion channel dysfunction pursuant to neuronal cell death as the primary mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that traumatic stimulation of integrins may be an important etiological contributor to mild Traumatic Brain Injury. In order to study the effects of forces at the cellular level, we utilized two hierarchical, in vitro systems to mimic traumatic injury to rat cortical neurons: a high velocity stretcher and a magnetic tweezer system. In one system, we controlled focal adhesion formation in neurons cultured on a stretchable substrate loaded with an abrupt, one dimensional strain. With the second system, we used magnetic tweezers to directly simulate the abrupt injury forces endured by a focal adhesion on the neurite. Both systems revealed variations in the rate and nature of neuronal injury as a function of focal adhesion density and direct integrin stimulation without membrane poration. Pharmacological inhibition of calpains did not mitigate the injury yet the inhibition of Rho-kinase immediately after injury reduced axonal injury. These data suggest that integrin-mediated activation of Rho may be a contributor to the diffuse axonal injury reported in mild Traumatic Brain Injury. PMID:21799943

Kerscher, Lucas; Franck, Christian; Goss, Josue A.; Alford, Patrick W.; Parker, Kevin Kit

2011-01-01

270

Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries with Muscle Tightness, Core Stability, and Balance by Longitudinal Measurements in Junior High School Baseball Players  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain. PMID:24926133

Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

2014-01-01

271

Outcomes of a Home Cycling Program Using Functional Electrical Stimulation or Passive Motion for Children With Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at risk for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular complications. Stationary cycling using functional electrical stimulation (FES) or passive motion has been suggested to address these complications. The purpose of this case series is to report the outcomes of a 6-month at-home cycling program for 4 children with SCI. Methods: Two children cycled with FES and 2 cycled passively at home for 1 hour, 3 times per week. Outcome Measures: Data collected included bone mineral density of the left femoral neck, distal femur, and proximal tibia; quadriceps and hamstring muscle volume; stimulated quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength; a fasting lipid profile; and heart rate and oxygen consumption during incremental upper extremity ergometry testing. Results: The 2 children cycling with FES and 1 child cycling passively exhibited improved bone mineral density, muscle volume, stimulated quadriceps strength, and lower resting heart rate. For the second child cycling passively, few changes were realized. Overall, the lipid results were inconsistent, with some positive and some negative changes seen. Conclusions: This case series suggests that cycling with or without FES may have positive health benefits and was a practical home exercise option for these children with SCI. PMID:18581671

Johnston, Therese E; Smith, Brian T; Oladeji, Oluwabunmi; Betz, Randal R; Lauer, Richard T

2008-01-01

272

Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

273

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XE8  Common Strain Name: P190 BCR-ABL  Strain Nomenclature: B6;CBA-Tg(BCR/ABL)623Hkp/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Strain

274

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XH6  Common Strain Name: HB-PLAP  Strain Nomenclature: FVB-Tg(ACTB-ALPP)01Jrst/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C1 Sample MTA for this strain Strain Description: Transgenic

275

Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...

276

Eye Injuries at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Home Tweet You might think that ... the American National Standards Institute eye protection standard.) Eye Injury Risks in the House Using hazardous products ...

277

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Contact Us mild Traumatic Brain Injury Click Here to Start VIDEO STORIES What ... Families & Friendships Spirituality Anger Work Adjustment mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sleep Featured Sites Defense Centers of Excellence ...

278

Preventing Knee Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... as a result of a twisting or pivoting motion. this injury may cause susceptibility to repeat injuries and knee instability, and therefore often requires surgery. occasionally, a twisting or hyperextension force to the knee may result in a tibial ...

279

Head injury - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

Common causes of head injury include: Accidents at home, work, outdoors, or while playing sports Falls Physical assault Traffic accidents Most of these injuries are minor because the skull protects the ...

280

Elbow Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

281

What Causes Pediatric Injury?  

MedlinePLUS

... children visit emergency departments due to injuries from falls. For more information on the causes of injuries in children, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Safe Child website . Although the NICHD conducts and ...

282

Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Airway Disorders Men's Health Issues Mental Health Disorders Mouth and Dental Disorders Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Injuries and Poisoning First Aid Burns Fractures Facial Injuries ...

283

Football injuries: current concepts.  

PubMed

Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries. PMID:23531977

Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

2011-01-01

284

Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Soccer Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2002–2003  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review 15 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's soccer and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: The number of NCAA schools sponsoring women's soccer has grown tremendously, from 271 in 1988– 1989 to 879 schools in 2002–2003. During that time, the NCAA Injury Surveillance System has collected game and practice injury data for women's soccer across all 3 NCAA divisions. Main Results: The rate of injury was more than 3 times higher in games than in practices (16.44 versus 5.23 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval = 3.1, 3.4, P < .01), and preseason practices had an injury rate that was more than 3 times greater than the rate for in-season practices (9.52 versus 2.91 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 3.1, 3.5, P < .01). Approximately 70% of all game and practice injuries affected the lower extremities. Ankle ligament sprains (18.3%), knee internal derangements (15.9%), concussions (8.6%), and leg contusions (8.3%) accounted for a substantial portion of game injuries. Upper leg muscle-tendon strains (21.3%), ankle ligament sprains (15.3%), knee internal derangements (7.7%), and pelvis and hip muscle strains (7.6%) represented most of the practice injuries. Injuries were categorized as attributable to player contact, “other contact” (eg, contact with the ball, ground, or other object), or no contact. Player-to-player contact accounted for more than half of all game injuries (approximately 54%) but less than 20% of all practice injuries. The majority of practice injuries involved noncontact injury mechanisms. Knee internal derangements, ankle ligament sprains, and concussions were the leading game injuries that resulted in 10 or more days of time lost as a result of injury. Recommendations: Ankle ligament sprains, knee internal derangements, and concussions are common injuries in women's soccer. Research efforts have focused on knee injuries and concussions in soccer, and further epidemiologic data are needed to determine if preventive strategies will help to alter the incidence of these injuries. Furthermore, the specific nature of the player contact leading to concussions and lower extremity injuries should be investigated. Preventive efforts should continue to focus on reducing knee injuries, ankle injuries, and concussions in women collegiate soccer players. PMID:17710177

Dick, Randall; Putukian, Margot; Agel, Julie; Evans, Todd A; Marshall, Stephen W

2007-01-01

285

Injury Profile in Women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005)  

PubMed Central

The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries), type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4%) followed by the lower limb (21%), upper limb (12.9%) and trunk (10.8%). Punches (48. 4%) were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%). The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%), hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%), lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%), concussion (13, 7%), tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%), joint dislocation (3, 1.6%) and fractures (3, 1.6%). In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries. Key points 186 injuries were recorded during women competitions. Incidence rates of 0.163 injury per bout and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes were calculated. The injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck. Muscle strain and contusion, hematoma and epistaxis constitute the majority of injuries. PMID:24198704

Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

2007-01-01

286

Muscle morphometric effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury measured by computed tomography: aspects on using non-injured leg as control  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common, functionally disabling, and predispose to subsequent injuries and early onset of osteoarthritis in the knee. Injuries result in muscular atrophy and impaired muscular activation. To optimize surgical methods and rehabilitation strategies, knowledge of the effects of ACL injuries on muscles size and function is needed. Asymmetry due to limb dominance implies that the effect of ACL-injury might be different in right-sided and left-sided injuries which, should be taken in account when evaluating the effect of an injury. Evaluation of the effects of injuries is usually made with the contralateral leg as control. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of ACL-injuries on thigh muscle size and also to analyze feasibility of using contralateral limb as control. Methods Sixty-two patients scheduled to undergo ACL reconstruction were examined with computed tomography (CT). Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) was recorded for quadriceps, hamstrings, gracilis and sartorius 15 cm above the knee joint. Comparisons were made between the injured and non-injured side and between individuals separated by gender and side of injury. Comparisons were also made for patients with or without concomitant meniscal tear, for patients differing in time between injury and examinations and for patients with different level of physical activity after the injury. Results Quadriceps CSA was 5% smaller on the injured side. There was an indication that the muscles of the right thigh were generally bigger than those of the left thigh. The difference between the injured and the non-injured side was larger for right-sided injuries than for left-sided. There was also a greater difference in semimembranosus for women than for men. There were no differences related to meniscal injury, time since injury or physical activity. Conclusion The use of contralateral leg for evaluating the effect of ACL-injury is often the only available alternative but our study indicates that the difference in CSA between injured and non-injured side does not necessarily reflect the true degree of atrophy, as there are side differences both in muscle size in general and in the effect of an ACL-injury on muscle size. PMID:23628130

2013-01-01

287

Current and future concepts in helmet and sports injury prevention.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of head protection, a decrease in sports-related traumatic brain injuries has been reported. The incidence of concussive injury, however, has remained the same or on the rise. These trends suggest that current helmets and helmet standards are not effective in protecting against concussive injuries. This article presents a literature review that describes the discrepancy between how helmets are designed and tested and how concussions occur. Most helmet standards typically use a linear drop system and measure criterion such as head Injury criteria, Gadd Severity Index, and peak linear acceleration based on research involving severe traumatic brain injuries. Concussions in sports occur in a number of different ways that can be categorized into collision, falls, punches, and projectiles. Concussive injuries are linked to strains induced by rotational acceleration. Because helmet standards use a linear drop system simulating fall-type injury events, the majority of injury mechanisms are neglected. In response to the need for protection against concussion, helmet manufacturers have begun to innovate and design helmets using other injury criteria such as rotational acceleration and brain tissue distortion measures via finite-element analysis. In addition to these initiatives, research has been conducted to develop impact protocols that more closely reflect how concussions occur in sports. Future research involves a better understanding of how sports-related concussions occur and identifying variables that best describe them. These variables can be used to guide helmet innovation and helmet standards to improve the quality of helmet protection for concussive injury. PMID:25232879

Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Post, Andrew; Oeur, R Anna; Brien, Susan E

2014-10-01

288

Overuse injuries in adolescents.  

PubMed

The incidence of overuse injuries in young athletes is on the rise and accounts for a significant number of visits to the primary care office. There are distinctive intrinsic and extrinsic factors that place young athletes at risk for overuse injuries. These injuries vary in severity from being a temporary inconvenience to having potential lifelong morbidity. An understanding of the young athlete and their unique injuries is important for enabling early recognition and treatment. Prevention strategies are also discussed. PMID:18605393

Pommering, Thomas L; Kluchurosky, Lisa

2007-05-01

289

Impact Injury in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts in sport can cause severe and fatal head, spinal and thoracic injuries. As sports have developed during the last half\\u000a century, methods have been developed to control injury risks, such as rule modifications, helmets, padded clothing and training.\\u000a The biomechanics of severe injury is well understood through investigations of motor vehicle accident trauma. Research into\\u000a sports injury can assist

Andrew S. McIntosh

290

Hand and Wrist Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In comparison to lower limb injury, wrist and hand injury in sport is relatively uncommon accounting for only 3–9% of all\\u000a sports injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a It however has much greater relevance in some sports particularly where the incidence of injury is increased (golf, tennis,\\u000a snowboarding and contact sports) or the impact of wrist and hand dysfunction on performance is high. Preservation of

Philip J. O’Connor

291

Smoke inhalation injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

Birky, M.

292

Histopathological findings, phenotyping of inflammatory cells, and expression of markers of nitritative injury in joint tissue samples from calves after vaccination and intraarticular challenge with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of caseonecrotic lesions developing in lungs and joints of calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis is not clear and attempts to prevent M. bovis-induced disease by vaccines have been largely unsuccessful. In this investigation, joint samples from 4 calves, i.e. 2 vaccinated and 2 non-vaccinated, of a vaccination experiment with intraarticular challenge were examined. The aim was to characterize the histopathological findings, the phenotypes of inflammatory cells, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) molecules, and the expression of markers for nitritative stress, i.e. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), in synovial membrane samples from these calves. Furthermore, the samples were examined for M. bovis antigens including variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and M. bovis organisms by cultivation techniques. Results The inoculated joints of all 4 calves had caseonecrotic and inflammatory lesions. Necrotic foci were demarcated by phagocytic cells, i.e. macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, and by T and B lymphocytes. The presence of M. bovis antigens in necrotic tissue lesions was associated with expression of iNOS and NT by macrophages. Only single macrophages demarcating the necrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Microbiological results revealed that M. bovis had spread to approximately 27% of the non-inoculated joints. Differences in extent or severity between the lesions in samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were not seen. Conclusions The results suggest that nitritative injury, as in pneumonic lung tissue of M. bovis-infected calves, is involved in the development of caseonecrotic joint lesions. Only single macrophages were positive for MHC class II indicating down-regulation of antigen-presenting mechanisms possibly caused by local production of iNOS and NO by infiltrating macrophages. PMID:25162202

2014-01-01

293

Developing a 6DOF robot to investigate multi-axis ACL injuries under valgus loading coupled with tibia internal rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have become more common in recent years as more young people participate in risky sporting activities. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms. Previous in vitro studies of ACL strain have found significant increases in ACL strain primarily with anterior directed force on the tibia relative to the femur and with internal

Yupeng Ren; Benjamin J. Jacobs; Gordon W. Nuber; Jason L. Koh; Li-Qun Zhang

2010-01-01

294

Prevention of Football Injuries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2010-01-01

295

Assessment of Ankle Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

2009-01-01

296

Injury Prevention in Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports injuries can occur and may cause significant discomfort and disability. They may also be associated with considerable medical expenses. The objective of this article was to evaluate the current evidence-based effectiveness of sports injury prevention strategies. The authors assessed both intrinsic and extrinsic injury prevention strategies. However, determination of the relative contribution of each component was not determined in

Melissa A. Schiff; Dennis J. Caine; Rebekah OHalloran

2010-01-01

297

Karate and karate injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes,

G. McLatchie

1981-01-01

298

Experimental traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex

Christiane Albert-Weissenberger; Anna-Leena Sirén

2010-01-01

299

Paintball: dermatologic injuries.  

PubMed

The popularity of paintball as an extreme sport has gained momentum in recent years. Injuries related to paintball are growing as the number of participants increases. An increasing percentage of paintball-related injuries have occurred in noncommercial settings, such as backyards. We report distinctive follicular stippling and annular scars resulting from paintball injuries in 2 males. Dermatologists may encounter paintball-related injuries during routinely scheduled visits for acne or nevi surveillance. Patients should be verbally reminded to use protective gear to prevent injuries. PMID:17725065

Ambay, Aparna R; Stratman, Erik J

2007-07-01

300

Injuries in youth soccer.  

PubMed

Injury rates in youth soccer, known as football outside the United States, are higher than in many other contact/collision sports and have greater relative numbers in younger, preadolescent players. With regard to musculoskeletal injuries, young females tend to suffer more knee injuries, and young males suffer more ankle injuries. Concussions are fairly prevalent in soccer as a result of contact/collision rather than purposeful attempts at heading the ball. Appropriate rule enforcement and emphasis on safe play can reduce the risk of soccer-related injuries. This report serves as a basis for encouraging safe participation in soccer for children and adolescents. PMID:20100755

Koutures, Chris G; Gregory, Andrew J M

2010-02-01

301

On the Role of a Nonlinear Stress-Strain Relation in Brain Trauma  

E-print Network

On the Role of a Nonlinear Stress-Strain Relation in Brain Trauma Igor Szczyrba School-strain relation (that leads to a stiffening of the brain matter under strain) influences the brain dynamics head using our generalization of the viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt brain injury model that includes

Burtscher, Martin

302

The Effects of Injury Preventive Warm-Up Programs on Knee Strength Ratio in Young Male Professional Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+) and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR), dynamic control ratio (DCR) and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR) in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. Methods Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n?=?12 per group). These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions). The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. Results After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s?1, 180°.s?1 and 300°.s?1, respectively). The CSR (60°.s?1) increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s?1) in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p?=?0.02). As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p?=?0.04). For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. Conclusions It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR). Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players. PMID:23226553

Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Rahnama, Nader; Yusof, Ashril

2012-01-01

303

Double-bundle medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and mediolateral patellar tunnel fixation: a meta-analysis of outcomes and complications.  

PubMed

Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is used to treat patellar instability and recurrent patellar dislocation. Anatomical studies have found the MPFL to be a double-bundle structure. We carried out a meta-analysis of studies reporting outcomes of patellofemoral reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft in a double-bundle configuration and patellar fixation via mediolateral patellar tunnels. A literature search was undertaken with no language restriction in various databases from their year of inception to July 2012. The primary outcome examined was the post-operative Kujala score. We identified 320 MPFL reconstructions in nine relevant articles. The combined mean post-operative Kujala score was 92.02 (standard error (se) 1.4, p = 0.001) using a fixed effects model and 89.45 (se 37.9, p = 0.02) using random effect modelling. The reported rate of complications with MPFL reconstruction was 12.5% (40 of 320) with stiffness of the knee being the most common. High-quality evidence in assessing double-bundle MPFL reconstruction is lacking. The current literature consists of a mixture of prospective and retrospective case series. High-quality randomised trials evaluating this procedure are still awaited. PMID:23814240

Singhal, R; Rogers, S; Charalambous, C P

2013-07-01

304

Injuries in whitewater kayaking  

PubMed Central

Objective—To provide epidemiological data on whitewater kayaking injuries using a descriptive study. Methods—A retrospective survey was distributed at whitewater events and club meetings, and made available and advertised on the world wide web, through postings and announcements to newsgroups, related sites, and search engines. Data on sex, age, experience, and ability were collected. Injury data collected included mechanism, activity, difficulty of rapid, and self reported severity. Results—Of the 392 kayaking respondents included in the final analysis, 219 suffered 282 distinct injury events. The number of days spent kayaking per season was the only independent predictor of injury. The overwhelming majority of injuries occurred while the kayaker was still in the boat (87%). Striking an object was the most common mechanism of injury (44%), followed by traumatic stress and overuse (25% each). The most common types of injury were abrasion (25%), tendinitis (25%), contusion (22%), and dislocation (17%). The upper extremity, especially the shoulder, was the most commonly injured area of the body. Although half of injured kayakers sought medical care for their injury, and almost one third missed more than one month of kayaking because of the injury, almost all (96%) reported a complete or good recovery. Conclusions—Factors relating to likelihood of injury appear to be connected with exposure, namely the number of days a year that the sport was pursued. Except for class V (extreme) kayakers, reports of injuries paralleled the number of participants. Kayakers reported injuries predominantly on rivers that they assessed to be at a level appropriate to their skills. Key Words: kayaking; whitewater; injuries PMID:11477016

Fiore, D; Houston, J

2001-01-01

305

Injuries in Irish dance.  

PubMed

Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

2013-12-01

306

Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).  

PubMed

Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship between CSDM - BrIC and MPS - BrIC respectively. AIS 3+, 4+ and 5+ field risk of anatomic brain injuries was also estimated using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database for crash conditions similar to the frontal NCAP and side impact conditions that the ATDs were tested in. This was done to assess the risk curve ratios derived from HIC risk curves. The results of the study indicated that: (1) the two available human head models - SIMon and GHBMC - were found to be highly correlated when CSDMs and max principal strains were compared; (2) BrIC correlates best to both - CSDM and MPS, and rotational velocity (not rotational acceleration) is the mechanism for brain injuries; and (3) the critical values for angular velocity are directionally dependent, and are independent of the ATD used for measuring them. The newly developed brain injury criterion is a complement to the existing HIC, which is based on translational accelerations. Together, the two criteria may be able to capture most brain injuries and skull fractures occurring in automotive or any other impact environment. One of the main limitations for any brain injury criterion, including BrIC, is the lack of human injury data to validate the criteria against, although some approximation for AIS 2+ injury is given based on the angular velocities calculated at 50% probability of concussion in college football players instrumented with 5 DOF helmet system. Despite the limitations, a new kinematic rotational brain injury criterion - BrIC - may offer a way to capture brain injuries in situations when using translational accelerations based HIC alone may not be sufficient. PMID:24435734

Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

2013-11-01

307

A descriptive epidemiology of sport and recreation injuries in a population-based sample: results from the Alberta Sport and Recreation Injury Survey (ASRIS).  

PubMed

The 1996 Alberta Sport and Recreation Injury Survey is a retrospective study describing the annual incidence of injuries in the province of Alberta resulting from sport and recreational involvement. Data was collected by means of a telephone survey using random digit dialing techniques to obtain a representative sample of Albertans in the winter of 1995-96. The sample produced a total of 3,790 respondents from 1,478 households evenly split between genders, with an age range of 6 to 93 years. The survey asked information regarding medically attended, non-fatal injuries resulting from sport and recreational activities. Findings reveal an annual incidence of sport or recreational injuries of 11%. Among those reporting a sport or recreational injury, the most common types of injuries were a sprained/torn ligament (31%), strained/pulled muscle (19%), and fracture (13%). The most common bodily locations of injuries were the knees (21%) and the ankle (14%). PMID:9524392

Mummery, W K; Spence, J C; Vincenten, J A; Voaklander, D C

1998-01-01

308

Exercise, injury and chronic inflammatory lesions.  

PubMed

The increasing frequency of injury over the last two decades reflects the activities of a more exercise conscious public. However, all too often injury may be due to ill-advised or inappropriate exercise and can be prevented by relatively simple modification of technique, equipment or gait abnormalities. Nevertheless, many injuries may simply reflect overtraining and the effects of repetitive strain on soft tissue and bony structures. This has led to an urgent need to understand better the mechanisms of injury, the importance of chronic inflammation and the factors involved in recovery of soft tissue strength. In the case of injuries to tendons or ligaments it is often difficult to define the contribution to symptomatology of collagen breakdown or chronic inflammation as a response to this. Furthermore, radiological changes at tendon and ligament attachments (entheses) through overuse can be indistinguishable from chronic inflammatory conditions such as spondarthritis, adding weight to the view that the body has a limited number of ways in which it can react to a variety of chronic stimuli. Marathon runners or footballers, for example, may develop symphysitis through chronic loading and radiologically there may be apparent erosive changes. Rheumatologists, dealing primarily with the chronic inflammatory arthritides, are beginning to understand better the factors involved in chronic inflammation and the effects of exercise. The Sports Physician must equally be aware of some of the pitfalls of misdiagnosis because of the masquerading of some primary inflammatory conditions as soft tissue injury or 'traumatic' joint effusion. This article will therefore review advances in current understanding of the influence of exercise on chronic inflammation and on recovery of tissue strength in sporting injuries. Improving understanding should lead to more defined rehabilitation programmes and a reduction in the all too common reinjury cycle. PMID:1450891

Perry, J D

1992-07-01

309

Bone injuries during delivery.  

PubMed

Bone injuries during the process of delivery were studied among 34, 946 live born babies over a 11 period. There were 35 cases of bone injuries giving an incidence of 1 per 1,000 live births. Clavicle was the commonest bone fractured (45.7%) followed by humerus (20%), femur (14.3%) and depressed skull fracture (11.4%) in the order of frequency. There was one case each of orbital fracture, epiphyseal separation of lower end of femur and dislocation of elbow joint. Lack of antenatal care, malpresentation often leading to obstructed labour and operative deliveries were found to be risk factors for bone injuries. Meconium stained liquor and birth asphyxia were more commonly associated with bone injuries than control cases. Cases with injuries had longer hospital stay and higher mortality. Improving the health infrastructure at the peripheral level with early identification of high risk mothers and their appropriate management can bring down the incidence of bone injuries. PMID:8002070

Bhat, B V; Kumar, A; Oumachigui, A

1994-01-01

310

Injuries are not accidents  

PubMed Central

Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

Gutierrez, Maria Isabel

2014-01-01

311

Machinery-related injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is known that farm machinery is a source of serious and catastrophic farm work-related injuries, little is known about the magnitude of, and potential risk factors for, this problem. The study population is from the five-state Regional Rural Injury Study—I (RRIS—I) that included 3?939 farm households and 13?144 persons who were interviewed about their injury experience and farming

Susan Goodwin Gerberich; Robert W Gibson; L. Ronald French; Tae-Yong Lee; W. Peter Carr; Laura Kochevar; Colleen M Renier; John Shutske

1998-01-01

312

Auger injuries in children.  

PubMed Central

A 6-year review of auger injuries in Manitoba children revealed that 23 children sustained major injuries resulting in amputation of 17 limbs. Auger injuries are the main cause of traumatic amputation in children in Manitoba. Improved safety education for the entire farm family as well as better design of safety shields would decrease this carnage. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 9 PMID:630513

Letts, R. M.; Gammon, W.

1978-01-01

313

Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ischemia-reperfusion injury describes the experimentally and clinically prevalent finding that tissue ischemia with\\u000a inadequate oxygen supply followed by successful reperfusion initiates a wide and complex array of inflammatory responses that\\u000a may both aggravate local injury as well as induce impairment of remote organ function. Conditions under which ischemia-reperfusion\\u000a injury is encountered include the different forms of acute vascular

Bernhard Dorweiler; Diethard Pruefer; Terezia B. Andrasi; Sasa M. Maksan; Walther Schmiedt; Achim Neufang; Christian F. Vahl

2007-01-01

314

Penetrating Cardiac Injury: A Review  

PubMed Central

Cardiac injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent death. Sometimes serious cardiac injury may manifest only subtle or occult symptoms or signs. As there is an epidemic of cardiac injuries in Kashmir valley due to problems of law and order, we herein present a review on management of such injuries. PMID:24829887

Lateef Wani, Mohd; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Irshad, Ifat; Ul-Hassan, Nayeem

2012-01-01

315

Injuries around the knee – Symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knee and shoulder injuries commonly occur in sports. Knee injury accounts for 41% of all sports injuries. One fifth of them involve the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Other injuries include meniscus tears, posterior cruciate ligament tears, articular cartilage damages and avulsion of ligaments and tendons.Treatment of knee injuries has to be based on severity of signs and symptoms and exact

Parag Sancheti; Mohammed Razi; E B S Ramanathan; Patrick Yung

2010-01-01

316

Minor pediatric injuries.  

PubMed

Injuries are a common source of childhood morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation should follow in a sequential fashion to determine the extent of injuries. Most minor injuries can be treated safely and cost-effectively in an office setting. The principles of wound care include adequate hemostasis, tissue debridement, removal of imbedded foreign bodies, and appropriate closure or coverage of the wound to optimize healing. Appropriate use of antibodies, tetanus prophylaxis, and rabies immunization will minimize complications. With proper selection and treatment, the outcome of children with minor injuries should be excellent. PMID:9728189

Shafi, S; Gilbert, J C

1998-08-01

317

Ocular paintball injuries.  

PubMed

Paintball sport-related ocular injuries represent an increasing problem as the popularity of the sport increases and the number of participants grows. Although eye protective devices designed specifically for paintball sports are extremely effective in preventing such injuries, the failure to properly wear these devices has resulted in an alarming number of severe ocular injuries. Recent trends have indicated that an increasing percentage of paintball sport-related ocular injuries have occurred in unsupervised, noncommercial settings (i.e., backyard games) where the use of eye protective devices is not required. Paintball industry standards for eye protection have recently been developed and should be implemented for all participants. PMID:11389344

Fineman, M S

2001-06-01

318

Treatment of head injuries.  

PubMed

Sports-related brain injuries are increasing in incidence and may affect athletes from many different sports. Concussion is the most common form of sports-related head injury and is a form of mild traumatic brain injury. Evaluations of concussed athletes should include careful history, focused neurologic examination, balance testing, and cognitive testing. Postinjury management consists of avoiding aggravating factors until symptoms resolve. Return to play should not begin until all symptoms resolve, and then this should be done in a graduated fashion that avoids recreating symptoms. Research is ongoing concerning the maximum safe number of concussive injuries and any possible long-term sequelae. PMID:23668643

Sills, Allen K

2013-06-01

319

Fliker injuries in children.  

PubMed

The Fliker, the new version of the foot-propelled scooter, has emerged as an increasingly popular recreational activity for children. This increase in popularity has led to a number of attendances to our tertiary paediatric emergency department (ED) with Fliker-associated injuries. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and type of such injuries. This was a prospective descriptive study of all children (aged 0-16 years) attending the ED during a summer with Fliker-related injuries. Patients were identified through the ED Symphony Information System. Clinical notes of identified patients were investigated for the mechanism, location and type of injury. The clinical outcome of identified patients was also determined. Eighty patients, 39 boys (48.8%) and 41 girls (51.2%), were identified in the study period. The mean age of the patients was 7.9 years (range from 2 to 13 years). Upper limb injuries were most common, found in 33 (41.2%) children. There were 12 head injuries. The rest sustained lower limb injuries, soft tissue lacerations and dental injuries. The Fliker is one of a number of fad recreational activities to have emerged in recent times. Similar to some of its predecessors (e.g. Heelys, rollerblades), it is associated with a spectrum of injuries in children. PMID:22960801

Howard, Ruth; McCoy, Siobhan C; Cronin, John; Walsh, Sean; O'Sullivan, Ronan

2013-06-01

320

Musculoskeletal injuries in adolescents.  

PubMed

This article reviews the anatomy of the physis and the most common classification of injuries or fractures through the physis. The common apophyseal injuries of Osgood-Schlatter, Severs disease and iliac apophysitis, are reviewed in addition to a review of the most common osteochondritides, including Panner's disease and Osteochondritis Dessicans of the femur and talus. An understanding of these is key to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent musculoskeletal injuries. This article also reviews slipped capital femoral epiphysis, little leaguer's elbow, anterior cruciate and collateral ligament injuries, patella problems, ankle sprains and several common fractures in children. PMID:9469924

Kaeding, C C; Whitehead, R

1998-03-01

321

Assessment of ankle injuries.  

PubMed

School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic assessment guidelines, and various treatment options to assure proper management of students with injuries to the ankle. The benefits of adhering to these guidelines are that students will receive better, cost-effective treatment and the nurse will make appropriate referral recommendations to parents and other school personnel. PMID:19197016

Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

2009-02-01

322

Acute ankle injury.  

PubMed

Acute ankle injury is a problem observed in people performing daily and work activities as well as in the athlete. The ankle is the most commonly injured joint in the body. Understanding the anatomy and mechanism of injury facilitates evaluation, diagnosis, and management. Evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and treatment options are presented. Most injuries can be managed conservatively in the primary care setting. A systematic approach to ankle evaluation can differentiate between injuries requiring orthopedic referral and those that can be managed by the nurse practitioner. PMID:10624277

Childs, S

1999-01-01

323

Management of avulsion injuries.  

PubMed

The optimal management sequence to treat avulsion injuries in children is particularly difficult because of the following problems: (1) Assessment of these rare but frequently massive injuries can be very difficult and treacherous, as the extent of the injury is often underestimated and treatment therefore considered inappropriate; (2) Avulsion injuries have a high risk of infection: lesions are always contaminated due to the mechanism of injury (mostly vehicle accidents) and subsequent long-term hospitalization adds an additional risk for nosocomial infections; (3) Children with avulsion injuries have an increased risk to develop functional deficits: although the body grows, scars and reconstructed tissues may not adapt sufficiently and this may lead to serious constraints. Because of these problems, avulsion injuries may lead to a high morbidity and even mortality, especially if the injury is mismanaged. Reviewing the most recent data regarding the management of avulsion injuries yields the following key points: (1) A scoring system may help to assess the primary dimension of the defect; (2) Innovative techniques such as the use of a Vacuum Assisted Closure system may lower the risk of infection; (3) Choosing a comprehensive, reconstructive approach taking the growth of the child into consideration, may reduce the development of serious functional deficits and improve cosmetic outcome. PMID:23982820

Boettcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Schiestl, Clemens

2013-10-01

324

Lightning and thermal injuries.  

PubMed

Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be treated. The exact mechanism of nerve injury has not been explained, but both direct injury by electrical current overload or a vascular cause receive the most attention. Because electrical injuries carry both externally visible cutaneous injuries and possible hidden musculoskeletal damage, conventional burn resuscitation formulas based on body surface area injured may not provide enough fluid to maintain urine output. Damaged muscle resulting in swelling within the investing fascia of an extremity may result in compartment syndromes, requiring further attention. If myoglobin has been detected in the urine, treatment is aggressive volume resuscitation and possibly alkalinization of the urine or mannitol is given IV push to minimize pigment precipitation in the renal tubules. Approximately 15% of electrical burn victims also sustain traumatic injuries. This is because of falls from height or being thrown against an object. The tetanic contractions that result from exposure to electrical injury cause imbalance in flexor versus extensor muscles, with the flexor groups being stronger. Not only is the victim unable to release from the electrical contact, but they are at risk for fracture of bones from this prolonged muscular contracture. Neurologic and psychological symptoms were the most common sequelae of electrical and lightning injuries. Many of these symptoms are nonspecific, and they often do not appear until several months after the injury. A full neurologic examination must be performed on admission, documenting initial presentation and at any change in symptoms. Electrical injuries can have devastating consequences. Prevention of electrical injuries is clearly the preferable strategy for treatment. PMID:24365365

Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

2014-01-01

325

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XG2  Common Strain Name: MMTV/c-myc  Strain Nomenclature: FVB-Tg(MMTV-Myc)141-3Led/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B5 , D Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health

326

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01X67  Common Strain Name: CAG-LSL-EGFR-WT  Strain Nomenclature: STOCK Col1a1tm1(CAG-EGRF)Char/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 , D Sample MTA for this

327

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01X68  Common Strain Name: CAG-LSL-EGFRvIII  Strain Nomenclature: STOCK Col1a1tm2(CAG-EGFR*)Char/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 , D Sample MTA for this

328

Ice Hockey Injuries in a Japanese Elite Team: A 3-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Context: As the Asian Ice Hockey League gradually expands and becomes more competitive, ice hockey-related injuries may increase. However, no reports have been published on ice hockey injuries in Japan, including the method of injury and the daily supervision of the players during the regular season. Objective: To prospectively study the incidence, types, and mechanisms of ice hockey injuries in an elite Japanese ice hockey team. Design: Prospective observational cohort study design. Setting: An elite ice hockey team, Tokyo, Japan. Patients or Other Participants: Ninety-four players during the 2002–2005 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data were collected for 3 consecutive seasons using an injury reporting form. Results: The overall game injury rate was 74.3 per 1000 player-game hours and 11.7 per 1000 player-game hours for injuries resulting in any time loss. The overall practice injury rates were 11.2 per 1000 player-practice hours and 1.1 per 1000 player-practice hours for injuries resulting in any time loss. Forwards had the highest rate of injury, followed by defensemen and then goalkeepers. Contusions were the most common injury, followed by strains, lacerations, and sprains. Conclusions: Most injuries among Japanese ice hockey players occurred during games. Game or play intensity may influence the injury rate during games. PMID:19295967

Kuzuhara, Kenji; Shimamoto, Hideki; Mase, Yasuyoshi

2009-01-01

329

Maxillofacial injuries in the workplace.  

PubMed

Over a 2-year period we reviewed patients who presented to a UK maxillofacial unit with facial injuries sustained at work. We looked at links between the mechanism, injury, and characteristics of such injuries. PMID:22884847

Burnham, Richard; Martin, Tim

2013-04-01

330

Recreation-Related Head Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

Recreation-Related Head Injuries Top 15 Recreation/Leisure-Related Head Injuries by Product Product Category Estimated Injuries 1. Toys (all toy categories combined) 17,924 2. Swimming/Wading Pools, Pool Equipment ...

331

Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size Print Bookmark Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

332

Head to Head Chumanov ES, Schache AG, Heiderscheit BC, et al. Br J Sports Med (2011). doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090176 1 of 2  

E-print Network

, Wisconsin 53706, USA; easchmerr@wisc.edu Accepted 10 June 2011 Hamstrings are most susceptible to injury hamstring injury occurs remains a debated topic. Video footage and athlete anecdotes have contributed hamstrings are most vulnerable to injury. Early sprinting (ie, high-speed running) biome- chanics research

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

333

Occupational injury and disease among patients presenting to general practitioners in a community health centre.  

PubMed

A prospective survey was conducted of all patients presenting over a six-month period to the primary medical care unit of a community health centre in an urban industrial area to determine the number and types of work-related injuries and disease, the causes, and details of the injured workers and their workplaces. Two-hundred and eighty-three patients, 7.2 per cent of the total number of patients attending, were diagnosed as having a work-related injury or disease; 250 patients had occupational injuries and 33 had occupational diseases. The most common injuries were open wounds, sprains and strains, contusions and eye injuries; the most frequent diseases were musculoskeletal strain syndromes, dermatitis and respiratory conditions. Most of those injured were skilled tradesmen or labourers from small (less than 30 employees) or medium-sized (30 to 99 employees) manufacturing workplaces. In five of the local medium-sized workplaces, more than 10 per cent of the workforce presented with occupational injury or disease in the six months. The mechanisms of injury for common injuries such as back strain and eye injuries are described. Most patients were managed totally within the primary care setting. Thirty per cent of all patients surveyed received a worker's compensation certificate. It is possible that occupational diseases were underdiagnosed and that worker's compensation was underutilized. The information obtained from the survey is being used in planning prevention. PMID:1296791

Copeman, D; Skinner, J; Burgin, A

1992-12-01

334

update: acute KIDNEY INJURY  

E-print Network

Guidelines update: acute KIDNEY INJURY August 2012, Issue 8 Tlaleletso is a monthly publication that have acute kidney injury. We review the common presentations and causes, especially in patients living it to cover, please send us your feedback­ either on content or format. Respectfully, Mike Reid Acute kidney

Bushman, Frederic

335

Injuries in Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

Obeng, Cecilia

2009-01-01

336

Healing of Genital Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

Berkowitz, Carol D.

2011-01-01

337

Diaphragmatic injuries in childhood.  

PubMed

The early detection and surgical repair of diaphragmatic injury is vital for saving the life of symptomatic children suffering from trauma. Furthermore, an accurate diagnosis may be difficult, particularly in right-sided diaphragmatic injuries. Fifteen children with diaphragmatic injury treated at our department between 1977 and 1998 were evaluated retrospectively. They included 9 boys and 6 girls, and consisted of 8 left- and 6 right-sided injuries, and 1 midline retrosternal injury, due to a blunt (n = 13) or penetrating (n = 2) trauma. The most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (86.6%), and abdominal pain and vomiting (13.4%). The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively in 13 patients based on chest X-ray (n = 7), gastrointestinal series (n = 3), barium enema (n = 1), and computed tomography and/or ultrasonography findings (n = 2). Among these, a diagnostic delay occurred in 3 patients with right-sided injuries. A primary repair was performed through a laparotomy (n = 14) or thoracotomy (n = 1). Postoperative intussusception was the most frequent complication (n = 2). Diaphragmatic injury must be considered in any child who has sustained a thoracoabdominal trauma. Serial chest X-rays should be taken especially in right-sided injuries in which a considerable diagnostic delay may occur. Further radiological methods may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In addition, postoperative intussusception may be encountered following diaphragmatic repair. PMID:11213043

Karnak, I; Senocak, M E; Tanyel, F C; Büyükpamukçu, N

2001-01-01

338

Injuries in the military  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In November 1996, the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (AFEB) Injury Prevention and Control Work Group issued a report that cited injuries as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among military service members. This article reviews the types and categories of military morbidity and mortality data examined by the AFEB work group and the companion Department of Defense (DoD)

Bruce H Jones; Dennis M Perrotta; Michelle L Canham-Chervak; Mary Anne Nee; John F Brundage

2000-01-01

339

Injuries in preschool classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take when an

Cecilia Obeng

2009-01-01

340

Cardiac and Pulmonary Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac and pulmonary injuries present major chal- lenges in diagnosis and treatment. Distinct differences between penetrating and blunt trauma of these or- gans exist. Outcomes for severe injuries are still grave. Organized trauma systems can provide optimal care by minimizing prehospital time, allowing easy access to imaging modalities, and offering state-of-the-art treatment strategies. A multidisciplinary approach, including surgeons, intensivists, and

George C. Velmahos; Muhammad U. Butt

2008-01-01

341

Thermal and Environmental Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tissue heating and cell injury can be produced by exposure to hot liquids, flames, chemical agents, and electricity. The resulting tissue damage elicits the changes in all organ systems that typify the response to any injury. The magnitude and duration of...

M. C. Robson, B. A. Pruitt, C. W. Goodwin

1988-01-01

342

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... be affected. There may be changes to your personality and you may feel anxious, upset, irritable or depressed. You may have trouble controlling your impulses. In some cases, a severe traumatic brain injury can lead to coma or death. Diagnosis & Tests How is a traumatic brain injury diagnosed? At ...

343

Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 250 per 100,000 of the population sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually (Cassidy et al., 2004), making it the most commonly occurring neurological condition. Of these 102 per 100,000 are hospitalised (Chesnut, Carney, Maynard, Patterson, Mann, & Helfand, 1998). Because of advances in trauma care these individuals are surviving injuries that would previously have been fatal (Klimczak, Donovick, &

Janet M. Leathem; Muriel Christianson

344

FIREARM INJURY SURVEILLANCE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established an interagency agreement with CPSC to begin collecting data on nonfatal firearm-related injuries to monitor the incidence and characteristics of perso...

345

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autologous hamstring single-bundle Rigidfix technique compared with single-bundle Transfix technique  

PubMed Central

Background: Initial fixation strength is critical for the early post-operative rehabilitation of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. However, even the best femoral fixation devices remain controversial. We compared the results of 2 of the femoral fixation techniques,Rigidfix and Transfix. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with unilateral ACL deficiency were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. In Group A an anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction was performed using Rigidfix technique(Mitek, Norwood,MA), Group B were treated by a single bundle using Transfix technique(Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA). For tibial fixation, a bioabsorbable Intrafix interference screw was used for all the groups and the graft was fashioned from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons in all patients. The patients were subjected to a clinical evaluation, with assessment of the anterior drawer, Lachman's and the pivot-shift tests. They also completed the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Results: At a mean of 14 months (12–17) followup there were no significant differences concerning time between injury and range of movement between the 2 groups. However, the Rigidfix group showed significantly better results for the subjective assessment of knee function (P = 0.002). The Lachman, anterior drawer, and pivot-shift tests also showed no significant difference between the 2 groups. The IKDC scale showed no significant difference among the groups (P < 0.001).There was no difference regarding duration of operation and cost of the operation between the 2 groups.On clinical evaluation there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. However, regardless of the technique, all knees were improved by ACL reconstruction compared with their preoperative status. Conclusion: Both techniques can be used for reconstruction of ACL. Other factors, such as psychic profile of the patients should be considered for surgery planning. PMID:23210091

Hamid, Mousavi; Majid, Mohammadi

2012-01-01

346

Sports related ocular injuries  

PubMed Central

Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision. PMID:24532883

Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

347

Spinal Injuries in Children  

PubMed Central

About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia. PMID:22855681

Basu, Saumyajit

2012-01-01

348

Gymnastic wrist injuries.  

PubMed

During gymnastic activities, the wrist is exposed to many different types of stresses, including repetitive motion, high impact loading, axial compression, torsional forces, and distraction in varying degrees of ulnar or radial deviation and hyperextension. Many of these stresses are increased during upper extremity weight-bearing and predispose the wrist to high rates of injury during gymnastics. Distal radius stress injuries are the most common and most documented gymnastic wrist conditions. Other conditions include scaphoid impaction syndrome, dorsal impingement, scaphoid fractures, scaphoid stress reactions/fractures, capitate avascular necrosis, ganglia, carpal instability, triangular fibrocartilage complex tears, ulnar impaction syndrome, and lunotriquetral impingement. It is important to diagnose quickly and accurately the specific injury to initiate expediently the proper treatment and limit the extent of injury. In addition, a gymnast's training regimen should also include elements of injury prevention. PMID:18772690

Webb, Brian G; Rettig, Lance A

2008-01-01

349

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

350

Personality, stress, and injuries in professional ballet dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine soloist and principal dancers (mean age, 29.08 years) from America's two most celebrated ballet companies were administered questionnaires measur ing personality (API), occupational stress (OES), strain (PSQ), and coping mechanisms (PRQ), and injury pat terns. The results revealed that male dancers demon strated significantly more negative personality traits and psychological distress than female dancers or men in the general

Linda H. Hamilton; William G. Hamilton; James D. Meltzer; Peter Marshall; Marika Molnar

1989-01-01

351

Sport injuries in adolescents  

PubMed Central

In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID:22355484

Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbruck, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

2011-01-01

352

Ocular BB injuries.  

PubMed

Data from the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission indicate that air-powered guns were responsible for 22,800 injuries treated in emergency rooms during 1981, of which 1255 were eye injuries. From 1970 to 1981, 32 patients have undergone surgical intervention at the Wilmer Eye Institute for airgun-related eye injuries. Of the 22 patients with penetrating injuries from the pellets, 19 eyes were enucleated; final vision in the three remaining eyes was worse than 5/200. Of seven patients with nonpenetrating injuries, six had final vision of 20/40 or better. All three patients with penetrating injuries from shattered spectacle lenses had final vision of 20/40 or better. Histopathologic examination of the enucleated specimens demonstrated severe disruption of intraocular contents, particularly posteriorly. Despite the potential ocular dangers of airguns, only 11 states have enacted legislation that regulates their sale or use. BB injuries represent a devastating form of ocular trauma which can be prevented by adoption and enforcement of appropriate legislation. PMID:6514290

Sternberg, P; de Juan, E; Green, W R; Hirst, L W; Sommer, A

1984-10-01

353

Principal Strain Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the strain components ex, ey, and exy, this calculator computes the principal strains e1 and e2, the principal angle qp, the maximum shear strain exy max and its angle qs. It also illustrates an approximate Mohr's cirlce for the given strain state.

2008-05-22

354

Neonatal head injuries  

PubMed Central

A retrospective case note review of head injuries in neonates admitted to the Neonatal Surgical Unit in Glasgow between 1990 and 1996 (n=25) was carried out. Most injuries were caused by a fall (68%) and resulted in scalp haematomata and associated skull fractures in the majority of patients. Three neonates were involved in high speed road traffic accidents, and these infants all had intracranial pathology identified by computed tomography. Isolated skull fractures were common and did not appear to be associated with any neurological deficit. Non-accidental injury was uncommon in this age group. Outcome was excellent in the majority of patients (92%). PMID:11005402

Graham, C.; O'Toole, S.; Haddock, G.

2000-01-01

355

Musculoskeletal injuries in sports.  

PubMed

A large number of adolescents participate in various sports. Not withstanding the methodologic problems with epidemiologic data, a large percentage of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries. In most instances, the athlete first presents to his or her primary care physician, who must perform the initial assessment and decide on further management. Many injuries can be managed by the primary care physician. It is important to recognize the unique characteristics of adolescent growth and development that have implications for the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:16713775

Patel, Dilip R; Baker, Robert J

2006-06-01

356

Pediatric orofacial injuries.  

PubMed

Perioral injuries may have significant medical, dental and psychological consequences in children. Soft-tissue injuries are common-place, with the most common types being contusions, abrasions, lacerations and electrical and chemical burns. Each type requires specific care and follow through. Immediate intervention and treatment are important, and rapid neurologic assessment of a child before treatment helps the long-term prognosis. Children must also be screened for abuse and neglect. The common goal of treatment is to prevent infection, provide function and minimize scarring. Perioral injuries are preventable. PMID:9063192

Rothman, D L

1996-03-01

357

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

358

Major peripheral nerve injuries.  

PubMed

Major peripheral nerve injuries in the upper extremities can result in significant morbidity. Understanding the pathophysiology of these injuries aids in the assessment and planning of appropriate treatment. With limited nerve mobilization, tension-free repairs can often be performed using sutures, fibrin glue, or nerve connectors. Acellular allograft and autograft reconstruction are better for bridging any gaps greater than a few millimeters. Adherence to proper principles of nerve repair improves the chances of achieving a favorable result, although in general these injuries portend a guarded prognosis. PMID:23895717

Isaacs, Jonathan

2013-08-01

359

Epidemiology of paediatric injury.  

PubMed Central

Thousands of young lives are lost every year as a result of accidents, and trauma remains the number one cause of paediatric death. There is a pattern and regularity to children's injury: boys are more often victims than the girls, most injuries occur during the summer months, the pedestrian child has usually been the victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and, in 75% of these cases, has suffered head injury. The research into paediatric trauma is still very young. For instance, socio-economic and ethnic factors play a significant role in the statistics of accidental death. In order to take effective preventative measures more factors must be determined. PMID:7921561

Mazurek, A J

1994-01-01

360

Fast pitch softball injuries.  

PubMed

The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision injuries. Coaches should be cognisant of overtraining, vary day-to-day training routines to decrease repetitive musculoskeletal stress, focus on motor skills with equal emphasis on speed and efficiency of movement, and use drills that reinforce sport-specific, decision making processes to minimise mental mistakes. Conditioning programs that emphasise a combination of power, acceleration, flexibility, technical skill, functional capacity and injury prevention are recommended. Due to the limited body of knowledge presently available on this sport, a greater focus on injury surveillance would provide a clearer picture of injury causation and effective management procedures, leading toward safer participation and successful player development. PMID:11219502

Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

2001-01-01

361

Sex Differences in "Weightlifting" Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms  

PubMed Central

Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance, and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with weightlifting, in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, non-accidental) and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in type, mechanism and location of “weightlifting” injuries. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2002-2005, using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 14 and 30 were included in the study. CPSC sampling weights were used to calculate national estimates from the sample of 3,713 patients (Males= 3,102; Females= 611). Weighted Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences in mechanism, type, and location of injury for males versus females. Males had significantly more sprains and strains (P=0.004), while females demonstrated increased accidental injuries compared to males (P<0.001). The trunk was the most commonly injured body part for both males (36.9%) and females (27.4%). However, males had more trunk injuries than females (P<0.001), while females had more foot (P<0.001) and leg (P=0.03) injuries than males (P<0.001). The findings indicate that males may suffer more exertional type resistance injuries during weightlifting (sprains and strains) compared to females, especially at the trunk. Conversely, females may be more susceptible to lower extremity injuries resulting from accidents during resistance training. PMID:19855331

Quatman, Carmen E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2009-01-01

362

Imaging for the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

To understand the role of imaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is important to appreciate that TBI encompasses a heterogeneous group of intracranial injuries and includes both insults at the time of impact and a deleterious secondary cascade of insults that require optimal medical and surgical management. Initial imaging identifies the acute primary insult that is essential to diagnosing TBI, but serial imaging surveillance is also critical to identifying secondary injuries such as cerebral herniation and swelling that guide neurocritical management. Computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of TBI imaging in the acute setting, but magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) has better diagnostic sensitivity for nonhemorrhagic contusions and shear-strain injuries. Both CT and MRI can be used to prognosticate clinical outcome, and there is particular interest in advanced applications of both techniques that may greatly improve the sensitivity of conventional CT and MRI for both the diagnosis and prognosis of TBI. PMID:21274684

Kim, Jane J; Gean, Alisa D

2011-01-01

363

Soda pop vending machine injuries.  

PubMed

Fifteen male patients, 15 to 24 years of age, sustained injuries after rocking soda machines. The machines fell onto the victims, resulting in a variety of injuries. Three were killed. The remaining 12 required hospitalization for their injuries. Unless changes are made to safeguard these machines, people will continue to suffer severe and possibly fatal injuries from what are largely preventable accidents. PMID:3184337

Cosio, M Q

1988-11-11

364

Prevention and Control of Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

365

Catastrophic injuries among young athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While very rare, catastrophic injuries in youth sports have a major impact on athletes and their families when they do occur. This article reviews and summarises the sparse research on direct catastrophic injuries in youth sports, a direct catastrophic sports injury being defined as a sport injury that resulted from participation in the skills of the sport, and resulted in

E D Zemper

2010-01-01

366

Prevention of injury in karate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of knuckle protection on the type and incidence of injuries in traditional karate contests. Knuckle protection was mandatory at the Danish karate championships 1983 and 1986 (290 matches, 0.26 injuries per match), and prohibited at the championships 1984 and 1985 (620 matches, 0.25 injuries per match). Head injuries were more

H V Johannsen; F O Noerregaard

1988-01-01

367

Superlattice strain gage  

DOEpatents

A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Smith, Darryl L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

368

DARPA challenge: developing new technologies for brain and spinal injuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.

Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey

2012-06-01

369

Mutilated hand injuries.  

PubMed

The authors provide a review of treatment of the mutilated hand, discussing the effect of injury on soft tissue loss, intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, paravascular structures, tendons, and the bony skeleton. The authors review functional loss and restoration. PMID:22032584

Hegge, Theresa; Neumeister, Michael W

2011-10-01

370

Biomarkers of Lung Injury  

EPA Science Inventory

Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

371

Growth Plate Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... knee or ankle. Prognosis is poor, since premature stunting of growth is almost inevitable. A newer classification, ... and growth. Will the Affected Limb of a Child With a Growth Plate Injury Still Grow? Most ...

372

Facial Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... if the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones ... pressure does not cause nose damage or infection. Fractures Some otolaryngologist-head and neck specialists set fractured ...

373

Genital injuries in adults.  

PubMed

The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these. PMID:23219384

White, Catherine

2013-02-01

374

Fire Deaths and Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... to an estimated 40% of residential fire deaths (Smith 1999). Learn More about How to Prevent Home ... edition. Washington, D.C.: Home Safety Council, 2004. Smith GS, Branas C, Miller TR. Fatal nontraffic injuries ...

375

Extensor Tendon Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... these small-muscle tendons that allow delicate finger motions and coordination. CAUSES Extensor tendons are just under ... a splint with slings that allows some finger motion, may be used for injuries of this kind. ...

376

Neuropsychiatric Factors in Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigators characterized the physiological, neuropsychological, and social/behavioral course of recovery from mild head trauma. They also attempted to determine if long-term recovery functions can be predicted from the severity of injury, cognitive...

W. Hargreaves, H. Wolfe

1993-01-01

377

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources to Promote Psychological Health and Resilience in Military and Civilian Communities." Story National Plan Supports Veterans' ... and traumatic brain injury research efforts at the Military Health System Research Symposium. Story Maryland Nurses Learn ...

378

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... service member refers to people serving in the military. This reference summary explains traumatic brain injuries. It ... are a common cause of TBIs in the military during wartime. Many service members have suffered from ...

379

Seasonal Hand Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Injury Prevention Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español ER 101 Where Should I Go? Check In Medical ... Admission to the Hospital Issues You Should Know ER Heroes Home > Social Media ACEP in Social Media ...

380

Astroglia in CNS injury.  

PubMed

The astroglial response to CNS injury is considered in the context of neuron-glial relationships. Although previous models suggested that astroglial cells present in "scars" impede axon regrowth owing to irreversible changes in the glial cell following injury, recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that astroglial cells exhibit considerable plasticity, elevating expression of the glial filament protein and altering expression of properties which support axons, including extracellular matrix components and cell surface adhesion systems. Both in vivo and in vitro studies on neuron-glia interactions in different brain regions suggest that glia express region-specific properties, including ion channels, neurotransmitter uptake and receptor systems, and cell surface adhesion systems. Together these findings suggest that a more detailed analysis of glial response to injury in different brain regions will lead to an appreciation of the diversity of the astroglial response to injury, and its regulation by neuron-glia relationships. PMID:1827781

Hatten, M E; Liem, R K; Shelanski, M L; Mason, C A

1991-01-01

381

Treatment of Facial Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... be sure to ask that an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is called for consultation. With their ... injury that might otherwise go unnoticed. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are experts in treating and repairing facial ...

382

Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... which could involve surgery. Secondly, the patient receives steroid medication as soon as possible after the injury. Recent studies show that steroids may help to improve neurological function. Rehabilitation As ...

383

Direct catastrophic injury in sports.  

PubMed

Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes. PMID:16272269

Boden, Barry P

2005-11-01

384

[Air gun injuries in children].  

PubMed

The authors describe four cases of air rifle child injuries. One was a potentially lethal injury, a penetrating wound of the transverse colon and injury to the stomach. During urgent laparotomy the perforations of the gastrointestinal tract were sutured. In the remaining three children the injuries were less serious and affected soft tissues. In the discussion the authors summarize data from the literature concerning injuries to the head, neck, chest, abdomen and extremities, incl. lethal injuries. In instances when a penetrating abdominal injury cannot be ruled out, the authors emphasize the necessity of urgent laparotomy and surgical treatment of possible intraabdominal lesions. In injuries to other parts of the body a strictly individual procedure focused on repair of the injury is indicated. The authors also emphasize prevention of these injuries by adherence to safety during shooting and other manipulations with arms an air rifle must not be a toy for children and adolescents unless they are supervised by a responsible adult. PMID:1925784

Koudelka, J; Preis, J

1991-02-01

385

Neurologic injury in snowmobiling  

PubMed Central

Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling. PMID:25024887

Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

386

Basketball injuries in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt\\u000a changes in the athlete’s direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective\\u000a equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute\\u000a to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists’

Ana Maria Gaca

2009-01-01

387

Epidemiology of Waterskiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

Coast Guard statistics indicate a national boating fatality rate of 9.6 deaths per 100,000 crafts. In 1977 in California, five fatalities and 70 serious injuries were directly attributable to waterskiing. The four cases reported here include three patients with propeller injuries, including one nearly fatal amputation. In each case basic measures for boating safety were overlooked. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:117637

Banta, John V.

1979-01-01

388

Timing of neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings prior to landing in high school male athletes, female athletes, and female non-athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a discrepancy between males and females in regards to lower extremity injury rates, particularly at the knee [Agel, J., Arendt, E.A., Bershadsky, B., 2005. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball and soccer: a 13-year review. American Journal of Sports Medicine 33, (4) 524–530]. Gender differences in neuromuscular recruitment characteristics of the muscles that stabilize

Jennifer M. Medina; Tamara C. Valovich McLeod; Suzanne K. Howell; Jackie J. Kingma

2008-01-01

389

Intestinal injuries following induced abortion.  

PubMed

Sixteen cases of intestinal injuries following illegally induced abortion are reviewed. They constituted 2% of all such cases in the study period. Ten were terminal ileal injuries while six were colonic. Colonic injuries were predominantly encountered in the first trimester. The relative fixity of the terminal ileum and pelvic colon may be a factor in the determination of the site of injury. Morbidity and mortality are related to both gestational age and site of injury. PMID:6152800

Imoedemhe, D A; Ezimokhai, M; Okpere, E E; Aboh, I F

1984-08-01

390

Craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury.  

PubMed

The increase in neurotrophic factors after craniocerebral injury has been shown to promote fracture healing. Moreover, neurotrophic factors play a key role in the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerve. However, whether craniocerebral injury alters the repair of peripheral nerve injuries remains poorly understood. Rat injury models were established by transecting the left sciatic nerve and using a free-fall device to induce craniocerebral injury. Compared with sciatic nerve injury alone after 6-12 weeks, rats with combined sciatic and craniocerebral injuries showed decreased sciatic functional index, increased recovery of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight, recovery of sciatic nerve ganglia and corresponding spinal cord segment neuron morphologies, and increased numbers of horseradish peroxidase-labeled cells. These results indicate that craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25374593

Wang, Wei; Gao, Jun; Na, Lei; Jiang, Hongtao; Xue, Jingfeng; Yang, Zhenjun; Wang, Pei

2014-09-15

391

Craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury  

PubMed Central

The increase in neurotrophic factors after craniocerebral injury has been shown to promote fracture healing. Moreover, neurotrophic factors play a key role in the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerve. However, whether craniocerebral injury alters the repair of peripheral nerve injuries remains poorly understood. Rat injury models were established by transecting the left sciatic nerve and using a free-fall device to induce craniocerebral injury. Compared with sciatic nerve injury alone after 6–12 weeks, rats with combined sciatic and craniocerebral injuries showed decreased sciatic functional index, increased recovery of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight, recovery of sciatic nerve ganglia and corresponding spinal cord segment neuron morphologies, and increased numbers of horseradish peroxidase-labeled cells. These results indicate that craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25374593

Wang, Wei; Gao, Jun; Na, Lei; Jiang, Hongtao; Xue, Jingfeng; Yang, Zhenjun; Wang, Pei

2014-01-01

392

Dancers' and musicians' injuries.  

PubMed

This overview is based on the over 30 years of performing arts medicine experience of the author, an orthopaedic surgeon who devoted his professional life entirely to the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of dancers' and musicians' injuries. After a short introduction on the specific demands of professional dance and music making, it describes some general principles of orthopaedic dance medicine and causes of injuries in dancers. The relation of dance injuries with compensatory mechanisms for insufficient external rotation in the hips is explained, as well as hypermobility and the importance of 'core-stability'. As a general principle of treatment, the physician must respect the 'passion' of the dancer and never give an injured dancer the advice to stop dancing. Mental practice helps to maintain dance technical capabilities. The specific orthopaedic dance-medicine section deals with some common injuries of the back and lower extremities in dancers. An important group of common dance injuries form the causes of limited and painful 'relevé' in dancers, like 'dancer's heel' (posterior ankle impingement syndrome), 'dancer's tendinitis' (tenovaginitis of the m.flexor hallucis longus) and hallux rigidus. The second half of the overview deals with the general principles of orthopaedic musicians' medicine and causes of injuries in musicians, like a sudden change in the 'musical load' or a faulty playing posture. Hypermobility in musicians is both an asset and a risk factor. As a general principle of treatment, early specialized medical assessment is essential to rule out specific injuries. Making the diagnosis in musicians is greatly facilitated by examining the patient during playing the musical instrument. The playing posture, stabilisation of the trunk and shoulder girdle and practising habits should always be checked. Musicians in general are intelligent and the time spent on extensive explanation and advice is well spent. In overuse injuries, relative rest supported by 'mental practice' is effective. The specific orthopaedic musicians' medicine section deals with some common injuries of the neck and upper extremities, like (posture related) cervicobrachialgia, and thoracic outlet syndrome. An important group of causes of musicians' injuries form the entrapment neuropathies (especially ulnaropathy), osteoarthritis of the hands and hypermobility. PMID:23572035

Rietveld, A B M Boni

2013-04-01

393

Sports injuries during one academic year in 6799 Irish school children.  

PubMed

Details of the sports injuries occurring in 6799 children between the ages of 10 and 18 were recorded during the course of one academic year (September to June). One hundred sixteen injuries were noted: 29 sprains, 20 fractures, 18 strains, 14 contusions, 10 wounds, 7 dislocations, and 18 other injuries. On average these injuries resulted in 0.47 days of hospitalization, 18 days of incapacity, and 28 days before full recovery. The activities at which the injuries occurred were: football, 24; athletics, 15; rugby and gymnastics, 11 each; hockey, 10; basketball, 9; hurling and soccer, 8 each; indoor soccer, 5; camogie, 4; swimming, 3; tennis, 1; and others, 7. The rugby and indoor soccer injuries tended to be of above average seriousness. Eighty-eight injuries occurred in males and 28 in females. Males over 14 were three and half times as likely to be injured as younger boys. In girls the incidence of injury dropped after the age of 15. In both sexes the likelihood of injury increased with the physical standing of the individual. In outstanding males over the age of 15 the incidence of injury was one in six. The factors which contributed most frequently to injury were recklessness on the part of the injured party and foul or illegal play by another player. Lack of fitness and defects in sports gear, playing area, and equipment were other common causes. PMID:6703182

Watson, A W

1984-01-01

394

[Injuries caused by parasailing].  

PubMed

The new sport of parasailing seems to be set to go through the same stages of enthusiasm, disillusionment and consolidation as hang gliding did some years ago. The high number of injuries we see in our clinic, which is in one of the areas of Germany where parasailing is most popular, shows that the phase of enthusiasm is still in full swing. A total of 48 injuries sustained during parasailing and treated in our clinic within 6 months were analyzed with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Most of the injuries occurred with unfavorable wind and weather conditions; 58% of them occurred in the start phase as the result of falls on uneven ground, on rocks, or trees; 10% during the flight phase as a result of turbulence or collisions with obstacles; and 32% during the landing phase, mainly by falling on the back from some height while landing too slowly, or by falling forward while landing too fast with back wind. As to the sites of the injuries, 60% were to the lower extremity, 26% to the upper extremity, and 14% to the body. The most serious injuries were fractures (42%), contusions (26%), ligamentous lesions (19%), luxations (6%), and deep wounds (6%). The most frequent injuries were ligamentous lesions and fractures of the upper ankle (14), spine contusions (5), radial fractures (4), knee contusions (4), hand fractures (3), calcaneus fractures (2) and shoulder luxations (2). We classed 56% of the injuries as mild, 42% as moderate, requiring subsequent operation or hospital treatment, and 1 as severe, with 2 months' hospital inpatient treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2762821

Geyer, M; Beyer, M

1989-07-01

395

Injury Profile of a Professional Soccer Team in the Premier League of Iran  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite numerous studies which have been done regarding soccer injuries worldwide, there is lack of available data considering the epidemiology of injuries in the Iranian soccer premier league, although it is the most popular sport in the country. The main goal of this research was to determine the incidence of physical injuries in the studied population, considering other characteristics such as site, type and mechanism as well. Methods Twenty one adult male professional soccer players (age 24±3), members of a team (Tehran-Pas) participating in Iranian premier league, were followed during a 4-month period. The injury characteristics and exposure times were recorded by the team physician during all the matches and training sessions. Results The total exposure time was 2610 playing hours (2352 h of training versus 258 h of competition). Eighty six percent of the injuries were acute. Incidence of acute injuries was 16.5 (95% CI: 12-22) per 1000 hours of playing (11.5 per 1000 hrs of training and 62 per 1000 hrs of competition). The most common types of injuries were strains followed by contusions, each of which constituted 30% of acute injuries. More than 80% of injuries occurred in lower limbs, especially in thigh and groin regions. Nearly 60% of acute injuries occurred in dominant side of the body, and collision was the reason of about half of the acute injuries. Severity of more than 70% of the injuries was minor. On average each injury had led the player being off the field for about 10 days. Conclusion The incidence of injury in this research is in range of numbers obtained in important international tournaments but the rate of injuries during training sessions is higher than comparable studies. PMID:22375208

Hassabi, Mohammad; Mohammad-Javad Mortazavi, Seyed; Giti, Mohammad-Reza; Hassabi, Majid; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Shapouran, Sara

2010-01-01

396

Strains at the myotendinous junction predicted by a micromechanical model Bahar Sharafi a  

E-print Network

of the mechanical properties between the fibers and the endomysium. In active stretch, strain distributions a , Elizabeth G. Ames b , Jeffrey W. Holmes c,d , Silvia S. Blemker a,d,e,n a Department of Mechanical Keywords: Myotendinous junction Injury Strain Muscle mechanics Micromechanics Finite element modeling

Blemker, Silvia Salinas

397

Pediatric elbow injuries in athletes.  

PubMed

Elbow injuries in pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can range from medial tension injuries to posterior shear injuries. Elbow injuries in this population continue to rise in parallel with the increase in youth participation in sports both throughout the calendar year and across multiple sports. Many of these injuries are noncontact and are attributed to overuse. Evaluation and management of youth and adolescent athletic elbow injuries requires knowledge of developmental anatomy, injury pathophysiology, and established treatment algorithms. Furthermore, risk factors contributing to elbow injuries must be recognized, with education and recommendations for safe play continually advocated. This education--of parents, athletes, and coaches--is paramount in reducing the climbing incidence of elbow injuries in our youth athletes. PMID:25077752

Makhni, Eric C; Jegede, Kola A; Ahmad, Christopher S

2014-09-01

398

Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra  

MedlinePLUS

... urethra; Bruised bladder; Urethral injury; Bladder injury; Pelvic fracture; Urethral disruption ... is uncommon. Only about 8 - 10% of pelvic fractures lead to bladder injury. Because the bladder is ...

399

Effects of field location, time in competition, and phase of play on injury severity in high school football.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of competitive intensity, represented by the variables time in competition, phase of play, and field location, on injury severity in U.S. high school football. The injury rate was higher in competition than practice (RR = 4.75, 95% CI: 4.34-5.20). Mild and moderate injuries were frequently lower leg/foot/ankle sprains/strains and concussions. Severe injuries were frequently knee Sprains/strains and arm fractures. Severe injuries composed a greater proportion of injuries sustained during the beginning and middle of competition compared with injuries sustained during the end/overtime (IPR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.25-2.69). Compared with injuries sustained during general play, a greater proportion of kickoff/punt injuries were severe (IPR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.07-2.68) or were concussions (IPR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.05-3.30). Identifying factors contributing to severe injury is a crucial first step toward developing targeted evidence-based interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of severe injuries among the millions of high school football players. PMID:19266392

Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

2009-01-01

400

Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capao Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcao-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

2003-01-01

401

Dance-related injury.  

PubMed

Although dance medicine has derived extensive knowledge from sports medicine, some aspects covered in the practice of dance medicine are unique to this field. Acute and overuse injuries must be analyzed within the scope of associated mechanisms of injury, mainly related to the practice of specific dance techniques. Even though most available medical literature concerning dance medicine is specific to ballet-related conditions, many of the concepts covered here and in other articles can be helpful in the treatment and diagnosis of participants in other dance disciplines. Continued research is expanding the knowledge on injury patterns of different dance disciplines. It is the experience of dance practitioners that dancers are quite in touch with their bodies; thus, when their ailments are systematically analyzed, and underlying cause can usually be identified. In this sense, it is evident that the principles of dance medicine and rehabilitation allow the practitioner to arrive at a diagnosis and treat the underlying causes to prevent reinjury, ameliorate sequelae from injury, and minimize residual deficits after injury. PMID:16952759

Motta-Valencia, Keryl

2006-08-01

402

Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 8 (2011) 323331 DOI 10.3233/ABB-2011-0027  

E-print Network

, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, spinal cord injury Abbreviations DTI Deep Tissue Injury FES Functional of the skeletal biomechanics is required to assess the relative value of GM vs. hamstring (HS) hip extensors Electrical Stimulation FMS Functional Magnetic Stimulation GM Gluteus Maximus HS Hamstrings IT Ischial

Loeb, Gerald E.

403

Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 8 (2011) 333343 DOI 10.3233/ABB-2011-0028  

E-print Network

, spinal cord injury, gluteus maximus, hamstrings Abbreviations GM Gluteus Maximus HS Hamstrings NMES to quantify the value of GM relative to hamstring hip extensors (HS), using muscle moment models based of Motion SCI Spinal Cord Injury Corresponding author: Hilton M. Kaplan, MD, PhD, PO Box 2337, Beverly Hills

Loeb, Gerald E.

404

Sports related warm up and stretching activities for  

E-print Network

on the PT Website titled: "Common Overuse Injuries Attributed to Cycling and Ways to Minimize These Injuries. Hamstring Stretches Several ways are shown to stretch your hamstrings. Hold these stretches for 30 seconds strengthening them as well. Have someone hold onto your legs and feet for assistance. Hamstring Stretch

405

Pediatric head injury and concussion.  

PubMed

Children with head injuries frequently present to emergency departments. Even though most of these children have minor injuries, head injury is the most common cause of traumatic deaths in pediatric patients. The pediatric GCS and decision rules for obtaining head CT imaging help the provider evaluate head-injured infants and children. The provider must be vigilant to diagnose those who have life-threatening intracranial injuries or are victims of abusive head trauma. The goal of the emergency physician is to diagnose and treat the consequences of the primary injury and to limit or prevent secondary injury. PMID:23915598

Wing, Robyn; James, Catherine

2013-08-01

406

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

This strain carries a conditional mutation of Brca1 on a mixed genetic background. Specifically, exon 11 is flanked with loxP sites. Mating this strain with any Cre transgenic strain will result in the inactivation of Brca1 wherever Cre is expressed.

407

TECHWR-L: Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you work in front of a computer a lot, you are probably a candidate for Repetitive-Stress Injuries (RSI). This article from TECHWR-L entitled, Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries: A Guide for the Technical Communicator gives some helpful tips for preventing the aches, pains, hand problems and eye strain associated with repeated computer usage. The article discusses different mouse options, keyboard options, and other adjustments you can make to lessen your risk of RSI and make typing at the computer a little more pleasant. Additional links at the bottom provide further information on healthy computing.

408

Martial arts injuries.  

PubMed

In the United States, approximately 1.5 million to 2 million persons practice the martial arts. It is the general belief that martial arts are safe, with little thought given to the physical forces involved. Some enthusiasts gravitate to the martial arts to learn self-defense, whereas others participate to improve cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and self-esteem. Some join for the structured exercise programs, whereas others desire the artistic expression or have a need to compete. Injuries involve the head and neck region, trunk, and extremities. Soft tissue trauma, hematomas, and lacerations are some of the most common injuries. Occasionally fractures occur, most often involving the hands and digits. The neurosurgical literature indicates that wearing headgear increases the shearing injury to nerve fibers and neurons in the brain in proportion to the degree of acceleration to the head. Three case presentations illustrate death resulting from anterior chest trauma. PMID:9154740

Wilkerson, L A

1997-04-01

409

Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.  

PubMed

The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

2002-06-01

410

ACL reconstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... from are the knee cap tendon or the hamstring tendon. Your hamstring is the muscle behind your knee. Tissue taken ... heal Failure of the surgery to relieve symptoms Injury to a nearby blood vessel Pain in the ...

411

Fatal cycling injuries.  

PubMed

Cycling accidents are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, especially in boys under the age of 16. While most cycling injuries result from simple falls from the bicycle, the majority of fatalities are caused by head injuries resulting from accidents involving motor vehicles. It is estimated that up to 85% of all cycling fatalities caused by head injuries could be prevented by the use of an appropriate cycling helmet. Although the majority of adult cyclists wear helmets the reverse is true for children, who comprise the greatest proportion of all cyclists. Intensive educational programmes increase the number of cycling helmets that are sold, but have a lesser effect on the number used while cycling. Legislation, compassionately enforced on minors, i.e. with an understanding attitude towards their developmental stage, is the only proven technique that substantially improves rates of helmet use by young cyclists. Such legislation reduces their morbidity and mortality from head injuries. This article reviews the epidemiological factors associated with traumatic cycling injuries and the nature of these injuries. Special attention is paid to head injuries and the evidence that these are largely preventable with the use of appropriate 3-layered cycling helmets, the features of which are detailed. Factors promoting or discouraging helmet use by children are reviewed. These include the following factors: age, since helmet use is highest in mature cyclists and lowest in children because of negative peer pressure; parental example, including an attitude of safety consciousness and parental concern; higher levels of education; access to discounted helmets; public campaigns to promote helmet use; and, most importantly, appropriate legislation. But it is clear that appropriate legislation making helmet use compulsory for all cyclists is the only effective method for increasing helmet use, especially by young cyclist. Such legislation would reduce a mortality rate among young cyclists that has been equated to the mortality caused by some childhood infections in the pre-vaccination era. Some argue that physicians have a particular responsibility for promoting effective legislation for mandatory helmet use so that young children can be 'vaccinated' against the risk of the modern childhood epidemic; fatal head injury while cycling. PMID:8571008

Noakes, T D

1995-11-01

412

The compressive response of porcine adipose tissue from low to high strain rate Kerstyn Comley, Norman Fleck*  

E-print Network

engi- neering models for tissue damage due to dynamic loading, such as air blast and sand blast, sports injury and high rate needle-free drug delivery, there is a need to measure the high strain rate response

Fleck, Norman A.

413

Injury surveillance in Victoria, Australia: developing comprehensive injury incidence estimates.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop an estimate of the incidence of all medically-treated injury by level of severity and to broadly describe the epidemiology of injury in the Australian State of Victoria in a given year. Victoria has developed a relatively comprehensive injury surveillance system. Data is currently collected by various agencies on injury deaths, hospitalisations and emergency department attendances. The method used to establish the incidence of both unintentional and intentional injury is described. Incidence figures were directly derived, or estimated from, the available Victorian health sector and Coronial data bases for three level of severity (deaths, hospitalisations and medical treatment only) and for causes of injury, age and gender groups, location of the injury event and activity at the time of injury. In 1993/1994, injuries resulted in at least 1487 deaths, 67,402 persons hospitalised and an estimated 397,160 medically-treated, non-hospitalised injured persons in Victoria. In total, over 466,000 people were injured or 10.5 persons per year for every 100 residents. Males sustain 62% of all injuries yet represent 49.5% of the population. Almost three-quarters of injury fatalities and over 60% of non-fatal injuries occur among males. Young people aged 15-24 years account for 22% of all injuries yet represent only about 16% of the Victorian population. Children (0-14 years) also suffer relatively high injury rates, although mainly less severe, while the elderly are at risk of more severe injuries. The leading cause of injury death in Victoria is suicide, followed by motor vehicle accidents, whereas falls are the leading cause of all non-fatal injury. Most injuries occur in the home (36%), areas of sport and recreation (12.5%) and transport (11.7%). They are mainly associated with leisure activities (33.1%), work (11%) and transportation (10.8%). This study demonstrates a method for the development of comprehensive injury incidence estimates. The results indicate that injuries have a significant impact on the Victorian community, health care system and economy in general. Reliable incidence data are necessary for descriptive epidemiology and provide the basis for quality of life and economic cost studies. Together this information has potential application for evidence-based strategic planning and evaluation in injury research and prevention. PMID:10688484

Watson, W L; Ozanne-Smith, J

2000-03-01

414

Intangibles in Evaluating Athletic Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples are presented of four categories of intangibles sometimes encountered in diagnosing sports injuries: (1) predominantly psychological causes; (2) the con artist; (3) illnesses mimicing injuries; (4) bizarre activities fitting no categorization. (MJB)

Hair, Judson E.

1977-01-01

415

FastStats: All Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... State and Territorial Data NCHS Home FastStats Home All Injuries Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number ... first-listed diagnostic categories [PDF - 58 KB] Mortality All injury deaths Number of deaths: 187,464 Deaths ...

416

Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities  

MedlinePLUS

... decade. More » Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Requiring Days Away From Work November 26, 2013 The rate ... PDF 62K) Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work ( HTML ) ( PDF ) Archived Census of ...

417

Injuries among teens employed in the homebuilding industry in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Objective—To describe injuries of teens employed in the residential construction industry and to assess whether their injury experiences are significantly different from those of adults in this high risk industry. Methods and setting—North Carolina homebuilders workers' compensation data for a 41 month period were analyzed. Injuries of teens were identified and described by body part injured, nature, and cause of injury. Proportionate injury ratios were used to summarize and compare the injury experience of teens with those of adult construction workers. Results—Teens had proportionately more injuries to the eye and foot and fewer injuries to the back than adults. They had more cuts and scratches and fewer sprains and strains. They also had proportionately fewer injuries from falls from elevations and overexertion, injuries that account for a significant cost burden in construction. Consistent with these findings, teens had significantly fewer injuries resulting in medical costs or lost time costs of $1000 or more. Conclusions—The analyses indicate that injuries of teens are less serious than those of adults. This finding may indicate that their work exposures are less dangerous than those of adults in comparable broad categories of construction. However, the data also provide documentation of injuries to teens resulting from work at heights, use of power tools, and motor vehicles with the majority of more expensive claims involving one of these exposures. Construction is dangerous work and these results add to the documentation of the need for additional measures to prevent work related injuries among all workers—teens and adults—in this industry. PMID:11565985

Lipscomb, H; Li, L

2001-01-01

418

Injuries in youth amateur soccer and rugby players--comparison of incidence and characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised an initial baseline examination to ascertain the characteristics of the players and their level of performance, and a one season observation period during which a physician visited the team weekly and documented all occurring injuries. Twelve soccer and 10 rugby school teams with male amateur players aged 14–18 years were selected for the study. 145 soccer and 123 rugby players could be followed up over one season. Results: Comparison of the incidence of soccer and rugby injuries indicated that rugby union football was associated with a significantly higher rate of injury than soccer. The differences were pronounced for contact injuries, injuries of the head, neck, shoulder, and upper extremity, as well as for concussion, fractures, dislocations, and strains. Rugby players incurred 1.5 times more overuse and training injuries in relation to exposure time, and 2.7 times more match injuries than soccer players. Three rugby players but no soccer players had to stop their participation in sport because of severe injury. Conclusion: The incidence of injury in New Zealand school teams playing soccer or rugby union is high, probably in part because of the low ratio of hours spent in training relative to hours spent playing matches. The development and implementation of preventive interventions to reduce the rate and severity of injury is recommended. PMID:15039253

Junge, A; Cheung, K; Edwards, T; Dvorak, J

2004-01-01

419

Determining the Prevalence and Assessing the Severity of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background Mixed martial arts (MMA) is currently the fastest growing sport in the United States and has recently surpassed boxing as the most popular full contact sport. Due to the physical nature of the sport, MMA is associated with various types of injuries. Objective The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying prevalence and assessing the severity, location, and type of injuries in MMA athletes sustained during MMA related activities in the twelve month period prior to the survey. Methods A total of fifty-five subjects between the ages of 18 to 39 participated in the study. Participants were given a two-part questionnaire to collect demographic and injury data. Results Two hundred seven injuries were reported in the study. Low belt ranks had significantly more injuries more than any other belt rank, resulting in more than two times higher injury rate. Professional fighters had significantly more injuries than amateur fighters, resulting in three times higher injury rate. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (38.2%), followed by the lower extremities (30.4%), upper extremities (22.7%), torso (8.2%), and groin (0.5%). Injuries to the nose (6.3%), shoulder (6.3%), and toe (6.3%) were the most common. The most common type of injury was contusions (29.4%), followed by strains (16.2%), sprains (14.9%), and abrasions (10.1%). Conclusion Injury prevention efforts should consider the prevalence and distribution of injuries and focus on reducing or preventing injuries to the head/neck/face in MMA related activities. Preventative measures should focus on improving protective equipment during training, and possible competition rule modifications to further minimize participant injury. PMID:21509103

2009-01-01

420

Radiology of musculoskeletal stress injuries  

SciTech Connect

With the new emphasis on physical fitness, musculoskeletal stress injuries are being seen with greater frequency in children and adults, and in locations that are not widely associated with stress injury. Some of the injuries continue to be mistaken for signs of more serious illnesses, such as infection and neoplasm, and this may lead to unnecessary investigative effort. This book covers both the classic stress injuries and the new manifestations.

Keats, T.E.

1989-01-01

421

Osseous Stress Injury in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Osseous fatigue injuries occur as a result of cumulative stresses placed upon physiologically normal bone. Such injuries are\\u000a frequently encountered in athletes and military recruits. Particularly in athletes, the early diagnosis of stress injury is\\u000a essential to prevent the development of more serious injury, to facilitate rehabilitation and to enable early return to training\\u000a and competition. Imaging plays a central

Melanie A. Hopper; Philip Robinson

422

Pelvic, Hip, and Thigh Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pelvic, hip, and thigh injuries are relatively rare in the young athlete (1). The young athlete with pelvic or hip pain may present with an acute injury necessitating immediate treatment. An acute\\u000a injury may cause pain in the pelvic, hip, thigh, or even knee region. More commonly, the young athlete will have a chronic\\u000a injury that will limit activities during

Jason H. Nielson

423

Football injuries in children and adolescent players: are there clues for prevention?  

PubMed

Football (soccer) is the world's most popular sport with most players being younger than 18 years. Playing football can induce beneficial health effects, but there is also a high risk of injury. Therefore, it is necessary to implement measures for preventing injuries. The present review analyzes and summarizes published scientific information on the incidence and characteristics of football injuries in children and adolescent players to arrive at sound conclusions and valid considerations for the development of injury-prevention programs. A literature search was conducted up to November 2012. Fifty-three relevant scientific publications were detected. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for pooled analysis. Additional information from the remaining 21 studies was considered where appropriate to obtain a broader perspective on the injury problem in children and youth football. Training injury incidence was nearly constant for players aged 13-19 years, ranging from 1 to 5 injuries per 1,000 h training. Match injury incidence tended to increase with age through all age groups, with an average incidence of about 15 to 20 injuries per 1,000 match hours in players older than 15 years. Between 60 and 90 % of all football injuries were classified as traumatic and about 10-40 % were overuse injuries. Most injuries (60-90 %) were located at the lower extremities with the ankle, knee, and thigh being mostly affected. The frequency of upper-extremity and head/face injuries was higher in those studies that analyzed match injuries only. The most common injury types were strains, sprains, and contusions (10 up to 40 % each). There is some evidence that the risk of traumatic injuries and, in particular, of sustaining a fracture, contusion, or concussion was higher during match play than in practice sessions. Fractures were more frequent in children younger than 15 years than in older players. About half of all time-loss injuries led to an absence from sport of less than 1 week, one third resulted in an absence between 1 and 4 weeks, and 10 to 15 % of all injuries were severe. Separate data for players under the age of 11 years are almost absent. Maturation status seems to have an influence on injury characteristics, although evidence is not conclusive at this time. Three main areas seem to be of particular relevance for future prevention research in young football players: (1) the substantial number of severe contact injuries during matches, (2) the high number of fractures in younger players, and (3) the influence of maturation status and growth spurts. PMID:23723046

Faude, Oliver; Rößler, Roland; Junge, Astrid

2013-09-01

424

Sports and recreation related injury episodes in the US population, 1997-99  

PubMed Central

Objective: To characterize sports and recreation related (SR) injury episodes in the US population. SR activities are growing in popularity suggesting the need for increased awareness of SR injuries as a public health concern for physically active persons of all ages in the US population. Setting: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a face-to-face household survey conducted yearly by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Demographic and health data are collected from a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population residing in the US. Methods: Medically attended injury events reported in the 1997–99 Injury Section of the NHIS were categorized according to the associated sport or recreational activity using a classification scheme based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury system. Episodes where the injured person received any type of medical attention (that is, medical advice or treatment) from any health care provider were used to report the incidence, severity, and nature of SR injuries sustained by US citizens. Results: Annually, an estimated seven million Americans received medical attention for SR injuries (25.9 injury episodes per 1000 population). For 5–24 year olds, this national estimate was about 42% higher than estimates based on SR injuries seen only in emergency departments over a similar time frame. The highest average annual SR injury episode rates were for children ages 5–14 years (59.3 per 1000 persons) and persons aged 15–24 years (56.4 per 1000 persons). The SR injury episode rate for males was more than twice the rate for females. The age adjusted injury rate for whites was 1.5 times higher than for blacks (28.8 v 19.0 per 1000 population). Basketball was the most frequently mentioned SR activity when the injury episode occurred, with a rate of about four injury events per 1000 population. Strains and sprains accounted for 31% of injury episodes. An estimated 1.1 million SR episode related injuries involve the head or neck region, of which 17% were internal head injuries. The most common mechanisms of injury were struck by/against (34%), fall (28%), and overexertion (13%). Conclusion: As physical activity continues to be promoted as part of a healthy lifestyle, SR injuries are becoming an important public health concern for both children and adults. Prevention efforts aimed at reducing SR injuries through targeting high risk activities, places of occurrence, activity, risk behaviors, and use of protective devices need to go beyond focusing on children and also consider physically active adults. PMID:12810736

Conn, J; Annest, J; Gilchrist, J

2003-01-01

425

The role of mouse strain differences in the susceptibility to fibrosis: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

In humans, a number of genetic factors have been linked to the development of fibrosis in a variety of different organs. Seeking a wider understanding of this observation in man is ethically important. There is mounting evidence suggesting that inbred mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds demonstrate variable susceptibility to a fibrotic injury. We performed a systematic review of the literature describing strain and organ specific response to injury in order to determine whether genetic susceptibility plays a role in fibrogenesis. Data were collected from studies that were deemed eligible for analysis based on set inclusion criteria, and findings were assessed in relation to strain of mouse, type of injury and organ of investigation. A total of 44 studies were included covering 21 mouse strains and focusing on fibrosis in the lung, liver, kidney, intestine and heart. There is evidence that mouse strain differences influence susceptibility to fibrosis and this appears to be organ specific. For instance, C57BL/6J mice are resistant to hepatic, renal and cardiac fibrosis but susceptible to pulmonary and intestinal fibrosis. However, BALB/c mice are resistant to pulmonary fibrosis but susceptible to hepatic fibrosis. Few studies have assessed the effect of the same injury stimulus in different organ systems using the same strains of mouse. Such mouse strain studies may prove useful in elucidating the genetic as well as epigenetic factors in humans that could help determine why some people are more susceptible to the development of certain organ specific fibrosis than others. PMID:24294831

2013-01-01

426

Maximum principal strain and strain rate associated with concussion diagnosis correlates with changes in corpus callosum white matter indices.  

PubMed

On-field monitoring of head impacts, combined with finite element (FE) biomechanical simulation, allow for predictions of regional strain associated with a diagnosed concussion. However, attempts to correlate these predictions with in vivo measures of brain injury have not been published. This article reports an approach to and preliminary results from the correlation of subject-specific FE model-predicted regions of high strain associated with diagnosed concussion and diffusion tensor imaging to assess changes in white matter integrity in the corpus callosum (CC). Ten football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets to record head impacts sustained during play completed high field magnetic resonance imaging preseason and within 10 days of a diagnosed concussion. The Dartmouth Subject-Specific FE Head model was used to generate regional predictions of strain and strain rate following each impact associated with concussion. Maps of change in fractional anisotropy (FA) and median diffusivity (MD) were generated for the CC of each athlete to correlate strain with change in FA and MD. Mean and maximum strain rate correlated with change in FA (Spearman ? = 0.77, p = 0.01; 0.70, p = 0.031), and there was a similar trend for mean and maximum strain (0.56, p = 0.10; 0.6, p = 0.07), as well as for maximum strain with change in MD (-0.63, p = 0.07). Change in MD correlated with injury-to-imaging interval (? = -0.80, p = 0.006) but change in FA did not (? = 0.18, p = 0.62). These results provide preliminary confirmation that model-predicted strain and strain rate in the CC correlate with changes in indices of white matter integrity. PMID:21994062

McAllister, Thomas W; Ford, James C; Ji, Songbai; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Flashman, Laura A; Paulsen, Keith; Greenwald, Richard M

2012-01-01

427

Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

1983-07-01

428

Postburn respiratory injuries in children  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory tract injury is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and prolonged hospitalization in fire casualties. Direct insults include inhalation of superheated gas, steam, smoke, or toxic fumes. Indirect injury may result from interference with the mechanics of respiration. Pulmonary injuries result from sepsis, fluid overload, endogenous reactive substances, and shock lung, and also occur secondary to metabolic disturbances resulting from hypoxia.

Charnock, E.L.; Meehan, J.J.

1980-08-01

429

Injuries and Individuals with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and adults with disabilities are at an increased risk of injury. Falls are the leading mechanism of injury regardless of the disability status and are even more common in those with moderate or severe disabilities. The setting for the injury differs with the disability status. Compared to individuals with moderate or no disabilities,…

Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

2009-01-01

430

Imaging of acute head injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the neuroradiological evaluation of acute head injury with an emphasis on CT and MR imaging. Subacute and chronic head injury are not discussed. CT remains the modality of choice in the emergency setting, permitting rapid, comprehensive assessment of the great majority of head injuries. MR is most useful in patients in whom there is a discrepancy between