Note: This page contains sample records for the topic hamstring strain injuries from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The role of neuromuscular inhibition in hamstring strain injury recurrence.  

PubMed

Hamstring strain injuries are amongst the most common and problematic injuries in a wide range of sports that involve high speed running. The comparatively high rate of hamstring injury recurrence is arguably the most concerning aspect of these injuries. A number of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are proposed to predispose athletes to hamstring strains. Potentially, the persistence of risk factors and the development of maladaptations following injury may explain injury recurrence. Here, the role of neuromuscular inhibition following injury is discussed as a potential mechanism for several maladaptations associated with hamstring re-injury. These maladaptations include eccentric hamstring weakness, selective hamstring atrophy and shifts in the knee flexor torque-joint angle relationship. Current evidence indicates that athletes return to competition after hamstring injury having developed maladaptations that predispose them to further injury. When rehabilitating athletes to return to competition following hamstring strain injury, the role of neuromuscular inhibition in re-injury should be considered. PMID:23402871

Fyfe, Jackson J; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

2013-06-01

2

An Evidence-Based Approach to Hamstring Strain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Hamstring strain injury is a common problem within sport. Despite research interest, knowledge of risks for and management of hamstring strain is limited, as evidenced by high injury rates. Objective: To present the current best evidence for hamstring strain injury risk factors and the management of hamstring strain injury. Methods: MEDLINE, AMED, SportDiscus, and AUSPORT databases were searched (key terms “hamstring” and “strain,” “injury,” “pull,” or “tear”) to identify relevant literature published between 1982 and 2007 in the English language. Studies of adult athlete populations (older than 18 years) pertaining to hamstring strain incidence, prevalence, and/or intervening management of hamstring strain injury were included. Articles were limited to full-text randomized, controlled studies or cohort studies. Twenty-four articles were included. Articles were critically appraised using the McMaster Quantitative Review Guidelines instrument. Data pertaining to injury rates and return to sport outcomes were extracted. Each author undertook independent appraisal of a random selection of articles after establishing inter-rater agreement of appraisal. Results: Previous strain, older age, and ethnicity were consistently reported as significant risks for injury, as was competing in higher levels of competition. Associations with strength and flexibility were conflicting. Functional rehabilitation interventions had preventive effects and resulted in significantly earlier return to sport. Additionally, weak evidence existed for other interventions. Conclusion: Current evidence is inconclusive regarding most interventions for hamstring strain injury, while the effect of potentially modifiable risks is unclear. Further high-quality prospective studies into potential risks and management are required to provide a better framework within which to target interventions.

Prior, Mathew; Guerin, Michelle; Grimmer, Karen

2009-01-01

3

Hamstring Strain Injuries: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Hamstring strain injuries remain a challenge for both athletes and clinicians given the high incidence rate, slow healing, and persistent symptoms. Moreover, nearly one-third of these injuries recur within the first year following a return to sport, with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high reinjury rate suggests that commonly utilized rehabilitation programs may be inadequate at resolving possible muscular weakness, reduced tissue extensibility, and/or altered movement patterns associated with the injury. Further, the traditional criteria used to determine the readiness of the athlete to return to sport may be insensitive to these persistent deficits, resulting in a premature return. There is mounting evidence that the risk of reinjury can be minimized by utilizing rehabilitation strategies that incorporate neuromuscular control exercises and eccentric strength training, combined with objective measures to assess musculotendon recovery and readiness to return to sport. In this paper, we first describe the diagnostic examination of an acute hamstring strain injury, including discussion of the value of determining injury location in estimating the duration of the convalescent period. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring injuries including specific criteria for treatment progression and return to sport. Finally, we describe directions for future research including injury-specific rehabilitation programs, objective measures to assess reinjury risk, and strategies to prevent injury occurrence. Level of evidence: Diagnosis/therapy, level 5.

Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Sherry, Marc A.; Silder, Amy; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2010-01-01

4

Hamstring injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecture 17Muscle injuries are among the most common, most misunderstood, and inadequately treated conditions in sports. According to some studies, muscle injuries account for 10–30% of all injuries in sport.1 Hamstring injuries are the commonest muscle injury in all sports.Hamstrings function is complex. Depending on leg positioning and relationship to the ground it can serve as a hip extensor, knee

N G Malliaropoulos

2011-01-01

5

Is there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament injury?  

PubMed

Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most prevalent injury in a number of sports, and while anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are less common, they are far more severe and have long-term implications, such as an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis later in life. Given the high incidence and severity of these injuries, they are key targets of injury preventive programs in elite sport. Evidence has shown that a previous severe knee injury (including ACL injury) increases the risk of HSI; however, whether the functional deficits that occur after HSI result in an increased risk of ACL injury has yet to be considered. In this clinical commentary, we present evidence that suggests that the link between previous HSI and increased risk of ACL injury requires further investigation by drawing parallels between deficits in hamstring function after HSI and in women athletes, who are more prone to ACL injury than men athletes. Comparisons between the neuromuscular function of the male and female hamstring has shown that women display lower hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios during isokinetic knee flexion and extension, increased activation of the quadriceps compared with the hamstrings during a stop-jump landing task, a greater time required to reach maximal isokinetic hamstring torque, and lower integrated myoelectrical hamstring activity during a sidestep cutting maneuver. Somewhat similarly, in athletes with a history of HSI, the previously injured limb, compared with the uninjured limb, displays lower eccentric knee flexor strength, a lower hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio, lower voluntary myoelectrical activity during maximal knee flexor eccentric contraction, a lower knee flexor eccentric rate of torque development, and lower voluntary myoelectrical activity during the initial portion of eccentric contraction. Given that the medial and lateral hamstrings have different actions at the knee joint in the coronal plane, which hamstring head is previously injured might also be expected to influence the likelihood of future ACL. Whether the deficits in function after HSI, as seen in laboratory-based studies, translate to deficits in hamstring function during typical injurious tasks for ACL injury has yet to be determined but should be a consideration for future work. PMID:24121082

Opar, David A; Serpell, Benjamin G

2014-02-01

6

Proximal Hamstring Avulsion Injuries  

PubMed Central

Proximal hamstring avulsions from the ischium are becoming more frequently recognized, secondary to their disability when treated nonoperatively. The acute repair of these injuries is becoming prevalent given the improved outcomes reported in the literature. Anatomic studies have recently been conducted on the proximal hamstring origin; however, there are few reports on surgical techniques for repair in the setting of injury. The present article describes the technique for proximal hamstring avulsion repair, as performed by the senior author. More than 30 cases have been performed based on this technique, with excellent results.

Pombo, Mathew; Bradley, James P.

2009-01-01

7

Examination and Treatment of Hamstring Related Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: There is a wide spectrum of hamstring-related injuries that can occur in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is imperative to prevent delayed return to sport, injury recurrence, and accurate clinical decision making regarding the most efficacious treatment. Evidence Acquisition: This review highlights current evidence related to the diagnosis and treatment of hamstring-related injuries in athletes. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications indexed in MEDLINE from 1988 through May 2011. Results: An accurate diagnostic process for athletes with posterior thigh–related complaints should include a detailed and discriminative history, followed by a thorough clinical examination. Diagnostic imaging should be utilized when considering hamstring avulsion or ischial apophyseal avulsion. Diagnostic imaging may also be needed to further define the cause of referred posterior thigh pain. Conclusions: Differentiating acute hamstring strains, hamstring tendon avulsions, ischial apophyseal avulsions, proximal hamstring tendinopathies, and referred posterior thigh pain is critical in determining the most appropriate treatment and expediting safe return to play.

2012-01-01

8

Non contact Hamstring injuries in sports.  

PubMed

Hamstring muscle injuries are frequent in different sports and are a clinical challenge for Sports Medicine Teams. Injury Mechanics are import to know while assessing the injured athlete. There are at least two distinctly different types of acute hamstring injuries, which are best distinguished by the different injury situations. Classifying the severity of the injury is equally important. Active Range of motion measurements, proper imaging selection and the anatomical location of the injury must be considered. Once the diagnosis is established rehabilitation issues must be considered. Recurrence rate of the injury and prevention are issues that must always be included in our Hamstring Injuries approach as Clinicians. PMID:23738316

Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos G

2012-10-01

9

Preseason Hamstring Muscle Weakness Associated with Hamstring Muscle Injury in Australian Footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring muscle strain is the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules Football, accounting for 16% of play ing time missed as a result of injury. Thirty-seven pro fessional footballers from an Australian Football League team had preseason measurements of ham string and quadriceps muscle concentric peak torque at 60, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec measured on a Cybex 340 dynamometer. Players

John Orchard; John Marsden; Stephen Lord; David Garlick

1997-01-01

10

Hamstring Muscle Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... well with simple, nonsurgical treatment. RICE. The RICE protocol is effective for most sports-related injuries. RICE ... treatment with a plan that includes the RICE protocol and physical therapy has been shown to result ...

11

CONSERVATIVE REHABILITATION OF SCIATIC NERVE INJURY FOLLOWING HAMSTRING TEAR  

PubMed Central

Study Design: Resident's case report Background: There have been only a few case reports in the literature mentioning sciatic nerve injury following a hamstring tear. In previous cases surgical intervention was performed to debride scar tissue around the sciatic nerve with the goal of full return to function for the patient. Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to describe the conservative interventions that allowed for recovery from a hamstring tear with sciatic nerve involvement. Case Description: The subject was a 53 year old female who developed foot drop and weakness in the common fibular nerve distribution following a grade 3 hamstring injury sustained during Nordic skiing. Nerve function and strength gradually returned over the course of several months of conservative rehabilitation which included on neural gliding and strengthening exercises. Outcomes: At 18 months post injury, the subject had returned to 95% of full sport function and 98% of full function with activities of daily living, as rated by the Hip Outcome Scale, and had full strength with manual muscle testing. Isokinetic testing revealed strength deficits of 11–23% in knee flexion peak torque at 60 degrees/second and 180 degrees/second respectively. Discussion: Sciatic nerve injury is a rare, but important potential consequence of severe hamstring strains. Clinicians should be cognizant of the potential injury to the nerve tissue following hamstring strains, so they may be dealt with in a prompt and appropriate manner. The use of neural gliding may be worth considering for a prophylactic effect following hamstring strains.

Reuteman, Paul

2010-01-01

12

Hamstring strain - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

... bone. You will likely be referred to a sports medicine or bone (orthopedic) doctor. ... or tingling You notice a sudden increase in pain or swelling Your injury does not seem to be healing as expected

13

Hamstring injuries: anatomy, imaging, and intervention.  

PubMed

Injury to the hamstring muscle complex (HMC) is extremely common in the athletic community. Anatomical and functional aspects of the HMC predispose it to injury, including the fact that the muscles cross two joints and undergo eccentric contraction during the gait cycle. Injury most commonly occurs at the muscle tendon junction but may occur anywhere between the origin and insertion. Complete hamstring avulsions require early surgical repair. The principal indication for imaging is in a triage role to rule out or confirm proximal hamstring avulsion. Acute onset and chronic posterior thigh and buttock pain may relate to pathology at the hamstring origin or muscle tendon junction that can be readily defined on magnetic resonance imaging or, less frequently, ultrasound. Some cases of buttock and thigh pain may relate to spinal pathology. In the elite athlete there is an increasing emphasis on optimizing the rehabilitation process after hamstring injury, to minimize the absence from sports and improve the final outcome. Imaging has a role in confirming the site of injury and characterizing its extent, providing some prognostic information and helping plan treatment. There is increasing interest in the use of growth factors to accelerate healing after muscle and tendon injury. Animal studies have demonstrated clear benefits in terms of accelerated healing. There are various methods of delivery of the growth factors, all involving the release of growth factors from platelets. These include plasma rich in platelets and autologous blood. Clinical studies in humans are very limited at this stage but are promising. At present the World Anti-Doping Authority bans the intramuscular administration of these agents. Other percutaneous injection therapies include the use of Actovegin and Traumeel S and antifibrotic agents. PMID:20486024

Linklater, James M; Hamilton, Bruce; Carmichael, James; Orchard, John; Wood, David G

2010-06-01

14

Anatomy and physiology of hamstring injury.  

PubMed

The hamstring muscles were analyzed anatomically and physiologically to clarify the specific reasons for the incidence of muscle strain of the hamstrings. For the anatomical study, hamstring muscles of 13 embalmed cadavers were dissected. For the physiological study, the knee flexor torque and surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were measured during isometric contraction of hamstring muscles in 10 healthy adults. The biceps femoris muscle long head (BF-L) and semimembranosus muscle (SM) had hemi-pennate architecture and their fiber length per total muscle length (FL/TML) was smaller than that of semtendinosus muscle (ST) and biceps femoris muscle short head (BF-S) with other architecture. The decrease of total muscle length per fiber length (?TML/FL) was larger in BF-L and SM than in ST and BF-S. The EMG activities at 0° of knee angle were at maximal compared with other knee angles and were of similar level in BF-L, in SM and in ST, whereas they were considerably smaller in BF-S. The EMG at 0° of knee angle activity per physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was about 1.6 times greater in BF-L than in SM. These results indicate the highest risk of muscle strain was in BF-L followed by SM. PMID:22895873

Kumazaki, T; Ehara, Y; Sakai, T

2012-12-01

15

Hamstring exercises for track and field athletes: injury and exercise biomechanics, and possible implications for exercise selection and primary prevention.  

PubMed

Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports. PMID:22685125

Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Pehlivanidis, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Valle, Xavier; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

2012-09-01

16

The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present in male Irish gaelic footballers who have returned to full activity after hamstring injury. Methods The concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength of 44 members of a university gaelic football team was assessed at 60, 180 and 300 degrees per second using a Contrex dynamometer. Results Fifteen players (34%) reported a history of hamstring strain, with 68% of injuries affecting the dominant (kicking) limb. The hamstrings were significantly stronger (p < 0.05) on the dominant limb in all uninjured subjects. The previously injured limbs had a significantly lower (p < 0.05) hamstrings to quadriceps (HQ) strength ratio than all other non-injured limbs, but neither their hamstrings nor quadriceps were significantly weaker (p > 0.05) using this comparison. The previously unilaterally injured hamstrings were significantly weaker (p < 0.05) than uninjured limbs however, when matched for dominance. The hamstring to opposite hamstring (H:oppH) strength ratio of the previously injured players was also found to be significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the uninjured players. Conclusion Hamstring muscle weakness was observed in male Irish gaelic footballers with a history of hamstring injury. This weakness is most evident when comparisons are made to multiple control populations, both within and between subjects. The increased strength of the dominant limb should be considered as a potential confounding variable in future trials. The study design does not allow interpretation of whether these changes in strength were present before or after injury.

O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Ceallaigh, Brian; O'Connell, Kevin; Shafat, Amir

2008-01-01

17

Hamstring Muscle Strains in Professional Football PlayersA 10Year Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL).Hypothesis: Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Study Design: Descriptive

Marcus C. C. W. Elliott; Bertram Zarins; John W. Powell; Charles D. Kenyon

2011-01-01

18

Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was

Wayne T Hoskins; Henry P Pollard

2005-01-01

19

Prophylaxis and management of hamstring muscle injuries in intercollegiate football players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring muscle strains were responsible for the loss of playing time of a significant number of football players at the University of Nebraska in the early 1970s. After the acquisition of a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer, the number of injuries was noted to decrease. A retro spective study was performed over the period 1973 to 1982.Players in Group I, from

Thomas M. Heiser; Jerry Weber; George Sullivan; Patrick Clare; Rae R. Jacobs

1984-01-01

20

Thermal pants may reduce the risk of recurrent hamstring injuries in rugby players  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the use of thermal pants might reduce the risk of hamstring injury in rugby players. METHODS--44 male rugby players from the Cape Province, South Africa, who had previously suffered a hamstring injury were given the choice of wearing thermal warming pants or not, and were then monitored for the development of hamstring injuries during the 1992 season.

P A Upton; T D Noakes; J M Juritz

1996-01-01

21

Isokinetic strength testing does not predict hamstring injury in Australian Rules footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and imbalance to hamstring injury using a prospective observational cohort study METHOD: A total of 102 senior male Australian Rules footballers aged 22.2 (3.6) years were tested at the start of a football season. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of both legs

K. Bennell; H. Wajswelner; P. Lew; A. Schall-Riaucour; S. Leslie; D. Plant; J. Cirone

1998-01-01

22

Incidence, Risk, and Prevention of Hamstring Muscle Injuries in Professional Rugby Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union is high, but evidence-based information on risk factors and injury-prevention strategies in this sport is limited.Purpose: To define the incidence, severity, and risk factors associated with hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union and to determine whether the use of hamstring strengthening and stretching exercises reduces the incidence and

John H. M. Brooks; Colin W. Fuller; Simon P. T. Kemp; Dave B. Reddin

2006-01-01

23

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Hamstring strain injuries often occur near the proximal musculotendon junction (MTJ) of the biceps femoris. Post-injury remodeling can involve scar tissue formation, which may alter contraction mechanics and influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle tissue displacements and strains during active lengthening contractions. Eleven healthy and eight subjects with prior biceps femoris injuries were tested. All previously injured subjects had since returned to sport and exhibited evidence of residual scarring along the proximal aponeurosis. Subjects performed cyclic knee flexion-extension on an MRI-compatible device using elastic and inertial loads, which induced active shortening and lengthening contractions, respectively. CINE phase-contrast imaging was used to measure tissue velocities within the biceps femoris during these tasks. Numerical integration of the velocity information was used to estimate two-dimensional tissue displacement and strain fields during muscle lengthening. The largest tissue motion was observed along the distal MTJ, with the active lengthening muscle exhibiting significantly greater and more homogeneous tissue displacements. First principal strains magnitudes were largest along the proximal MTJ for both loading conditions. The previously injured subjects exhibited less tissue motion and significantly greater strains near the proximal MTJ. We conclude that localized regions of high tissue strains during active lengthening contractions may predispose the proximal biceps femoris to injury. Furthermore, post-injury remodeling may alter the in-series stiffness seen by muscle tissue and contribute to the relatively larger localized tissue strains near the proximal MTJ, as was observed in this study.

Silder, Amy; Reeder, Scott B.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2010-01-01

24

The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present

Kieran O'Sullivan; Brian O'Ceallaigh; Kevin O'Connell; Amir Shafat

2008-01-01

25

Radiographic imaging of muscle strain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed our experience with computed tomogra phy and magnetic resonance imaging of acute muscle strain injury. We imaged 50 athletes (average age, 28 years; range, 17 to 42) who had an acute muscle strain involving either the adductor, hamstring, quadriceps, or triceps surae muscles. Computed tomography (axial imaging) was used from 1982 to 1987 for 27 athletes. Spin-echo magnetic

Kevin P. Speer; John Lohnes; William E. Garrett

1993-01-01

26

Hamstring Strength and Morphology Progression after Return to Sport from Injury  

PubMed Central

Hamstring strain re-injury rates can reach 30% within the initial two weeks following return to sport (RTS). Incomplete recovery of strength may be a contributing factor. However, relative strength of the injured and unaffected limbs at RTS is currently unknown. PURPOSE: Characterize hamstring strength and morphology at the time of RTS and six months later. METHODS: Twenty-five athletes that experienced an acute hamstring strain injury participated, following completion of a controlled rehabilitation program. Bilateral isokinetic strength testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at RTS and 6-months later. Strength (knee flexion peak torque, work, angle of peak torque) and MRI (muscle and tendon volumes) measures were compared between limbs and over time using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The injured limb showed a peak torque deficit of 9.6% compared to the uninjured limb at RTS (60°/s, p<0.001), but not 6-months following. The knee flexion angle of peak torque decreased over time for both limbs (60°/s, p<0.001). MRI revealed that 20.4% of the muscle cross-sectional area showed signs of edema at RTS with full resolution by the 6-month follow-up. Tendon volume of the injured limb tended to increase over time (p=0.108), while muscle volume decreased 4–5% in both limbs (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Residual edema and deficits in isokinetic knee flexion strength were present at RTS, but resolved during the subsequent six months. This occurred despite MRI evidence of scar tissue formation (increased tendon volume) and muscle atrophy, suggesting that neuromuscular factors may contribute to the return of strength.

Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Silder, Amy; Sherry, Marc A; Tuite, Michael J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

2012-01-01

27

The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of hamstring injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To conduct a detailed analysis of hamstring injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons.Methods: Club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs annotated player injuries over two seasons. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each clubs’ current injury status.Results: Completed injury records for the two competitive seasons were

C Woods; R D Hawkins; S Maltby; M Hulse; A Thomas; A Hodson

2004-01-01

28

Factors associated with increased propensity for hamstring injury in English Premier League soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to concurrently model the influence of a number of physical and performance parameters on subsequent incidence of hamstring injury in a squad of English Premier League soccer players. Thirty six healthy, male, elite, professional soccer players (age 22.6+/-5.2 years, height 1.81+/-0.08 m, mass 75.8+/-9.4 kg, lean mass 69.0+/-8.0 kg) were assessed during the first week of pre-season training for anthropometry, flexibility, lower limb strength and power, speed and agility. Over the subsequent 45 week competitive season all hamstring injuries were diagnosed and recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to link individual physical and performance capabilities with propensity to sustain a hamstring injury. A model containing age, lean mass, non-counter movement jump (NCM) performance and active hip flexion range of movement (ROM) was significantly (p<0.05) associated with increased propensity for hamstring injury. Odds for sustaining an injury increased x 1.78 for each 1 year increase in age, x 1.47 for each 1cm increase in NCM and x 1.29 for each 1 degrees decrease in active range of hip flexion. Older, more powerful and less flexible soccer players are at greater risk of sustaining a hamstring injury. Support staff should identify such individuals and make appropriate interventions to minimise risk without compromising performance capabilities. PMID:19800844

Henderson, Gary; Barnes, Christopher A; Portas, Matthew D

2010-07-01

29

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Eccentric Strength Training in the Prevention of Hamstring Muscle Strains in Otherwise Healthy Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring strains are the most common soft-tissue injury observed in recreational and athletic activities, yet no consensus exists regarding appropriate primary and secondary strategies to prevent these strains. Eccentric exercise has been reported to reduce the incidence of ham-string strains but its role has not been clearly defined. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of eccentric exercise in preventing hamstring strains. Data Sources Online databases, including MED-LINE, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles. Each database was searched from the earliest date to July 2007. Study Selection Selection criteria included diagnosis of hamstring strain, otherwise healthy individuals, and at least one group receiving an eccentric exercise intervention. Seven articles {three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four cohort studies} met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction Data were extracted using a customized form. Methodological rigor of included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale and Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Data Synthesis Studies were grouped by eccentric exercise intervention protocol: hamstring lowers, isokinetic strengthening, and other strengthening. A best-evidence synthesis of pooled data was qualitatively summarized. Conclusions Findings suggest that eccentric training is effective in primary and secondary prevention of hamstring strains. Study heterogeneity and poor methodological rigor limit the ability to provide clinical recommendations. Further RCTs are needed to support the use of eccentric training protocols in the prevention of hamstring strains.

Cheong, Krystie; Grant, Andrew; Beers, Amanda; Moizumi, Trevor

2008-01-01

30

Morphology of hamstring torque-time curves following ACL injury and reconstruction: mechanisms and implications.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) status on hamstring force steadiness, peak hamstring strength, quadriceps (antagonist) activation, and physical performance, and (ii) to evaluate the associations of physical performance with hamstring steadiness and hamstring strength. Thirteen subjects with unilateral deficiency of the ACL (ACLD), 39 matched subjects with unilateral reconstructed ACL (ACLR; n = 25 with bone-patella tendon-bone (ACLR-PT) graft and n = 14 with combined semitendinosus and gracilis tendon (ACLR-STGT) graft) and 33 control subjects participated. Each subject performed maximal-effort isokinetic knee flexion repetitions at 180°?s(-1) with electromyography (EMG) electrodes attached to their medial and lateral quadriceps muscles. Physical performance was assessed using the single-limb long hop for distance. Wavelet-derived mean instantaneous frequency (Mif) of flexor torque-time curves was significantly (p?hamstrings strength (i.e., peak torque produced) or quadriceps antagonist EMG activity. Positive correlations were identified between hamstrings force steadiness and quadriceps antagonist activity for ACLD (r = ?0.797), ACLR-PT (r = 0.467), and ACLR-STGT (r?=?0.628) subjects. For ACLR-STGT subjects, reduced hamstrings force steadiness associated with poorer long-hop performance (r?=?-0.695). Reduced steadiness amongst ACLR-STGT subjects may reflect motor output variability of the antagonist (i.e., quadriceps dyskinesia) and/or agonist musculature-a maladaptive feature which potentially contributes to poorer single-limb hop performance. Measures of hamstring force steadiness in combination with traditional measures of peak hamstring strength provide valuable clinical information regarding knee joint function following ACL injury/ACLR. PMID:21259335

Bryant, Adam L; Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao

2011-06-01

31

Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Results The review identified 35 studies, including four analysis studies. These studies show deficiencies in the quality of study designs. Conclusion The study protocols are varied in terms of the length of intervention and follow-up. No RCT studies are available, however, RCT studies should be conducted in the near future.

Rogan, Slavko; Wust, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

2012-01-01

32

Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme.  

PubMed

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

2014-06-01

33

Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme  

PubMed Central

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence.

Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

2014-01-01

34

Strains and Sprains  

MedlinePLUS

... Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries A to Z: Sprain, Knee Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Sports Medicine Center Knee ... and Exercise Safety Achilles Tendonitis Hamstring Strain Ankle Sprains Knee Injuries Strains and Sprains Contact Us Print Additional ...

35

The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. METHODS: Sixty male

Wayne Hoskins; Henry Pollard

2010-01-01

36

Repetitive strain injuries.  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injuries (RSI) present an increasingly common challenge to clinicians. They consist of variety of musculoskeletal disorders, generally related to tendons, muscles, or joints, as well as some common peripheral-nerve-entrapment and vascular syndromes. These disorders generally affect the back, neck, and upper limbs, although lower limbs may also be involved. Although RSI may occur as a result of sports and recreational activities, occupational RSIs, affecting the patient's livelihood, are particularly important. These injuries result from repetitive and forceful motions, awkward postures, and other work-related conditions and ergonomic hazards. Occupationally induced RSIs are generally costly, creating a strong incentive for physicians to become familiar with the symptoms, signs, and risk factors so that they can be diagnosed early and appropriate interventions facilitated. PMID:9093264

Yassi, A

1997-03-29

37

Muscle Strains in the Thigh  

MedlinePLUS

Muscle Strains in the Thigh Print Article Text Size: + | - A muscle strain (muscle pull or tear) is a common injury, particularly ... sports. The thigh has three sets of strong muscles: the hamstring muscles in the back of the ...

38

Hamstring Musculotendon Dynamics during Stance and Swing Phases of High Speed Running  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hamstring strain injuries are common in sports that involve high speed running. It remains uncertain whether the hamstrings are susceptible to injury during late swing phase, when the hamstrings are active and lengthening, or during stance, when contact loads are present. In this study we used forward dynamic simulations to compare hamstring musculotendon stretch, loading and work done during stance and swing phases of high speed running gait cycles. Methods Whole body kinematics, EMG activities and ground reactions were collected as 12 subjects ran on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 80% to maximum (average of 7.8 m/s). Subject-specific simulations were then created using a whole body musculoskeletal model that included fifty-two Hill-type musculotendon units acting about the hip and knee. A computed muscle control algorithm was used to determine muscle excitation patterns that drove the limb to track measured hip and knee sagittal plane kinematics, with measured ground reactions applied to the limb. Results The hamstrings lengthened under load from 50% to 90% of the gait cycle (swing), and then shortened under load from late swing through stance. While peak hamstring stretch was invariant with speed, lateral hamstring (biceps femoris) loading increased significantly with speed, and was greatest during swing at the fastest speed. The biarticular hamstrings performed negative work on the system only during swing phase, with the amount of negative work increasing significantly with speed. Conclusion We concluded that the large inertial loads during high speed running appear to make the hamstrings most susceptible to injury during swing phase when compared to stance phase. This information is relevant for scientifically establishing effective muscle injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.

Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2011-01-01

39

Progression of Mechanical Properties during On-field Sprint Running after Returning to Sports from a Hamstring Muscle Injury in Soccer Players.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the consequences of an acute hamstring injury on performance and mechanical properties of sprint-running at the time of returning to sports and after the subsequent ~2 months of regular soccer training after return. 28 semi-professional male soccer players, 14 with a recent history of unilateral hamstring injury and 14 without prior injury, participated in the study. All players performed two 50-m maximal sprints when cleared to return to play (Test 1), and 11 injured players performed the same sprint test about 2 months after returning to play (Test 2). Sprint performance (i.?e., speed) was measured via a radar gun and used to derive linear horizontal force-velocity relationships from which the following variables obtained: theoretical maximal velocity (V 0 ), horizontal force (F H0 ) and horizontal power (Pmax). Upon returning to sports the injured players were moderately slower compared to the uninjured players. F H0 and Pmax were also substantially lower in the injured players. At Test 2, the injured players showed a very likely increase in F H0 and Pmax concomitant with improvements in early acceleration performance. Practitioners should consider assessing and training horizontal force production during sprint running after acute hamstring injuries in soccer players before they return to sports. PMID:24424959

Mendiguchia, J; Samozino, P; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Brughelli, M; Schmikli, S; Morin, J-B; Mendez-Villanueva, A

2014-07-01

40

Distal tears of the hamstring muscles: review of the literature and our results of surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring strains are among the most frequent injuries in sports, especially in events requiring sprinting and running. Distal tears of the hamstring muscles requiring surgical treatment are scarcely reported in the literature. Objective To evaluate the results of surgical treatment for distal hamstring tears. Design A case series of 18 operatively treated distal hamstring muscle tears combined with a review of previously published cases in the English literature. Retrospective study; level of evidence 4. Setting Mehiläinen Sports Trauma Research Center, Mehiläinen Hospital and Sports Clinic, Turku, Finland. Patients Between 1992 and 2005, a total of 18 athletes with a distal hamstring tear were operated at our centre. Main outcome measurements At follow?up, the patients were asked about possible symptoms (pain, weakness, stiffness) and their return to the pre?injury level of sport. Results The final results were rated excellent in 13 cases, good in 1 case, fair in 3 cases and poor in 1 case. 14 of the 18 patients were able to return to their former level of sport after an average of 4?months (range 2–6?months). Conclusions Surgical treatment seems to be beneficial in distal hamstring tears in selected cases.

Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Mattila, Kimmo; Heikkila, Jouni; Orava, Sakari

2007-01-01

41

Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management.

O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

2001-01-01

42

Endoscopic Repair of Proximal Hamstring Avulsion  

PubMed Central

Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries.

Domb, Benjamin G.; Linder, Dror; Sharp, Kinzie G.; Sadik, Adam; Gerhardt, Michael B.

2013-01-01

43

Ischiofemoral impingement resulting from a chronic avulsion injury of the hamstrings.  

PubMed

Significantly reduced distance between the ischium and the femur can result in symptomatic hip pain as a result of impingement. We present the case of a 16-year-old boy who presented with groin pain which had been affecting him for a year and a half following an innocuous football injury. Plain radiograph revealed a chronic apophyseal avulsion fracture of the ischium with excessive callus formation. CT scan and MRI revealed that the bony protuberance was responsible for symptomatic ischiofemoral impingement. In this case, he was successfully treated with non-operative management involving slow re-introduction to exercise. An unusual example of acquired ischiofemoral impingement, unrelated to surgery or significant trauma, this case highlights the need to consider such a diagnosis in otherwise unexplained groin pain. PMID:24966262

Hayat, Zara; Konan, Sujith; Pollock, Rob

2014-01-01

44

Hamstring Muscle Fatigue and Central Motor Output during a Simulated Soccer Match  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine changes in hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a 90-minute simulated soccer match, and the concomitant changes in hamstring maximal torque and rate of torque development. Method Eight amateur male soccer players performed a 90-minute simulated soccer match, with measures performed at the start of and every 15-minutes during each half. Maximal torque (Nm) and rate of torque development (RTD; Nm.s–1) were calculated from maximal isometric knee flexor contractions performed at 10° of flexion. Hamstring peripheral fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting twitch (RT). Hamstring central motor output was quantified from voluntary activation (%) and normalized biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MH) electromyographic amplitudes (EMG/M). Results Maximal torque was reduced at 45-minutes by 7.6±9.4% (p<0.05). RTD in time intervals of 0–25, 0–50, and 0–75 ms post-contraction onset were reduced after 15-minutes in the first-half between 29.6 to 46.2% (p<0.05), and were further reduced at the end of the second-half (p<0.05). Maximal EMG/M was reduced for biceps femoris only concomitant to the time-course of reductions in maximal torque (p?=?0.007). The rate of EMG rise for BF and MH was reduced in early time periods (0–75 ms) post-contraction onset (p<0.05). No changes were observed for the size and shape of the RT, indicating no hamstring peripheral fatigue. Conclusion Centrally mediated reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development provide insight into factors that may explain hamstring injury risk during soccer. Of particular interest were early reductions during the first-half of hamstring rate of torque development, and the decline in maximal EMG/M of biceps femoris in the latter stages of the half. These are important findings that may help explain why the hamstrings are particularly vulnerable to strain injury during soccer.

Marshall, Paul W. M.; Lovell, Ric; Jeppesen, Gitte K.; Andersen, Kristoffer; Siegler, Jason C.

2014-01-01

45

The effect of speed and influence of individual muscles on hamstring mechanics during the swing phase of sprinting.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of speed and influence of individual muscles on hamstring stretch, loading, and work during the swing phase of sprinting. We measured three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography (EMG) activities of 19 athletes sprinting on a treadmill at speeds ranging from 80% to 100% of maximum speed. We then generated muscle-actuated forward dynamic simulations of swing and double float phases of the sprinting gait cycle. Simulated lower extremity joint angles and model predicted excitations were similar to measured quantities. Swing phase simulations were used to characterize the effects of speed on the peak stretch, maximum force, and negative work of the biceps femoris long head (BF), the most often injured hamstring muscle. Perturbations of the double float simulations were used to assess the influence of individual muscles on BF stretch. Peak hamstring musculotendon stretch occurred at approximately 90% of the gait cycle (late swing) and was independent of speed. Peak hamstring force and negative musculotendon work increased significantly with speed (p<0.05). Muscles in the lumbo-pelvic region had greater influence on hamstring stretch than muscles acting about the knee and ankle. In particular, the hip flexors were found to induce substantial hamstring stretch in the opposite limb, with that influence increasing with running speed. We conclude that hamstring strain injury during sprinting may be related to the performance of large amounts of negative work over repeated strides and/or resulting from a perturbation in pelvic muscle coordination that induces excessive hamstring stretch in a single stride. PMID:17659291

Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Thelen, Darryl G

2007-01-01

46

Overview of thigh injuries in dance.  

PubMed

Thigh injuries include musculotendinous strains of the quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors, iliotibial band (ITB), and bony injuries to the shaft of the femur. There is scant information in the literature regarding thigh injuries in dance, which appear to range from 5% to 16% of total injury incidence. Hamstring strains and ITB syndrome are the most commonly reported thigh injuries. Hamstring injuries occur most frequently during slow stretching when the dancer's hip is flexed and knee extended. Uniquely in dancers, adductor injury occurs concurrently with hamstring injuries in approximately one-third of cases. Snapping of the ITB at the lateral hip and knee may result from imbalance of thigh muscle strength and flexibility. To date no quadriceps strain injuries or stress injuries to the shaft of the femur have been reported in the dance medicine literature. As dancers notoriously underestimate time needed to return to dance, it can be suggested that early return to work is a contributing factor to chronic injury. Further research is needed regarding the incidence and nature of injury to the thigh among dancers. PMID:21067687

Deleget, Alison

2010-01-01

47

Repetitive strain injuries in dentistry.  

PubMed

In order to avoid RSI, try to neutralize, modify and energize at work, home and play. These concepts eliminate the risk factors associated with the development of RSI and optimize an individual's physical capabilities to work productively and efficiently. People suffering with an RSI should consult their physician regarding the various treatment options available to them. Ideally, prevention is the key to reducing the costs and problems associated with RSI. However, an individual suffering with RSI should not delay addressing the injury. Treatment is most effective when applied as soon as possible after the onset of injury. PMID:10518889

Wolny, K; Shaw, L; Verougstraete, S

1999-03-01

48

Surgical Repair of Chronic Complete Hamstring Tendon Rupture in the Adult Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in the adult is a rare injury. This report discusses complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in nine patients treated by late operative repair. All patients were referred from outside centers for a second opinion after failed non-operative treatment. The diagnosis was made quite easily on clinical grounds and was confirmed at surgery. Surgical

Mervyn J. Cross; Ronald Vandersluis; David Wood; Margaret Banff

1998-01-01

49

Sprains, Strains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... most likely to experience include: sprains strains contusions tendonitis bursitis stress injuries Any of these can be ... damage to the soft tissues. Top of page Tendonitis Inflammation is a healing response to injury. It ...

50

[Avulsion of the proximal hamstring origin - report of 6 cases].  

PubMed

Proximal hamstring origin avulsions are rare injuries. A common cause for this kind of injury is a trauma with the hamstring in overextension and simultaneously forced hip flexion and knee extension. We report on 6 cases, 5 with an acute rupture of the hamstring origin and one case with a delayed presentation in our emergency room. In 3 cases the injury was related to sport activity, the other 3 are related to accidents during work. None of these patients took part in competitive sports. One case was reported 8 weeks after trauma with an MRI performed one week before. Due to the low functional deficits conservative treatment was preferred. In all of the acute injuries open refixation was done within the first two weeks after trauma using 2-3 suture anchors. Postoperative mobilisation was done with partial weight bearing. Active knee flexion against gravity was not started until six weeks postoperative. All patients who had surgery achieved good results 3-28 months after surgery. They suffered from only little pain (VAS1-2) and had good movement ability. Sport activities were reduced in 3 cases, 2 patients returned to pre-injury sport levels. All patients were able to perform one-legged squats. In the evaluated LEFS (Lower Extremity Functional Scale) 75.6/80 points were achieved (72-79). There were no severe complications within this case study. It is important to distinguish proximal hamstring origin avulsions from the majority of hamstring muscle injuries. If the avulsion is treated with surgery, refixation should be performed within the first weeks to prevent the sciatic nerve from being bound in scar tissue with a consecutive high risk of injury during mobilisation of the tendon. PMID:24578112

Harnoss, T; Schoch, C; Spengler, J

2014-02-01

51

Spontaneous complete hamstring avulsion causing posterior thigh compartment syndrome  

PubMed Central

Complete avulsion of the hamstring muscle group from its ischial origin is an uncommon condition, and has been mostly reported in young athletes. A case is presented in which a middle aged man sustained this injury and developed a compartment syndrome of the thigh, which has not been previously reported. The surgical management of this patient is described.

Kwong, Y; Patel, J

2006-01-01

52

Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.  

PubMed

ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings. PMID:24837628

de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

2014-08-01

53

Repetitive strain injuries: has the Australian epidemic burnt out?  

PubMed

In the 1980s Australia experienced an epidemic of medically certified claims for non-specific arm symptoms described as repetitive strain injury. Although a number of factors were mooted as causal of the epidemic, no single factor emerged as a compelling putative candidate. The present paper discusses the results of research which was published only after the epidemic had waned. It provides possible insights into the rise and fall of repetitive strain injury. PMID:15271176

Awerbuch, M

2004-07-01

54

Achilles allograft reconstruction of a chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture.  

PubMed

Complete rupture of the origin of the hamstrings is an uncommon injury. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice, but in some not possible. We present a case of an avid cyclist who had significant disability from a 6-year-old injury. He underwent reconstruction with Achilles allograft and suture anchors. With the knee flexed to 90 degrees and after extensive mobilization, the retracted musculotendinous unit would not reach the ischial tuberosity. Two suture anchors were placed in the ischial tuberosity after soft tissue debridement. One limb of suture from each anchor was placed in the end of an Achilles allograft with a locking suture, with the other end used to pull the end of the graft to the ischial tuberosity. An additional suture was placed in running fashion down each side of the graft. Distally, the graft was fanned out and attached to the retracted hamstrings with interrupted sutures with the knee at 40 degrees and maximal proximal pull on the hamstrings. The patient outcome was excellent. He resumed high level cycling by 6 months after surgery with no symptoms. Isokinetic testing demonstrated a hamstring deficit of 25% at 60 degrees/s, and 20% at 180 degrees/s at 8 months. PMID:19034429

Murray, Patrick J; Lowe, Walter R

2009-11-01

55

The hamstring syndrome in endurance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring syndrome is a gluteal sciatic pain, in which posttraumatic or congenital hard fibrotic bands irritate sciatic nerve at the insertion site of hamstring muscles to ischial tuberosity. Traction, mechanical compression and impingement of the sciatic nerve may occur in certain anatomopathological situations at the origin of the hamstrings on the ischial tuberosity. The symptoms include local pain at the

S Migliorini; M Merlo

2011-01-01

56

Quadriceps and Hamstrings Coactivation During Common Therapeutic Exercises  

PubMed Central

Context Anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading. Muscle coactivation of the quadriceps and hamstrings influences anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment, thus potentially influencing ACL loading and injury risk. Therefore, identifying exercises that facilitate balanced activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings might be beneficial in ACL injury rehabilitation and prevention. Objective To quantify and compare quadriceps with hamstrings coactivation electromyographic (EMG) ratios during commonly used closed kinetic chain exercises. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-seven healthy, physically active volunteers (12 men, 15 women; age = 22.1 ± 3.1 years, height = 171.4 ± 10 cm, mass = 72.4 ± 16.7 kg). Intervention(s) Participants completed 9 separate closed chain therapeutic exercises in a randomized order. Main Outcome Measure(s) Surface electromyography quantified the activity level of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (MH), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. The quadriceps-to-hamstrings (Q:H) coactivation ratio was computed as the sum of average quadriceps (VM, VL) EMG amplitude divided by the sum of average hamstrings (MH, BF) EMG amplitude for each trial. We used repeated-measures analyses of variance to compare Q:H ratios and individual muscle contributions across exercises (? = .05), then used post hoc Tukey analyses. Results We observed a main effect for exercise (F3,79 = 22.6, P < .001). The post hoc Tukey analyses revealed smaller Q:H ratios during the single-limb dead lift (2.87 ± 1.77) than the single-limb squat (5.52 ± 2.89) exercise. The largest Q:H ratios were observed during the transverse-lunge (7.78 ± 5.51, P < .001), lateral-lunge (9.30 ± 5.53, P < .001), and forward-lunge (9.70 ± 5.90, P < .001) exercises. Conclusions The most balanced (smallest) coactivation ratios were observed during the single-limb dead-lift, lateral-hop, transverse-hop, and lateral band-walk exercises. These exercises potentially could facilitate balanced activation in ACL rehabilitation and injury-prevention programs. They also could be used in postinjury rehabilitation programs in a safe and progressive manner.

Begalle, Rebecca L.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.; Blackburn, Troy; Padua, Darin A.

2012-01-01

57

Hamstring Muscle Kinematics during Treadmill Sprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

THELEN, D. G., E. S. CHUMANOV, D. M. HOERTH, T. M. BEST, S. C. SWANSON, L. LI, M. YOUNG, and B. C. HEIDERSCHEIT. Hamstring Muscle Kinematics during Treadmill Sprinting. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 108-114, 2005. Introduction\\/Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize hamstring muscle kinematics during sprinting, so as to provide scientific data

DARRYL G. THELEN; ELIZABETH S. CHUMANOV; DINA M. HOERTH; THOMAS M. BEST; STEPHEN C. SWANSON; LI LI; MICHAEL YOUNG; BRYAN C. HEIDERSCHEIT

2005-01-01

58

Surgical treatment of partial tears of the proximal origin of the hamstring muscles  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring injuries are common especially in athletes. Partial and complete tears of the proximal origin may cause pain and functional loss. Objective To evaluate the results of surgical treatment for partial proximal hamstring tears. Methods Between 1994 and 2005, 47 athletes (48 cases, 1 bilateral) with partial proximal hamstring tears were operated on. The cases were retrospectively analysed. Before surgery, 42 of the patients had undergone conservative treatment with unsatisfactory results, whereas in five patients the operation was performed within four weeks of the injury. Results The mean length of the follow up was 36?months (range 6–72). The result of the operation was rated excellent in 33 cases, good in nine, fair in four, and poor in two. Forty one patients were able to return to their former level of sport after an average of five months (range 1–12). Conclusion In most cases, excellent or good results can be expected after surgical repair of partial proximal hamstring tears even after conservative treatment has failed.

Lempainen, L; Sarimo, J; Heikkila, J; Mattila, K; Orava, S

2006-01-01

59

Molecular and cellular adaptations to chronic myotendinous strain injury in mdx mice expressing a truncated dystrophin  

PubMed Central

Myotendinous strain injury is the most common injury of human skeletal muscles because the majority of muscle forces are transmitted through this region. Although the immediate response to strain injury is well characterized, the chronic response to myotendinous strain injury is less clear. Here we examined the molecular and cellular adaptations to chronic myotendinous strain injury in mdx mice expressing a microdystrophin transgene (microdystrophin?R4–R23). We found that muscles with myotendinous strain injury had an increased expression of utrophin and ?7-integrin together with the dramatic restructuring of peripheral myofibrils into concentric rings. The sarcolemma of the microdystrophin?R4–R23/mdx gastrocnemius muscles was highly protected from experimental lengthening contractions, better than wild-type muscles. We also found a positive correlation between myotendinous strain injury and ringed fibers in the HSALR (human skeletal actin, long repeat) mouse model of myotonic dystrophy. We suggest that changes in protein expression and the formation of rings are adaptations to myotendinous strain injury that help to prevent muscle necrosis and retain the function of necessary muscles during injury, ageing and disease.

Banks, Glen B.; Combs, Ariana C.; Chamberlain, Joel R.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

2008-01-01

60

[Methodological issues in epidemiological studies of repetitive strain injuries].  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injuries (RSI) are a major public health problem with social and economic repercussions. This article presents a critical review of the published literature on RSI. The vast majority of the studies conducted in the last two decades were cross-sectional and exploratory. Results are difficult to interpret due to such methodological problems as lack of standardization and accuracy in identification of cases, inclusion of cases with potentially different diseases, varying levels of severity in the same study, lack of distinction between prevalent and incident cases, lack of precision in the definition and measurement of exposure, and confounding, besides the built-in constraint of cross-sectional studies for inferring causality. Some of these problems result from our insufficient knowledge of upper-limb soft tissue disorders and the absence of reliable diagnostic tests. Such problems could be addressed by studies whose design considered and stratified cases according to certainty and specificity of diagnosis. PMID:9761609

Santos Filho, S B; Barreto, S M

1998-01-01

61

[Repetitive strain injuries. Forearm pain caused by tissue responses to repetitive strain].  

PubMed

According to the National Research Council, painful work-related upper limb disorders are caused by different pathophysiological mechanisms, one of which is repetitive strain injury (RSI). Forearm pain, tenderness, and paresthesias are thought to result from a continual risk of exceeding limits of "cumulative trauma load tolerance" (CTLT, cf. NRC 2001) in soft tissue by thousands of high-frequency, repetitive movements. On the other hand, repetitive painful stimulations also produce neuroplastic changes in the spinal and supraspinal nociceptive systems. Thus, repetitive motor and nociceptive impulses become part of the same motor programs, which are also responsible for high-frequency movements and tissue damage. In this way RSI pain may be felt as a task-related response, even after all injuries are completely healed. Consequences of this neuroplastic CTLT model for RSI prevention and therapy are discussed. PMID:12376875

Sorgatz, H

2002-10-01

62

Hamstring Graft Size PredictionA Prospective Clinical Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently we retrospectively collected clinical data to predict hamstring graft diameter. Prospective data collection will improve and further define prediction of hamstring graft size.Hypothesis: Clinical anthropometric data can be used to predict hamstring graft size.Study Design: Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 1.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft were prospectively

Gehron Treme; David R. Diduch; Mark J. Billante; Mark D. Miller; Joseph M. Hart

2008-01-01

63

The use of MRI to evaluate posterior thigh muscle activity and damage during nordic hamstring exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the biceps femoris long head (BFlh), biceps femoris short head (BFsh), semitendinosus (SMT), and semimembranosus (SMM) muscles. The Nordic hamstring strengthening exercise has been widely used in injury prevention, yet not much is known about the site-specific activation of this exercise on different muscles of the thigh. Eight male national-level referees were assigned to a Nordic hamstring exercise protocol (5 sets of 8 repetitions). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the subjects' thighs was performed before, within 3 minutes after, and repeated again 72 hours after the exercise intervention. Fifteen axial scans of the thigh interspaced by a distance of 1 of 15 right femur length were obtained from the level of 1 of 15 Lf to 15 of 15 Lf. The MRI data were analyzed for signal intensity changes. After 72 hours, significant changes in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity and cross-sectional area were maintained distally at BFsh cranial portion and concretely at the nondominant limb, whereas no significant changes were observed in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity at BFlh, SMM, or SMT. This study demonstrated that the Nordic hamstring exercise did not result in a uniform response (training stimulus) neither interhamstring (dominant vs. nondominant) nor intrahamstring muscles (same leg) and was better suited for loading proximal BFsh. PMID:23524362

Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Arcos, Asier L; Garrues, Mirian A; Myer, Gregory D; Yanci, Javier; Idoate, Fernando

2013-12-01

64

Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hamstring eccentric isokinetic strength and unilateral hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of static and dynamic lower limb stretching routines: (a) on peak torque, total external work and joint angle at peak torque of the hamstrings during maximal eccentric isokinetic leg flexion; (b) on unilateral hamstring to quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios; as well as (c) to determine whether static and dynamic routines elicit similar responses. A total of 49 active adults completed the following intervention protocols in a randomised order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control condition), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. After the stretching or control intervention, eccentric isokinetic peak torque, the angle of peak torque and total external work were assessed with participants prone at 1.04 and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Unilateral strength ratios of the knee were also recorded. Measures were compared via a fully-within-groups factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no main effects for eccentric isokinetic peak torque, angle of peak torque, total external work and unilateral H/Q strength ratios. The results suggest that dynamic and static stretching has no influence on eccentric strength profile and unilateral H/Q strength ratios and hence both forms of stretching do not reduce these two primary risk factors for muscle injury. PMID:23230900

Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz De Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

2013-01-01

65

The Use of Suramin, an Antifibrotic Agent, to Improve Muscle Recovery After Strain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Muscle strain injuries are extremely common in sports medicine. Muscle healing often is hindered by scar tissue formation after injury.Hypothesis:Suramin can prevent scar tissue formation and improve muscle healing after injury because of its ability to antagonize transforming growth factor– •1, a fibrotic cytokine.Study Design:Controlled laboratory study.Materials and Methods:In vitro, muscle-derived fibroblasts (a potential cell source of muscle fibrosis) were

Yi-Sheng Chan; Yong Li; William Foster; Freddie H. Fu; Johnny Huard

2005-01-01

66

[Repetitive strain injury (RSI): occurrence, etiology, therapy and prevention].  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, work related upper-limb disorders are called Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI). RSI is not a diagnosis but a catch-all term for symptoms and signs located in the neck, upper back, shoulder, arm, elbow, hand, wrist and fingers. These symptoms may include pain, stiffness, tingling, clumsiness, loss of co-ordination, loss of strength, skin discoloration and temperature differences. Each year, 8% of working Dutch citizens take time off work due to RSI symptoms. Although the number of people claiming disability benefit due to RSI is limited, this figure has risen consecutively over the last three years. There is consensus that repetitive work at a high frequency and possibly accompanied by exertion of force is accompanied by RSI symptoms. There are indications of a relation between visual display unit use and these symptoms. However, these relations have not been established in a longitudinal study of adequate quality. High perceived job stress and a high workload are thought to be related to RSI, and women report more symptoms than men. There is insufficient information available on the role of different coping styles, perfectionism and dealing with symptoms. There is little information on the underlying mechanisms in the development of RSI, the diagnostics, therapy and prevention. In view of the lack of clear diagnostic criteria, suggestions have been made for a standardised description of the symptoms involved in the syndrome. A multidisciplinary treatment is likely to have the most effect. In terms of prevention, an integrated approach aimed at improving the working posture, reduction of static load and job stress and at individual factors is assumed to be the most effective. PMID:12420421

Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Blatter, B M

2002-10-19

67

Injury Incidence in a Spanish Sub-Elite Professional Football Team: A Prospective Study During Four Consecutive Seasons  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours and 44.1 injuries/1000 match hours). The injury incidence during competitive matches was higher (p < 0.001) than in friendly matches (55.8 vs. 22.6 injuries/1000 hours). The incidence of major injuries (>28 days absence) was 0.4 injuries/1000 hours. The thigh was the most commonly (35%) injured region and caused 29% of all competitive match absence. Muscle injuries in the four main groups of the lower limbs (hamstrings, adductors, quadriceps and calf muscles) caused 43% of competitive match unavailability. The results of this study show that the risk to sustain a major injury in the course of the season was low for sub- elite footballers in comparison to elite players. Thigh strains were the first cause of absence in competition due to injury. Key points The incidence of major injuries (absence greater than 4 weeks) was lower in a Spanish sub-elite football team than in elite European teams. The risk of sustaining an injury was 2.5 fold higher (p < 0.001) in official than in friendly matches. Lower limb muscular (hamstrings, quadriceps, hip adductors and calf muscles) and joint (knee and ankle) injuries were the main causes of match unavailability.

Mallo, Javier; Gonzalez, Pablo; Veiga, Santiago; Navarro, Enrique

2011-01-01

68

Predictors of Work-Related Repetitive Strain Injuries in a Population Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed predictors of work-related repetitive strain injuries using data from 4 waves of the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Methods. Participants were 2806 working adults who completed an abbreviated version of the Job Content Questionnaire in 1994–1995 and did not experience repetitive strain injuries prior to 2000–2001. Potential previous wave predictors of work-related repetitive strain injuries were modeled via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24, 3.18), some college or university education (OR=1.98; 95% CI=1.06, 3.70), job insecurity (OR=1.76; 95% CI=1.07, 2.91), high physical exertion levels (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.29, 3.12), and high levels of psychological demands (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.52) were all positively associated with work-related repetitive strain injuries, whereas working less than 30 hours per week exhibited a negative association with such injuries (OR=0.2; 95% CI=0.1, 0.7). Conclusions. Modifiable job characteristics are important predictors of work-related repetitive strain injuries.

Cole, Donald C.; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Shannon, Harry S.

2005-01-01

69

Computer use and computer related repetitive strain injuries among students of the Medical University of Lublin.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find out what percentage of medical students use computers, have access to the Internet and experience computer related repetitive strain injuries. Even though they do not spend too long hours using their PCs, most of them doing it for one hour daily, they complain about eye and vertebral column strain symptoms. PMID:15315014

Nieradko, Barbara; Borzecki, Andrzej

2003-01-01

70

Effect of Muscle Loads and Torque Applied to the Tibia on the Strain Behavior of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: An In Vitro Investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Very little is known about the effects of applied torque about the long axis of the tibia in combination with muscle loads on anterior cruciate ligament biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of muscle contraction and tibial torques applied about the long axis of the tibia on anterior cruciate ligament strain behavior. Methods Six cadaver knee specimens were used to measure the strain behaviour of the anterior cruciate ligament. Internal and external axial torques were applied to the tibia when the knee was between 30° and 120° of flexion in combination with the conditions of no muscle load, isolated quadriceps load, and simultaneous quadriceps and hamstring loading. Findings The highest anterior cruciate ligament strain values were measured when the muscles were not loaded, when the knee was at 120° of flexion, and when internal tibial torques were applied to the knee. During muscle loading the highest anterior cruciate ligament strain values were measured at 30° of flexion and then the strain values gradually decreased with increase in knee flexion. During co-contraction of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles the anterior cruciate ligament was unstrained or minimally strained at 60°, 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Intepretation This study suggests that quadriceps and hamstring muscle co-contraction has a potential role in reducing the anterior cruciate ligament strain values when the knee is in deep flexion. These results can be used to gain insight into anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms and to design rehabilitation regimens.

Fujiya, Hiroto; Kousa, Petteri; Fleming, Braden C; Churchill, David L; Beynnon, Bruce D

2011-01-01

71

Endoscopic Proximal Hamstring Repair and Ischial Bursectomy  

PubMed Central

With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion.

Dierckman, Brian D.; Guanche, Carlos A.

2012-01-01

72

Strain-Related Differences after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present study directly compares the effects of experimental brain injury in two commonly used rat strains: Fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley. We previously found that Fisher rats have a higher mortality rate and more frequent seizure attacks at the same injury level than Sprague-Dawley rats. Although strain differences in rats are commonly accepted as contributing to variability among studies, there is a paucity of literature addressing strain influence in experimental neurotrauma. Therefore this study compares outcome measures in two rat strains following lateral fluid percussion injury. Fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats were monitored for changes in physiological measurements, intracranial pressure, and electroencephalographic activity. We further analyzed neuronal degeneration and cell death in the injured brain using Fluoro-Jade-B (FJB) histochemistry and caspase-3 immunostaining. Behavioral studies using the beam walk and Morris water maze were conducted to characterize strain differences in both motor and cognitive functional recovery following injury. We found that Fisher rats had significantly higher intracranial pressure, prolonged seizure activity, increased FJB-positive staining in the injured cortex and thalamus, and increased caspase-3 expression than Sprague-Dawley rats. On average, Fisher rats displayed a greater amount of total recording time in seizure activity and had longer ictal durations. The Fisher rats also had increased motor deficits, correlating with the above results. In spite of these results, Fisher rats performed better on cognitive tests following injury. The results demonstrate that different rat strains respond to injury differently, and thus in preclinical neurotrauma studies strain influence is an important consideration when evaluating outcomes.

Rolfe, Andrew; Register, David; Levasseur, Joseph E.; Churn, Severn B.; Sun, Dong

2010-01-01

73

Biopsychosocial rehabilitation for repetitive-strain injuries among working-age adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of biopsychosocial rehabilitation for upper-limb repetitive-strain injuries among working-age adults. Studies were identified from electronic bibliographic databases, reference checks, and consultations with experts in rehabilitation. Four blinded reviewers selected randomized controlled and controlled trials. Two experts evaluated the clinical relevance of the findings. Two other reviewers extracted the data and assessed the main results and the methodological quality of the studies. Finally, a qualitative analysis was performed. Only 2 studies satisfied the criteria. They were both considered to be low-quality trials. The clinical relevance of the included studies was also unsatisfactory. The level of scientific evidence was limited, showing that hypnosis as a supplement to comprehensive treatment can decrease the pain intensity of acute repetitive-strain injury in short follow-ups. There appears to be little scientific evidence for the effectiveness of biopsychosocial rehabilitation with respect to repetitive-strain injuries. PMID:11103835

Karjalainen, K A; Malmivaara, A O; van Tulder, M W; Roine, R P; Jauhiainen, S; Hurri, H O; Koes, B W

2000-10-01

74

High-strain-rate brain injury model using submerged acute rat brain tissue slices.  

PubMed

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has received increasing attention in recent years due to ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Sudden impacts or explosive blasts generate stress and pressure waves that propagate at high velocities and affect sensitive neurological tissues. The immediate soft tissue response to these stress waves is difficult to assess using current in vivo imaging technologies. However, these stress waves and resultant stretching and shearing of tissue within the nano- to microsecond time scale of blast and impact are likely to cause initial injury. To visualize the effects of stress wave loading, we have developed a new ex vivo model in which living tissue slices from rat brain, attached to a ballistic gelatin substrate, were subjected to high-strain-rate loads using a polymer split Hopkinson pressure bar (PSHPB) with real-time high-speed imaging. In this study, average peak fluid pressure within the test chamber reached a value of 1584±63.3?psi. Cavitation due to a trailing underpressure wave was also observed. Time-resolved images of tissue deformation were collected and large maximum eigenstrains (0.03-0.42), minimum eigenstrains (-0.33 to -0.03), maximum shear strains (0.09-0.45), and strain rates (8.4×10³/sec) were estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). Injury at 4 and 6?h was quantified using Fluoro-Jade C. Neuronal injury due to PSHPB testing was found to be significantly greater than injury associated with the tissue slice paradigm alone. While large pressures and strains were encountered for these tests, this system provides a controllable test environment to study injury to submerged brain slices over a range of strain rate, pressure, and strain loads. PMID:21970544

Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Lee, Sung J; Hong, Yu; King, Michael A; Subhash, Ghatu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Moore, David F

2012-01-20

75

Empirical Assessment of Dynamic Hamstring Function during Human Walking  

PubMed Central

The hamstrings are often associated with the development of crouch gait, a fatiguing form of walking characterized by excessive hip flexion, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance. However, recent studies have called into question whether abnormally active hamstrings induce the limb to move into a crouch posture. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the influence of the hamstrings on limb posture during stance. Nineteen healthy young adults walked on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred speed. A 90 ms long pulse train was used to stimulate the medial hamstrings during either terminal swing or loading response of random gait cycles. Induced motion was defined as the difference in joint angle trajectories between stimulated and non-stimulated strides. A dynamic musculoskeletal simulation of normal gait was generated and similarly perturbed by increasing hamstring excitation. The experiments show that hamstring stimulation induced a significant increase in posterior pelvic tilt, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance, while having relatively less influence on the hip angular trajectory. The induced motion patterns were similar whether the hamstrings were stimulated during late swing or early stance, and were generally consistent with the direction of induced motion predicted by gait simulation models. Hence, we conclude that overactive hamstrings have the potential to induce the limb to move toward a crouch gait posture.

Thelen, Darryl G.; Lenz, Amy L.; Francis, Carrie; Lenhart, Rachel; Hernandez, Antonio

2013-01-01

76

Cumulative trauma disorders and repetitive strain injuries. The future.  

PubMed

Cumulative trauma disorders account for 56% of all occupational injuries. Currently, occupational injuries affect 15% to 20% of all Americans. The United States government predicts that by the year 2000, 50% of the American workforce will have occupational injuries annually and 50 cents of every dollar will be spent on cumulative trauma disorders. There is common agreement on the need for reduction of cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace. However, there is little agreement on the appropriate definition for musculoskeletal pain that occurs in the workplace, or the ergonomic and epidemiologic model for cumulative trauma disorders, or on the specific exposure relationships of the individual, by the job, and occurring in the workplace. The previous treatments for, and the natural history of, cumulative trauma disorders in other countries gives some insight into the possible future of cumulative trauma disorders for the United States. Until research can provide specific dose and exposure relationships for the individual, prevention remains the best treatment for cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace. PMID:9646754

Melhorn, J M

1998-06-01

77

Effect of Fatigue on Hamstring Reflex Responses and Posterior-Anterior Tibial Translation in Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture ranks among the most common injuries in sports. The incidence of ACL injuries is considerably higher in females than in males and the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for ACL injuries. We investigated gender differences in hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation (TT) before and after fatiguing exercise. We assessed the isolated movement of the tibia relative to the femur in the sagittal plane as a consequence of mechanically induced TT in standing subjects. The muscle activity of the hamstrings was evaluated. Furthermore, isometric maximum voluntary torque (iMVT) and rate of torque development (RTD) of the hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q) were measured and the MVT H/Q as well as the RTD H/Q ratios were calculated. After fatigue, reflex onset latencies were enhanced in women. A reduction of reflex responses associated with an increased TT was observed in females. Men showed no differences in these parameters. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between parameters for TT and MVT H/Q as well as RTD H/Q. The results of the present study revealed that the fatigue protocol used in this study altered the latency and magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstrings as well as TT in women. These changes were not found in men. Based on our results, it is conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease in neuromuscular function with a corresponding increase in TT probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women.

Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Wassermann, Franziska; Bruhn, Sven

2013-01-01

78

Muscle activation during various hamstring exercises.  

PubMed

McAllister, MJ, Hammond, KG, Schilling, BK, Ferreria, LC, Reed, JP, and Weiss, LW. Muscle activation during various hamstring exercises. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1573-1580, 2014-The dorsal muscles of the lower torso and extremities have often been denoted the "posterior chain." These muscles are used to support the thoracic and lumbar spine and peripheral joints, including the hip, knee, and ankle on the dorsal aspect of the body. This study investigated the relative muscle activity of the hamstring group and selected surrounding musculature during the leg curl, good morning, glute-ham raise, and Romanian deadlift (RDL). Twelve healthy, weight-trained men performed duplicate trials of single repetitions at 85% 1-repetition maximum for each lift in random order, during which surface electromyography and joint angle data were obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance across the 4 exercises was performed to compare the activity from the erector spinae (ES), gluteus medius (GMed), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas). Significant differences (p ? 0.05) were noted in eccentric muscle activity between exercise for the MGas (p < 0.027), ST (p < 0.001), BF (p < 0.001), and ES (p = 0.032), and in concentric muscle activity, for the ES (p < 0.001), BF (p = 0.010), ST (p = 0.009), MGas (p < 0.001), and the GMed (p = 0.018). Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed significant pairwise differences during eccentric actions for the BF, ST, and MGas. Post hoc analysis also revealed significant pairwise differences during concentric actions for the ES, BF, ST, MGas, and GMed. Each of these showed effect sizes that are large or greater. The main findings of this investigation are that the ST is substantially more active than the BF among all exercises, and hamstring activity was maximized in the RDL and glute-ham raise. Therefore, athletes and coaches who seek to maximize the involvement of the hamstring musculature should consider focusing on the glute-ham raise and RDL. PMID:24149748

McAllister, Matt J; Hammond, Kelley G; Schilling, Brian K; Ferreria, Lucas C; Reed, Jacob P; Weiss, Lawrence W

2014-06-01

79

Multi-scale mechanics of traumatic brain injury: predicting axonal strains from head loads.  

PubMed

The length scales involved in the development of diffuse axonal injury typically range from the head level (i.e., mechanical loading) to the cellular level. The parts of the brain that are vulnerable to this type of injury are mainly the brainstem and the corpus callosum, which are regions with highly anisotropically oriented axons. Within these parts, discrete axonal injuries occur mainly where the axons have to deviate from their main course due to the presence of an inclusion. The aim of this study is to predict axonal strains as a result of a mechanical load at the macroscopic head level. For this, a multi-scale finite element approach is adopted, in which a macro-level head model and a micro-level critical volume element are coupled. The results show that the axonal strains cannot be trivially correlated to the tissue strain without taking into account the axonal orientations, which indicates that the heterogeneities at the cellular level play an important role in brain injury and reliable predictions thereof. In addition to the multi-scale approach, it is shown that a novel anisotropic equivalent strain measure can be used to assess these micro-scale effects from head-level simulations only. PMID:22434184

Cloots, R J H; van Dommelen, J A W; Kleiven, S; Geers, M G D

2013-01-01

80

A new concept for isokinetic hamstring: quadriceps muscle strength ratio.  

PubMed

Conventionally, the hamstring:quadriceps strength ratio is calculated by dividing the maximal knee flexor (hamstring) moment by the maximal knee extensor (quadriceps) moment measured at identical angular velocity and contraction mode. The agonist-antagonist strength relationship for knee extension and flexion may, however, be better described by the more functional ratios of eccentric hamstring to concentric quadriceps moments (extension), and concentric hamstring to eccentric quadriceps moments (flexion). We compared functional and conventional isokinetic hamstring: quadriceps strength ratios and examined their relation to knee joint angle and joint angular velocity. Peak and angle-specific (50 degrees, 40 degrees, and 30 degrees of knee flexion) moments were determined during maximal concentric and eccentric muscle contractions (10 degrees to 90 degrees of motion; 30 and 240 deg/sec). Across movement speeds and contraction modes the functional ratios for different moments varied between 0.3 and 1.0 (peak and 50 degrees), 0.4 and 1.1 (40 degrees), and 0.4 and 1.4 (30 degrees). In contrast, conventional hamstring:quadriceps ratios were 0.5 to 0.6 based on peak and 50 degrees moments, 0.6 to 0.7 based on 40 degrees moment, and 0.6 to 0.8 based on 30 degrees moment. The functional hamstring:quadriceps ratio for fast knee extension yielded a 1:1 relationship, which increased with extended knee joint position, indicating a significant capacity of the hamstring muscles to provide dynamic knee joint stability in these conditions. The evaluation of knee joint function by use of isokinetic dynamometry should comprise data on functional and conventional hamstring:quadriceps ratios as well as data on absolute muscle strength. PMID:9548116

Aagaard, P; Simonsen, E B; Magnusson, S P; Larsson, B; Dyhre-Poulsen, P

1998-01-01

81

Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation.

Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frederic; Mountjoy, Margo

2012-01-01

82

The Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Leg Rotation during Knee Extension  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise.

Kimura, Atsushi

2013-01-01

83

Simulated childbirth injuries in an inbred rat strain  

PubMed Central

Vaginal distension (VD) in outbred rats has been shown to decrease urethral resistance, as well as increase the expression of the stem cell-homing chemokine, monocyte chemotactic factor 3 (MCP-3), but not stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1). The aim of this study was to determine if similar responses are induced by VD in an inbred rat strain. Forty female Lewis rats underwent VD or sham VD followed by leak point pressure (LPP) testing 4 or 10 days later. Ten additional rats served as controls. The urethra and vagina were then dissected for histology. To examine chemokine expression, 8 additional rats underwent VD with organs harvested immediately or 1 day after the procedure for RT-PCR of MCP-3 and SDF-1. Four age-matched rats served as controls. Four days after VD, LPP was significantly lower in VD rats (14.3±1.6 cmH2O) than controls (18.7±1.3 cmH2O). Ten days after VD, LPP in both VD (19.7±2.6 cmH2O) and sham (18.4±1.3 cmH2O) groups was not significantly different from controls. Urethral histology demonstrated marked disruption and atrophy of smooth and striated muscle in VD rats compared to shams and controls. RT-PCR yielded a 25-fold significant increase in expression of urethral MCP-3 immediately following VD. SDF-1 was significantly decreased in the urethra and vagina immediately after VD and in the bladder 24 hours after VD. In conclusion, VD in Lewis rats produces functional, histological and molecular results similar to that of outbred rats. This model could be utilized in future studies investigating cellular transplant methods of improving urethral function.

Woo, Lynn L.; Hijaz, Adonis; Pan, Hui Q.; Kuang, Mei; Rackley, Raymond R.; Damaser, Margot S.

2008-01-01

84

Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use. PMID:15579930

Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

2004-01-01

85

Treatment of muscle injuries by local administration of autologous conditioned serum: a pilot study on sportsmen with muscle strains.  

PubMed

Muscle injuries represent a major part of sports injuries and are a challenging problem in traumatology. Strain injuries are the most common muscle injuries after contusions. These injuries can lead to significant pain and disability causing time to be lost to training and competition. Despite the frequency of strain injuries the treatment available is limited and is generally not sufficient to enhance muscle regeneration efficiently when fast resumption of sport activity is a primary target. A number of growth factors play a specific role in regeneration and it has been proven that a previously described method of physically and chemically stimulating whole blood (to produce autologous conditioned serum) induces concentration increases in FGF-2, HGF, and TGF-beta1. A preliminary study was conducted on muscle strain injuries in professional sportsmen receiving either: 1. autologous conditioned serum (ACS) or 2. Actovegin/Traumeel treatment as control. Assessment of recovery from injury was done by: 1. sport professional's ability to participate to 100 % under competition conditions in their respective sport and 2. MRI analysis. A significant difference in the recovery time from injury was demonstrated: 16.6 +/- 0.9 in the ACS treated instead of 22.3 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- SEM) days in the Actovegin/Traumeel control group (p = 0.001). MRI analysis supported the observed acceleration of the lesion recovery time. We conclude that ACS injection is a promising approach to reduce the time to recovery from muscle injury. PMID:15532001

Wright-Carpenter, T; Klein, P; Schäferhoff, P; Appell, H J; Mir, L M; Wehling, P

2004-11-01

86

High hamstring tendinopathy in 3 female long distance runners  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of 3 female long distance runners with high hamstring tendinopathy. Clinical Features Three female runners presented to a chiropractic office with proximal hamstring pain that was aggravated by running. Increasing mileage, hills, and/or interval training preceded the onset of symptoms in each case. The subjects all displayed weakness of the hip abductors, pelvic joint dysfunction, hamstring tightness, and ischial tuberosity tenderness. Other clinical findings included overpronation, proprioceptive weakness, and lumbar dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome All 3 patients were treated with Graston Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization, lumbopelvic manipulation, and electrical muscle stimulation with ultrasound. Active exercise focused on hamstring stretching and strengthening, gluteal strengthening, and proprioceptive training. The 3 runners seen in this clinic had resolution of hamstring pain in an average of 13 treatments and were able to continue competing without restriction. Conclusion Runners with high hamstring tendinopathy may respond favorably to conservative chiropractic treatment and active rehabilitation with minimal time off of training.

White, Kristin E.

2011-01-01

87

Figure skating injuries.  

PubMed

Figure skaters who train regularly sustain primarily lower extremity injuries, especially overuse injuries. Quadriceps and hamstring stretching may help prevent or decrease anterior knee pain. Foot and ankle problems may be related to the rigidity of the leather skating boot. The need for trunk strength to maintain body position is frequently under-emphasized. Air quality may also be a problem for those who skate in enclosed rinks. PMID:10081059

Bloch, R M

1999-02-01

88

Endoscopic Transtendinous Repair for Partial-Thickness Proximal Hamstring Tendon Tears  

PubMed Central

Partial tears of the proximal hamstring tendon can successfully be managed with tendon repair in cases of failed conservative management. As in partial-thickness gluteus medius repair, a transtendinous technique can be used to repair partial-thickness undersurface tears of the hamstring origin. This report details an endoscopic transtendinous approach for the treatment of partial-thickness hamstring tendon tears.

Jackson, Timothy J.; Trenga, Anthony; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Domb, Benjamin G.

2014-01-01

89

Strain Differences in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury in Long-Evans Compared to Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract The selected strain of rodent used in experimental models of traumatic brain injury is typically dependent upon the experimental questions asked and the familiarity of the investigator with a specific rodent strain. This archival study compares the injury responsiveness and recovery profiles of two popular outbred strains, the Long-Evans (LE) and the Sprague-Dawley (SD), after brain injury induced by lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI). General findings include a significantly longer duration of unconsciousness in LE rats, but similar durations of apnea. Both strains displayed the same level of initial FPI-induced behavioral deficits, followed by a more rapid rate of functional recovery in SD rats. Cortical volume loss was not significantly different, but close inspection of the data suggests the possibility that LE rats may be more susceptible to damage in the hemisphere contralateral to the injury site than are SD rats. It is hoped that the information provided here encourages greater attention to the subtle differences and similarities between strains in future pre-clinical efficacy studies of traumatic brain injury.

Tan, Arlene A.; Quigley, Andrea; Smith, Douglas C.

2009-01-01

90

An evaluation of the association between fibromyalgia and repetitive strain injuries in metalworkers of an industry in Guarulhos, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive strain injuries are a common diagnostic label for musculoskeletal pain occurring at the workplace. Although many individuals present with diffuse pain, the diagnosis of fibromyalgia in this setting is rare. Our objective was to establish the point prevalence of the fibromyalgia syndrome in a population of assembly line workers in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods. Thirty-four workers with repetitive strain

Andréa L Gallinaro; Daniel Feldman; Jamil Natour

2001-01-01

91

Mouse Strain Modulates the Role of the Ciliated Cell in Acute Tracheobronchial Airway Injury-Distal Airways  

PubMed Central

Understanding cellular repair mechanisms in vivo has been advanced through the use of well-defined injury and repair models and their application to knockout and transgenic animals, primarily mice generated in a variety of background strains. However, little is known concerning the effect that mouse strain itself has on the interpretation and comparability of observations when the strain used for genetic manipulation is not the strain used to develop the model. We compared acute bronchiolar injury and repair in three strains of mice used in knockout mouse development (C57BL/6, 129/TerSv, and 129/SvEv) to the model strain (Swiss Webster) after treatment with the same dose of naphthalene and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days after treatment. Extent of Clara cell toxicity and exfoliation was identical in the distal airways of all strains. There were significant strain-related differences in ciliated cell squamation, initiation and duration of proliferation, epithelial differentiation, and time to completion of epithelial repair. We conclude that ciliated cells play a prominent role in repair of distal airway injury, but that all phases of the repair process differ by strain. In addition, our findings reinforce that control animals must be of the same strain, ideally litter mates, when transgenic or knockout mice are used for the study of airway repair processes and mechanisms.

Lawson, Gregory W.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Toskala, Elina; Senior, Robert M.; Parks, William C.; Plopper, Charles G.

2002-01-01

92

Nonuniform changes in MRI measurements of the thigh muscles after two hamstring strengthening exercises.  

PubMed

Although many different hamstring strengthening exercises exist, the effect on site specific activation of these exercises on different muscles of the leg is unclear. This study investigated the effects of the eccentric leg curl (LC) and lunge (L) exercises on the biceps femoris long head (BFl), biceps femoris short head (BFs), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor magnus (AM). Each leg of 11 male professional soccer players was randomly assigned to an LC or L exercise protocol (3 sets of 6 repetitions). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the subjects' thighs were performed before and 48 hours after the intervention. Fifteen axial scans of the thigh interspaced by a distance of 1/15 right femur length (Lf) were obtained. The fMRI data were analyzed for signal intensity changes. No significant changes were observed in absolute short tau inversion recovery values for the SM and BFs. Significant changes for the ST (?21-45%) from sections 4 to 10, AM (?2-13%) at section 4, and BFl (? -3 vs. 8%) at section 7 were noted. LC exercises load all the regions of the ST muscle. The L exercises load the proximal regions of the BFl and AM. These findings may have relevance when designing protocols for prevention and rehabilitation of hamstring injuries. PMID:23443215

Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Garrues, Mirian A; Cronin, John B; Contreras, Bret; Los Arcos, Asier; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Maffulli, Nicola; Idoate, Fernando

2013-03-01

93

The management of bilateral high hamstring tendinopathy with ASTYM® treatment and eccentric exercise: a case report.  

PubMed

High hamstring tendinopathy (HHT) is an overuse injury that occurs most commonly in runners. The management of HHT is often challenging and the research supporting many interventions is limited. Eccentric exercise has been proven effective in the treatment of various tendinopathies but has not been thoroughly studied with HHT. Soft tissue mobilization, including ASTYM, is often utilized in the treatment of tendinopathies, though there is limited evidence supporting this approach. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a patient referred to physical therapy with bilateral HHT. The patient was a 41-year-old recreational runner that had an insidious onset of right buttock pain 12 months prior to initiating therapy and left buttock pain 9 months prior. Her primary complaints included an inability to run, pain with prolonged or brisk walking, and pain with sitting on hard surfaces. The patient was treated in physical therapy two times per week for 16 visits with treatment focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening and ASTYM. By her eighth visit, the patient was able to walk 2·5 miles without pain and by her 12 visit, she was able to jog 1 mile before the onset of pain. After 16 visits, the patient reported that she was approximately 95% improved, was able to run 2·5 miles without pain, and had no pain with sitting on hard surfaces. This case suggests that eccentric exercise combined with ASTYM may be an effective treatment for HHT. PMID:23904753

McCormack, Joshua R

2012-08-01

94

Protective effects of therapeutic cold and heat against the oxidative damage induced by a muscle strain injury in rats.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of action of physical agents commonly used to treat skeletal muscle lesions are not well understood. In this study, we examined whether the modulation of oxidative stress is involved in the beneficial effects of cold and heat on gastrocnemius muscle strain injury. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to a strain injury and treated with therapeutic agents in an isolated or combined form. Strain damage caused an increase in muscle and blood oxidative damage. We suggest that this oxidative damage might be related to the impairment of the muscle cell structure, since we observed a significant positive correlation between increased plasma creatine kinase activity and both oxidized dichlorofluoresceine and lipid peroxidation levels in muscle and blood. The intensity of the inflammatory response appears also to be an important factor in the genesis of oxidative damage immediately following a muscle strain injury. Therapeutic cold seems to be more effective in preventing the damage induced by a strain injury, possibly due to its capacity to control the impairment of muscle cell structure and to modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response that follows a muscle strain injury. PMID:20544483

Carvalho, Nélson; Puntel, Gustavo; Correa, Philipe; Gubert, Priscila; Amaral, Guilherme; Morais, Jefferson; Royes, Luiz; da Rocha, João; Soares, Félix

2010-07-01

95

Repetitive strain injury. 1. An overview of the problem and the patients. The Goff Group.  

PubMed

Assembly-line workers, house painters, and many others whose activities entail repetitive motions can end up with swelling, pain, and limited movement in the affected muscles. Often, use of the six steps described in this article brings fairly rapid functional improvement and prevents recurrences, with a minimum of medical intervention. In some cases, though, recovery is prolonged or the outcome is unusual. The authors present additional factors to consider in such cases, such as psychosocial concerns, worker fraud, and ergonomic problems. Part 2 of this article, beginning on page 72, details six common repetitive strain injuries. PMID:9336596

Sheon, R P

1997-10-01

96

Hypnotically-induced vasodilation in the treatment of repetitive strain injuries.  

PubMed

The study examined the effectiveness of behaviorally-induced vasodilation (hypnosis with biofeedback and autogenics) in the treatment of upper extremity repetitive strain injuries (RSI). Thirty patients with recent onset of upper extremity RSI symptoms were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions, i.e., hypnotically-induced vasodilation or a waiting-list control. Treatments were given on an individual basis, once a week for 6 weeks. Patients in the treatment condition showed highly significant increases in hand temperature between pre- and post-treatment. Patients in the treatment condition also showed highly significant reductions in pain in comparison to the waiting list condition. PMID:8936710

Moore, L E; Wiesner, S L

1996-10-01

97

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy and repetitive strain injury: temperature and microcirculatory changes following mild cold stress.  

PubMed Central

Temperature and blood flow studies were performed in the upper limbs of six patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), nine patients with repetitive strain injury (RSI) and 12 control subjects using thermography, laser Doppler flowmetry, infrared photoplethysmography and venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. The contralateral responses of the symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs were examined after being subjected, separately, to mild cold stress (20 degrees C for 1 min). Altered thermoregulation and haemodynamics were evident in RSD. Though the pattern of response to contralateral cold challenge is similar to normal in RSI, vasodilatation and reduced vasomotion appears to be characteristic in this condition. Such changes may assist in distinguishing between RSD and RSI from other causes of chronic upper limb pain.

Cooke, E D; Steinberg, M D; Pearson, R M; Fleming, C E; Toms, S L; Elusade, J A

1993-01-01

98

Injection Treatment No Help for Hamstring Injuries, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... said study lead author Dr. Gustaaf Reurink, a sports medicine specialist with Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the ... hip and knee, said Dr. Lewis Maharam, a sports medicine specialist in New York City. If they're ...

99

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592)  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. Methods and design A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18?years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16?weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16?weeks. The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. Conclusion This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592

2012-01-01

100

Structure and physiology of joints and their relationship to repetitive strain injuries.  

PubMed

Joints involved in repetitive strain injuries are diathrodial, that is, two bone ends with cartilaginous end plates sheathed by a soft envelope of synovium. The cartilaginous plates, consisting of chondrocytes, ground substance, and at least seven species of collagen, but mostly Type II, cushion the bone ends during repeated elastic compression and enable them to slide with minimal friction. The metabolic needs of the avascular cartilage are met by nutrients and waste products diffusing through the synovial fluid and into and out of the synovium and its blood vessels and lymphatics. Synovial nerves give joint position information. Fat, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans constitute the deformable synovial sheath. Synovial lining cells synthesize joint lubricants, matrix molecules, digestive enzymes, and cytokines, and participate in immunologic processes that can be reparative or degradative especially of cartilage. Heavy repeated forces applied to the upper and lower extremity joints cause degenerative changes that can be documented radiographically. Repeated light loading, such as in computer keyboard use, is evaluated inadequately with current imaging and clinical techniques. Differences in individual's response to repetitive loading may be caused by subtle differences in the interaction and initial conditions of the musculoskeletal structures, including the joint, involved in repetitive strain injuries. PMID:9646744

Allan, D A

1998-06-01

101

Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09). In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket). It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’) are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season), perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury) have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is unlikely to be reduced in future years, teams may need to develop a squad rotation for fast bowlers, similar to pitching staff in baseball, to reduce the injury rates for fast bowlers. Consideration should be given to rule changes which may reduce the impact of injury. In particular, allowing the 12th man to play as a full substitute in first class cricket (and therefore take some of the bowling workload in the second innings) would probably reduce bowling injury prevalence in cricket.

Orchard, John; James, Trefor; Kountouris, Alex; Portus, Marc

2010-01-01

102

Impact of age and strain on ischemic brain injury and seizures after carotid ligation in immature mice  

PubMed Central

Stroke is an important cause of neurologic injury in the neonatal period and frequently results in lifelong neurologic impairments. We reported previously that unilateral carotid ligation on postnatal day (P)12 in CD1 mice causes acute behavioral seizures and unilateral brain injury and provides a model for neonatal stroke in human infants. In the present study we confirmed that behavioral seizures observed after ligation on P12 in the CD1 strain are associated with rhythmic ictal discharges that show temporal progression on electrocorticograms. We also examined the effects of carotid ligation performed at different ages in CD1 mice or performed in the C57Bl/6 strain. The right common carotid was ligated at P7, P10, P12 or P21 in CD1 mice or at P12 in C57Bl/6 mice. Littermate controls received sham surgery. Seizures were rated for 4 h after surgery; brain injury was scored one week later. In a separate group of P12 CD1 mice, electrocorticographic activity was recorded continuously for 4 h after carotid ligation or sham surgery. Brain injury and cumulative seizure score varied significantly with age (p<0.001) and strain (p<0.001). In CD1 mice, injury was greatest after ligation on P10 to P12 and seizure score was maximal at P12. Seizure scores were significantly correlated with injury after ligation on P10 or P12. C57Bl/6 mice, like C3Heb/FeJ mice examined previously, were much less vulnerable to seizures and injury than CD1 mice after ligation on P12. This study demonstrates that carotid ligation in the CD1 mouse on P12 causes acute electrographic rhythmic discharges that correlate with behavioral seizures. We also found that the age at which ligation is performed and genetic strain have a strong influence on the severity of injury.

Comi, Anne M.; Trescher, William H.; Abi-Raad, Ronnie; Johnston, Michael V.; Wilson, Mary Ann

2009-01-01

103

Triceps reconstruction using hamstring graft for triceps insufficiency or recurrent rupture.  

PubMed

Triceps ruptures are relatively rare injuries. When they occur, primary surgical repair of the tendon to the proximal ulna is recommended. However, some patients require reconstruction using tendon grafting due to shortening or insufficiency of the native triceps tendon. Triceps ruptures associated with biological abnormalities (such as renal insufficiency or metabolic disease) or recurrence of rupture represent situations where a stout augmented repair is desirable. Multiple allograft and autologous tendons have been described for augmentation, but the use of gracilis and semitendinosus tendons provides superior length and size for use in triceps reconstruction. Using an illustrative case example, the evaluation of triceps insufficiency and the need for additional graft is shown. The technique of autologous hamstring augmentation for triceps insufficiency is described in detail. The importance of graded rehabilitation is emphasized with a complete program of triceps strengthening over time. PMID:18776780

Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; McCarty, Eric C; Ritchie, Paul D

2008-09-01

104

Knee Flexion Strength Before and After ACL Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendon Autografts  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common sports injury in both athletes and nonathletes; it can cause disability if not treated correctly. In cases with minor injuries, conservative treatments suffice. But, in cases with ACL tear, surgery by different methods and autografts are indicated. The most prevalent method for ACL reconstruction is the use of hamstring tendon autograft; this requires tendon removal and results in subsequent weakness in patient’s knee flexion strength which can cause dissatisfaction. Objectives In this study we evaluate a common procedure used for treating ACL injuries. Patients and Methods This study was performed at a hospital in Tehran on 30 patients with ACL tears. Patients’ knee flexion strengths before and 2, 4, 6, and 12 months after reconstruction were measured separately at 20, 45, 90, and 110? knee flexion angles, and their means were analyzed using paired t-test. Results In this study, knee flexion strength decreased after ACL reconstruction. The greatest decrease in knee flexion strength was observed at 90 and 110? knee flexion angles. Conclusions Some previous studies have confirmed reduced knee flexion strength following ACL reconstruction at high knee flexion angles. However, some others have denied it. The present study confirmed the reduction in knee flexion strength one year after ACL reconstruction at 90 and 110? flexion angles (P = 0.000). Furthermore, the need for physiotherapy, as a process for rehabilitating these patients was also confirmed.

Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Jannesari, Morteza; Rahim Nia, Alireza; Yaribeygi, Habib; Sobhani Firoozabad, Vahid; Dorostegan, Ahmad

2013-01-01

105

A review of recent perspectives on biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence to support a number of biomechanical risk factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This paper aims to review these biomechanical risk factors and highlight future directions relating to them. Current perspectives investigating trunk position and relationships between strength, muscle activity and biomechanics during landing/cutting highlight the importance of increasing hamstring muscle force during dynamic movements through altering strength, muscle activity, muscle length and contraction velocity. In particular, increased trunk flexion during landing/cutting and greater hamstring strength are likely to increase hamstring muscle force during landing and cutting which have been associated with reduced ACL injury risk. Decision making has also been shown to influence landing biomechanics and should be considered when designing tasks to assess landing/cutting biomechanics. Coaches should therefore promote hamstring strength training and active trunk flexion during landing and cutting in an attempt to reduce ACL injury risk. PMID:24650339

Hughes, Gerwyn

2014-01-01

106

Thyroid cell injury is an initial event in the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis by iodine in obese strain chickens.  

PubMed

The present study examines the role of thyroid cell injury in the initiation of autoimmune thyroiditis by iodine in Obese strain (OS) chickens, a strain genetically susceptible to spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. OS and normal strain chickens were placed on an iodine depletion regimen started in ovo. This regimen is known to prevent thyroiditis in OS chickens. The chickens were injected with NaI every 24 h for up to 7 days starting at 3 weeks of age. Both strains showed evidence of mild thyrocyte injury 12 h after NaI. However, significant and sustained infiltration, beginning 24 h after NaI, was seen only in the OS. The infiltrating cells were primarily mononuclear. Polymorphonuclear cells were not observed. Immunohistological analysis showed the infiltrate to be composed of CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, B cells, and macrophages in the ratio 40:20:22:17. The infiltration was sustained and progressive for at least 7 days. Thyroid infiltration after NaI repletion was significantly reduced in OS chickens tolerized to thyroglobulin at hatching. Prior treatment with the antioxidant drug ethoxyquin completely prevented both the thyrocyte injury and the infiltration induced by iodine. Treatment with antioxidant drugs had no effect on the uptake and incorporation of iodine by the thyroid. In summary, 1) iodine caused thyrocyte injury in both OS and normal chickens. 2) The injury was followed by cellular infiltration in the OS but not in normal chickens. 3) The infiltration appeared to be immune mediated in being primarily lymphocytic and at least partially thyroglobulin sensitive. 4) Prevention of thyroid injury by antioxidant drug treatment also prevented infiltration. We conclude that thyroid cell injury may be an initial event in the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis by iodine. PMID:7588241

Bagchi, N; Brown, T R; Sundick, R S

1995-11-01

107

Employee perceived stress. Relationship to the development of repetitive strain injury symptoms.  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injuries (RSIs), specifically carpal tunnel syndrome, are the fastest growing type of occupational injury. Research about precipitating factors and prevention has been controversial and inconclusive. Preventive measures typically have addressed ergonomic changes. The purpose of this research article is to describe the effects of several variables on the perceived development of RSI symptoms, particularly those of carpal tunnel syndrome. Emphasis was placed on the role of perceived stress. The study design was a descriptive survey using a nonprobability sampling method. The study focused on four variables related to perceptions of symptoms: 1) perceptions of level of knowledge related to the prevention of RSIs; 2) taking a specific action to make one's workstation more ergonomically correct; 3) perceptions of having ergonomically correct workstations; and 4) perceptions of being stressed. Study results indicated that perceived stress was significantly associated with perceived RSI symptoms. Workers who use a computer 4 or more hours per day reported significantly more symptoms than those who did not. At risk computer users who perceive an ergonomically correct workstation reported fewer symptoms. To prevent RSIs, occupational health nurses must address ergonomics, stress levels, and knowledge levels. PMID:9146112

Hess, D

1997-03-01

108

Nintendonitis? A case report of repetitive strain injury in a child as a result of playing computer games.  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injury is a common occupational hazard but has not been previously reported in a child. With the escalating use of computers both in the home for recreational purposes and in schools for teaching, the possible incidence of hand and wrist problems may need to be highlighted. Perhaps "hand care" instruction should be implemented in UK schools as prophylaxis. PMID:11130299

Macgregor, D M

2000-10-01

109

Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps Strength Capacity in Professional Soccer Players with Different Conventional Isokinetic Muscle Strength Ratios  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength imbalance can be an important factor in hamstrings muscle strain. A hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio based on concentric peak torque values (Hcon:Qcon) has traditionally been used to describe the potential for knee-joint destabilization. Because certain standard actions in soccer are explosive, the analysis of the H/Q strength ratio based on the rate of torque development (Hrtd:Qrtd) might also be useful in the evaluation of joint stability. The objective of this study was to compare the Hrtd:Qrtd between professional soccer players with heterogeneous values of Hcon:Qcon. Thirty-nine professional soccer players took part in the following procedures on different days: 1) Familiarization session with the isokinetic dynamometer, and 2) Two maximal isometric actions and five maximal concentric actions at 60°·s-1 for hamstrings (H) and quadriceps (Q). Participants were ranked according to their Hcon:Qcon ratio. The median third was excluded to form a high torque group (HTG), and a low torque group (LTG). Peak isometric (H) and concentric (H and Q) torques and rate of torque development (H) were significantly greater in the HTG group. Similarly, Hcon:Qcon (0.68 ± 0.02 vs. 0.52 ± 0.03) and Hrtd:Qrtd (0.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.43 ± 0.16) were significantly greater in the HTG group than in the LTG group. There was no significant correlation between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd. It can be concluded that Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms. Thus, the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd to an athlete’s individual evaluation might be different. Key pointsSoccer players with high (0.66-0.70) and low (0.50-0.54) conventional concentric hamstrings:quadriceps ratios (Hcon:Qcon) tend to demonstrate similar profiles (i.e., high and low, respectively) in their rate of the torque development H/Q ratio (Hrtd:Qrtd).The lack of a significant relationship between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd suggests that these ratios are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms.Preseason screening programs that monitor hamstrings:quadriceps ratios should recognize that the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrfd:Qrfd to an athlete’s individual evaluation might be different.

Greco, Camila C.; Da Silva, Wendell L.; Camarda, Sergio R.A.; Denadai, Benedito S.

2012-01-01

110

Hamstring graft size and anthropometry in south Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size in Indian population remains unclear. Till now, no studies have been done on Indian population. Methods We evaluated 41 consecutive patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length, diameter before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm. Correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) analysis was used. Results As per study there is no correlation between graft diameter, age, sex, weight, activity, and body mass index, of patients. Height of patients correlated to graft diameter in both Indian men and women (p < 0.001). Conclusion Anthropometric measurements such as weight, gender, activity level cannot be used as definitive predictors for the hamstring graft diameter during harvest but height of the patients can be taken as good predictor in Indian population.

Challa, Supradeeptha; Satyaprasad, Jonnalagedda

2013-01-01

111

Anthropometrical analysis of the hand as a Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) predictive method in pianists.  

PubMed

In the present work we have studied the anthropometrical characteristics of the pianists hands to predict their potential vulnerability to suffer from Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI). To get this goal we studied the size and morphotype of the hands of pianists affected by RSI. Firstly we observed that 222 individuals from 341 studied pianists (65.1% of the total) presented RSI. Secondly we appreciated that affected hands were mostly small sized (60% of the affected hands) and classifiable in a distinct morphotype named B (68% of the affected hands). This fact suggest they both were the most vulnerable to RSI. Finally we may conclude anthropometrical analysis of pianists hands may be used to reduce the high incidence of this illness given that it may predict performers potential vulnerability to RSI. It also has to be remarked that further studies in this knowledge field are required to reduce the incidence of playing-related medical problems in general, and RSI in particular, in pianist population. PMID:12611474

Farias, J; Ordóñez, F J; Rosety-Rodriguez, M; Carrasco, C; Ribelles, A; Rosety, M; Rosety, J M; Gomez del Valle, M

2002-01-01

112

Study of the fatigue curve in quadriceps and hamstrings of soccer players during isokinetic endurance testing.  

PubMed

Many studies have presented regression models of quadriceps (Q) muscle strength loss with fatigue development. Paradoxically, the hamstrings (H), which are the principal site of muscle injury in soccer players, have received little attention, and no regression model has been established. This study investigated strength loss in the Q and H to establish a regression model using the lowest number of flexions-extensions during isokinetic endurance testing. Twenty-four semiprofessional soccer players performed 50 flexion-extension movements at 180 degrees x s(-1) on an isokinetic dynamometer. The theoretical equations were calculated from the first 10, first 15, first 20, and first 25 contractions for each muscle group by several regression models (linear, quadratic, cubic). The linear model was the best fit to this exercise protocol to describe the strength loss in both muscle groups. The quadratic model was the best fit to predict the changes in the H/Q ratio. This study showed that a regression model can be established for both muscle groups. A minimum of 20 extensions and 15 flexions was needed to establish a linear model that represented strength loss in, respectively, Q and H. A minimum of 25 flexions-extensions was needed with the quadratic model to accurately determine the decrease in the H/Q ratio. Isokinetic endurance testing can be carried out with only 25 flexions-extensions. This reduction should facilitate the implementation of this protocol. Regular evaluation would contribute to the efforts to prevent muscle injury during competitive sports activity. PMID:18714243

Sangnier, Sébastien; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

2008-09-01

113

The effects of hamstring stretching on range of motion: A systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: Systematic literature review. Objective: Investigate the literature regarding the most effective positions, techniques, and durations of stretching to improve hamstring muscle flexibility. Background: Hamstring stretching is popular among physical therapists, athletic trainers, and fitness\\/coaching professionals; however, numerous stretching methodologies have been proposed in the literature. This fact establishes a need to systematically summarize available evidence in an attempt

Laura C. Decoster; Joshua Cleland; Carolann Altieri; Pamela J. Russell

2005-01-01

114

The management of bilateral high hamstring tendinopathy with ASTYM(R) treatment and eccentric exercise: a case report  

PubMed Central

High hamstring tendinopathy (HHT) is an overuse injury that occurs most commonly in runners. The management of HHT is often challenging and the research supporting many interventions is limited. Eccentric exercise has been proven effective in the treatment of various tendinopathies but has not been thoroughly studied with HHT. Soft tissue mobilization, including ASTYM, is often utilized in the treatment of tendinopathies, though there is limited evidence supporting this approach. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a patient referred to physical therapy with bilateral HHT. The patient was a 41-year-old recreational runner that had an insidious onset of right buttock pain 12 months prior to initiating therapy and left buttock pain 9 months prior. Her primary complaints included an inability to run, pain with prolonged or brisk walking, and pain with sitting on hard surfaces. The patient was treated in physical therapy two times per week for 16 visits with treatment focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening and ASTYM. By her eighth visit, the patient was able to walk 2·5 miles without pain and by her 12 visit, she was able to jog 1 mile before the onset of pain. After 16 visits, the patient reported that she was approximately 95% improved, was able to run 2·5 miles without pain, and had no pain with sitting on hard surfaces. This case suggests that eccentric exercise combined with ASTYM may be an effective treatment for HHT.

McCormack, Joshua R

2012-01-01

115

Development of a strain rate dependent material model of human cortical bone for computer-aided reconstruction of injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Computer-aided methods such as finite-element simulation offer a great potential in the forensic reconstruction of injury mechanisms. Numerous studies have been performed on understanding and analysing the mechanical properties of bone and the mechanism of its fracture. Determination of the mechanical properties of bones is made on the same basis used for other structural materials. The mechanical behaviour of bones is affected by the mechanical properties of the bone material, the geometry, the loading direction and mode and of course the loading rate. Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of cortical bone has been well demonstrated in literature studies, but as many of these were performed on animal bones and at non-physiological strain rates it is questionable how these will apply in the human situations. High strain-rates dominate in a lot of forensic applications in automotive crashes and assault scenarios. There is an overwhelming need to a model which can describe the complex behaviour of bone at lower strain rates as well as higher ones. Some attempts have been made to model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of the bone at high strain rates using constitutive mathematical models with little demonstrated success. The main objective of the present study is to model the rate dependent behaviour of the bones based on experimental data. An isotropic material model of human cortical bone with strain rate dependency effects is implemented using the LS-DYNA material library. We employed a human finite element model called THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety), developed by Toyota R&D Labs and the Wayne State University, USA. The finite element model of the human femur is extracted from the THUMS model. Different methods have been employed to develop a strain rate dependent material model for the femur bone. Results of one the recent experimental studies on human femur have been employed to obtain the numerical model for cortical femur. A forensic application of the model is explained in which impacts to the arm have been reconstructed using the finite element model of THUMS. The advantage of the numerical method is that a wide range of impact conditions can be easily reconstructed. Impact velocity has been changed as a parameter to find the tolerance levels of injuries to the lower arm. The method can be further developed to study the assaults and the injury mechanism which can lead to severe traumatic injuries in forensic cases. PMID:24529781

Asgharpour, Zahra; Zioupos, Peter; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

2014-03-01

116

Matrix and cell injury due to sub-impact loading of adult bovine articular cartilage explants: effects of strain rate and peak stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical overloading of cartilage has been implicated in the initiation and progression of osteoarthrosis. Our objectives were to identify threshold levels of strain rate and peak stress at which sub-impact loads could induce cartilage matrix damage and chondrocyte injury in bovine osteochondral explants and to explore relationships between matrix damage, spatial patterns of cell injury, and applied loads. Single sub-impact

T. M. Quinn; R. G. Allen; B. J. Schalet; P. Perumbuli; E. B. Hunziker

2001-01-01

117

Risk factors for repetitive strain injuries among school teachers in Thailand.  

PubMed

Prolonged posture, static works and repetition are previously reported as the cause of repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) among workers including teachers. This cross-sectional analytic study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of RSIs among school teachers. Participants were 452 full-time school teachers in Thailand. Data were collected by the structural questionnaires, illuminance measurements and the physical fitness tests. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics which were Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used. Most teachers in this study were females (57.3%), the mean years of work experience was 22.6 ± 10.4 years. The six-month prevalence of RSIs was 73.7%. The univariate analysis identified the related risk factors to RSIs which were chronic disease (OR=1.8; 95% CI = 1.16-2.73), history of trauma (OR=2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-4.01), member of family had RSIs (OR=2.0; 95% CI = 1.02- 4.01), stretch to write on board (OR=1.7; 95% CI = 1.06-1.70) and high heel shoe >2 inch (OR=1.6; 95% CI = 1.03-2.51). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that chronic diseases and high heel shoe >2 inch significantly related to developing of RSIs. The poor grip strength and back muscle flexibility significantly affected RSIs of teachers. In conclusions, RSIs were highly prevalent in school teachers that they should be aware of health promotion to prevent RSIs. PMID:22317097

Chaiklieng, Sunisa; Suggaravetsiri, Pornnapa

2012-01-01

118

The genetic basis of strain-dependent differences in the early phase of radiation injury in mouse lung  

SciTech Connect

Substantial differences between mouse strains have been reported in the lesions present in the lung during the early phase of radiation injury. Some strains show only classical pneumonitis, while other strains develop substantial fibrosis and hyaline membranes which contribute appreciably to respiratory insufficiency, in addition to pneumonitis. Other strains are intermediate between these extremes. These differences correlate with intrinsic differences in activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme. The genetic basis of these differences was assessed by examining histologically the early reaction in lungs of seven murine hybrids available commercially after whole-thorax irradiation. Crosses between fibrosing and nonfibrosing parents were uniformly nonfibrosing, and crosses between fibrosing and intermediate parents were uniformly intermediate. No evidence of sex linkage was seen. Thus the phenotype in which fibrosis is found is controlled by autosomal recessive determinants. Strains prone to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hyaline membranes exhibited intrinsically lower activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme than either the nonfibrosing strains or the nonfibrosing hybrid crosses. The median time of death of the hybrids was genetically determined primarily by the longest-lived parent regardless of the types of lesions expressed.

Franko, A.J.; Sharplin, J.; Ward, W.F.; Hinz, J.M. (Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton (Canada))

1991-06-01

119

Lower hamstring extensibility in men compared to women is explained by differences in stretch tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether passive hamstring tissue stiffness and/or stretch tolerance explain the relationship between sex and hamstring extensibility. Methods Ninety healthy participants, 45 men and 45 women (mean?±?SD; age 24.6?±?5.9 years, height 1.72?±?0.09 m, weight 74.6?±?14.1 kg) volunteered for this study. The instrumented straight leg raise was used to determine hamstring extensibility and allow measurement of stiffness and stretch tolerance (visual analog pain score, VAS). Results Hamstring extensibility was 9.9° greater in women compared to men (p?=?0.003). VAS scores were 16 mm lower in women (p?=?0.001). Maximal stiffness (maximal applied torque) was not different between men and women (p?=?0.42). Passive stiffness (slope from 20-50° hip flexion) was 0.09 Nm.°-1 lower in women (p?=?0.025). For women, linear and stepwise regression showed that no predictor variables were associated with hamstring extensibility (adjusted r2?=?-0.03, p?=?0.61). For men, 44% of the variance in hamstring extensibility was explained by VAS and maximal applied torque (adjusted r2?=?0.44, p?hamstring extensibility, but this relationship is only manifest in men.

2014-01-01

120

The impact of seating and positioning on the development of repetitive strain injuries of the upper extremity in wheelchair athletes.  

PubMed

The population of people who use wheelchairs has been increasing due to technological advances. With this increase, there has also been an increase in participation in wheelchair sports. The incidence of upper extremity injury in wheelchair users has been reported to be between 31 and 73% [2,13,23,26,29]. Wheelchair athletes may be at an increased risk for upper extremity injury due to increased upper extremity use with sport. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain whether proper seating and positioning have an impact on the prevention of repetitive strain injuries (RSI) of the soft tissues, including peripheral nerve entrapments and muscle injury, of the upper extremity in wheelchair athletes. A review of current research on wheelchair propulsion and RSI revealed several hazards for wheelchair athletes to develop RSI's. These include duration of impairment, muscle imbalance, awkward positioning, inadequate rest breaks, repetition of muscle use in daily activities and in sport participation, the degree of force needed for propulsion, and fatigue. Current research does not provide conclusive information on optimal seating. Suggestions of preventative measures are given including suggestions with regard to positioning in the wheelchair. PMID:12441510

Stankovits, Sharon

2000-01-01

121

Strain-time cell-death threshold for skeletal muscle in a tissue-engineered model system for deep tissue injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe pressure ulcer that results from sustained deformation of muscle tissue overlying bony prominences. In order to understand the etiology of DTI, it is essential to determine the tolerance of muscle cells to large mechanical strains. In this study, a new experimental method of determining the time-dependent critical compressive strains for necrotic cell death

Amit Gefen; Bastiaan van Nierop; Dan L. Bader; Cees W. Oomens

2008-01-01

122

Murine patellar tendon biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns during natural tendon-to-bone healing after acute injury.  

PubMed

Tendon-to-bone healing following acute injury is generally poor and often fails to restore normal tendon biomechanical properties. In recent years, the murine patellar tendon (PT) has become an important model system for studying tendon healing and repair due to its genetic tractability and accessible location within the knee. However, the mechanical properties of native murine PT, specifically the regional differences in tissue strains during loading, and the biomechanical outcomes of natural PT-to-bone healing have not been well characterized. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the global biomechanical properties and regional strain patterns of both normal and naturally healing murine PT at three time points (2, 5, and 8weeks) following acute surgical rupture of the tibial enthesis. Normal murine PT exhibited distinct regional variations in tissue strain, with the insertion region experiencing approximately 2.5 times greater strain than the midsubstance at failure (10.80±2.52% vs. 4.11±1.40%; mean±SEM). Injured tendons showed reduced structural (ultimate load and linear stiffness) and material (ultimate stress and linear modulus) properties compared to both normal and contralateral sham-operated tendons at all healing time points. Injured tendons also displayed increased local strain in the insertion region compared to contralateral shams at both physiologic and failure load levels. 93.3% of injured tendons failed at the tibial insertion, compared to only 60% and 66.7% of normal and sham tendons, respectively. These results indicate that 8weeks of natural tendon-to-bone healing does not restore normal biomechanical function to the murine PT following injury. PMID:24210849

Gilday, Steven D; Chris Casstevens, E; Kenter, Keith; Shearn, Jason T; Butler, David L

2014-06-27

123

HaMStR: Profile hidden markov model based search for orthologs in ESTs  

PubMed Central

Background EST sequencing is a versatile approach for rapidly gathering protein coding sequences. They provide direct access to an organism's gene repertoire bypassing the still error-prone procedure of gene prediction from genomic data. Therefore, ESTs are often the only source for biological sequence data from taxa outside mainstream interest. The widespread use of ESTs in evolutionary studies and particularly in molecular systematics studies is still hindered by the lack of efficient and reliable approaches for automated ortholog predictions in ESTs. Existing methods either depend on a known species tree or cannot cope with redundancy in EST data. Results We present a novel approach (HaMStR) to mine EST data for the presence of orthologs to a curated set of genes. HaMStR combines a profile Hidden Markov Model search and a subsequent BLAST search to extend existing ortholog cluster with sequences from further taxa. We show that the HaMStR results are consistent with those obtained with existing orthology prediction methods that require completely sequenced genomes. A case study on the phylogeny of 35 fungal taxa illustrates that HaMStR is well suited to compile informative data sets for phylogenomic studies from ESTs and protein sequence data. Conclusion HaMStR extends in a standardized manner a pre-defined set of orthologs with ESTs from further taxa. In the same fashion HaMStR can be applied to protein sequence data, and thus provides a comprehensive approach to compile ortholog cluster from any protein coding data. The resulting orthology predictions serve as the data basis for a variety of evolutionary studies. Here, we have demonstrated the application of HaMStR in a molecular systematics study. However, we envision that studies tracing the evolutionary fate of individual genes or functional complexes of genes will greatly benefit from HaMStR orthology predictions as well.

Ebersberger, Ingo; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt

2009-01-01

124

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios in college football players: A high velocity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios were assessed on 60 in tercollegiate football players at functional speeds of 90, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec on the Cybex II. The ratio rose as velocity of exercise increased and the quadriceps was stronger than the hamstrings at all speeds. The flexor\\/extensor ratio differed bilaterally at all speeds with ratio lower for the dominant knee.The study helped establish

Maureen G. Stafford; William A. Grana

1984-01-01

125

Augmentation of autologous hamstring graft during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the bone chip technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of autologous quadrupled hamstring tendon graft is a well-known technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.\\u000a In cases where the diameter of the graft is inadequate, the stability of graft fixation and subsequent bone to tendon healing\\u000a may be compromised. We describe a new technique to augment the autologous double looped hamstring tendon graft during anterior\\u000a cruciate ligament reconstruction

Kyung Wook Nha; Gautam M. Shetty; Jin Hwan Ahn; Yong Seuk Lee; Dong Ju Chae; Hyok Woo Nam; Dae Hee Lee

2010-01-01

126

A study on the prevalence of upper extremity repetitive strain injuries among the handloom weavers of West Bengal.  

PubMed

Handloom is one of the oldest cottage industries in India, particularly in West Bengal, where a considerable number of rural people are engaged in weaving. Purposes of the present investigation were to clarify the prevalence of repetitive strain injuries in upper extremities among the handloom weavers and to identify the risk factors leading to its development. Fifty male handloom weavers were randomly selected from the population. A questionnaire (Kourinka et al., 1987) method including Borg scale assessment of pain, checklist analyses of the work, and time-motion studies for analyzing the repetitiveness/non-repetitiveness of the job were implemented. The time-motion analyses demonstrated that weaving occupied over 50% of the work cycle time for majority of subjects, and thus could be regarded as a repetitive activity. Statistical analyses revealed a highly significant correlation between the intensity of pain feeling and the repetitiveness on one hand, and the year of experience as a weaver on the other. By contrast, no significant relationship was observed between chronological ages of weavers and the pain intensity. These results suggested that highly repetitive works engaged for a long time could increase the intensity of the pain felt and would lead to repetitive strain injuries. PMID:15176126

Banerjee, Prasun; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

2003-06-01

127

A Comparative Analysis of Lesion Development and Intraspinal Inflammation in Four Strains of Mice Following Spinal Contusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to neuroinflammatory disease is influenced in part by genetics. Recent data indicate that survival of traumatized neurons is strain-dependent and influenced by polygenic loci that control resistance/susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of CNS autoimmune disease. Here, we describe patterns of neurodegeneration and intraparenchymal inflammation after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice known to exhibit varying degrees of EAE susceptibility [EAE-resistant (r) or EAE-susceptible (s) mice]. Spinal cords from C57BL/6 (EAE-s), C57BL/10 (EAE-r), BALB/c (EAE-r) and B10.PL (EAE-s) mice were prepared for stereological and immunohistochemical analysis at 6 hrs, 3, 7, 14, 28 or 42 days following mid-thoracic (T9) spinal contusion injury. In general, genetic predisposition to EAE predicted the magnitude of intraparenchymal inflammation but not lesion size/length or locomotor recovery. Specifically, microglia/macrophage activation, recruitment of neutrophils and lymphocytes and de novo synthesis of MHC class II was greatest in C57BL/6 mice and least in BALB/c mice at all times examined. However, lesion volume and axial spread of neurodegeneration were similar in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and were significantly greater than in C57BL/10 or B10.PL mice. Strains with marked intraspinal inflammation also developed the most intense lesion fibrosis. Thus, strain-dependent neuroinflammation was observed after SCI but without a consistent relationship to EAE susceptibility or lesion progression. Only in C57BL/6 mice was the magnitude of intraspinal inflammation predictive of secondary neurodegeneration, functional recovery or fibrosis.

KIGERL, KRISTINA A.; McGAUGHY, VIOLETA M.; POPOVICH, PHILLIP G.

2009-01-01

128

Interactions of high hydrostatic pressure, pressurization temperature and pH on death and injury of pressure-resistant and pressure-sensitive strains of foodborne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to determine the interactions between high hydrostatic pressure, pressurization temperature, time and pH during pressurization on death and injury of pressure-resistant and pressure-sensitive strains of four foodborne pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus 485 and 765, Listeria monocytogenes CA and OH2, Escherichia coli O157:H7 933 and 931, Salmonella enteritidis FDA and Salmonella typhimurium E21274. Among these strains

H Alpas; N Kalchayanand; F Bozoglu; B Ray

2000-01-01

129

[Update in Current Care guidelines: repetitive strain injuries of the hand and forearm].  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injuriesof the upper extremities refer to pain in the forearm, wrist and hand, caused by excessive strain. Diagnoses include tenosynovitis, epicondylitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. Treatment is aimed at alleviating pain, restoring normal physical functioning and maintain ability to work. Preventive interventions have shown some attenuation of discomfort but no effects on disease prevalance or sick leave days. Return to work interventions seem to decrease length of sickness absences. Part time work has hastened return to work and decreased sickness absences in musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:23901734

Liira, Helena; Haukka, Eija; Karppinen, Jaro; Linnanen, Päivi; Malmivaara, Antti; Pasternack, Iris; Sirola, Joonas; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Waris, Eero

2013-01-01

130

Assessment of in vivo revival, growth, and pathogenicity of Escherichia coli strains after copper- and chlorine-induced injury.  

PubMed Central

Cells of one enteroinvasive and three enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli were exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper and chlorine to produce 85 to 94% injury. Injured cells were intraluminally inoculated into ligated ileal loops of anesthetized mice, and injury was assessed at timed intervals. Substantial recovery (72-84%) of copper- and chlorine-injured cells was observed in the inoculated loops at 4 and 3 h, respectively. No appreciable increase in total numbers was observed during these time intervals. In vitro revival of copper-injured cells in phosphate-buffered saline alone after incubation at 35 degrees C for 4 h was not observed. However, a 60 to 70% revival occurred when 200 micrograms of protein per ml of mouse intestinal mucosal homogenate was incorporated into saline cell suspensions. The enterotoxigenic activity of copper-injured cells in rabbit ileal loops was somewhat reduced compared with that of chlorine-injured or uninjured cells. These results show that injured pathogenic E. coli cells can revive in the small intestine and appear to retain their enterotoxigenic activity.

Singh, A; Yeager, R; McFeters, G A

1986-01-01

131

Strain within the native and reconstructed MPFL during knee flexion.  

PubMed

There is little published data on the strain within the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and medial retinaculum through knee motion. This study was undertaken to evaluate the three-dimensional strain across the MPFL in the native state, using a proprietary visible-light stereophotogrammetry (VLS) system, and to compare the findings to the strain in a MPFL injury model and in two different reconstructed states. This is a controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric knees were marked along the MPFL and medial retinaculum, placed in an activity simulator, and taken through a range a motion. A proprietary VLS system was used to calculate the strain across the medial retinaculum and MPFL at 10 different degrees of knee flexion. This process was repeated in an MPFL injury model, as well as after standardized reconstruction of the MPFL using hamstring autograft performed in both 20 and 45 degrees of flexion. Averaged over all the measurement sites, the maximum principal strain (?1) within the native MPFL increased rapidly from full extension to 120 degrees of flexion. The highest value of ?1 (87%) was observed at 120 degrees of knee flexion in the MPFL region. The largest change in strain occurred between 25 and 30 degrees (10% increase). The strain patterns in the knees reconstructed at 45 degrees of flexion more closely resembled the strain in the native state than did the strain in the knees reconstructed at 20 degrees. Strain within the native MPFL increases as the knee flexion angle increases, with the largest change occurring between 25 and 30 degrees. Reconstruction of the MPFL at 45 degrees is preferable to reconstruction at 20 degrees as the strain across the medial retinaculum more closely resembles the strain in the native state. Knowledge of the strain across the MPFL should allow for more accurate reconstruction of the MPFL, potentially reducing the risk of patellar maltracking or cartilage overload. The proprietary VLS system used in this study has many potential uses for experimental analysis of strain in the human body. PMID:24122436

McCulloch, Patrick C; Bott, Aaron; Ramkumar, Prem N; Suarez, Alexander; Isamaily, Sabir K; Daylamani, Daniel; Noble, Philip C

2014-04-01

132

Dynamic soft tissue mobilisation increases hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dynamic soft tissue mobilisation (STM) on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. Methods: Forty five males volunteered to participate in a randomised, controlled single blind design study. Volunteers were randomised to either control, classic STM, or dynamic STM intervention. The control group was positioned prone for 5 min. The classic STM group received standard STM techniques performed in a neutral prone position for 5 min. The dynamic STM group received all elements of classic STM followed by distal to proximal longitudinal strokes performed during passive, active, and eccentric loading of the hamstring. Only specific areas of tissue tightness were treated during the dynamic phase. Hamstring flexibility was quantified as hip flexion angle (HFA) which was the difference between the total range of straight leg raise and the range of pelvic rotation. Pre- and post-testing was conducted for the subjects in each group. A one-way ANCOVA followed by pairwise post-hoc comparisons was used to determine whether change in HFA differed between groups. The ? level was set at 0.05. Results: Increase in hamstring flexibility was significantly greater in the dynamic STM group than either the control or classic STM groups with mean (standard deviation) increase in degrees in the HFA measures of 4.7 (4.8), –0.04 (4.8), and 1.3 (3.8), respectively. Conclusions: Dynamic soft tissue mobilisation (STM) significantly increased hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects.

Hopper, D; Deacon, S; Das, S; Jain, A; Riddell, D; Hall, T; Briffa, K; Vicenzino, B.

2005-01-01

133

Comparative Study of Hamstring and Quadriceps Strengthening Treatments in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50–65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohsen; Alanezi, Aqeel M.

2014-01-01

134

Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis in Relation to Hamstring and Quadriceps Strength  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65?years of age (57.65 ± 4.78?years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA.

Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Al-Johani, Ahmed H.; Zakaria, Abdul Rahim; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Kachanathu, SJ

2013-01-01

135

The effects of a Feldenkrais program and relaxation procedures on hamstring length.  

PubMed

Despite the growing popularity of the Feldenkrais method in Australia (Wildman 1990b), little research is available investigating its efficacy. The current study investigated the effects of the Feldenkrais method on hamstring length. Forty-eight healthy undergraduate participants were randomly allocated into either Feldenkrais, relaxation, or control groups. All subjects had their right hamstring measured using a modified active knee extension test prior to the first session, prior to the fourth (final) session, and after the final session of intervention. Two-way analysis of variance with time of measurement repeated revealed no significant differences between the groups. The findings are discussed in relation to apparent ineffectiveness of the Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement lessons used on hamstring length, exposure time to the technique, and attitudes towards the Feldenkrais method. PMID:11676714

James, Michelle; Kolt, Gregory; McConville, Janet; Bate, Patricia

1998-01-01

136

Jack-knife stretching promotes flexibility of tight hamstrings after 4 weeks: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Tight hamstrings are reported to be one of the causes of low back pain. However, there have been few reports on effective stretching procedures for the tight hamstrings. The so-called jack-knife stretch, an active-static type of stretching, can efficiently increase the flexibility of tight hamstrings. To evaluate hamstring tightness before and after the 4-week stretching protocol in healthy volunteer adults and patients aged under 18 years with low back pain. For understanding the hamstrings tightness, we measured two parameters including (1) finger to floor distance (FFD) and (2) pelvis forward inclination angle (PFIA). Eight healthy adult volunteers who had no lumbar or hip problems participated in this study (mean age: 26.8 years). All lacked flexibility and their FFD were positive before the experiment. Subjects performed 2 sets of the jack-knife stretch every day for 4 weeks. One set consisted of 5 repetitions, each held for 5 s. Before and during the 4-week experiment, the FFD and PFIA of toe-touching tests were measured weekly. For 17 of the sports players aged under 18, only FFD was measured. In adult volunteers, FFD was 14.1 ± 6.1 cm before the experiment and decreased to -8.1 ± 3.7 cm by the end of week 4, indicating a gain in flexibility of 22.2 cm. PFIA was 50.6 ± 8.2 before the experiment and 83.8 ± 5.8 degrees after. Before and after the experiment, the differences were significant (p < 0.05). For those aged under 18, FFD was 8.1 ± 8.0 and -9.6 ± 6.8, before and after the stretching, respectively. This difference was significant (p < 0.05). The jack-knife stretch is a useful active-static stretching technique to efficiently increase flexibility of tight hamstrings. PMID:23412177

Sairyo, Koichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Hada, Yasushi; Sakai, Toshinori; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Dezawa, Akira

2013-08-01

137

Are hamstrings activated to counteract shear forces during isometric knee extension efforts in healthy subjects?  

PubMed

The hamstring muscles have the potential to counteract anterior shear forces at the knee joint by co-contracting during knee extension efforts. Such a muscle recruitment pattern might protect the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by reducing its strain. In this study we investigated to what extent co-activation of the knee flexors during extension efforts is compatible with the hypothesis that this co-activation serves to counteract anterior tibial shear forces during isometric knee extension efforts in healthy subjects. To this aim, it is investigated whether co-activation varies with the required knee extension moment, with the knee joint angle, and with the position of the external flexing force relative to the knee joint. With unaltered moment and muscle activation, distal positioning of the flexing force on the tibia causes higher resultant (muscular plus external) forward shear forces at the knee as compared to proximal positioning. In ten subjects, knee flexor and extensor EMG was measured during a quasi-isometric positioning task for a range (5-50 degrees) of knee flexion angles. It was found that the co-activation of the knee flexors increased with the extension moment, but this increase was less than proportional (p<0.001). The extension moment increased 2.7 to 3.4 times, whereas the activation of Biceps Femoris and Semitendinosus increased only a factor 1.3 to 2.0 (joint angle dependent). Furthermore, a strong increase in co-activation was seen near full extension of the knee joint. The position of the external extension load on the tibia did not affect the level of co-contraction. It is argued that these results do not suggest a recruitment pattern that is directed at reduction of anterior shear forces in the knee joint during sub-maximal isometric knee extension efforts in healthy subjects. PMID:15094144

Kingma, Idsart; Aalbersberg, Sietske; van Dieën, Jaap H

2004-06-01

138

A novel in vivo murine model of cartilage regeneration. Age and strain-dependent outcome after joint surface injury  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To generate and validate a murine model of joint surface repair following acute mechanical injury. Methods Full thickness defects were generated in the patellar groove of C57BL/6 and DBA/1 mice by microsurgery. Control knees were either sham-operated or non-operated. Outcome was evaluated by histological scoring systems. Apoptosis and proliferation were studied using TUNEL and Phospho-Histone H3 staining, respectively. Type II collagen neo-deposition and degradation were evaluated by immunostaining using antibodies to the CPII telopeptide and C1,2C (Col2-3/4Cshort), respectively. Aggrecanases and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity were assessed by immunostaining for TEGE373 and VDIPEN neo-epitopes. Results Young 8-week-old DBA/1 mice displayed consistent and superior healing of the articular cartilage defect. Age-matched C57BL/6 mice repaired poorly and developed features of osteoarthritis (OA). Compared to C57BL/6, DBA/1 mice displayed a progressive decline of chondrocyte apoptosis, cell proliferation within the repair tissue, persistent type II collagen neo-deposition, less type II collagen degradation, less aggrecanases and more MMP-induced aggrecan degradation. Eight-month-old DBA/1 mice failed to repair, but, in contrast to age-matched C57BL/6 mice, developed no signs of OA. Conclusion We have generated and validated a murine model of cartilage regeneration in which the outcome of joint surface injury is strain and age dependent. This model will allow, for the first time, the dissection of different pathways involved in joint surface regeneration in adult mammals using the powerful technology of mouse genetics.

Eltawil, N.M.; De Bari, C.; Achan, P.; Pitzalis, C.; Dell'Accio, F.

2009-01-01

139

Hamstring tendon fixation using interference screws: a biomechanical study in calf tibial bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been shown that graft fixation close to the ACL insertion site is optimal in order to increase anterior knee stability. Hamstring tendon fixation using interference screws offers this possibility and a round threaded titanium interference screw has been previously developed. The use of a round threaded biodegradable interference screw may be equivalent. In addition, to increase initial

A Weiler; RF Hoffmann; AC Stähelin; HJ Bail; CJ Siepe; NP Südkamp

1998-01-01

140

Sciatic Nerve Injury Caused by a Stretching Exercise in a Trained Dancer  

PubMed Central

Sciatic nerve injury after stretching exercise is uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old female trained dancer who developed sciatic neuropathy primarily involving the tibial division after routine stretching exercise. The patient presented with dysesthesia and weakness of the right foot during dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The mechanism of sciatic nerve injury could be thought as hyperstretching alone, not caused by both hyperstretching and compression. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of the right sciatic neuropathy from the gluteal fold to the distal tibial area, and partial tear of the left hamstring origin and fluid collection between the left hamstring and ischium without left sciatic nerve injury. Recovery of motor weakness was obtained by continuous rehabilitation therapy and some evidence of axonal regeneration was obtained by follow-up electrodiagnostic testing performed at 3, 5, and 12 months after injury.

Shim, Ho Yong; Bae, Keun Hwan; Park, Seok Min; Lee, Ju Kang; Park, Ki Deok

2013-01-01

141

Effects of voluntary wheel running on the kidney at baseline and after ischaemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury: a strain difference comparison  

PubMed Central

Exercise-induced vascular endothelial adaptations in the kidney are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the impact of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the abundance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC SOD), in kidney and lung, and other SOD isoforms and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), in kidney. We also determined whether VWR influences susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague–Dawley and Fisher 344 rats, VWR or sedentary for 12 weeks, were subjected to AKI (uninephrectomy (UNX) and 35 min of left kidney ischaemia–24 h reperfusion, IR). We measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF), and analysed renal structural injury. Running was comparable between strains and VWR reduced body weight. In Sprague–Dawley rats, VWR reduced eNOS and EC SOD, but increased Mn SOD in kidney. Similar changes were seen after 6 weeks of VWR in Sprague–Dawley rats. In Fisher 344 rats, VWR increased eNOS, all SOD isoforms and TAC in kidney. Both strains increased eNOS and EC SOD in lung with VWR. Compared to UNX alone, UNX-IR injury markedly reduced renal function for both strains; however, in the Sprague–Dawley rats, VWR exacerbated falls in GFR and RPF due to UNX-IR, whereas in the Fisher 344 rats, GFR was unaffected by VWR. Some indices of renal structural injury due to UNX-IR tended to be worse in SD vs. F344. Our study demonstrates that genetic background influences the effect of exercise on kidney eNOS and EC SOD, which in turn influence the susceptibility to AKI.

Moningka, Natasha C; Cunningham, Mark W; Sterling, Myrline; West, Crystal A; Verlander, Jill W; Croker, Byron P; Ahlgren, Joslyn; Hayward, Linda; Baylis, Chris

2013-01-01

142

Effects of voluntary wheel running on the kidney at baseline and after ischaemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury: a strain difference comparison.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced vascular endothelial adaptations in the kidney are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the impact of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the abundance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC SOD), in kidney and lung, and other SOD isoforms and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), in kidney. We also determined whether VWR influences susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague-Dawley and Fisher 344 rats, VWR or sedentary for 12 weeks, were subjected to AKI (uninephrectomy (UNX) and 35 min of left kidney ischaemia-24 h reperfusion, IR). We measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF), and analysed renal structural injury. Running was comparable between strains and VWR reduced body weight. In Sprague-Dawley rats, VWR reduced eNOS and EC SOD, but increased Mn SOD in kidney. Similar changes were seen after 6 weeks of VWR in Sprague-Dawley rats. In Fisher 344 rats, VWR increased eNOS, all SOD isoforms and TAC in kidney. Both strains increased eNOS and EC SOD in lung with VWR. Compared to UNX alone, UNX-IR injury markedly reduced renal function for both strains; however, in the Sprague-Dawley rats, VWR exacerbated falls in GFR and RPF due to UNX-IR, whereas in the Fisher 344 rats, GFR was unaffected by VWR. Some indices of renal structural injury due to UNX-IR tended to be worse in SD vs. F344. Our study demonstrates that genetic background influences the effect of exercise on kidney eNOS and EC SOD, which in turn influence the susceptibility to AKI. PMID:23266936

Moningka, Natasha C; Cunningham, Mark W; Sterling, Myrline; West, Crystal A; Verlander, Jill W; Croker, Byron P; Ahlgren, Joslyn; Hayward, Linda; Baylis, Chris

2013-03-01

143

Piriformis syndrome surgery causing severe sciatic nerve injury.  

PubMed

Piriformis syndrome is a controversial entrapment neuropathy in which the sciatic nerve is thought to be compressed by the piriformis muscle. Two patients developed severe left sciatic neuropathy after piriformis muscle release. One had a total sciatic nerve lesion, whereas the second had a predominantly high common peroneal nerve lesion. Follow-up studies showed reinnervation of the hamstrings only. We conclude that piriformis muscle surgery may be hazardous and result in devastating sciatic nerve injury. PMID:22922582

Justice, Phillip E; Katirji, Bashar; Preston, David C; Grossman, Gerald E

2012-09-01

144

Leg Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg ...

145

Direct measurement of intervertebral disc maximum shear strain in six degrees of freedom: Motions that place disc tissue at risk of injury  

PubMed Central

Human intervertebral disc specimens were tested to determine the regions of largest maximum shear strain experienced by disc tissues in each of three principal displacements and three rotations, and to identify the physiological rotations and displacements that may place the disc at greatest risk for large tissue strains and injury. Tearing of disc annulus may be initiated by large interlamellar shear strains. Nine human lumbar discs were tagged with radiographic markers on the endplates, disc periphery and with a grid of wires in the mid-transverse plane and subjected to each of the six principal displacements and rotations. Stereo-radiographs were taken in each position and digitized for reconstruction of the 3-D position of each marker. Maximum tissue shear strains were calculated from relative marker displacements and normalized by the input displacement or rotation. Lateral shear, compression, and lateral bending were the motions that produced the mean (95% confidence interval) largest regional maximum shear strains (MSS) of 9.6 (0.7) %/mm, 9.0 (0.5) %/mm, and 5.8 (1.6) %/° respectively, and which occurred in the posterior, posterolateral and lateral peripheral regions of the disc. After taking into account the reported maximum physiological range of motion for each degree of freedom, motions producing the highest physiological MSS were lateral bending (57.8 (16.2)%) and flexion (38.3 (3.3)%), followed by lateral shear (14.4 (1.1)%) and compression (12.6 (0.7)%).

Costi, JJ; Stokes, I A; Gardner-Morse, M; Laible, J P; Scoffone, HM; Iatridis, JC

2007-01-01

146

A dynamic warm-up model increases quadriceps strength and hamstring flexibility.  

PubMed

Research suggests that static stretching can negatively influence muscle strength and power and may result in decreased functional performance. The dynamic warm-up (DWU) is a common alternative to static stretching before physical activity, but there is limited research investigating the effects of a DWU. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of a DWU and static stretching warm-up (SWU) on muscle flexibility, strength, and vertical jump using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-five volunteers were randomly assigned into a control (CON), SWU, or DWU group. All participants rode a stationary bicycle for 5 minutes and completed a 10-minute warm-up protocol. During this protocol, the DWU group performed dynamic stretching and running, the SWU group performed static stretching, and the CON group rested. Dependent variables were measured immediately before and after the warm-up protocol. A digital inclinometer measured flexibility (degrees) for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and hip flexor muscles. An isokinetic dynamometer measured concentric and eccentric peak torque (N·m/kg) for the hamstrings and quadriceps. A force plate was used to measure vertical jump height (meters) and power (watts). In the DWU group, there was a significant increase in hamstring flexibility (pretest: 26.4 ± 13.5°, posttest: 16.9 ± 9.4°; p < .0001) and eccentric quadriceps peak torque (pretest: 2.49 ± 0.83 N·m/kg, posttest: 2.78 ± 0.69 N·m/kg; p = 0.04). The CON and SWU did not significantly affect any flexibility, strength, or vertical jump measures (p > 0.05). The DWU significantly improved eccentric quadriceps strength and hamstrings flexibility, whereas the SWU did not facilitate any positive or negative changes in muscle flexibility, strength, power, or vertical jump. Therefore, the DWU may be a better preactivity warm-up choice than an SWU. PMID:22446678

Aguilar, Alain J; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Brown, Cathleen N; Herman, Daniel C; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Padua, Darin A

2012-04-01

147

Double-bundle anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-hamstring-bone composite graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone-hamstring-bone (BHB) composite graft is a hybrid ligament reconstruction methodology that combines the advantages but eliminates the disadvantages of the bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and tendon of semitendinosus and gracilis muscle (STG) methods. We have developed an innovative modified BHB method involving anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. It takes into account the 2 bundles of the ACL: the anteromedial

Ryohei Takeuchi; Tomoyuki Saito; Sigeyuki Mituhashi; Eiichi Suzuki; Ikufumi Yamada; Tomihisa Koshino

2002-01-01

148

Low-density, high surface area electromyography of the hamstring muscles during running and kicking  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSurface electromyography (sEMG) is used extensively in the assessment of hamstring muscle activity. Conventional sEMG techniques may not fully represent overall muscle activity, despite clinically standardised placement of electrodes. High density EMG provides more information about biopotential activity but it is limited to signal collection over a small surface area. Our work proposes a low density high surface area EMG

S Sakthibalan; R Twycross-Lewis; R Woledge; Y Hao; D Morrissey

2011-01-01

149

Differences in the electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles during maximal eccentric knee flexion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of the knee joint angle and angular velocity on hamstring muscles’ activation patterns\\u000a during maximum eccentric knee flexion contractions. Ten healthy young males (23.4 ± 1.3 years) performed eccentric knee flexion\\u000a at constant velocities of 10, 60, 180, and 300 deg\\/s in random order. The eccentric knee flexion torque and the surface electromyographic\\u000a (EMG) activity of the biceps femoris

Ayako Higashihara; Takashi Ono; Jun Kubota; Toru Fukubayashi

2010-01-01

150

Bilateral eccentric and concentric torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles in females and males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study assessed maximum eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) torque of quadriceps (QUAD) and hamstring (HAM) muscle groups\\u000a in healthy females (n=13) and males (n=27). Peak torques (PT) of bilateral muscle actions were recorded at constant angular velocities of 0.52, 1.57 and 2.61 rad·s?1. The QUADcon and HAMcon PT decreased (pecc and HAMecc PT increased (pecc PT decreased (pecc PT

Erland B. Colliander; Per A. Tesch

1989-01-01

151

Lumbar Extension during Stoop Lifting is Delayed by the Load and Hamstring Tightness.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between lumbar pelvic rhythm and the physical characteristics of stoop lifting. [Subjects and Methods] Participants performed a stoop lifting task under two conditions: with and without load. We assessed the lumbar kyphosis and sacral inclination angles using the SpinalMouse(®) system, as well as hamstring flexibility. During stoop lifting, surface electromyograms and the lumbar and sacral motions were recorded using a multi-channel telemetry system and flexible electrogoniometers. [Results] In the initial phase of lifting, lumbar extension was delayed by load; the delay showed a negative correlation with sacral inclination angle at trunk flexion, whereas a positive correlation was observed with electromyogram activity of the lumbar multifidus. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between sacral inclination angle and hip flexion range of motion during the straight leg raise test. [Conclusion] We found that a disorder of the lumbar pelvic rhythm can be caused by both load and hamstring tightness. In the initial phase of stoop lifting, delayed lumbar extension is likely to lead to an increase in spinal instability and stress on the posterior ligamentous system. This mechanism shows that stoop lifting of a load may be harmful to the lower back of people with hamstring tightness. PMID:24567676

Iwasaki, Risa; Yokoyama, Ginga; Kawabata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tomotaka

2014-01-01

152

Interactions of high hydrostatic pressure, pressurization temperature and pH on death and injury of pressure-resistant and pressure-sensitive strains of foodborne pathogens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to determine the interactions between high hydrostatic pressure, pressurization temperature, time and pH during pressurization on death and injury of pressure-resistant and pressure-sensitive strains of four foodborne pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus 485 and 765, Listeria ,monocytogenes CA and OH2, Escherichia coli O157:H7 933 and 931, Salmonella enteritidis FDA and Salmonella typhimurium E21274. Among these strains S. aureus 485, L. monocytogenes CA, E. coli O157:H7 933 and S. enteritidis FDA were reported to be more pressure-resistant than the respective strain of the same species (Alpas et al., 1999). In general, viability loss of all pathogens was enhanced significantly as the level of pressure and temperature were increased (P < 0.05). All the strains except S. aureus 485 demonstrated more than 8 log cycle reduction when pressurized at 345 MPa at 50 degrees C for 5 min. This strain seemed to be the most pressure-resistant strain within the conditions of the study. Pressurization in the presence of either citric or lactic acid increased the viability loss by an additional 1.2-3.9 log cycles at pH 4.5 for both acids at 345 MPa. This study has indicated that high hydrostatic pressure applied in conjunction with mild heat and acidity can be an effective method for inactivating pressure-resistant and pressure-sensitive strains of four foodborne pathogens in organic acid solutions. This combination treatment indicates possible pressure pasteurization applications to liquid foods that have low pH. reserved. PMID:11014520

Alpa, H; Kalchayanand, N; Bozoglu, F; Ray, B

2000-09-15

153

"Soft, hard, or just right?" Applications and limitations of axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography in the assessment of tendon injuries.  

PubMed

Injury to a tendon leads to alterations in the mechanical properties of the tendon. Axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography are relatively new, real-time imaging techniques that evaluate the mechanical properties of tendons in addition to the existing morphological and vascular information that is obtained with traditional imaging tools. Axial-strain sonoelastography displays the subjective distribution of strain data on an elastogram caused by tissue compression, whereas shear-wave elastography provides a more objective, quantitative measure of the intrinsic tissue elasticity using the acoustic push-pulse. Recent studies suggest that axial-strain sonoelastography is able to distinguish between asymptomatic and diseased tendons, and is potentially more sensitive than conventional ultrasound in detecting early tendinopathy. Shear-wave elastography seems to be a feasible tool for depicting elasticity and functional recovery of tendons after surgical management. While initial results have been promising, axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography have not yet found routine use in wider clinical practice. Possible barriers to the dissemination of axial-strain sonoelastography technique include operator dependency, technical limitations such as artefacts and lack of reproducibility and quantification of sonoelastography data. Shear-wave elastography may improve the reproducibility of elastography data, although there is only one published study on the topic to date. Large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the clinical relevance and potential applications of axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography in diagnosing, predicting, and monitoring the progress of tendon healing before they can be widely adopted into routine clinical practice. PMID:23925561

Ooi, C C; Malliaras, P; Schneider, M E; Connell, D A

2014-01-01

154

EMG-angle relationship of the hamstring muscles during maximum knee flexion.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the EMG-joint angle relationship during voluntary contraction with maximum effort and the differences in activity among three hamstring muscles during knee flexion. Ten healthy subjects performed maximum voluntary isometric and isokinetic knee flexion. The isometric tests were performed for 5 s at knee angles of 60 and 90 degrees. The isokinetic test, which consisted of knee flexion from 0 to 120 degrees in the prone position, was performed at an angular velocity of 30 degrees /s (0.523 rad/s). The knee flexion torque was measured using a KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer. The individual EMG activity of the hamstrings, i.e. the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, long head of the biceps femoris and short head of the biceps femoris muscles, was detected using a bipolar fine wire electrode. With isometric testing, the knee flexion torque at 60 degrees knee flexion was greater than that at 90 degrees. The mean peak isokinetic torque occurred from 15 to 30 degrees knee flexion angle and then the torque decreased as the knee angle increased (p<0.01). The EMG activity of the hamstring muscles varied with the change in knee flexion angle except for the short head of the biceps femoris muscle under isometric condition. With isometric contraction, the integrated EMGs of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles at a knee flexion angle of 60 degrees were significantly lower than that at 90 degrees. During maximum isokinetic contraction, the integrated EMGs of the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and short head of the biceps femoris muscles increased significantly as the knee angle increased from 0 to 105 degrees of knee flexion (p<0.05). On the other hand, the integrated EMG of the long head of the biceps femoris muscle at a knee angle of 60 degrees was significantly greater than that at 90 degrees knee flexion with isometric testing (p<0.01). During maximum isokinetic contraction, the integrated EMG was the greatest at a knee angle between 15 and 30 degrees, and then significantly decreased as the knee angle increased from 30 to 120 degrees (p<0.01). These results demonstrate that the EMG activity of hamstring muscles during maximum isometric and isokinetic knee flexion varies with change in muscle length or joint angle, and that the activity of the long head of the biceps femoris muscle differs considerably from the other three heads of hamstrings. PMID:12223173

Onishi, Hideaki; Yagi, Ryo; Oyama, Mineo; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Ihashi, Kouji; Handa, Yasunobu

2002-10-01

155

Effects of Motorized vs Non-Motorized Treadmill Training on Hamstring/Quadriceps Strength Ratios  

PubMed Central

Previous literature suggests that muscular involvement and biomechanical changes elicit different responses between overground and treadmill training. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of training on two different treadmill designs on the conventional (CR; concentric only) and functional (FR; eccentric to concentric) hamstring and quadriceps strength ratios. Fifteen men and sixteen women were randomly divided into three groups: motorized (MT), non-motorized (NMT) or control (C). Subjects completed pre and post-test isokinetic concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring testing of both legs. Subjects completed 4 weeks of training on their respective treadmills with mileage increasing ½ mile each week, beginning with 2 miles. The C group did not participate in any training. The CR revealed a significant two way interaction of group x time with MT increasing (pre: 0.80 ± 0.09 to post: 0.84 ± 0.09), NMT decreasing (pre: 0.76 ± 0.13 to post: 0.74 ± 0.10), and C showing no change (pre: 0.79 ± 0.10 to post: 0.79 ± 0.09. The FR revealed a significant two way interaction of speed x sex with the FR increasing as speeds increased for men (60 degrees.s-1: 1.04 ± 0.11; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.66 ± 0.27; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.36 ± 0.45) and women (60 degrees.s-1: 1.05 ± 0.16; 180 degrees.s-1: 1.90 ± 0.26; 300 degrees.s-1: 2.75 ± 0.47) but women increased greater relative to men. Training mode elicited a specific change in concentric hamstring and quadriceps strength resulting in specific changes to the CR; however, neither training mode had an effect on eccentric hamstrings nor the FR. Special attention should be given to the mode of endurance training when the goal is to alter the hamstring/quadriceps CR. Key points Specificity of treadmill training had different effects on concentric strength. Specificity of treadmill training had little or no effect on eccentric strength. Conventional and functional strength ratios may give different results based on training mode. Four weeks is long enough for strength results to be apparent in untrained people.

Franks, Kelly A.; Brown, Lee E.; Coburn, Jared W.; Kersey, Robert D.; Bottaro, Martim

2012-01-01

156

IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF LOCALIZED VIBRATION ON HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEP MUSCLE PERFORMANCE  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: A reduction in the maximal force output of muscles following pre-performance stretching has been reported. Several studies have suggested that localized vibration may enhance or replace stretching for gaining flexibility. It is important to know if localized vibration may also compromise muscle output. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the immediate effects of localized hamstring vibration on hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) performance. Methods: Thirty asymptomatic participants, 19 female and 11 male, mean age 25.4 years (±SD 2.7) received either five minutes of localized vibration to the right hamstrings at 30 Hz and 6 mm amplitude, or sham. One week later, each participant received the alternate treatment. Following treatments, right (R) and left (L) isometric HAM and QUAD strength was measured twice by handheld dynamometer and maximal horizontal hop distance of each lower extremity was measured by single leg hop test (SLH). Treatment outcomes were compared using paired t-tests. Treatment order effect was measured by independent T-test. Pre-study intrarater reliability for dynamometry was established using ICC(3,2). Results: Mean (±SD) values for strength following vibration were 58.7 kg (15.7), 60.4 kg (14.0), 45.5 kg (14.2), 45.8 kg (13.2) for R QUAD, L QUAD, R HAM, L HAM respectively. SLH mean values were R SLH 153.8 cm (35 cm) and L SLH 155.4 cm (36 cm). There were no significant differences in means between vibration and sham treatment for any outcomes on either leg (p-values ranged .412-.971); p<.001 for all comparisons. Order had no significant effect (p-values .370–1.0). Intrarater ICCs were .888, .762, .884, .960 for R HAM, L HAM, R QUAD, L QUAD. Conclusions: Unilateral application of localized vibration to the hamstrings at a duration previously reported to increase flexibility did not diminish the isometric performance of the hamstrings or quadriceps of either leg. Level of Evidence: 1b

Gabler, Geoff; Hopper, Kim; Kirk, David; McGregor, Cindy J.

2012-01-01

157

Relationship between functional hamstring: quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runners.  

PubMed

Sundby, ØH and Gorelick, MLS. Relationship between functional hamstring:quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runners. J Strength Cond Res 28(8): 2214-2227, 2014-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE), functional hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratios (f-H:Q), and flexibility among female runners. Seven highly trained (HT) female runners (age: 25.7 ± 4.7 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak of 62.0 ± 4.8 ml·kg·min) and 11 recreational female runners (age of 28.8 ± 5.6 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak of 49.2 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) were measured for maximal aerobic power (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), RE, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, f-H:Q (Hecc:Qcon and Hcon:Qecc), and sit-and-reach hamstring/trunk flexibility. On 2 separate days, RE was measured on a treadmill at 1% grade at 2 velocities (160.9 and 201.2 m·min) for 6 minutes each, and isokinetic knee strength was measured at 3 angular velocities (60, 120, and 180°·s) for both concentric and eccentric muscle actions. The unpaired t-tests showed a consistent trend toward higher f-H:Q ratios at all angular velocities among the HT runners. Highly trained runners had significantly higher Hecc:Qcon at 120°·s (p ? 0.05) and 180°·s (p ? 0.05). Whole group correlations demonstrated a significant correlation between Hcon:Qecc at 180°·s and RE (ml·kg·km) at 201.2 m·min (R = -0.48, p ? 0.05). No significant relationships were found between flexibility, or hamstring and quadriceps peak torque (N·m) and RE (p > 0.05). This cross-sectional analysis suggests that higher f-H:Q torque ratios, and not muscle strength per se, are associated with a lower metabolic cost of running. Therefore, runners should consider implementing hamstring exercises to improve their f-H:Q ratios. PMID:24476769

Sundby, Oyvind H; Gorelick, Mark L S

2014-08-01

158

Is the modified Tardieu scale in semi-standing position better associated with knee extension and hamstring activity in terminal swing than the supine Tardieu?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven children diagnosed with spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification

Irene R Faber; Bart Nienhuis; Nique P A M Rijs; Alexander C H Geurts; Jacques Duysens

2008-01-01

159

Rotator Cuff Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

Connors, G. Patrick

160

Can we use peroneus longus in addition to hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible effects of removing the peroneus longus on the ankle and gait parameters, in order to add insufficient hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 375 patients with ACL rupture who underwent ACL reconstruction arthroscopically using hamstring tendons in the orthopedic clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2010 and 2011 were selected. Fifteen patients were included because their hamstring tendon diameter was lower than 8 mm and peroneus longus was added. After 6 months, the patients were followed using “Kistler force plate” to detect 3D kinematics and kinetics of the ankles and spatiotemporal walking parameters. Results: There was a significant difference between both operated and non-operated ankles in flexion/extension range of motion (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the moments of both ankles in sagittal and coronal planes (P > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between the moments of both ankles in the transverse plane (P = 0.006). There was a significant difference in the force of operated and non-operated ankles in all three planes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean values of spatiotemporal gait parameters between operated and non-operated sides (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Removing the peroneus longus tendon has no effect on gait parameters and does not lead to instability of the ankle. So, it can be used as an autogenous graft in orthopedic surgeries.

Nazem, Khalilallah; Barzegar, Mohammadreza; Hosseini, Alireza; Karimi, Mohammadtaghi

2014-01-01

161

MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs.

Kimura, Akihiko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 641-8509 Wakayama (Japan); Ishida, Yuko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 641-8509 Wakayama (Japan); Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Kanazawa University Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa (Japan); Wada, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medical Science and Division of Blood Purification, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Yokoyama, Hitoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medical Science and Division of Blood Purification, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Mukaida, Naofumi [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Kanazawa University Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa (Japan); Kondo, Toshikazu [Department of Forensic Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 641-8509 Wakayama (Japan)]. E-mail: kondot@wakayama-med.ac.jp

2005-02-15

162

Low-dose infectivity of Staphylococcus aureus (SMH strain) in traumatized rat tibiae provides a model for studying early events in contaminated bone injuries.  

PubMed

Animal models of post-traumatic acute osteomyelitis (OM) that closely mimic human scenarios, including infection prophylactic procedures such as debridement and lavage, may provide a better understanding of OM. We contaminated mechanically traumatized rat tibiae (n = 69) with various doses of a Staphylococcus aureus strain (SMH) known to cause human OM and then performed curettage and lavage. Tibiae were harvested 24 h after lavage for assessment of bacterial load and determination of minimal infective doses for 50% (ID50) and 95% (ID95) of rats. Some experiments varied tibial harvest time after lavage (n = 10); for progressive infection, tibiae were evaluated at 7 and 15 days after contamination (n = 17 for each time point). At 24 h after contamination, the ID50 was 1.8 x 10(3) CFU, and the ID95 was 9.2 x 10(3) CFU. Tibial bacterial loads did not increase with inocula greater than the ID95. Lavage removed many bacteria from bone, but it did not prevent subsequent infection or disease. At 15 days after contamination, most tibiae (14 of 17) were infected, with macroscopic and radiological signs of established OM. This newly described rat OM model, with a low ID95 despite prophylactic curettage and lavage, closely mimics events in contaminated human bone injuries. This situation will allow study of early factors in contaminated bone injuries, including clinical interventions that may reduce infection and prevent disease. PMID:15884772

Buxton, Thomas B; Travis, Michael T; O'Shea, Kevin J; McPherson, James C; Harvey, Steven B; Plowman, Kent M; Walsh, Douglas S

2005-04-01

163

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait.

2013-01-01

164

Effect of hip flexion angle on hamstring optimum length after a single set of concentric contractions.  

PubMed

The eccentric contraction mode was proposed to be the primary stimulus for optimum angle (angle at which peak torque occurs) shift. However, the training range of motion (or muscle excursion range) could be a stimulus as important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the training range of motion stimulus on the hamstring optimum length. It was hypothesised that performing a single set of concentric contractions beyond optimal length (seated at 80° of hip flexion) would lead to an immediate shift of the optimum angle to longer muscle length while performing it below (supine at 0° of hip flexion) would not provide any shift. Eleven male participants were assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer. In both positions, the test consisted of 30 consecutive knee flexions at 4.19 rad · s?¹. The optimum angle was significantly shifted by ?15° in the direction of longer muscle length after the contractions at 80° of hip flexion, while a non-significant shift of 3° was found at 0°. The hamstring fatigability was not influenced by the hip position. It was concluded that the training range of motion seems to be a relevant stimulus for shifting the optimum angle to longer muscle length. Moreover, fatigue appears as a mechanism partly responsible for the observed shift. PMID:23631731

Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Gremion, Gérald; Millet, Grégoire P

2013-01-01

165

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn tendons with the aim of returning to normal activities and sports. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed using a dynamometer. The Cybex dynamometer (Cybex International, Ronkonkowa, NY) testing revealed almost comparable readings for the operated versus the non-operated side. An average peak torque of the operated hamstring muscles of 82.78% (range 47.16–117.88%), compared to the contralateral leg, was noted at six months. An excellent outcome was found in terms of return to normal activities and sports. Early surgical repair and physiotherapy has been noted to be associated with a good outcome and enables an early return to high level sports after complete tear of the proximal hamstring tendons.

Haddad, Fares

2009-01-01

166

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn tendons with the aim of returning to normal activities and sports. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed using a dynamometer. The Cybex dynamometer (Cybex International, Ronkonkowa, NY) testing revealed almost comparable readings for the operated versus the non-operated side. An average peak torque of the operated hamstring muscles of 82.78% (range 47.16-117.88%), compared to the contralateral leg, was noted at six months. An excellent outcome was found in terms of return to normal activities and sports. Early surgical repair and physiotherapy has been noted to be associated with a good outcome and enables an early return to high level sports after complete tear of the proximal hamstring tendons. PMID:19252829

Konan, Sujith; Haddad, Fares

2010-02-01

167

THE EFFECTS OF INJURY PREVENTION WARM-UP PROGRAMMES ON KNEE STRENGTH IN MALE SOCCER PLAYERS  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the effects of the 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programmes on knee strength in male soccer players. Under-21-year-old players (n=36) were divided equally into: the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programmes were performed for 24 sessions (20-25 min each). The hamstrings and quadriceps strength were measured bilaterally at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1. The concentric quadriceps peak torque (PT) of the 11+ increased by 27.7% at 300°·s-1 in the dominant leg (p<0.05). The concentric quadriceps PT of HarmoKnee increased by 36.6%, 36.2% and 28% in the dominant leg, and by 31.3%, 31.7% and 20.05% at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1 in the non-dominant leg respectively. In the 11+ group the concentric hamstring PT increased by 22%, 21.4% and 22.1% at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1, respectively in the dominant leg, and by 22.3%, and 15.7% at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1, in the non-dominant leg. In the HarmoKnee group the hamstrings in the dominant leg showed an increase in PT by 32.5%, 31.3% and 14.3% at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1, and in the non-dominant leg hamstrings PT increased by 21.1% and 19.3% at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1 respectively. The concentric hamstrings strength was significantly different between the 11+ and control groups in the dominant (p=0.01) and non-dominant legs (p=0.02). The HarmoKnee programme enhanced the concentric strength of quadriceps. The 11+ and HarmoKnee programmes are useful warm-up protocols for improving concentric hamstring strength in young professional male soccer players. The 11+ programme is more advantageous for its greater concentric hamstring strength improvement compared to the HarmoKnee programme.

Mokhtar, AH.; Rahnama, N.; Yusof, A.

2013-01-01

168

A 7Year Follow-up of Patellar Tendon and Hamstring Tendon Grafts for Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionDifferences and Similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: For arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the most commonly used graft constructs are either the hamstring tendon or patellar tendon. Well-controlled, long-term studies are needed to determine the differences between the 2 materials.Hypothesis: There is a difference between hamstring and patellar tendon grafts in the clinical results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions at 7 years.Study Design: Cohort study; Level

Justin Roe; Leo A. Pinczewski; Vivianne J. Russell; Lucy J. Salmon; Tomomaro Kawamata; Melvin Chew

2005-01-01

169

Comparison of the bioabsorbable and metal screw fixation after ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft in MRI and clinical outcome: a prospective randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has never been an MRI study of tunnel widening comparing bioabsorbable to metal screw fixation in autologous hamstring\\u000a anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We randomized 62 patients to hamstring ACL reconstruction with either a bioabsorbable\\u000a (n = 31) or metal screw (n = 31) fixation. The evaluation methods were clinical examination, KT-1000 arthrometric measurement, the International Knee\\u000a Documentation Committee and Lysholm scores, and

Anna-Stina Moisala; Timo Järvelä; Antti Paakkala; Timo Paakkala; Pekka Kannus; Markku Järvinen

2008-01-01

170

Diminished sub-maximal quadriceps force control in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients is related to quadriceps and hamstring muscle dyskinesia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on sub-maximal quadriceps force control with respect to quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity. Thirty ACLR individuals together with 30 healthy individuals participated. With real-time visual feedback of muscle force output and electromyographic electrodes attached to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects performed an isometric knee extension task where they increased and decreased their muscle force output at 0.128Hz within a range of 5-30% maximum voluntary capacity. The ACLR group completed the task with more error and increased medial hamstring and vastus medialis activation (p<0.05). Moderate negative correlations (p<0.05) were observed between quadriceps force control and medial (Spearman's rho=-0.448, p=0.022) and lateral (Spearman's rho=-0.401, p=0.034) hamstring activation in the ACLR group. Diminished quadriceps sub-maximal force control in ACLR subjects was reflective of medial quadriceps and hamstring dyskinesia (i.e., altered muscle activity patterns and coordination deficits). Within the ACLR group however, augmented hamstring co-activation was associated with better quadriceps force control. Future studies should explore the convergent validity of quadriceps force control in ACLR patients. PMID:24875460

Telianidis, Stacey; Perraton, Luke; Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Fortin, Karine; Bryant, Adam L

2014-08-01

171

The effects of surgical lengthening of hamstring muscles in children with cerebral palsy--the consequences of pre-operative muscle length measurement.  

PubMed

Children with cerebral palsy often undergo multiple orthopaedic surgical procedures in a single episode. Evidence of the effectiveness of individual components within the overall package is sparse. The introduction of musculoskeletal modelling in Oswestry has led to a more conservative management approach being taken with hamstring muscles for children walking in a degree of crouch. Muscles which were shown to be of at least normal length at initial contact were not surgically lengthened, as would have been the case previously. A retrospective review of 30 such patients was therefore possible, comparing 15 patients treated before the policy change who had their hamstrings lengthened with 15 treated after who did not. All patients had pre and post operative gait assessments and significant changes were observed for each group separately and for the two groups when compared. The comparison revealed that preserving the hamstrings does tend to reduce, and therefore normalize, the dynamic muscle length. Examination of the two patient groups separately, however, reveals a more complex picture with more global gait improvements seen when the hamstrings were lengthened. No absolute recommendation can be made to inform the clinical management of all children with normal to long hamstring muscles during gait. The final decision of whether to include a hamstring lengthening will need to take into account the characteristics of the individual child. PMID:24332744

Laracca, Ettore; Stewart, Caroline; Postans, Neil; Roberts, Andrew

2014-03-01

172

Comparison of active, manual, and instrumental straight leg raise in measuring hamstring extensibility.  

PubMed

The active manual straight leg raise (ASLR) and passive manual straight leg raise (MSLR) tests are commonly used in clinical settings to assess hamstring tightness. However, to our knowledge, the validity and sensitivity of these tests have not been compared with the instrumental straight leg raise (ISLR). The aim of the present study was to assess the intrarater reproducibility of the ISLR and compare the sensitivity of the ASLR, MSLR, and ISLR to change. Twelve men with hamstring tightness underwent the ASLR, MSLR, and ISLR tests at baseline and after a 4-week home-based right leg stretching program with the left leg serving as a control. The ISLR measurements were repeated consecutively at baseline to assess reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the ISLR was 0.94, and the coefficient of reproducibility was 6. Significant differences in the range of motion emerged between all testing methods (p < 0.05). In the stretched legs, the mean +/- SD increases were 17 +/- 5 degrees for ISLR, 10 +/- 8 degrees for ASLR, and 6 +/- 5 degrees for MSLR, whereas the control legs showed a significant mean change only for ASLR (5 +/- 4 degrees ). The mean standard response with the ASLR and MSLR tests did not differentiate between the treated and control legs, but it was almost 10-fold higher in the treated leg than the control leg for the ISLR, clearly differentiating between them. The ISLR had good reproducibility and sensitivity to changes, whereas ASLR and MSLR showed a poor ability to detect changes. Thus, the ISLR test is recommended for use in research evaluating the effectiveness of stretching. PMID:20300030

Ylinen, Jari J; Kautiainen, Hannu J; Häkkinen, Arja H

2010-04-01

173

Alpine skiing injuries.  

PubMed Central

Alpine skiing accidents admitted to the Trondheim Regional and University Hospital during one year were recorded. Of the 339 injured, 67 per cent were male and 33 per cent were female. Eighty-seven per cent were outpatients, and 13 per cent were hospitalized. Falling accidents (67 per cent), followed by collision accidents (17 per cent), were the most common cause of injury. The injuries in the lower extremities were caused by falling and the head injuries were mostly caused by collisions. Knee ligament strains were the most common injuries, and 17 per cent of these were hospitalized and required operative treatment. Of the minor knee strains, all 44 per cent were not fully recovered after two and a half years. Seventeen patients sustained tibial fractures, eleven of them spiral fractures and six transverse fractures. The patients with spiral fractures were younger than the patients with transverse fractures. Head injuries were the most severe injuries, with eleven concussions and two epidural haematomas.

Sahlin, Y

1989-01-01

174

Validity and responsiveness of the test of athletes with knee injuries: the new criterion based functional performance test instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of the new criterion-based test instrument test\\u000a for athletes with knee-injuries (TAK) which has been evaluated for reliability in an earlier study. Thirty-five subjects between\\u000a 18 and 50 years were included in the study. They were all anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed and operated with\\u000a hamstrings graft. The test-occasions were

Karin Björklund; Lena Andersson; Nils Dalén

2009-01-01

175

Groin injuries in athletes.  

PubMed

Groin injuries comprise 2 to 5 percent of all sports injuries. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are important to prevent these injuries from becoming chronic and potentially career-limiting. Adductor strains and osteitis pubis are the most common musculoskeletal causes of groin pain in athletes. These two conditions are often difficult to distinguish. Other etiologies of groin pain include sports hernia, groin disruption, iliopsoas bursitis, stress fractures, avulsion fractures, nerve compression and snapping hip syndrome. PMID:11681783

Morelli, V; Smith, V

2001-10-15

176

Liver TCR??(+) CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T cells contribute to murine hepatitis virus strain 3-induced hepatic injury through a TNF-?-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of each subset of immune cells contributing to the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis remain incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the role of liver CD4(-) CD8(-) (double negative, DN) T cells during murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3)-induced hepatitis in C3H/HeJ mice. We demonstrate that predominant population of DN T cells in the liver of healthy or MHV-3-infected mice express TCR??(+). The proportion of TCR??(+) DN T cells in liver CD3(+) T cells was markedly increased after MHV-3 infection. Adoptive transfer of TCR??(+) DN T cells led to dramatically decreased survival in MHV-3-infected mice, accompanied by deteriorated histopathology and elevated ALT and AST levels. It was found that these cells were hyperactivated after MHV-3 infection with a production of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2 and IL-17A. Highly activated liver TCR??(+) DN T cells were cytotoxic to MHV-3-infected hepatocytes in vitro and this effect did not require cell-cell contact. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of liver TCR??(+) DN T cells against hepatocytes involves TNF-? pathway, but not IL-17A or IFN-?. These results indicate that liver TCR??(+) DN T cells play a critical role in the liver injury in MHV-3-induced hepatitis, via a TNF-? dependent pathway. PMID:22750070

Lu, Yulei; Wang, Xiaojing; Yan, Weiming; Wang, Hongwu; Wang, Ming; Wu, Di; Zhu, Lin; Luo, Xiaoping; Ning, Qin

2012-10-01

177

Biomechanics of whiplash injury.  

PubMed

Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics, facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3) The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury, potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within the facet capsule connected with events early in the impact. (5) There are several possible injury criteria to correlate with the duration of symptoms during reconstructions of actual crashes. These results form the biomechanical basis for a hypothesis that the facet joint capsule is a source of neck pain and that the pain may arise from large strains in the joint capsule that will cause pain receptors to fire. PMID:19788851

Chen, Hai-bin; Yang, King H; Wang, Zheng-guo

2009-10-01

178

Epidemiology of badminton injuries.  

PubMed

In the badminton season 1983/1984, a prospective injury registration was done in 375 randomly chosen elite and recreational badminton players, of whom 81% could be followed. We found 257 injuries: an incidence of 2.9 injuries/player/1000 badminton hours. Men were more frequently injured than women. The prevalence was 0.3 injury per player. It was highest in men, and there was no difference between elite and recreational badminton players; 92% of the injured were playing with their injury. The pathophysiology was overuse in 74% (169/229), strains in 12% (28/229), sprains in 11% (26/229), and fractures in 1.5% (3/229). Possibilities for reducing the number of injuries and their severity are increased injury information to players and trainers and the introduction of stretching all involved muscle groups. PMID:3429081

Jørgensen, U; Winge, S

1987-12-01

179

Knee proprioception following ACL reconstruction; a prospective trial comparing hamstrings with bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively studied knee proprioception following ACL reconstruction in 40 patients (34 men and six women; mean age 31years). The patients were allocated into two equal groups; group A underwent reconstruction using hamstrings autograft, and group B underwent reconstruction using bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft. Proprioception was assessed in flexion and extension by the joint position sense (JPS) at 15°, 45° and

A. G. Angoules; A. F. Mavrogenis; R. Dimitriou; K. Karzis; E. Drakoulakis; J. Michos; P. J. Papagelopoulos

2011-01-01

180

Isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps peak torque ratio: The influence of sport modality, gender, and angular velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H\\/Q) peak torque ratios evaluated at different angular velocities between men and women who participate in judo, handball or soccer. A total of 166 athletes, including 58 judokas (26 females and 32 males), 39 handball players (22 females and 17 males), and 69 soccer players (17 females and 52

Marilia Dos Santos Andrade; Claudio Andre Barbosa De Lira; Fabiana De Carvalho Koffes; Naryana Cristina Mascarin; Ana Amélia Benedito-Silva; Antonio Carlos Da Silva

2012-01-01

181

Interferential therapy effect on mechanical pain threshold and isometric torque after delayed onset muscle soreness induction in human hamstrings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to examine the acute effect of interferential current on mechanical pain threshold and isometric peak torque after delayed onset muscle soreness induction in human hamstrings. Forty-one physically active healthy male volunteers aged 18?33 years were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: interferential current group (n = 21) or placebo group (n = 20). Both groups performed a bout

Clarice S. Rocha; Fábio J. Lanferdini; Carolina Kolberg; Marcelo F. Silva; Marco A. VAZ; Wania A. Partata; Milton A. Zaro

2012-01-01

182

Stretching versus strength training in lengthened position in subjects with tight hamstring muscles: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Stretching is used to modify muscle length. However, its effects seem to be temporary. There is evidence in animal models that strengthening in a lengthened position may induce long lasting changes in muscle length. The objective of this study was to compare changes in hamstrings flexibility, peak torque angle and stretch tolerance after two training programs: stretching and strengthening in a lengthened position. Forty-five subjects with tight hamstrings were randomly assigned into three groups: control, stretching and strength training in lengthened position. The interventions were performed three times a week for eight weeks. The subjects were assessed before and after the end of the programs. Data provided by an isokinetic dynamometer were used to assess hamstrings flexibility, peak torque angle, and stretch tolerance. The data analysis demonstrated that strengthening in lengthened position changed peak torque angle in the direction of knee extension (p=0.001). No change in flexibility was observed (p=0.449). Both experimental groups showed an increase in stretch tolerance (p=0.001). The results demonstrated that strengthening in a lengthened position produced a shift of the torque-angle curve, which suggests an increase in muscle length. Conversely, stretching did not produce modification of torque-angle curve and flexibility; its effects appear restricted to increases in stretch tolerance. PMID:19632878

Aquino, Cecília F; Fonseca, Sérgio T; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Silva, Paula L P; Ocarino, Juliana M; Mancini, Marisa C

2010-02-01

183

Cross Pins versus Endobutton Femoral Fixation in Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Minimum 4-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to compare cross-pin fixation and Endobutton femoral fixation for hamstring anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with respect to clinical and radiographic results, including tunnel widening and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and Methods Between August 2002 and August 2005, 126 autogenous hamstring ACL reconstructions were performed using either cross pins or Endobutton for femoral fixation. Fifty-six of 75 patients in the cross-pin group and 35 of 51 patients in the Endobutton group were followed up for a minimum of 4 years. We compared the clinical and radiological results between the groups using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation form, the KT-2000 arthrometer side to side difference, the amount of tunnel widening and the advancement of OA on radiographs. Results There were no significant differences in the IKDC grades between the groups at the 4 year follow-up. There was no significant difference in the side to side difference according to KT-2000 arthrometer testing. Also, there were no significant differences in terms of tunnel widening or advancement of OA on radiographs. Conclusions Endobutton femoral fixation showed good results that were comparable to those of cross pins fixation in hamstring ACL reconstruction.

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Geon-Hyeong; Ahn, Chi-Young

2012-01-01

184

Plasma microRNAs are sensitive indicators of inter-strain differences in the severity of liver injury induced in mice by a choline- and folate-deficient diet  

SciTech Connect

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, conserved, tissue-specific regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes and play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between inter-individual differences in susceptibility to NAFLD and altered miRNA expression is largely unknown. In view of this, the goals of the present study were (i) to determine whether or not individual differences in the extent of NAFLD-induced liver injury are associated with altered miRNA expression, and (ii) assess if circulating blood miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the noninvasive evaluation of the severity of NAFLD. A panel of seven genetically diverse strains of inbred male mice (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, 129S/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 weeks. This diet induced liver injury in all mouse strains; however, the extent of NAFLD-associated pathomorphological changes in the livers was strain-specific, with A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ mice being the least sensitive and WSB/EiJ mice being the most sensitive. The morphological changes in the livers were accompanied by differences in the levels of hepatic and plasma miRNAs. The levels of circulating miR-34a, miR-122, miR-181a, miR-192, and miR-200b miRNAs were significantly correlated with a severity of NAFLD-specific liver pathomorphological features, with the strongest correlation occurring with miR-34a. These observations suggest that the plasma levels of miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury and susceptibility to NAFLD. -- Highlights: ? Choline- and folate-deficiency induces a strain-specific fatty liver injury in mice. ? The extent of liver pathology was accompanied by the changes in microRNA expression. ? The levels of circulating microRNAs mirror the magnitude of fatty liver injury. ? Plasma microRNAs may be sensitive noninvasive indicators of the fatty liver injury.

Tryndyak, Volodymyr P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Latendresse, John R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Montgomery, Beverly [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ross, Sharon A. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

2012-07-01

185

Ultimate injuries: a survey.  

PubMed

Injuries sustained while playing Ultimate at six tournaments between 1986 and 1990 were recorded. Thigh muscle strains, ankle ligament sprains and skin abrasions/friction burns were the most frequent injuries. Factors contributing to injury include pitch state, player fitness and preparation, clothing, 'lay-out' technique, tournament organization and squad size. Reducing excessive playing time, improved preparation by the player, sensible use of protective clothing, and care with pitch selection should all lead to a reduction in the number of injuries. PMID:1810621

Marfleet, P

1991-12-01

186

Prevalence and associations of symptoms of upper extremities, repetitive strain injuries (RSI) and 'RSI-like condition'. A cross sectional study of bank workers in Northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The repetitive strain injury syndrome (RSI) is a worldwide occupational health problem affecting all types of economic activities. We investigated the prevalence and some risk factors for RSI and related conditions, namely 'symptoms of upper limbs' and 'RSI-like condition'. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 395 bank workers in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Symptoms of upper limbs and 'RSI-like condition' were assessed by a simple questionnaire, which was used to screen probable cases of RSI. The diagnosis of RSI was confirmed by clinical examination. The associations of potential risk factors and the outcomes were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results We found prevalence rates of 56% for symptoms of the upper limbs and 30% for 'RSI-like condition'. The estimated prevalence of clinically confirmed cases of RSI was 22%. Female sex and occupation (as cashier or clerk) increased the risk of all conditions, but the associations were stronger for cases of RSI than for less specific diagnoses of 'RSI-like condition' and symptoms of upper limbs. Age was inversely related to the risk of symptoms of upper limbs but not to 'RSI-like' or RSI. Conclusion The variation in the magnitude of risk according to the outcome assessed suggests that previous studies using different definitions may not be immediately comparable. We propose the use of a simple instrument to screen cases of RSI in population based studies, which still needs to be validated in other populations. The high prevalence of RSI and related conditions in this population suggests the need for urgent interventions to tackle the problem, which could be directed to individuals at higher risk and to changes in the work organization and environment of the general population.

Lacerda, Eliana M; Nacul, Luis C; da S Augusto, Lia G; Olinto, Maria Teresa A; Rocha, Dyhanne C; Wanderley, Danielle C

2005-01-01

187

Characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in Australian football.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most costly injuries in football at both professional and amateur levels (Orchard J, Seward H, McGivern J, Hood S. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med 2001;29:196-200.). In this study video analysis of 34 ACL injuries in Australian football was performed to investigate the causes of these injuries. Factors that may have contributed to the cause of the injury were analysed, rated and reported. The factors analysed were: type of manoeuvre, direction the knee 'gave way', running speed, knee angle, cutting angle and if the player was accelerating or decelerating. The majority of the injuries analysed occurred in non-contact situations (56%). Of these 37% occurred during sidestepping manoeuvres, 32% in landing, 16% land and step, 10% stopping/slowing and 5% crossover cut manoeuvres. Ninety-two percent of the non-contact injuries occurred at extended knee angles of 30 degrees or less, which is also commonly known to place stress on the ACL and reduce the protective role of hamstrings. Over half (54%) of non-contact injuries occurred whilst decelerating. It would be expected that greater speed and angle cut too would increase the frequency of ACL injury. The results could not confirm this with most injuries occurring at running speeds of slow jogging to running and equal number of injuries occurred at cutting to angles of the ranges 15-45 degrees and 45-75 degrees. These results give greater understanding into potential causes or contributors of ACL injury and information to assist in the development of knee injury prevention programs. PMID:16807104

Cochrane, Jodie L; Lloyd, David G; Buttfield, Alec; Seward, Hugh; McGivern, Jeanne

2007-04-01

188

Tibial Inlay Technique Using Hamstring Graft for Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Remnant Revision  

PubMed Central

The posterior tibial inlay technique is currently accepted as a standard operation for the posterior cruciate ligament–deficient knee. The classical technique requires a graft construct consisting of a bony part to be fitted into the posterior tibial socket. When an autogenous source is chosen, morbidity at the donor site generated by obtaining the graft with a bony part (e.g., bone–patellar tendon–bone or quadriceps tendon–bone) can be more serious than when obtaining the soft-tissue graft (e.g., hamstring). This study describes an alternative use of soft-tissue graft anchored in a bone socket at the posterior tibial margin by a transfixing cancellous screw. The graft is secured on top by a “bone washer” harvested from this bone socket to provide biological bone-tendon-bone healing. The posterior cruciate ligament remnant with integral fibers at the femur can have its tibial part revised, tensioned, and reattached concomitantly. This additional procedure is deemed to enhance joint stability and promote graft healing.

Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Boonard, Manusak; Laupattarakasem, Pat; Kosuwon, Weerachai

2012-01-01

189

Back Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... tissues extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the ... lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

190

Can muscle co-contraction protect knee ligaments after injury or repair?  

PubMed

A computer-based model of the knee was used to study forces in the cruciate ligaments induced by co-contraction of the extensor and flexor muscles, in the absence of external loads. Ligament forces are required whenever the components of the muscle forces parallel to the tibial plateau do not balance. When the extending effect of quadriceps exactly balances the flexing effect of hamstrings, the horizontal components of the two muscle forces also balance only at the critical flexion angle of 22 degrees. The calculations show that co-contraction of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles loads the anterior cruciate ligament from full extension to 22 degrees of flexion and loads the posterior cruciate at higher flexion angles. In these two regions of flexion, the forward pull of the patellar tendon on the tibia is, respectively, greater than or less than the backward pull of hamstrings. Simultaneous quadriceps and gastrocnemius contraction loads the anterior cruciate over the entire flexion range. Simultaneous contraction of all three muscle groups can unload the cruciate ligaments entirely at flexion angles above 22 degrees. These results may help the design of rational regimes of rehabilitation after ligament injury or repair. PMID:8421032

O'Connor, J J

1993-01-01

191

The mid- to long-term results of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons using Transfix technique.  

PubMed

In this study, mid to long-term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons and Transfix technique were evaluated. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with four-strand hamstring tendon was performed with Transfix technique on 271 (198 males, 73 females; mean age 25.7; 17-52) patients with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. The patients were followed up with clinical examination, Lysholm and Tegner activity scales, IKDC scoring system, KT-1000 test and radiological examination. The mean follow-up period was 82 (48-100) months; 204 (75%) patients had no subjective complaints. According to the KT-1000 test, only 14 (5%) patients had more than 5 mm laxity postoperatively, whereas, 161 (59%) patients had more than 5 mm laxity preoperatively. In addition to this, only 19 (7%) patients had Lysholm scores less than 80 postoperatively, whereas 154 (57%) patients scored less than 80 preoperatively. When compared with Tegner activity scale, 189 (70%) patients scored<6 preoperatively and only 24 (8%) postoperatively; 78 (29%) patients scored D preoperatively and only 5 (2%) patients scored D postoperatively on the basis of the IKDC scoring system. Our functional results were found to be satisfactory in more than 90% of patients. Commonly seen problems in ACL reconstruction such as inaccurate graft placement and tunnel widening were found to be consistent with the values in relevant literature. However, we demonstrated that the functional results and the stability of the knee were not related with tunnel widening. This study concludes that the reconstruction of ACL with hamstring tendons and the Transfix technique is reasonably successful, safe and causes low morbidity. Furthermore, we believe that proper graft preparation, accurate tunnel placement, notch-plasty, fixation and rehabilitation program are all as important as the choice of graft and fixation material. PMID:17503019

Asik, Mehmet; Sen, Cengiz; Tuncay, Ibrahim; Erdil, Mehmet; Avci, Cem; Taser, Omer F

2007-08-01

192

Job strain, isostrain, and the incidence of low back and neck injuries. A 7.5-year prospective study of San Francisco transit operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders account for the largest single category of lost-time occupational injury or disease episodes in industrialized countries. In this study we analyzed the impact of the psychosocial work environment, conceptualized by the demand–control–support model, on the incidence of low back and neck injury in a cohort of 1221 public transit operators followed for 7 years and 6 months.

Reiner Rugulies; Niklas Krause

2005-01-01

193

Bone tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendons.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed 87 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using autogenous hamstring tendons with the Endobutton technique to investigate the relationship between bone tunnel enlargement and clinical outcome and to identify factors that contribute to the enlargement. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the Lysholm score and KT-1000 arthrometer. The location of the femoral tunnel with respect to Blumensaat's line, the tibial tunnel with respect to the tibial plateau, and the angle between the femoral tunnel and Blumensaat's line (femoral tunnel angle) were measured. Bone tunnel enlargement was observed in 32 patients (37%). Enlargement occurred in 22 of the femoral tunnels and 26 of the tibial tunnels. Enlargement of both tunnels occurred in 16 knees. There was no statistical difference in Lysholm scores or KT-1000 arthrometer measurements between the enlarged group and the unenlarged group. The femoral tunnel was placed more anteriorly in the enlarged femoral tunnel group than in the unenlarged femoral tunnel group. The tibial tunnel was placed more anteriorly in the enlarged tibial tunnel group than in the unenlarged tibial tunnel group. The femoral tunnel angle was significantly smaller in the enlarged femoral tunnel group than in the femoral unenlarged group. Gender, patient age, intraoperative isometricity, and graft size were not significant factors. Bone tunnel enlargement was not correlated with the clinical outcome measures. We conclude that the main factor associated with tunnel enlargement are the locations and angles of the tunnels. The windshield-wiper motion of the graft may be enhanced by changing tension in the graft due to tunnel malposition. An acute femoral tunnel angle may increase the mechanical stress on the anterior margin of the femoral tunnel. PMID:11522075

Segawa, H; Omori, G; Tomita, S; Koga, Y

2001-07-01

194

Continuous cultivation of human hamstring tenocytes on microcarriers in a spinner flask bioreactor system.  

PubMed

Tendon healing is a time consuming process leading to the formation of a functionally altered reparative tissue. Tissue engineering-based tendon reconstruction is attracting more and more interest. The aim of this study was to establish tenocyte expansion on microcarriers in continuous bioreactor cultures and to study tenocyte behavior during this new approach. Human hamstring tendon-derived tenocytes were expanded in monolayer culture before being seeded at two different seeding densities (2.00 and 4.00 3 106 cells/1000 cm2 surface) on CytodexTM type 3 microcarriers. Tenocytes’ vitality, growth kinetics and glucose/ lactic acid metabolism were determined dependent on the seeding densities and stirring velocities (20 or 40 rpm) in a spinner flask bioreactor over a period of 2 weeks. Gene expression profiles of tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) markers (type I/III collagen, decorin, cartilage oligomeric protein [COMP], aggrecan) and the tendon marker scleraxis were analyzed using real time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR). Type I collagen and decorin deposition was demonstrated applying immunolabeling. Tenocytes adhered on the carriers, remained vital, proliferated and revealed an increasing glucose consumption and lactic acid formation under all culture conditions. “Bead-to-bead” transfer of cells from one microcarrier to another, a prerequisite for continuous tenocyte expansion, was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Type I and type III collagen gene expression was mainly unaffected, whereas aggrecan and partly also decorin and COMP expression was significantly downregulated compared to monolayer cultures. Scleraxis gene expression revealed no significant regulation on the carriers. In conclusion, tenocytes could be successfully expanded on microcarriers. Therefore, bioreactors are promising tools for continuous tenocyte expansion. PMID:24124166

Stich, Stefan; Ibold, Yvonne; Abbas, Amro; Ullah, Mujib; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Müller, Christiane; Kohl, Benjamin; John, Thilo

2014-01-01

195

A survey of badminton injuries.  

PubMed Central

A Badminton Injury Questionnaire (BIQ) was developed to survey the type and frequency of injuries that are likely to occur from playing competitive badminton. Two hundred and thirty-one players, ranging from club players to international champions, completed the survey which indicated an injury incidence rate of .09 and .14 injuries per person per year for male and female badminton players respectively. Badminton participation resulted in relatively few injuries, most of which were cramps, blisters, strains and sprains of the lower extremities and a surprisingly low incidence of tennis elbow.

Hensley, L. D.; Paup, D. C.

1979-01-01

196

A survey of badminton injuries.  

PubMed

A Badminton Injury Questionnaire (BIQ) was developed to survey the type and frequency of injuries that are likely to occur from playing competitive badminton. Two hundred and thirty-one players, ranging from club players to international champions, completed the survey which indicated an injury incidence rate of .09 and .14 injuries per person per year for male and female badminton players respectively. Badminton participation resulted in relatively few injuries, most of which were cramps, blisters, strains and sprains of the lower extremities and a surprisingly low incidence of tennis elbow. PMID:526780

Hensley, L D; Paup, D C

1979-12-01

197

Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin sisters with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures  

PubMed Central

Objective A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Methods Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton–Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Results Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Conclusions Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width.

Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S

2014-01-01

198

Recurrence rates of ischial sores in para- and tetraplegics treated with hamstring flaps: an 8-year study.  

PubMed

We have collected data on the second follow-up of 27 patients who underwent musculocutaneous flap closure of their ischial pressure sores. Thirty-seven ulcers were operated on between 1988 and 1993 using the V-Y advancement hamstring musculocutaneous island flap. At the initial follow-up (mean = 20 months) in 1993, despite 33% of patients having had recurrent ulcers and 14.8% having undergone re-advancements, only 14% of patients had non-healing ulcers. In 1997, follow-up period ranged from 18 to 90 months, with a mean of 62 months. Four patients were lost to follow-up resulting in 23 patients (n = 23) for the current study. Nine patients were tetraplegic and the remaining 14 were paraplegic. Four of the 23 patients had died at follow-up therefore making the number of living patients 19 (n = 19). The total number of ulcers operated on in the current study was 29 (U = 29). Overall, ulcer and patient recurrence rates were 41.4% and 47.8% respectively. Despite this, 89.5% of patients had intact flaps at the time of follow-up. We recommend the use of the hamstring V-Y musculocutaneous flap as a reliable and safe reconstructive modality in the management of ischial pressure sores and by identifying the group of patients susceptible to ulcer recurrence we have proposed a protocol for their long-term follow-up. PMID:10673925

Tavakoli, K; Rutkowski, S; Cope, C; Hassall, M; Barnett, R; Richards, M; Vandervord, J

1999-09-01

199

Is the modified Tardieu scale in semi-standing position better associated with knee extension and hamstring activity in terminal swing than the supine Tardieu?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven children diagnosed with spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I-II) and seven healthy comparison children participated in the study. An instrumented MTS in supine and semi-standing position and an instrumented gait assessment were conducted. Results showed that spasticity-related outcomes of the semi-standing MTS do not show better associations with terminal swing characteristics of gait than the same outcomes of the supine MTS in children with spastic CP. Only the passive restricted knee angle from the supine MTS was strongly associated with the maximum knee extension during gait (r(s)=0.99; p <0.001), suggesting that hamstrings length is more important for terminal swing behaviour than hamstrings spasticity. PMID:18384387

Faber, Irene R; Nienhuis, Bart; Rijs, Nique P A M; Geurts, Alexander C H; Duysens, Jacques

2008-05-01

200

Injury Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

201

Pediatric Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pediatric Injury: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is pediatric injury? Pediatric injuries (or traumas) are quite diverse ...

202

Injury Rates and Profiles of Elite Competitive Weightlifters  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine injury types, natures, anatomical locations, recommended amount of time missed, and injury rates during weightlifting training. Design and Setting: We collected and analyzed medical injury records of resident athletes and during numerous training camps to generate an injury profile. Subjects: Elite US male weightlifters who were injured during training at the United States Olympic Training Centers. Measurements: United States Olympic Training Center weightlifting injury reports from a 6-year period were analyzed. Data were expressed as percentages and were analyzed via x2 tests. Results: The back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders accounted for the most significant number of injuries (64.8%). The types of injuries most prevalent in this study were strains and tendinitis (68.9%). Injuries of acute (59.6%) or chronic (30.4%) nature were significantly more common than recurrent injuries and complications. The recommended number of training days missed for most injuries was 1 day or fewer (90.5%). Injuries to the back primarily consisted of strains (74.6%). Most knee injuries were tendinitis (85.0%). The majority of shoulder injuries were classified as strains (54.6%). Rates of acute and recurring injuries were calculated to be 3.3 injuries/1000 hours of weightlifting exposure. Conclusions: The injuries typical of elite weightlifters are primarily overuse injuries, not traumatic injuries compromising joint integrity. These injury pattems and rates are similar to those reported for other sports and activities. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Calhoon, Gregg; Fry, Andrew C.

1999-01-01

203

Do variations in mast cell hyperplasia account for differences in radiation-induced lung injury among different mouse strains, rats and nonhuman primates?  

PubMed

The role of mast cell infiltrates in the pathology of radiation damage to the lung has been a subject of continuing investigation over the past four decades. This has been accompanied by a number of proposals as to how mast cells and the secretory products thereof participate in the generation of acute inflammation (pneumonitis) and the chronic process of collagen deposition (fibrosis). An additional pathophysiology examines the possible connection between mast cell hyperplasia and pulmonary hypertension through the release of vasoactive mediators. The timing and magnitude of pneumonitis and fibrosis are known to vary tremendously among different genetic mouse strains and animal species. Therefore, we have systematically compared mast cell numbers in lung sections from nine mouse strains, two rat strains and nonhuman primates (NHP) after whole thorax irradiation (WTI) at doses ranging from 10-15 Gy and at the time of entering respiratory distress. Mice of the BALB/c strain had a dramatic increase in interstitial mast cell numbers, similar to WAG/Rij and August rats, while relatively low levels of mast cell infiltrate were observed in other mouse strains (CBA, C3H, B6, C57L, WHT and TO mice). Enumeration of mast cell number in five NHPs (rhesus macaque), exhibiting severe pneumonitis at 17 weeks after 10 Gy WTI, also indicated a low response shared by the majority of mouse strains. There appeared to be no relationship between the mast cell response and the strain-dependent susceptibility towards pneumonitis or fibrosis. Further investigations are required to explore the possible participation of mast cells in mediating specific vascular responses and whether a genetically diverse mast cell response occurs in humans. PMID:23819595

Down, Julian D; Medhora, Meetha; Jackson, Isabel L; Cline, J Mark; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

2013-08-01

204

Lateral meniscal tear resulting from the femoral cross-pin used for hamstring graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

We report a case of lateral meniscal tear resulting from the femoral cross-pin used for hamstring graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A 29 year old man presented with symptoms of knee pain, catching and locking, 13 months following an ACL reconstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy confirmed the broken femoral cross-pin abutting the lateral meniscus and the resulting meniscal tear. Removal of the broken femoral cross-pin and repair of the lateral meniscal tear resulted in resolution of symptoms. Distal femoral cross-pin fracture and its intra-articular position are postulated as the cause of this lateral meniscal tear. Hence, we recommend a low threshold to investigate with a MRI scan any new symptoms following ACL reconstruction with cross-pin fixation. PMID:22520571

Dudhniwala, A G; Rath, N; Forster, M C

2012-12-01

205

Bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts versus hamstring autografts for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament: meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts with hamstring autografts for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Data sources Medline, WebSPIRS, Science Citation Index, Current Contents databases, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Review methods All randomised controlled trials reporting one or more outcome related to stability (instrumented measurement of knee laxity, Lachman test, or pivot shift test) and morbidity (anterior knee pain, kneeling test, loss of extension, or graft failure). Study quality was assessed by using a 5 point scale. Random effect models were used to pool the data. Heterogeneity in the effect of treatment was tested on the basis of study quality, randomisation status, and number of tendon strands used. Results 24 trials of 18 cohorts (1512 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Study quality was poor for nine studies and fair for nine studies. The weighted mean difference of the instrumented measurement of knee laxity was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.71; P = 0.04). Relative risk of a positive Lachman test was 1.22 (1.01 to 1.47; P = 0.04), of anterior knee pain 0.57 (0.44 to 0.74; P < 0.0001), of a positive kneeling test 0.26 (0.14 to 0.48; P < 0.0001), and of loss of extension 0.52 (0.34 to 0.80; P = 0.003). Other results were not significant. Conclusion Morbidity was lower for hamstring autografts than for patellar tendon autografts. Evidence that patellar tendon autografts offer better stability was weak. The poor quality of the studies calls into question the robustness of the analyses.

Biau, David J; Tournoux, Caroline; Katsahian, Sandrine; Schranz, Peter J; Nizard, Remy S

2006-01-01

206

Syndesmosis injuries.  

PubMed

Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, implants, techniques, and postoperative protocols. Use of the novel suture button device has increased in recent years and shows some promise in clinical and cadaveric studies. This article contains a review of syndesmosis injuries, including anatomy and biomechanics, diagnosis, classification, and treatment options. PMID:23949902

Hunt, Kenneth J

2013-12-01

207

Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking on Pelvic Anterior Tilt Angle, Hamstring Muscle Length, and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Seated Workers with Flat-back Syndrome.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of inclined treadmill walking on pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance of seated workers with flat-back syndrome. [Subjects] Eight seated workers with flat-back syndrome who complained of low-back pain in the L3-5 region participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed a walking exercise on a 30° inclined treadmill. We measured the pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance before and after inclined treadmill walking. [Results] Anterior pelvic tilt angle and active knee extension angle significantly increased after inclined treadmill walking. Trunk extensor and flexor muscle endurance times were also significantly increased compared to the baseline. [Conclusion] Inclined treadmill walking may be an effective approach for the prevention or treatment of low-back pain in flat-back syndrome. PMID:25013282

Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2014-06-01

208

Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking on Pelvic Anterior Tilt Angle, Hamstring Muscle Length, and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Seated Workers with Flat-back Syndrome  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of inclined treadmill walking on pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance of seated workers with flat-back syndrome. [Subjects] Eight seated workers with flat-back syndrome who complained of low-back pain in the L3–5 region participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed a walking exercise on a 30° inclined treadmill. We measured the pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance before and after inclined treadmill walking. [Results] Anterior pelvic tilt angle and active knee extension angle significantly increased after inclined treadmill walking. Trunk extensor and flexor muscle endurance times were also significantly increased compared to the baseline. [Conclusion] Inclined treadmill walking may be an effective approach for the prevention or treatment of low-back pain in flat-back syndrome.

Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

209

Characterization of hospital and community strains of Staphylococcus aureus for resistance to antimicrobial drugs, metallic ions, disinfectants, thermal injury and solar radiation.  

PubMed

One hundred and sixty strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various clinical specimens were classified into groups: hospital staphylococci (HS) or community staphylococci (CS), based on the clinico-ecological circumstances of isolation. Fifty strains from both groups were tested for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin G, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, mercuric chloride, disodium hydrogen arsenate, silver nitrate and sodium bisulphite. Four representative strains from each group were further studied for resistance to "in-use" dilutions of 4 disinfectants (Dettol, Izal, Savlon and Chlohexidine), heat stress and the effect of solar radiation in sand cultures. All HS and 31.8% of CS were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin and produced penicillinase. HS had higher MICs of antibiotics and metallic ions and longer bactericidal times with disinfectants than CS. Resistance to thermal stress varied within each group but survival in sand cultures under solar radiation appeared to be influenced by multiple factors to which community staphylococci were probably better adapted. PMID:3564896

Utsalo, S J

1986-01-01

210

Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests as a measure of hamstring extensibility in athletes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (a) to determine and compare the concurrent hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests in different athletes (tennis players, kayakers, canoeists, and cyclists); (b) to determine the criterion-related validity of the pelvic tilt assessed by the Spinal Mouse system as a measure of hamstring flexibility in athletes; and (c) to evaluate the influence of spinal posture, pelvic tilt, and hamstring muscle flexibility in the SR and TT scores. Twenty-four tennis players, 30 canoeists, 43 kayakers, and 44 cyclists were recruited. Passive straight leg raise (PSLR), SR, and TT tests were randomly performed. Spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system when the maximal trunk flexion was achieved in the SR and TT tests. Tennis players and cyclists showed moderate correlations between PSLR with respect to SR (? = 0.78 and ? = 0.76, respectively) and TT (? = 0.77 and ? = 0.74, respectively). Correlations were slightly lower in canoeists (SR, ? = 0.64; TT, ? = 0.75). Kayakers showed the lowest correlation values (SR, ? = 0.53; TT, ? = 0.57). Correlation values between PSLR and pelvic tilt angle in both the SR and TT tests were ? < 0.70 in all the groups of athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed a high variance explained from pelvic tilt and lumbar spine in the SR score. In conclusion, the SR and TT tests can be appropriate measures to determine spine flexibility and pelvic tilt range of motion but not to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in tennis players, canoeists, kayakers, and cyclists. PMID:24476746

Muyor, José M; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

2014-02-01

211

Patellar Tendon Versus Hamstring Tendon Autografts for Reconstructing the Anterior Cruciate LigamentA Meta-Analysis Based on Individual Patient Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The best means of ensuring knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains a core debate in sports medicine.Hypothesis: There is no difference between ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendon autografts with regard to postoperative knee laxity and instability.Study Design: Meta-analysis of individual patient data.Methods: Pooled analysis of individual patient data from 6 published randomized clinical

David Jean Biau; Sandrine Katsahian; Jüri Kartus; Arsi Harilainen; Julian A. Feller; Matjaz Sajovic; Lars Ejerhed; Stefano Zaffagnini; Martin Röpke; Rémy Nizard

2009-01-01

212

A 10Year Comparison of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions With Hamstring Tendon and Patellar Tendon AutograftA Controlled, Prospective Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are no controlled, prospective studies comparing the 10-year outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon (PT) and 4-strand hamstring tendon (HT) autografts.Hypothesis: Comparable results are possible with HT and PT autografts.Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.Methods: One hundred eighty ACL-deficient knees that met inclusion criteria underwent ACL reconstruction (90 HT autograft, 90 PT

Leo A. Pinczewski; Jeffrey Lyman; Lucy J. Salmon; Vivianne J. Russell; Justin Roe; James Linklater

2007-01-01

213

Blast Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Shopping cart Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Main menu Service Members & Veterans Family & Friends ... majority of people who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion recover completely with little or no ...

214

Lawnmower injuries.  

PubMed

Six cases of lawnmower injury are reported. The management of these injuries is discussed. The incidence of morbidity and mortality are emphasized in an appeal for education in the safe handling of these common domestic appliances. PMID:732661

Ryan, M; Hume, K

1978-12-16

215

Inhalation Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

216

ACL Reconstruction with Autologous Hamstring Tendon: Comparison of Short Term Clinical Results between Rigid-fix and PINN-ACL Cross Pin  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the short term clinical results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with autologous hamstring tendon between Rigid-fix and PINN-ACL Cross Pin for femoral side fixation. Materials and Methods 127 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using autologous hamstring tendon and had been followedup for over than one year were enrolled for the present study. Rigid-fix was used in 71 cases (group 1), and PINN-ACL Cross Pin was used in 56 cases (group 2). Clinical and radiological results, operation time, and perioperative complications were compared amongst the two groups. Results The International Knee Documentation Committee subjective score and Lysholm score were 94 and 95 in group 1 and 87 and 91 in group 2, with no statistical difference (p=0.892, p=0.833), respectively. However, significant difference was observed in one-leg hop test between the two groups (p=0.032). Five cases in group 1 and 40 cases in group 2 were found to be associated with perioperative complications with statistical difference (p<0.0001). Conclusions There was no resultant difference between the employment of PINN-ACL Cross Pin and Rigid-fix as femoral graft fixation for ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon. However, PINN-ACL Cross Pin led to complications with extensive operation times. Hence, it needs further improvement of tools for minimization of complications.

Seo, Seung-Suk; Nam, Tae-Seok; Choi, Sang-Yeong

2011-01-01

217

Waterbike injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury

R S Jeffery; S Caiach

1991-01-01

218

Waterbike injuries.  

PubMed Central

Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

1991-01-01

219

Waterbike injuries.  

PubMed

Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. PMID:1810620

Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

1991-12-01

220

Angle- and velocity-specific alterations in torque and semg activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings during isokinetic extension-flexion movements.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of movement velocity (100 degrees, 200 degrees , 300 degrees s(-1), and 400 degrees s(-1)) and joint position (0 degrees - 15 degrees [L0], 25 degrees - 40 degees [L25], 55 degrees - 70 degrees [L55], and 75 degrees - 90 degrees [L75]) on peak torque (PT) parameters and surface electromyography (SEMG) of the knee-joint muscles during reciprocal isokinetic extension and flexion movements. Thirteen subjects (age = 22.7 +/- 2.1 years, mean height = 161.1 +/- 6.6 cm, mean weight = 63.5 +/- 5.8 kg) participated in the study. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed over the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and medial hamstrings for determination of the root mean square (SEMGrms) and median frequency (SEMGmf) of the SEMG. Peak torque, angle of peak torque (PTang), percentage of peak torque (PTper), SEMGrms, and SEMGmf were analyzed using separate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The following main results, significant at p < or = 0.05 or better, were found: The PTang was influenced by movement velocity (in extension there was a decrease in PTang moving from 300 degrees x s(-1) to 400 degrees x s(-1) and inflexion there was an increase in PTang moving from 300 degrees x s(-1) to 400 degrees x s(-1)). Secondly, a greater percentage of peak torque (PTper) was maintained during knee flexion than knee extension. And thirdly, both the quadriceps and hamstrings exhibited changing amplitudes and spectral frequencies based on joint position and movement velocity. There was a trend of decreasing SEMGrms for the quadriceps as the knee moved into extension, and a lower SEMGmf during early (L75) and end stages of knee extension (L0). For the hamstrings, SEMGrms was lowest at the more shortened position (L75) and highest near the mid-position (L25); the lowest SEMGmf occurred at the more lengthened position (L0) and the highest occurred at the more shortened position (L75). Finally, velocity influenced hamstrings and quadriceps muscle amplitude such that SEMGrms was highest at the slower velocities and lowest at the higher velocities. Velocity had no impact on quadriceps spectral properties (p > 0.05), but had a cyclic effect on hamstrings spectral properties. Changes in amplitude and frequency spectrum in tested muscles could be explained, in part, by neural drive to these muscles. Data support the hypothesis of lower activation levels of the quadriceps muscle in the extended position espoused by several authors as a way to protect the knee-joint in the knee-extended position. PMID:16795998

Croce, R V; Miller, J P

2006-01-01

221

Resorbable screws versus pins for optimal transplant fixation (SPOT) in anterior cruciate ligament replacement with autologous hamstring grafts: rationale and design of a randomized, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial [ISRCTN17384369  

PubMed Central

Background Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common injuries to the knee joint. Arthroscopic ACL replacement by autologous tendon grafts has established itself as a standard of care. Data from both experimental and observational studies suggest that surgical reconstruction does not fully restore knee stability. Persisting anterior laxity may lead to recurrent episodes of giving-way and cartilage damage. This might at least in part depend on the method of graft fixation in the bony tunnels. Whereas resorbable screws are easy to handle, pins may better preserve graft tension. The objective of this study is to determine whether pinning of ACL grafts reduces residual anterior laxity six months after surgery as compared to screw fixation. Design/ Methods SPOT is a randomised, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial conducted at a single academic institution. Eligible patients are scheduled to arthroscopic ACL repair with triple-stranded hamstring grafts, conducted by a single, experienced surgeon. Intraoperatively, subjects willing to engage in this study will be randomised to transplant tethering with either resorbable screws or resorbable pins. No other changes apply to locally established treatment protocols. Patients and clinical investigators will remain blinded to the assigned fixation method until the six-month follow-up examination. The primary outcome is the side-to-side (repaired to healthy knee) difference in anterior translation as measured by the KT-1000 arthrometer at a defined load (89 N) six months after surgery. A sample size of 54 patients will yield a power of 80% to detect a difference of 1.0 mm ± standard deviation 1.2 mm at a two-sided alpha of 5% with a t-test for independent samples. Secondary outcomes (generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life, magnetic resonance imaging morphology of transplants and devices) will be handled in an exploratory fashion. Conclusion SPOT aims at showing a reduction in anterior knee laxity after fixing ACL grafts by pins compared to screws.

Stengel, Dirk; Matthes, Gerrit; Seifert, Julia; Tober, Volker; Mutze, Sven; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bauwens, Kai; Wich, Michael; Casper, Dirk

2005-01-01

222

Upper extremity neuromuscular injuries in athletes.  

PubMed

Upper extremity muscle and nerve injuries in athletes are important causes of lost playing time and suboptimal performance. Although most muscle injuries are self-limited, imaging may be indicated in select situations for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, to investigate potential complications of injury, and for instituting prompt therapy to hasten recovery. MRI is particularly sensitive to soft tissue abnormalities seen in muscle injury, and it can reliably diagnose and stage direct injuries such as contusions and lacerations, and indirect injuries such as strains, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and exertional compartment syndrome. Upper extremity peripheral nerve injuries may be compressive or noncompressive in etiology, with certain sports and activities rendering particular nerves vulnerable to characteristic injuries. Initial evaluation includes a complete history, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic studies. MRI and ultrasound assessment of the nerves, surrounding tissues, and innervated muscles can provide localizing, diagnostic, and prognostic information that complements clinical and electrodiagnostic testing. PMID:23047279

Demertzis, Jennifer L; Rubin, David A

2012-09-01

223

Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing  

PubMed Central

Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. Methods—One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. Results—A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (p?0.01). Soft tissue trauma was the most common type of injury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (p?0.05). Annual injury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. Conclusions—The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less. Key Words: injury rates; Muay Thai kick boxing

Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M

2001-01-01

224

Spinal injuries.  

PubMed

The pre-hospital care of patients with suspected spinal injuries involves early immobilisation of the whole spine and the institution of measures to prevent secondary injury from hypoxia, hypoperfusion or further mechanical disruption. Early ventilation and differentiation of haemorrhagic from neurogenic shock are the key elements of pre-hospital resuscitation specific to spinal injuries. Falls from a significant height, high-impact speed road accidents, blast injuries, direct blunt or penetrating injuries near the spine and other high energy injuries should all be regarded as high risk for spinal injury but clinical examination should determine whether the patient requires full, limited or no spinal immobilisation. Although there is little conclusive evidence in the literature that supports pre-hospital clinical clearance of the spine, the similarities between pre-hospital immobilisation decisions and in-hospital radiography decisions are such that it is likely that clinical clearance will be effective for selected patients. This decision can be made at the scene provided the patient has no evidence of: Altered level of consciousness or mental status Intoxication Neurological symptoms or signs A distracting painful injury (e.g. chest injuries, long bone fracture) Midline spinal pain or tenderness. Where there is evidence to support spinal immobilisation, then the full range of devices and techniques should be considered. In the remote or operational environment where pre-hospital times are prolonged, full immobilisation, analgesia and re-assessment may allow localisation of the injury and a reduction in the degree of immobilisation. Common reasons for missing significant spinal injuries include failing to consider the possibility of spinal injuries in patients who are either unconscious, intoxicated or uncooperative (54,55). The application of the decision rule discussed here will ensure that no clinically significant spinal injuries are missed in pre-hospital care. PMID:12174560

Mackenzie, R

2002-06-01

225

Feet injuries in rock climbers  

PubMed Central

While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described.

Schoffl, Volker; Kupper, Thomas

2013-01-01

226

Maximal peak torque as a predictor of angle-specific torques of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in man.  

PubMed

This study assessed the relationship between the isokinetic peak torque (PT) (speed of movement 1.05 and 3.14 rads-1) and the angle-specific torques (ASTs) at 0.26 and 1.31 rad of knee flexion in multiple contractions of the quadriceps and hamstrings in 70 individuals with a chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency and 78 individuals with a chronic medial collateral ligament (MCL) insufficiency in one knee. At every test speed, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficients (r) between the PT and ASTs were highly significant (P less than 0.001) in the uninjured knees (r = 0.61-0.93) as well as in the knees with ACL (r = 0.61-0.87) and MCL (r = 0.74-0.91) insufficiency. In addition, in both groups the majority of the correlation coefficients exceeded 0.80, which is generally regarded as the threshold for the relationship to be considered clinically significant. Furthermore, using regression analysis, both extremities showed completely non-systematic distribution of the residuals. It is concluded that in healthy knees or knees with ACL or MCL insufficiency, the predictability of ASTs from PT was good, and, therefore, that AST analyses may offer little additional information about thigh muscle function to that obtained from a simpler and more commonly used measurement, the PT analysis. PMID:1748100

Kannus, P; Järvinen, M; Lehto, M

1991-01-01

227

Knee proprioception following ACL reconstruction; a prospective trial comparing hamstrings with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft.  

PubMed

We prospectively studied knee proprioception following ACL reconstruction in 40 patients (34 men and six women; mean age 31 years). The patients were allocated into two equal groups; group A underwent reconstruction using hamstrings autograft, and group B underwent reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Proprioception was assessed in flexion and extension by the joint position sense (JPS) at 15°, 45° and 75°, and time threshold to detection of passive motion (TTDPM) at 15° and 45°, preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The contralateral healthy knee was used as internal control. No statistical difference was found between the ACL-operated and the contralateral knees in JPS 15°, 45° and 75° at 6 and 12 months, in both study groups. No statistical difference was found between the ACL-operated and the contralateral knees in TTDPM 15° at 6 and 12 months, nor regarding TTDPM 45° at 3, 6 and 12 months, in group A. No statistical difference was found in JPS and TTDPM between the two grafts, at any time period. Knee proprioception returned to normal with ACL reconstruction at 6 months postoperatively, without any statistically significant difference between the autografts used. PMID:20149662

Angoules, A G; Mavrogenis, A F; Dimitriou, R; Karzis, K; Drakoulakis, E; Michos, J; Papagelopoulos, P J

2011-03-01

228

Instrumented assessment of the effect of Botulinum Toxin-A in the medial hamstrings in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

This study examined the sensitivity of an instrumented spasticity assessment of the medial hamstrings (MEH) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Nineteen children received Botulinum Toxin type A (BTX-A) injections in the MEH. Biomechanical (position and torque) and electrophysiological (surface electromyography, EMG) signals were integrated during manually-performed passive stretches of the MEH at low, medium and high velocity. Signals were examined at each velocity and between stretch velocities, and compared pre and post BTX-A (43 ± 16 days). Average change between pre and post BTX-A was interpreted in view of the minimal detectable change (MDC) calculated from previously published reliability results. Improvements greater than the MDC were found for nearly all EMG-parameters and for torque parameters at high velocity and at high versus low velocity (p<0.03), however large inter-subject variability was noted. Moderate correlations were found between the improvement in EMG and in torque (r=0.52, p<0.05). Biomechanical and electrophysiological parameters proved to be adequately sensitive to assess the response to treatment with BTX-A. Furthermore, studying both parameters at different velocities improves our understanding of spasticity and of the physiological effect of selective tone-reduction. This not only provides a clinical validation of the instrumented assessment, but also opens new avenues for further spasticity research. PMID:23791154

Bar-On, L; Aertbeliën, E; Molenaers, G; Van Campenhout, A; Vandendoorent, B; Nieuwenhuys, A; Jaspers, E; Hunaerts, C; Desloovere, K

2014-01-01

229

Skiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended.

Bartlett, L. H.

1975-01-01

230

Survey of injuries among West End performers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To obtain more information about injuries of West End performers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 269 performers appearing in 20 West End productions (12 dramas and eight musicals). RESULTS: In current productions, 46% of all performers sustained at least one injury for an average of 0.87 injuries per performer. Lower extremity injuries were the most common for dancers (52.2% of injuries) and actors (43.2%) with neck and back injuries the second most common. Sprains and strains were the most common diagnoses. 61% of performers thought that their injuries were preventable. Most performers consulted nonphysician healthcare providers. Factors significantly influencing the risk of injuries for performers include female sex, a history of previous injuries, missed performances due to previous injuries, more physically demanding roles, and performing on raked (angled) stages. CONCLUSION: West End performers commonly sustain injuries. Although primary prevention of most theatrical injuries is not possible, modification of raked stages may reduce the incidence. This study may be helpful to the growing number of healthcare providers who practice performing arts medicine and may stimulate additional concern and research in the medical and theatrical communities about the performance injuries of professionals, amateurs, and theatrical students worldwide.  

Evans, R. W.; Evans, R. I.; Carvajal, S.

1998-01-01

231

Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Helmets Save Lives, Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Small, Shiny and Dangerous: ACEP Puts the Spotlight on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries Synthetic Drug Use is on a Dramatic Rise, Including Bath ...

232

Soccer Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This chapter reviews the existing epidemiological studies on pediatric soccer injuries and discusses possibilities for future research. Data Sources: A comprehensive, web-based search of existing soccer injury literature was performed with an emphasis on the pediatric population. The search encompassed all available studies, including European journals and texts, and initial investigations from the 1970s which serve as a basis

E. Giza; L. Micheli

2005-01-01

233

Skiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

This report, based on a study of 471 consecutive skiing accidents, is concerned with the contributory causes, mechanisms, treatment and prevention of the more common skiing injuries. Over 80% of injuries occur in skiers under the age of 30 years. Most injuries involve the lower extremities, and are ligamentous. One-third of all injuries are fractures. This distribution is the common experience in most ski centres which have organized facilities for treatment of such injuries. This study shows that rapid handling and early treatment of casualties ensures minimal suffering, accurate diagnosis, prevention of complications and earlier rehabilitation of injured skiers. Many of the causes of skiing accidents can be prevented by control of skiing conditions, and proper instruction of younger skiers.

McIntyre, J. M.

1963-01-01

234

High school football injuries: Identifying the risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This epidemiologic survey of the literature on the factors contributing to the high number of high school football injuries consolidates the current information on the characteristics and risk factors associated with these injuries. To reduce the incidence of knee sprains and strains, the most common injuries to this population, the following preventive recommendations are pre sented : 1) optimum maintenance

Brian Halpern; Nancy Thompson; Walton W. Curl; James R. Andrews; Stephen C. Hunter; John R. Boring

1988-01-01

235

The psychological effects of spinal cord injury: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually necessitates considerable changes in the life of an individual, and their family members. SCI may demand difficult psychological adjustment and in addition place great strain on family roles and relationships. Glass (1993) summarises the situation thus: `The experience of spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating injuries which might affect an individual. The

NT North

1999-01-01

236

High school football injuries: Identifying the risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This epidemiologic survey of the literature on the factors contributing to the high number of high school football injuries consolidates the current information on the characteristics and risk factors associated with these injuries. To reduce the incidence of knee sprains and strains, the most common injuries to this population, the following preventive recommendations are pre sented : 1) optimum maintenance

Brian Halpern; Nancy Thompson; Walton W. Curl; James R. Andrews; Stephen C. Hunter; John R. Boring

1987-01-01

237

Badminton injuries.  

PubMed Central

In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made.

Kr?ner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; M?ller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

1990-01-01

238

Muscle Injuries in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Muscle injuries are extremely common in athletes and often produce pain, dysfunction, and the inability to return to practice or competition. Appropriate diagnosis and management can optimize recovery and minimize time to return to play. Evidence Acquisition: Contemporary papers, both basic science and clinical medicine, that investigate muscle healing were reviewed. A Medline/PubMed search inclusive of years 1948 to 2012 was performed. Results: Diagnosis can usually be made according to history and physical examination for most injuries. Although data are limited, initial conservative management emphasizing the RICE principles and immobilization of the extremity for several days for higher grade injuries are typically all that is required. Injection of corticosteroids may clinically enhance function after an acute muscle strain. Additional adjunctive treatments (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, platelet-rich plasma, and others) to enhance muscle healing and limit scar formation show promise but need additional data to better define their roles. Conclusion: Conservative treatment recommendations will typically lead to successful outcomes after a muscle injury. There is limited evidence to support most adjunctive treatments.

Delos, Demetris; Maak, Travis G.; Rodeo, Scott A.

2013-01-01

239

[Electrical injuries].  

PubMed

Electrical injuries can have serious multisystemic consequences and have to be evaluated regardless of the extent of skin injuries. Emergency department treatment is complex with simultaneous use of ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) and ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) algorithms, and with particular attention given to fluid resuscitation and musculoskeletal damage management. Beyond the recognized intensive care admission criteria like polytrauma or severe bums, documented arrhythmia or abnormal ECG on initial evaluation, loss of consciousness and high voltage electrical injuries (> 1000 V) each prompt a minimum of 24 hours cardiac monitoring. In addition, severely burned patients should be promptly transferred to specialized facilities. PMID:21922721

Grosgurin, O; Marti, C; Niquille, M

2011-08-24

240

Electrical injury  

MedlinePLUS

... of electric arcs from high-voltage power lines Lightning Machinery or occupational-related exposures Young children biting ... chap 199. Price TG, Cooper MA. Electrical and lightning injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

241

Corneal injury  

MedlinePLUS

... into the eye (such as sand or dust) Sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

242

Visceral Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case of high-voltage electrical injury with massive retroperitoneal muscle necrosis, focal hepatic coagulation necrosis, acute pancreatitis, and an acute coagulopathy with factor V, factor X, and platelet deficits occurred. Visceral involvement by elect...

K. Eurenius P. W. Curreri T. W. Newsome

1972-01-01

243

Sports injuries in adolescents' ball games: soccer, handball and basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective study of 302 adolescent players in three ball games (soccer, handball and basketball), 119 incurred injuries. The injury incidence (number of injuries per 1000 playing hours) was 5.6 in soccer, 4.1 in handball and 3.0 in basketball. Ankle sprains accounted for 25 per cent of the injuries, finger sprains 32 per cent, strains in the thigh and

J Yde; A B Nielsen

1990-01-01

244

Sports injuries during one academic year in 6799 Irish school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of the sports injuries occurring in 6799 children between the ages of 10 and 18 were recorded during the course of one academic year (September to June). One hundred sixteen injuries were noted: 29 sprains, 20 fractures, 18 strains, 14 contusions, 10 wounds, 7 dislocations, and 18 other injuries. On average these injuries resulted in 0.47 days of hospitalization,

A. W. S. Watson

1984-01-01

245

An integrated approach to change the outcome part I: neuromuscular screening methods to identify high ACL injury risk athletes.  

PubMed

An important step for treatment of a particular injury etiology is the appropriate application of a treatment targeted to the population at risk. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk algorithm has been defined that employs field-based techniques in lieu of laboratory-based motion analysis systems to identify athletes with high ACL injury risk landing strategies. The resultant field-based assessment techniques, in combination with the developed prediction algorithm, allow for low-cost identification of athletes who may be at increased risk of sustaining ACL injury. The combined simplicity and accuracy of the field-based tool facilitate its use to identify specific factors that may increase risk of injury in female athletes. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate novel algorithmic techniques to accurately capture and analyze measures of knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length and quadriceps to hamstrings ratio with video analysis software typically used by coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, and athletic trainers. The field-based measurements and software analyses were used in a prediction algorithm to identify those at potential risk of noncontact ACL injury that may directly benefit from neuromuscular training. PMID:22580976

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Brent, Jensen L; Hewett, Timothy E

2012-08-01

246

New Advances in Molecular Therapy for Muscle Repair After Diseases and Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Muscle injuries, especially pulls and strains, are among the most common and most frequently disabling injuries sustained by athletes and soldiers. Although injured muscles heal naturally, the regeneration is very slow and often yields incomplete function...

J. Huard

2010-01-01

247

Lightning injuries.  

PubMed

Lightning is persistently one of the leading causes of death caused by environmental or natural disaster. To understand the pathophysiology and treatment of lightning injuries one must first discount the innumerable myths, superstitions, and misconceptions surrounding lightning. The fundamental difference between high voltage electrical injury and lightning is the duration of exposure to current. Reverse triage should be instituted in lightning strike victims because victims in cardiopulmonary arrest might gain the greatest benefit from resuscitation efforts, although there is no good evidence suggesting that lightning strike victims might benefit from longer than usual resuscitation times. Many of the injuries suffered by lightning strike victims are unique to lightning, and long-term sequelae should be anticipated and addressed in the lightning victim. PMID:15163573

O'Keefe Gatewood, Medley; Zane, Richard D

2004-05-01

248

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

249

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Contact Us mild Traumatic Brain Injury Click Here to Start VIDEO STORIES What ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

250

Combined Knee Ligament Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Injuries Collateral Ligament Injuries Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Knee Exercise Conditioning Program Download this PDF Viewing Options ... Knee Replacement Rehabilitation News News Multimedia Resources Combined Knee Ligament Injuries Introduction | Anatomy | Description | Treatment | Outcome Print ...

251

Epidemiology of injuries in Hong Kong elite badminton athletes.  

PubMed

This study retrospectively reviewed the injury epidemiology on 44 Hong Kong elite badminton players in 2003. Team training records were reviewed to retrieve the training and competition hours, while the medical records from the physiotherapy department were reviewed to obtain information regarding injuries. A total of 253 injuries (128 recurrent and 125 new injuries) were recorded, which accounted for an overall incidence rate of 5.04 per 1,000 player hours. Elite senior athletes had a higher incidence rate of recurrent injuries, while elite junior and potential athletes had a higher incidence rate of new injuries. A total of 1,219 visits (4.82 per athlete) to the physiotherapy department were recorded, which cost HK$487,600 (HK$1,928 per injury). Most new injuries were strain (80 injuries), and the most frequently injured body sites were the back (17 injuries), the shoulder (15 injuries), the thigh (15 injuries), and the knee (15 injuries). One-sided exact test showed that a previous injury experience significantly associated with the occurrence of new injury. PMID:17578753

Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Romy Hing-Kwan; Wong, Fiona Chui-Yan; Cheuk, Phoebe Wai-Ling; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui

2007-01-01

252

Ophthalmologic injuries.  

PubMed

The types of eye injuries that occur in various sports are discussed, with an emphasis on racquet sports and ice hockey. Both field management and treatment by a specialist are considered. Physicians should encourage players to wear polycarbonate or industrial safety-thickness lenses or protective face cages. PMID:6561679

Diamond, G R; Quinn, G E; Pashby, T J; Easterbrook, M

1984-03-01

253

Biomechanical comparison between single-bundle and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon under cyclic loading condition  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed-knee between single-bundle and double-bundle ACL reconstruction under cyclic loading. Methods Single-bundle and double-bundle reconstructions of the knee were performed sequentially in randomized order on the same side using eight human amputated knees. After each reconstruction, the reconstructed-knee was subjected to 500-cycles of 0 to 100-N anterior tibial loads using a material testing machine. The ATT before and after cyclic loading and “laxity increase”, which indicated a permanent elongation of the graft construct, was also determined. Results The ATT after cyclic loading increased in both single-bundle and double-bundle reconstruction techniques compared to that without cyclic loading. Changes in ATT before and after cyclic loading were 3.9?±?0.9 mm and 2.9?±?0.6 mm respectively, and were significantly different. Laxity increase was also significantly different (4.3?±?0.9 mm and 3.2?±?0.8 mm respectively). Although no graft rupture or graft fixation failure was found during cyclic loading, the graft deviated into an eccentric position within the tunnel. Conclusions Although ATT was significantly increased in both single-bundle and double-bundle reconstruction with hamstring tendon after cyclic loading test, there was significant difference. Double-bundle reconstruction might be superior to prevent increasing ATT under cyclic loading. Deformation of hamstring tendon after cyclic loading might result in deterioration of knee stability after ACL reconstruction, and is one of disadvantages of soft tissue graft.

2012-01-01

254

A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

2004-09-01

255

Neurologic running injuries.  

PubMed

Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:18295096

McKean, Kelly A

2008-02-01

256

Neurologic running injuries.  

PubMed

Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:19084775

McKean, Kelly A

2009-02-01

257

The application of musculoskeletal modeling to investigate gender bias in non-contact ACL injury rate during single-leg landings.  

PubMed

The central tenet of this study was to develop, validate and apply various individualised 3D musculoskeletal models of the human body for application to single-leg landings over increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. While contributing to an understanding of whether gender differences explain the higher rate of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among females, this study also correlated various musculoskeletal variables significantly impacted by gender, height and/or distance and their interactions with two ACL injury-risk predictor variables; peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and peak proximal tibia anterior shear force (PTASF). Kinematic, kinetic and electromyography data of three male and three female subjects were measured. Results revealed no significant gender differences in the musculoskeletal variables tested except peak VGRF (p = 0.039) and hip axial compressive force (p = 0.032). The quadriceps and the gastrocnemius muscle forces had significant correlations with peak PTASF (r = 0.85, p < 0.05 and r = - 0.88, p < 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, hamstring muscle force was significantly correlated with peak VGRF (r = - 0.90, p < 0.05). The ankle flexion angle was significantly correlated with peak PTASF (r = - 0.82, p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that compared to males, females did not exhibit significantly different muscle forces, or ankle, knee and hip flexion angles during single-leg landings that would explain the gender bias in non-contact ACL injury rate. Our results also suggest that higher quadriceps muscle force increases the risk, while higher hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle forces as well as ankle flexion angle reduce the risk of non-contact ACL injury. PMID:23387967

Ali, Nicholas; Andersen, Michael Skipper; Rasmussen, John; Robertson, D Gordon E; Rouhi, Gholamreza

2014-11-01

258

Youth Versus Adult "Weightlifting" Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

259

Acute spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute spinal cord injuries may arise due to blunt injuries or to penetrating trauma, such as stab or gunshot injuries. The severity of injury varies both in terms of neurological segmental level, and the sensorimotor pattern of neurological deficit (ASIA category). The initial ATLS assessment of all trauma patients includes a thorough neurological examination to identify acute spinal cord injury.

Pradeep Thumbikat; Nazakat Hussain; Martin R. McClelland

2009-01-01

260

Injuries in the sport of luge. Epidemiology and analysis.  

PubMed

We undertook this study to determine the types and frequency of injuries sustained in the sport of luge. Before this study, no data were available in the medical literature on luge injuries. We performed a retrospective analysis between the years 1985 and 1992 using data obtained from the athlete injury and illness report forms at the US Training Center Sports Medicine Clinic in Lake Placid, New York. During the 7 years examined, 1043 athletes took 57,244 track runs and sustained 407 injuries. The risk of sustaining an injury was 0.39 per person per year, and the risk of an injury causing the loss of more than 1 day of practice was 0.04 per person per year. Contusions were the major injury (51%), followed by strains (27%). Strains of the neck muscles and contusions of extremities, especially the hands, were characteristic injuries sustained by athletes. The most serious injuries were concussions (2%) and fractures (3%). Crashes were responsible for 64% of injuries. Luge appears to be a relatively safe sport with injury rates comparable with recreational alpine skiing. PMID:9240985

Cummings, R S; Shurland, A T; Prodoehl, J A; Moody, K; Sherk, H H

1997-01-01

261

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries  

PubMed Central

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries.

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-01-01

262

Injuries in Youth and National Combined Events Championships.  

PubMed

In major track and field competitions, the most risky discipline is the combined event. Therefore, we aimed to record and analyze the incidence and characteristics of sports injuries incurred during the Youth and National Combined Events Championships. During the French Athletics Combined Events Championships in 2010, all newly occurred injuries were prospectively recorded by the local organising committee of physicians and physiotherapists working in the medical centres at the stadium, in order to determine incidence and characteristics of newly occurred injuries. In total, 51 injuries and 9 time-loss injuries were reported among 107 registered athletes, resulting in an incidence of 477 injuries and 84 time-loss injuries per 1,000 registered athletes. Approximately 72% of injuries affected lower limbs and 60% were caused by overuse. Thigh strain (17.6%) was the most common diagnosis. 14 dropouts were recorded, 8 were caused by an injury (57.1%). During the National and Youth Combined Events Championships, over one third of the registered athletes incurred an injury, with an injury incidence higher than in international elite track and field competitions. Interestingly, this higher injury risk concerned the younger population affecting immature musculoskeletal structures. In combined events, preventive interventions should mainly focus on overuse and thigh injuries. PMID:22562740

Edouard, P; Samozino, P; Escudier, G; Baldini, A; Morin, J-B

2012-10-01

263

Neuromuscular dysfunction that may predict ACL injury risk: a case report.  

PubMed

This case report examined the neuromuscular function of a competitive female netball player six days prior to an incident where she sustained an acute anterior cruciate ligament injury during normal sports activity. Electromyography was used to examine activation onsets of four lower limb muscles (rectus femoris, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings and gluteus medius) relative to initial contact (IC) during netball-specific landings of varying complexity. The results of the injured participant were compared to the remaining participants in the study (n=8), and the injured participant's injured limb was compared to the contralateral limb. The injured participant was the only player to record delayed pre-injury muscle onsets after IC for all muscles tested in the injured limb, while her non-injured limb was comparable to the other participants tested. Furthermore, delayed muscle onset after IC occurred more frequently as landing complexity increased. This case report suggests that delayed muscle activity onset after IC during landing may be an important risk factor for ACL injury. PMID:24529986

Saunders, Natalie; McLean, Scott G; Fox, Aaron S; Otago, Leonie

2014-06-01

264

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious ... respond, and recover if a TBI occurs. Traumatic Brain Injury Topics Concussion and Mild TBI Severe TBI ...

265

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

266

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ... and youth with disabilities. IDEA’s Definition of “Traumatic Brain Injury” Our nation’s special education law, the Individuals ...

267

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric Autologous BMMNC for Severe TBI The purpose of this study ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

268

Nerve Injuries in Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

Collins, Kathryn; And Others

1988-01-01

269

Spinal injury - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury Association - ...

270

CDC Injury Research Agenda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CDCs Injury Center works to prevent unintentional and violence-related injuries and to minimize the consequences of injuries when they do occur. Its public health approach draws on such sciences as epidemiology and other biomedical sciences, biomechanics ...

2002-01-01

271

Effect of knee flexion angle on ground reaction forces, knee moments and muscle co-contraction during an impact-like deceleration landing: implications for the non-contact mechanism of ACL injury.  

PubMed

Investigating landing kinetics and neuromuscular control strategies during rapid deceleration movements is a prerequisite to understanding the non-contact mechanism of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of knee flexion angle on ground reaction forces, net knee joint moments, muscle co-contraction and lower extremity muscles during an impact-like, deceleration task. Ground reaction forces and knee joint moments were determined from video and force plate records of 10 healthy male subjects performing rapid deceleration single leg landings from a 10.5 cm height with different degrees of knee flexion at landing. Muscle co-contraction was based on muscle moments calculated from an EMG-to-moment processing model. Ground reaction forces and co-contraction indices decreased while knee extensor moments increased significantly with increased degrees of knee flexion at landing (all p<0.005). Higher ground reaction forces when landing in an extended knee position suggests they are a contributing factor in non-contact ACL injuries. Increased knee extensor moments and less co-contraction with flexed knee landings suggest that quadriceps overload may not be the primary cause of non-contact ACL injuries. The results bring into question the counterbalancing role of the hamstrings during dynamic movements. The soleus may be a valuable synergist stabilizing the tibia against anterior translation at landing. Movement strategies that lessen the propagation of reaction forces up the kinetic chain may help prevent non-contact ACL injuries. The relative interaction of all involved thigh and lower leg muscles, not just the quadriceps and hamstrings should be considered when interpreting non-contact ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:20303276

Podraza, Jeffery T; White, Scott C

2010-08-01

272

Clinical Correlates to Laboratory Measures for use in Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Prediction Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective measures of high knee abduction moment during landing identify female athletes at high risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Biomechanical laboratory measurements predict high knee abduction moment landing mechanics with high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (93%). The purpose of this study was to identify correlates to laboratory-based predictors of high knee abduction moment for use in a clinic-based anterior cruciate ligament injury risk prediction algorithm. The hypothesis was that clinically obtainable correlates derived from the highly predictive laboratory-based models would demonstrate high accuracy to determine high knee abduction moment status. Methods Female basketball and soccer players (N=744) were tested for anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Pearson correlation was used to identify clinically feasible correlates and logistic regression to obtain optimal models for high knee abduction moment prediction. Findings Clinical correlates to laboratory-based measures were identified and predicted high knee abduction moment status with 73% sensitivity and 70% specificity. The clinic-based prediction algorithm, including (Odds Ratio: 95% confidence interval) knee valgus motion (1.43:1.30–1.59 cm), knee flexion range of motion (.98:0.96–1.01 deg), body mass (1.04:1.02–1.06 kg), tibia length (1.38:1.25–1.52 cm) and quadriceps to hamstring ratio (1.70:1.06–2.70) predicted high knee abduction moment status with C statistic 0.81. Interpretation The combined correlates of increased knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length and quadriceps to hamstrings ratio predict high knee abduction moment status in female athletes with high sensitivity and specificity.

Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Khoury, Jane; Succop, Paul; Hewett, Timothy E.

2010-01-01

273

Knee flexor/extensor strength ratio in follow-up of acute knee distortion injuries.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the peak torque and total work hamstring/quadriceps (HQ) ratios of 77 knees with a previous grade I distortion injury to find the possible relationship between different HQ ratios and long-term outcome. For measurement of quadriceps and hamstrings strengths, the CYBEX II isokinetic dynamometer was used. Peak torque values were recorded at low (60 degrees/sec) and high (180 degrees/sec) speeds of isokinetic movement, and the maximal isometric extension and flexion outputs were measured with the knee at a 60 degree angle. Three standardized knee scoring scales were used to determine the subjective, functional, clinical, and radiologic outcome of the injured knees. In every test, great intersubject variation of the HQ ratio was observed, even in healthy knees (range 19% to 148%). Follow-up scores of the groups with low (less than 50%), optimal (50% to 80%), or high (greater than 80%) HQ ratios of the injured knees did not differ significantly from each other. However, in every test the scores were significantly (p less than 0.001 to less than 0.0001) better in patients whose injured knee HQ ratio was nearly identical (less than or equal to 15%) rather than clearly different from (greater than 15%) the uninjured knee. These findings confirm our previous observation that the HQ ratio is an idiosyncratic parameter. Any general recommendation about optimal value is difficult to give. In evaluating long-term outcome, the most ideal HQ ratio of an injured knee seems to be the HQ ratio of the opposite, healthy extremity. PMID:2297308

Kannus, P; Järvinen, M

1990-01-01

274

Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries with Muscle Tightness, Core Stability, and Balance by Longitudinal Measurements in Junior High School Baseball Players  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain.

Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

2014-01-01

275

Outcomes of a Home Cycling Program Using Functional Electrical Stimulation or Passive Motion for Children With Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at risk for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular complications. Stationary cycling using functional electrical stimulation (FES) or passive motion has been suggested to address these complications. The purpose of this case series is to report the outcomes of a 6-month at-home cycling program for 4 children with SCI. Methods: Two children cycled with FES and 2 cycled passively at home for 1 hour, 3 times per week. Outcome Measures: Data collected included bone mineral density of the left femoral neck, distal femur, and proximal tibia; quadriceps and hamstring muscle volume; stimulated quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength; a fasting lipid profile; and heart rate and oxygen consumption during incremental upper extremity ergometry testing. Results: The 2 children cycling with FES and 1 child cycling passively exhibited improved bone mineral density, muscle volume, stimulated quadriceps strength, and lower resting heart rate. For the second child cycling passively, few changes were realized. Overall, the lipid results were inconsistent, with some positive and some negative changes seen. Conclusions: This case series suggests that cycling with or without FES may have positive health benefits and was a practical home exercise option for these children with SCI.

Johnston, Therese E; Smith, Brian T; Oladeji, Oluwabunmi; Betz, Randal R; Lauer, Richard T

2008-01-01

276

Correlation of shoulder and elbow injuries with muscle tightness, core stability, and balance by longitudinal measurements in junior high school baseball players.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain. PMID:24926133

Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

2014-05-01

277

Perioperative lung injury.  

PubMed

Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period. These injuries include atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthetic management can cause, exacerbate or ameliorate most of these injuries. Clinical research trends show that traditional protocols for perioperative mechanical ventilation, using large tidal volumes without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can cause a sub-clinical lung injury and this injury becomes clinically important when any additional lung injury is added. Lung-protective ventilation strategies using more physiologic tidal volumes and appropriate levels of PEEP can decrease the extent of this injury. PMID:18494396

Slinger, Peter

2008-03-01

278

Effects of Field Location, Time in Competition, and Phase of Play on Injury Severity in High School Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of competitive intensity, represented by the variables time in competition, phase of play, and field location, on injury severity in U.S. high school football. The injury rate was higher in competition than practice (RR?=?4.75, 95% CI: 4.34–5.20). Mild and moderate injuries were frequently lower leg\\/foot\\/ankle sprains\\/strains and concussions. Severe injuries were frequently knee Sprains\\/strains and

Ellen E. Yard; R. Dawn Comstock

2009-01-01

279

[Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstrings using press-fit fixation without hardware: operative technique and long-term results of a prospective and randomized study].  

PubMed

An innovative technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been developed in 1998 which allows the grafts to be fixed by press-fit to the femoral and tibial tunnel without any hardware. The semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis tendons (GT) are built into a sling by tying a knot with the tendon ends and securing the knot after conditioning by sutures. For the femoral tunnel the anteromedial porta is used. The correct anatomic position of the single femoral tunnel is checked using intraoperative lateral fluoroscopy by placing the tip of a K-wire to a point between the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle insertion sites. A femoral bottleneck tunnel is drilled to receive the knot of the tendons. The tendon loops filled the tibial tunnel without any suture material. The loops are fixed at the tibial tunnel outlet with tapes over a bone bridge. Between 1998 and 1999 a prospective randomized study (level 1) was conducted comparing this technique with a technique using bone-patellar-tendon graft and press-fit fixation without hardware. In conclusion it was found that implant-free press-fit ACL reconstruction using bone-patella-tendon (BPT) and hamstring tendon (HT) grafts proved to be an excellent procedure to restore stability and function of the knee. Using hamstring tendons (ST and GT) significantly lower donor site morbidity was noted. Kneeling and knee walking pain persisted to be significantly more intense in the BPT up to 9 years after the operation. Re-rupture rates, subjective findings, knee stability and isokinetic testing showed similar results for both grafts. This is the first level I study which demonstrates cartilage protection by ACL reconstruction as long as the meniscus is intact at index surgery, shown by bilateral MRI analysis 9 years post-operation. There was no significant difference in the average grade of chondral and meniscus lesions between BPT and HT and in comparison of the operated to the intact knee, except for grade 3-4 lesions found at the 9 year follow-up, which were significantly higher in the BPT group. PMID:20607509

Pässler, H H

2010-07-01

280

Strain Gage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

1995-01-01

281

Injury surveillance in the World Football Tournaments 1998-2012  

PubMed Central

Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games were reported by the team physicians on a standardised injury report form after each match. The average response rate was 92%. Results A total of 3944 injuries were reported from 1546 matches, equivalent to 2.6 injuries per match. The majority of injuries (80%) was caused by contact with another player, compared with 47% of contact injuries by foul play. The most frequently injured body parts were the ankle (19%), lower leg (16%) and head/neck (15%). Contusions (55%) were the most common type of injury, followed by sprains (17%) and strains (10%). On average, 1.1 injuries per match were expected to result in absence from a match or training. The incidence of time-loss injuries was highest in the FIFA World Cups and lowest in the FIFA U17 Women's World Cups. The injury rates in the various types of FIFA World Cups had different trends over the past 14?years. Conclusions Changes in the incidence of injuries in top-level tournaments might be influenced by the playing style, refereeing, extent and intensity of match play. Strict application of the Laws of the Games is an important means of injury prevention.

Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2013-01-01

282

Playground Injuries: Fact Sheet  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Update: Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education Fire Prevention Week Fire Safety and Prevention Tools Playground Injuries Playground Injuries: Fact Sheet Protect the Ones You Love: Falls Bicycle-Related Injuries Dog Bites Injury Center Topics Saving Lives & Protecting People ...

283

Head Injuries in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

Pennington, Nicole

2010-01-01

284

Airbags and Eye Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although airbags measurably reduce the overall risk of injury to adults (including eye injury), and death from motor vehicle accidents, injuries attributed to airbag deployment have been reported. To identify reported cases of ocular trauma related to airbag deployment, a MEDLINE search from 1991 to 2000 was performed. A total of 263 injuries in 101 patients were identified. Patient demographics,

Joel A Pearlman; K. G. Au Eong; Ferenc Kuhn; Dante J Pieramici

2001-01-01

285

Injury of Bacteria by Sanitizers 1  

PubMed Central

Injury of test cultures was quantitated by differences in colony counts obtained with a complete medium and those obtained on conventional selective media. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and several strains of Escherichia coli were injured when exposed to the quaternary ammonium compound methylalkyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. Representative hypochlorite sanitizers also caused injury of E. coli ML30. Sanitizer concentration appeared to be the main factor in the cause of death and injury, a higher concentration being needed to cause death. Increases in temperature did not result in substantial increases in injury; however, the lethal effect was greater at higher temperatures. Varying the cell concentration from 107 to 109 cells per ml did not change the fraction of cell population killed or injured. The inability or failure of common selective media to detect injured bacteria in food could have serious public health consequences.

Scheusner, D. L.; Busta, F. F.; Speck, M. L.

1971-01-01

286

Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects.

Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

2004-01-01

287

Anterior-Posterior Instability of the Knee Following ACL Reconstruction with Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Ligament in Comparison with Four-Strand Hamstrings Autograft.  

PubMed

Purpose. To evaluate anterior-posterior knee laxity using two different autografts. Material-Methods. 40 patients, (34 males and 6 women), 17-54 years old (mean: 31), were included in the present study. Group A (4SHS = 20) underwent reconstruction using four-strand hamstrings, and group B (BPBT = 20) underwent reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Using the KT-1000 arthrometer, knee instability was calculated in both knees of all patients preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery at the ACL-operated knee. The contralateral healthy knee was used as an internal control group. Results. Anterior-posterior instability using the KT1000 Arthrometer was found to be increased after ACL insufficiency. The recorded laxity improved after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in both groups. However, statistically significant greater values were detected in the bone-patellar tendon-bone group, which revealed reduction of anteroposterior stability values to an extent, where no statistical significance with the normal values even after 3 months after surgery was observed. Conclusions. Anterior-Posterior instability of the knee improved significantly after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The bone-patellar tendon-bone graft provided an obvious greater stability. PMID:23956862

Angoules, A G; Balakatounis, K; Boutsikari, E C; Mastrokalos, D; Papagelopoulos, P J

2013-01-01

288

Anterior-Posterior Instability of the Knee Following ACL Reconstruction with Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Ligament in Comparison with Four-Strand Hamstrings Autograft  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate anterior-posterior knee laxity using two different autografts. Material-Methods. 40 patients, (34 males and 6 women), 17–54 years old (mean: 31), were included in the present study. Group A (4SHS = 20) underwent reconstruction using four-strand hamstrings, and group B (BPBT = 20) underwent reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Using the KT-1000 arthrometer, knee instability was calculated in both knees of all patients preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery at the ACL-operated knee. The contralateral healthy knee was used as an internal control group. Results. Anterior-posterior instability using the KT1000 Arthrometer was found to be increased after ACL insufficiency. The recorded laxity improved after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in both groups. However, statistically significant greater values were detected in the bone-patellar tendon-bone group, which revealed reduction of anteroposterior stability values to an extent, where no statistical significance with the normal values even after 3 months after surgery was observed. Conclusions. Anterior-Posterior instability of the knee improved significantly after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The bone-patellar tendon-bone graft provided an obvious greater stability.

Angoules, A. G.; Balakatounis, K.; Boutsikari, E. C.; Mastrokalos, D.; Papagelopoulos, P. J.

2013-01-01

289

A meta-analysis of hamstring autografts versus bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hamstring (HT) autografts versus bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autografts for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM) for published randomised clinical trials (RCTs) relevant to ACL reconstruction comparing HT and BPTB autografts. Data analyses were performed with Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.0. A total of 23 reports of 19 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (1643 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Outcomes favouring BPTB autografts were found in terms of KT-1000 arithmometer values, negative rates of Lachman tests and negative rates of Pivot tests. Outcome measures that favoured HT autografts included anterior knee pain, kneeling pain and extension loss. There was no statistical difference of postoperative graft failure. Overall, postoperative complications of the knee joint were lower for HT autografts than for BPTB autografts, and BPTB autografts were superior to HT autografts in resuming stability of the knee joint, but four-strand HT combined with application of the modern endobutton HT graft-fixation technique could increase knee-joint stability. PMID:20850327

Li, ShuZhen; Su, Wei; Zhao, Jinmin; Xu, Yinglong; Bo, Zhandong; Ding, Xiaofei; Wei, Qingjun

2011-10-01

290

Posterior calf injury.  

PubMed

Acute injuries of the Achilles tendon are common among athletes and non-athletes alike. Injuries of other posterior calf muscles are far less common but should be considered in the differential, to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of patients with calf injuries. This article focuses on these calf injuries, including injuries of the gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, and flexor hallucis longus, which may occasionally be mistaken for Achilles tendon disorders. PMID:19857847

Campbell, John T

2009-12-01

291

Traumatic brain injury using mouse models.  

PubMed

The use of mouse models in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has several advantages compared to other animal models including low cost of breeding, easy maintenance, and innovative technology to create genetically modified strains. Studies using knockout and transgenic mice demonstrating functional gain or loss of molecules provide insight into basic mechanisms of TBI. Mouse models provide powerful tools to screen for putative therapeutic targets in TBI. This article reviews currently available mouse models that replicate several clinical features of TBI such as closed head injuries (CHI), penetrating head injuries, and a combination of both. CHI may be caused by direct trauma creating cerebral concussion or contusion. Sudden acceleration-deceleration injuries of the head without direct trauma may also cause intracranial injury by the transmission of shock waves to the brain. Recapitulation of temporary cavities that are induced by high-velocity penetrating objects in the mouse brain are difficult to produce, but slow brain penetration injuries in mice are reviewed. Synergistic damaging effects on the brain following systemic complications are also described. Advantages and disadvantages of CHI mouse models induced by weight drop, fluid percussion, and controlled cortical impact injuries are compared. Differences in the anatomy, biomechanics, and behavioral evaluations between mice and humans are discussed. Although the use of mouse models for TBI research is promising, further development of these techniques is warranted. PMID:24493632

Zhang, Yi Ping; Cai, Jun; Shields, Lisa B E; Liu, Naikui; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Shields, Christopher B

2014-08-01

292

Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Although there have been significant advances in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. This paper analyses the contribution of chest injuries to the outcome of head injuries in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and the Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery (MHN) in Enugu, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the medical records, operative notes, and radiological findings of all patients admitted for head injury who had associated significant chest injuries in the MHN from 2002 to 2009 and the UNTH between 2007 and 2010. Patients with only head injury and other extracranial injury not affecting the chest were excluded. Patients who were inadequately investigated were also excluded. Results: Nineteen patients from the MHN and 11 patients from the UNTH were analyzed. Ages ranged from 9 to 65 years and the male:female ratio was 3:1. Injuries were most common between 30 and 50 years and road traffic accident accounted for 60%. Barotrauma from ventilation was documented in 2 patients. The commonest types of intrathoracic injuries are pneumothorax and hemothorax. Chest wall injuries are more common but carry less morbidity and mortality. Only 20% of patients presented within 48 hours of injury. Management of the associated chest trauma commenced in the referring hospitals only in 26.4% of the patients. All patients with hemo-pneumothorax had tube thoracostomy as did 96% of patients with pneumothorax. 10% of patients with haemothorax needed thoracotomy. Mortality is 43%, which is higher than for patients with only TBI with comparable Glasgow coma scale. Outcome is influenced by the time to admission and the GCS on admission. Conclusion: Associated chest injuries result in higher mortality from head injuries. This association is more likely in the young and more productive. All patients presenting with head and spinal cord injury should be specifically and carefully evaluated for associated chest injuries. Computerized tomographic has not replaced the need for good quality chest radiograph in the emergency management of Head Injury associated chest trauma.

Mezue, Wilfred Chukwuemeka; Ndubuisi, Chika A; Erechukwu, Uwadiegwu A; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2012-01-01

293

[Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].  

PubMed

This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:23446953

Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

2013-03-01

294

Assessment of injuries sustained in mixed martial arts competition.  

PubMed

Mixed martial arts (MMA) competitions have gained much popularity, and the sport is watched by many millions annually. Despite ongoing controversy, there have been no objective studies of the injuries sustained in MMA based on on-site evaluation. In the study reported in this article, we attempted to delineate injury patterns for MMA participants. We conducted an observational cohort study of MMA competitions held in Hawaii between 1999 and 2006. The study included 116 bouts, involving 232 "exposures" and 179 male participants between ages 18 and 40. All the fighters were examined by 1 of 4 physicians, both before and after each bout. Fighters were referred to an emergency department when necessary, and follow-up was recommended as needed. Among the 232 exposures were 55 injuries: 28 abrasions and lacerations (6 requiring on-site suturing or referral to an emergency department for suturing), 11 concussions (4 with retrograde amnesia), 5 facial injuries (2 nasal fractures, 1 tympanum rupture, 1 temporomandibular joint sprain, 1 Le Fort fracture), and 11 orthopedic injuries (3 metacarpal injuries, with 1 confirmed fracture; 1 acromioclavicular separation; 1 traumatic olecranon bursitis; 1 elbow subluxation; 1 midfoot sprain; 1 aggravation of elbow medial collateral ligament sprain; 1 elbow lateral collateral ligament strain; 1 trapezius strain; 1 Achilles tendon contusion). We describe the injuries sustained in MMA competition to make comparisons with other sports. We discuss distribution and mechanism of injuries as well as injury incidence based on on-site evaluation in MMA. PMID:20567743

Scoggin, James F; Brusovanik, Georgiy; Pi, Michael; Izuka, Byron; Pang, Pierre; Tokumura, Seren; Scuderi, Gaetano

2010-05-01

295

Subclavian artery injuries.  

PubMed

Thirty-two consecutive patients with subclavian artery injuries were evaluated to assess the mechanism of injury, types of repair, and results. In this series, most wounds were from firearms. Although the mortality was high (19%), most patients had the vessel repaired successfully. Associated injuries, especially to neural structures, led to significant morbidity. Principles used in dealing with these injuries should be 1) proximal and distal control prior to exposing the injury site, 2) reestablishing distal circulation through primary repair or graft placement, and 3) identifying and treating associated injuries. PMID:9290516

McCoy, D W; Weiman, D S; Pate, J W; Fabian, T C; Walker, W A

1997-09-01

296

Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

297

Golfing injuries. An overview.  

PubMed

Golf is becoming an increasingly available and popular sport. It is played by people of all ages and abilities, which accounts for a wide spectrum of injury. Few reports of injuries exist, but increasing media attention of the golfing injuries of professional players has raised the profile of these medical conditions. Numerically, the vast majority of problems occur from soft tissue musculoskeletal injuries rising principally from overuse. The injury pattern seen is influenced by the age, ability and amount of play. Anatomically, most injuries are localised to the back, wrist, elbow and shoulder. In addition to causing new injuries the game may cause recrudescence of old injuries and exacerbate pre-existing degenerative disease. A different injury pattern is seen among elite players compared with recreational players, and this relates to skill and amount of practice. Appropriate conditioning and attention to technique may help to reduce the incidence of injury. There are no injuries exclusive to golf, however fracture of the hamate bone is an uncommon injury seen in sports involving the use of a club or bat. The high number of childhood golf-related head injuries is disturbing. Most of these arise from blows to the head from a golf club and highlight the need for early tuition in the safety aspects of the game. PMID:8356378

Batt, M E

1993-07-01

298

Incidence of syndesmotic injury.  

PubMed

Injury to the tibiofibular syndesmosis can occur with ankle sprain or fracture. The incidence of syndesmotic injury has not been specifically studied at a population level. Data on syndesmotic injury were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), a federal-state-private partnership. It is administered by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Two HCUP databases were queried for 8 states: the State Inpatient Database and the State Emergency Department Database. The first 6 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) code diagnoses were searched for codes that are used for syndesmotic injury (ie, 845.03). These data, along with data from the 2010 US census, were used to yield incidence rates for syndesmosis injury, as well as for various demographic groups. National estimates of injury totals were also calculated. In the 8 states, there were a total of 1821 syndesmotic injuries. Given the population of these states, the incidence rate of syndesmotic injury was 2.09 syndesmotic injuries per 100,000 person-years. This incidence correlates to an estimated 6445 syndesmotic injuries per year in the United States. These data provide some baseline numbers as to the incidence of syndesmotic injury in the United States. Although the incidence was low relative to some other injuries, the fact that syndesmotic injuries tend to occur in younger patients may have a greater effect in terms of productive years of life lost. PMID:24762148

Vosseller, J Turner; Karl, John W; Greisberg, Justin K

2014-03-01

299

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Does Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Injuries Treatment Coping With an MCL Injury About Knee Injuries Knee injuries often occur among active teens, especially athletes, and a torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) — a ligament that helps give the knee ...

300

Physical model simulations of brain injury in the primate.  

PubMed

Diffuse brain injuries resulting from non-impact rotational acceleration are investigated with the aid of physical models of the skull-brain structure. These models provide a unique insight into the relationship between the kinematics of head motion and the associated deformation of the surrogate brain material. Human and baboon skulls filled with optically transparent surrogate brain tissue are subjected to lateral rotations like those shown to produce diffuse injury to the deep white matter in the brain of the baboon. High-speed cinematography captures the deformations of the grids embedded within the surrogate brain tissue during the applied load. The overall deformation pattern is compared to the pathological portrait of diffuse brain injury as determined from animal studies and autopsy reports. Shear strain and pathology spatial distributions mirror each other. Load levels and resulting surrogate brain tissue deformations are related from one species to the other. Increased primate brain mass magnified the strain amplified without significantly altering the spatial distribution. An empirically-derived value for a critical shear strain associated with the onset of severe diffuse axonal injury in primates is determined, assuming constitutive similarity between baboon and human brain tissue. The primate skull physical model data and the critical shear strain associated with the threshold for severe diffuse axonal injury were used to scale data obtained from previous studies to man, and thus derive a diffuse axonal injury tolerance for rotational acceleration for humans. PMID:2384494

Margulies, S S; Thibault, L E; Gennarelli, T A

1990-01-01

301

Injury Profile in Women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005)  

PubMed Central

The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries), type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4%) followed by the lower limb (21%), upper limb (12.9%) and trunk (10.8%). Punches (48. 4%) were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%). The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%), hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%), lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%), concussion (13, 7%), tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%), joint dislocation (3, 1.6%) and fractures (3, 1.6%). In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries. Key points 186 injuries were recorded during women competitions. Incidence rates of 0.163 injury per bout and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes were calculated. The injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck. Muscle strain and contusion, hematoma and epistaxis constitute the majority of injuries.

Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

2007-01-01

302

Injury profile in women shotokan karate championships in iran (2004-2005).  

PubMed

The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries), type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4%) followed by the lower limb (21%), upper limb (12.9%) and trunk (10.8%). Punches (48. 4%) were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%). The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%), hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%), lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%), concussion (13, 7%), tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%), joint dislocation (3, 1.6%) and fractures (3, 1.6%). In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries. Key points186 injuries were recorded during women competitions.Incidence rates of 0.163 injury per bout and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes were calculated.The injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck.Muscle strain and contusion, hematoma and epistaxis constitute the majority of injuries. PMID:24198704

Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

2007-01-01

303

Traumatic Brain Injury Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Shopping cart Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Main menu Service Members & Veterans Family & Friends ... TBI Basics What is a TBI? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be classified as mild, moderate, severe ...

304

Brain injury - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... one was in the hospital after a serious brain injury. First, doctors and nurses provided treatment to prevent ... and treatment to help them recover from the brain injury. They may have stayed in special units that ...

305

Dealing with Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... TOPIC Safety Tips: Hockey Safety Tips: Running Physical Therapy Knee Injuries Sports Center Sports Physicals Sports and Exercise Safety Safety Tips: Basketball Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Safety Tips: Soccer Contact Us Print ...

306

Volleyball Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... and playing other sports is essential to skill development and injury prevention. Source: US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS, 2009 - 2012) data and estimates, based on ...

307

Gymnastics Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... and playing other sports is essential to skill development and injury prevention. Source: US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS, 2007-2009) Image copyright ©2011, Thinkstock. Top ...

308

Impact Tolerance - Abdominal Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to provide data on human tolerance to blunt abdominal impact a literature study and laboratory tests were carried out to determine the major causes of abdominal injury, injury mechanisms, a quantitative relationship between input and occurrence o...

D. L. Beckman J. H. McElhaney R. L. Stalnaker V. L. Roberts

1971-01-01

309

Preventing Children's Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... type of injury. For acute injuries, many pediatric sports medicine specialists usually take a "better safe than sorry" ... then determine whether it's necessary to see a sports medicine specialist. A doctor can usually diagnose many of ...

310

Preventing Knee Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... most common causes of knee pain in young athletes is called patellofemoral pain syndrome. this condition, involving ... and adolesCents Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of acute, traumatic injuries, ...

311

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Brachial ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of ...

312

Treatment of Inhalation Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expression 'inhalation injury', in English terminology, includes conditions as different as those due to soot inhalation, barotrauma lesions or respiratory burns. Our point of view is that 'inhalation injury' represents only one instance of a more gen...

J. Guilbaud

1983-01-01

313

What Causes Pediatric Injury?  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes pediatric injury? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The most common causes of pediatric injury are 1 , 2 , 3 : Motor vehicle accidents ...

314

Football injuries: current concepts.  

PubMed

Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries. PMID:23531977

Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

2011-01-01

315

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)  

MedlinePLUS

... 9,11 Sports: 12% 1,2,9,11 Demographics Males account for 80% of spinal cord injury ... AB, Dijkers M, DeVivo MJ, Poczatek RB. A demographic profile of new traumatic spinal cord injuries: change ...

316

Facial Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

317

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

318

Shear Injuries of the Brain  

PubMed Central

A blow to the head will impart rotational velocity to the brain and, depending on its magnitude, will produce effects ranging from concussion to profound neurological dysfunction. Resultant shear strains distort and rupture axons, blood vessels and major fibre tracts. Thirty-seven patients with head injury that was not complicated by significant hemorrhage or superficial laceration of the brain had coma or severe dementia, spastic quadriparesis, incontinence and autonomic dysfunction. These patients survived 24 hours to 243 days. Gross pathological examination revealed little, but there was microscopic evidence of axonal and small vessel injury in all; this was localized to the basal and midsagittal areas of the diencephalon and mesencephalon, particularly in those less severely injured. Such changes represent the basic pathology of all head injury. Data from this study suggest that concussion depends upon varying degrees of damage to the axon as well as the neuron. The current definition of concussion—immediate loss of consciousness with rapid and complete recovery of cerebral function—should not exclude the fact that a small number of neurons may have been permanently disconnected or have perished. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Peerless, S. J.; Rewcastle, N. B.

1967-01-01

319

Gait Characteristics, Range of Motion, and Spasticity Changes in Response to Massage in a Person with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Our study set out to measure the effect of a specific routine of massage on gait characteristics, range of motion, and spasticity in a person with incomplete spinal cord injury. Methods: This descriptive, pre–post case study, conducted at the outpatient program of a rehabilitation facility, used neuromuscular techniques in massage for a 42-year-old man with incomplete chronic C5 spinal cord injury. The massage was applied to the iliopsoas, triceps surae, and hamstring muscle groups for 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: Pre- and post-intervention testing included standard goniometric measurement of joint range of motion in the lower extremities, spasticity evaluation using the modified Ashworth scale, and evaluation of gait characteristics using GAITRite Walkway (CIR Systems, Havertown, PA, USA) pressure mapping for ambulation time, cadence, velocity, stride length, base of support, and single- and double-limb support. Results: After the therapeutic intervention, the following gait changes were demonstrated: increase in velocity and cadence of gait, decrease in ambulation time, increase in stride length, and improvements in the percentages of the swing and stance phases of the gait cycle. Conclusions: Specific application of massage therapy influenced gait speed, stride length, and swing and stance phase percentages in one person with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further study is warranted to determine the extent to which massage may affect musculoskeletal and neural impairments that limit gait in people with incomplete spinal cord injury, and the method or routine whose application will yield the most benefit.

Manella, Christine; Backus, Deborah

2011-01-01

320

Smoke inhalation injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

Birky, M.

321

Rotator cuff injuries.  

PubMed

Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments. PMID:10893553

Crusher, R H

2000-07-01

322

Adolescent Shoulder Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Injury to the adolescent shoulder poses a unique challenge to the sports medicine team. To determine best practice patterns,\\u000a the team must utilize an evidenced-based approach. These young athletes sustain injuries caused by both acute, traumatic events\\u000a and chronic overuse patterns. These injuries affect both osseous and soft-tissue structures. Some of the injuries encountered\\u000a are unique to this age group.

John A. Guido; Treg Brown

323

Dynamically unstable syndesmosis injuries.  

PubMed

Distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries are complex injuries that often result in extended loss of playing time for athletes. Unstable syndesmosis injuries are uniformly reduced and stabilized by numerous methods. Controversy arises from syndesmosis injuries that are stable on stress radiographs but functionally unstable with loading of the ankle during athletic activity. The authors present a case of operative fixation of a dynamically unstable syndesmosis and detail the postoperative course. PMID:23464940

Metzler, Adam V; Johnson, Darren L

2013-03-01

324

Thermal injury of Yersinia enterocolitica.  

PubMed Central

Procedures were developed to evaluate thermal injury to three strains of Yersinia enterocolitica (serotypes 0:3, 0:8, and 0:17). Serotype 0:17 (atypical strain) was more sensitive to bile salts no. 3 (BS) and to sublethal heat treatment than the typical strains, 0:3 and 0:8. When the 0:3, 0:8, and 0:17 serotypes were thermally stressed in 0.1 M PO4 buffer, pH 7.0, at 47 degrees C for 70, 60, and 12 min, respectively, greater than 99% of the total viable cell population was injured. Injury was determined by the ability of cells to form colonies on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar, but not on Trypticase soy agar (TSA) plus 0.6% BS for serotypes 0:3 and 0:8 and TSA plus 0.16% BS for 0:17. Heat injury of serotype 0:17 cells for 15 min in 0.1 M PO4 buffer caused an approximate 1,000-fold reduction in cell numbers on selective media as compared with cells heated in pork infusion (PI), BHI broth, and 10% nonfat dry milk (NFDM). The extended lag and resuscitation period in BHI broth was 2.5 times greater for 0:17 cells injured in 0.1 M PO4 than for cells injured in BHI or PI. The rate and extent of repair of Y. enterocolitica 0:17 cells in three recovery media were directly related to the heating menstruum used for injury. The use of metabolic inhibitors demonstrated that ribonucleic acid synthesis was required for repair, whereas deoxyribonucleic, cell wall, and protein synthesis were not necessary for recovery of 0:17 cells injured in 0.1 M PO4 buffer, BHI, or PI. Inhibition of respiration by 2,4-dinitrophenol slowed repair only for 0:17 cells injured in 0.1 M PO4 buffer, not for cells injured in PI or BHI.

Restaino, L; Jeter, W S; Hill, W M

1980-01-01

325

Lightning injury: a review.  

PubMed

Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries. PMID:18395987

Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

2008-08-01

326

Traumatic Brain Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2000-02-01

327

Sports injuries in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sports injuries in children affect both growing bone and soft tissues, and can result in damage of growth mechanisms with subsequent lifelong, growth disturbance. This clinical review unfolds the incidence and distribution, physiology, injury characteristics and the prevention modalities. Methods: A comprehensive in Medline literature search was performed, and the reference lists of sports injuries related journals and text

Chezhiyan Shanmugam; Nicola Maffulli

2008-01-01

328

Needlestick Injuries among Nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Needlestick injuries (NSIs) are among the most important occupational injuries for health care workers (HCWs). In Iran, the problem of exposure to contaminated blood among nursing personnels has not well documented. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of needle- stick injuries in population of nurses in Shahroud Imam Hossein Hospital, northern Iran. Methods: A self-administrated

Khosravi A. MSc

329

Injuries from Electromagnetic Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injury occurs when body tissues are subjected to levels of energy outside the normal tolerance bands. Excessive energy damages tissues, potentially beyond repair, and disrupts normal physiologic functioning. Injury may also occur when inadequate energy is available, such as extreme cold leading to frostbite injury, or disruption of normal cellular energy systems such as asphyxiation. Energy may be in the

STEPHEN A. MCCURDY

330

Spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 10% of blunt polytrauma cases have an underlying overt or occult spinal cord injury. All multiply injured patients should be managed expectantly and aggressively until injury is ruled out and normal physiological parameters are restored. The ability to assess these patients accurately is often limited by an associated head injury or by the absence of sensation below a complete

Bob Winter; Dave Knight

2005-01-01

331

Assessment of Ankle Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

2009-01-01

332

Spinal Cord Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

333

Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

2005-01-01

334

Triathlon: running injuries.  

PubMed

The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each. PMID:23147090

Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

2012-12-01

335

Injuries in Swedish skydiving  

PubMed Central

Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n?=?257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non?fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n?=?85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non?fatal injury events was 48 per 100?000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student?training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions.

Westman, Anton; Bjornstig, Ulf

2007-01-01

336

Lisfranc injuries: an update.  

PubMed

Lisfranc injuries are a spectrum of injuries to the tarsometatarsal joint complex of the midfoot. These range from subtle ligamentous sprains, often seen in athletes, to fracture dislocations seen in high-energy injuries. Accurate and early diagnosis is important to optimise treatment and minimise long-term disability, but unfortunately, this is a frequently missed injury. Undisplaced injuries have excellent outcomes with non-operative treatment. Displaced injuries have worse outcomes and require anatomical reduction and internal fixation for the best outcome. Although evidence to date supports the use of screw fixation, plate fixation may avoid further articular joint damage and may have benefits. Recent evidence supports the use of limited arthrodesis in more complex injuries. PMID:23563815

Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I; Rosenfeld, Peter F; Calder, James D F

2013-06-01

337

A retrospective survey on injuries in Croatian football/soccer referees  

PubMed Central

Background Injury among soccer referees is rarely studied, especially with regard to differences in the quality level of the refereeing. Additionally, we have found no study that has reported injury occurrence during official physical fitness testing for soccer referees. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, type and consequences of match-related and fitness-testing related injuries among soccer referees of different competitive levels. Methods We studied 342 soccer referees (all males; mean age 32.9?±?5.02?years). The study was retrospective, and a self-administered questionnaire was used. In the first phase of the study, the questionnaire was tested for its reliability and applicability. The questionnaire included morphological/anthropometric data, refereeing variables, and musculoskeletal disorders together with the consequences. Results The sample comprised 157 main referees (MR; mean age 31.4?±?4.9?years) and 185 assistant referees (AR; mean age 34.1?±?5.1?years) divided into: international level (Union of European Football Associations-UEFA) referees (N?=?18; 6 MRs; 12 ARs) ; 1st (N?=?78; 31 MRs; 47 ARs), 2nd (N?=?91; 45 MRs; 46 ARs); or 3rd national level referees (N?=?155; 75 MRs; 80 ARs). In total, 29% (95%CI: 0.23–0.37) of the MRs and 30% (95%CI: 0.22–0.36) of the ARs had experienced an injury during the previous year, while 13% (95%CI: 0.05–0.14) of the MRs, and 19% (95%CI: 0.14–0.25) of the ARs suffered from an injury that occurred during fitness testing. There was an obvious increase in injury severity as the refereeing advanced at the national level, but the UEFA referees were the least injured of all referees. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of injuries to the upper leg (i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings) during physical fitness testing for all but the UEFA referees. During game refereeing, the ankles and lower legs were the most commonly injured regions. The MRs primarily injured their ankles. The ARs experienced lower leg and lower back disorders. However, the overall injury rate was equal for both groups, with 5.29 (95%CI: 2.23–8.30) and 4.58 (95%CI: 2.63–6.54) injuries per 1000?hours of refereeing for MRs and ARs, respectively. Conclusion In addition to the reported risk of injury during soccer games, physical fitness testing should be classified as a risk for injury among soccer referees. Special attention should be given to (I) lower leg injuries during games and (II) upper leg injuries during physical fitness tests. A higher physical fitness level and a qualitative approach to training are recognized as protective factors against injury. Subsequent studies should investigate the specific predictors of injuries among referees.

2013-01-01

338

Distal biceps tendon injuries--current treatment options.  

PubMed

Three percent of all biceps tendon ruptures occur at the distal aspect, where the tendon inserts into the radial tuberosity. Distal bicep tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males after an eccentric extension load is applied to the elbow. Patients usually complain of a sudden, sharp, and painful tearing sensation in the antecubital region, with a palpable defect. The biceps squeeze and hook tests are specific maneuvers by which to diagnose distal biceps ruptures on physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound maybe be helpful to distinguish between partial and complete tears. Anatomic studies suggest there are two distinct insertions for the short and long heads of the distal biceps. The short head may be a more powerful flexor, and the long head may be a more powerful supinator. Nonoperative treatment typically results in loss of flexion and supination strength and endurance. Early anatomic re-attachment is the goal. Surgical approaches include one- or two-incision techniques, and tendon fixation methods include the use of suture anchors, bone tunnels, an endobutton, or biotenodesis screws. Biomechanical studies have shown that endobuttons have higher load-to-failure strengths, compared to the other fixation methods. However, clinical studies have demonstrated that patients do well regardless of surgical approach or fixation method. Possible complications include nerve injuries, heterotopic ossification, postoperative fracture, tendon rerupture, complex regional pain syndrome, and wound infection. Partial ruptures are significantly less common and initially can be treated conservatively. Chronic tears are more difficult to treat because of possible tendon retraction and poor tissue quality. Tendon grafts using semitendinosus, fascia lata, hamstring, Achilles (calcaneal), or flexor carpi radialis have been successfully used for length restoration in these cases. PMID:20632985

Quach, Tony; Jazayeri, Reza; Sherman, Orrin H; Rosen, Jeffrey E

2010-01-01

339

Why do girls sustain more anterior cruciate ligament injuries than boys?: a review of the changes in estrogen and musculoskeletal structure and function during puberty.  

PubMed

Sport is the leading cause of injury among adolescents and girls incur more non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures than boys, with this gender disparity in injury incidence apparent from the onset of puberty. Although the mechanisms for this gender disparity in ACL injuries are relatively unknown, hormonal, anatomical and biomechanical factors have been implicated. Puberty is associated with rapid skeletal growth and hormonal influx, both of which are thought to contribute to alterations in ACL metabolic and mechanical properties, as well as changes in lower limb strength and flexibility, ultimately influencing landing technique. Therefore, the aim of this review is to explain (i) the effects of changes in estrogen levels on the metabolic and mechanical properties of the ACL; (ii) changes in musculoskeletal structure and function that occur during puberty, including changes in knee laxity, and lower limb flexibility and strength; and (iii) how these hormonal and musculoskeletal changes impact upon the landing technique displayed by pubescent girls. Despite evidence confirming estrogen receptors on the ACL, there are still conflicting results as to how estrogen affects the mechanical properties of the ACL, particularly during puberty. However, during this time of rapid growth and hormonal influx, unlike their male counterparts, girls do not display an accelerated muscle strength spurt and the development of their hamstring muscle strength appears to lag behind that of their quadriceps. Throughout puberty, girls also display an increase in knee valgus when landing, which is not evident in boys. Therefore, it is plausible that this lack of a defined strength spurt, particularly of the hamstring muscles, combined with the hormonal effects of estrogen in girls, may contribute to a more 'risky' lower limb alignment during landing, in turn, contributing to a greater risk of ACL injury. There is, however, a paucity of longitudinal studies specifically examining the lower limb musculoskeletal structural and functional changes experienced by girls throughout puberty, as well as how these changes are related to estrogen fluctuations characteristic of puberty and their effects on landing biomechanics. Therefore, further research is recommended to provide greater insight as to why pubescent girls are at an increased risk of non-contact ACL injuries during sport compared with boys. Such information will allow the development of evidence-based training programmes aimed at teaching girls to land more safely and with greater control of their lower limbs in an attempt to reduce the incidence of ACL ruptures during puberty. PMID:22784194

Wild, Catherine Y; Steele, Julie R; Munro, Bridget J

2012-09-01

340

The temporal stem in traumatic brain injury: preliminary findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal stem (TS) of the temporal lobe is a major white matter (WM) region containing several major pathways that connect\\u000a the temporal lobe with the rest of the brain. Because of its location, it may be particularly vulnerable to shear-strain effects\\u000a resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI). A case vignette is presented in a patient with severe brain injury

Erin D. Bigler; Stephen R. McCauley; Trevor C. Wu; Ragini Yallampalli; Sanjeev Shah; Marianne MacLeod; Zili Chu; Jill V. Hunter; Guy L. Clifton; Harvey S. Levin; Elisabeth A. Wilde

2010-01-01

341

A 1-year prospective analysis of injuries in amateur and elite fistball.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and mechanisms of acute injuries in the sport of fistball. No scientific studies on injury characteristics have yet been conducted in this traditional sport game. The study was conducted prospectively over the course of 12 months. During a total of 40.308?h of sport-specific exposure, 240 players reported 492 injuries, representing an overall injury rate of 12.2 injuries/1000?h of exposure. Most injuries were classified as bagatelle injuries (67.8%). The majority of the injuries were located in the knee (23.5%) followed by the elbow (11.9%) and the hip (11.5%). Ankle injuries resulted in the longest impairment from sports participation. The most common types of injury were abrasions (38.2%), contusions (21.1%), distortions (7.5%) and muscle strains (6.9%). Wrong or insufficient equipment (15.0%) was the most commonly mentioned causes of injury. The data indicate that the injury risk in fistball is rather high; however, the sport should not be considered a high-risk sport because most of the injuries are slight and do not prevent the players from training or competition. Injury prevention strategies should include the development of fistball-specific protective equipment with focus on the knee and elbow joint. PMID:24033688

Runer, A; Runer, F; Neunhäuserer, D; Ring-Dimitriou, S; Resch, H; Moroder, P

2014-06-01

342

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XC5  Common Strain Name: SV11  Strain Nomenclature: C57BL/6-Tg(TAg)11Bri/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Strain Information

343

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XB8  Common Strain Name: Brca1 floxed (FVB;129)  Strain Nomenclature: FVB;129-Brca1tm1Brn/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C2 , D Sample MTA for this strain Strain

344

Injuries in Irish dance.  

PubMed

Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

2013-12-01

345

Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).  

PubMed

Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship between CSDM - BrIC and MPS - BrIC respectively. AIS 3+, 4+ and 5+ field risk of anatomic brain injuries was also estimated using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database for crash conditions similar to the frontal NCAP and side impact conditions that the ATDs were tested in. This was done to assess the risk curve ratios derived from HIC risk curves. The results of the study indicated that: (1) the two available human head models - SIMon and GHBMC - were found to be highly correlated when CSDMs and max principal strains were compared; (2) BrIC correlates best to both - CSDM and MPS, and rotational velocity (not rotational acceleration) is the mechanism for brain injuries; and (3) the critical values for angular velocity are directionally dependent, and are independent of the ATD used for measuring them. The newly developed brain injury criterion is a complement to the existing HIC, which is based on translational accelerations. Together, the two criteria may be able to capture most brain injuries and skull fractures occurring in automotive or any other impact environment. One of the main limitations for any brain injury criterion, including BrIC, is the lack of human injury data to validate the criteria against, although some approximation for AIS 2+ injury is given based on the angular velocities calculated at 50% probability of concussion in college football players instrumented with 5 DOF helmet system. Despite the limitations, a new kinematic rotational brain injury criterion - BrIC - may offer a way to capture brain injuries in situations when using translational accelerations based HIC alone may not be sufficient. PMID:24435734

Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

2013-11-01

346

Hand injuries in rock climbing: reaching the right treatment.  

PubMed

Rock climbers' grip techniques may result in a variety of hand injuries. Minor injuries such as soft-tissue damage, flexor tendon strain, tendinitis or tenosynovitis, joint contractures, and carpal tunnel syndrome may be treated by a primary care physician. Patients who have pulley ruptures should be referred if there is any uncertainty about the diagnosis. Because of controversies regarding surgical management, primary care physicians should refer patients who have a complete ligament tear. Referral is also recommended for such serious injuries as locked digits, flexor tendon avulsions or ruptures, and severe joint contractures. PMID:20086906

Jebson, P J; Steyers, C M

1997-05-01

347

Penetrating Cardiac Injury: A Review  

PubMed Central

Cardiac injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent death. Sometimes serious cardiac injury may manifest only subtle or occult symptoms or signs. As there is an epidemic of cardiac injuries in Kashmir valley due to problems of law and order, we herein present a review on management of such injuries.

Lateef Wani, Mohd; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Irshad, Ifat; Ul-Hassan, Nayeem

2012-01-01

348

Penetrating cardiac injury: a review.  

PubMed

Cardiac injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent death. Sometimes serious cardiac injury may manifest only subtle or occult symptoms or signs. As there is an epidemic of cardiac injuries in Kashmir valley due to problems of law and order, we herein present a review on management of such injuries. PMID:24829887

Lateef Wani, Mohd; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Irshad, Ifat; Ul-Hassan, Nayeem

2012-01-01

349

Back Injury Avoidance for Firefighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Back injuries account for 30 percent of the injuries to firefighters. Firefighters are in the high-risk job series for back injuries--the number one type of civilian personnel injury. This aid contains three items. The first is 'Back Injury Avoidance Idea...

1985-01-01

350

Injuries around the knee – Symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knee and shoulder injuries commonly occur in sports. Knee injury accounts for 41% of all sports injuries. One fifth of them involve the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Other injuries include meniscus tears, posterior cruciate ligament tears, articular cartilage damages and avulsion of ligaments and tendons.Treatment of knee injuries has to be based on severity of signs and symptoms and exact

Parag Sancheti; Mohammed Razi; E B S Ramanathan; Patrick Yung

2010-01-01

351

Injuries to Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma is the leading killer of children after the first year of life. Unlike trauma in the adult world, where penetrating\\u000a injuries (mainly a result of firearms) predominate, pediatric trauma deaths are most commonly caused by blunt force injury\\u000a (Table 1). Traumatic injuries and deaths do occur in children younger than 1 yr, however, congenital disease and prematurity\\u000a claim more

Jonathan I. Groner

352

Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ischemia-reperfusion injury describes the experimentally and clinically prevalent finding that tissue ischemia with\\u000a inadequate oxygen supply followed by successful reperfusion initiates a wide and complex array of inflammatory responses that\\u000a may both aggravate local injury as well as induce impairment of remote organ function. Conditions under which ischemia-reperfusion\\u000a injury is encountered include the different forms of acute vascular

Bernhard Dorweiler; Diethard Pruefer; Terezia B. Andrasi; Sasa M. Maksan; Walther Schmiedt; Achim Neufang; Christian F. Vahl

2007-01-01

353

Injuries from hovercraft racing.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

Cattermole, H R

1997-01-01

354

Determinants of pediatric injuries.  

PubMed

Injuries are an important health issue for children. Previous research, however, has presented confusing and conflicting results on the determinants of childhood injuries, particularly psychosocial predictors, largely due to methodologic problems. The purpose of this analysis, based on a prospective follow-up study of 532 children, was to identify factors related to injuries encountered in a prepaid group practice during a 12-month period. Using logistic regression, we found four factors independently associated with the risk of at least one treated injury: high activity level, high rate of pediatric utilization for non-injury-related visits during the follow-up period, occurrence of a treated injury during the year preceding the follow-up period, and negative attitude toward medical care providers by the child's mother. In addition, four factors were found to be independent predictors of injuries judged severe enough to always warrant medical care: occurrence of a treated injury in the preceding year, high rate of pediatric utilization for non-injury-related visits during the follow-up period, working more than 15 hours a week outside the home by the child's mother, and more life events reported by the mother for the year preceding the follow-up period. Since family stressors are related specifically to the risk of more severe injuries, which are unlikely to escape medical attention, we conclude that these factors probably are related to the occurrence of common injuries of early childhood and not exclusively to utilization behavior. We therefore suggest that children from families with these characteristics be targeted for injury prevention strategies. PMID:3369398

Horwitz, S M; Morgenstern, H; DiPietro, L; Morrison, C L

1988-06-01

355

Electrical Contact Injuries  

PubMed Central

Electrical contact injuries result in death and irreparable damage in electrical system workers. The pattern of injury is different from other burns, and younger employees are the most at risk. Two factors cause most injuries: unsafe work practice or defective equipment. Primary prevention lies beyond the scope of the medical practitioner, but secondary and tertiary prevention provide some opportunity to modify the devastation of these injuries. Secondary prevention involves education of the work force to act promptly in aiding an injured fellow worker; tertiary prevention usually involves rehabilitation of an amputee. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4

Wills, Michael C.; Henville, C. Michael

1982-01-01

356

Home injuries to children.  

PubMed

To describe the circumstances around childhood injuries in the home, information on home injuries to children was collected in the emergency room of a pediatric trauma centre as part of an injury surveillance program. During a one-year period, data on 1,538 patients (age < or = 18 years) injured at home were recorded. An inverse s-shape association of home injuries with age was observed. Falls were the leading cause (51%); other children were struck by objects (18%) or sustained cutting/piercing injuries (9%). Age was positively associated with the likelihood of being struck by objects, cutting/piercing, and overexertion, but negatively associated with falls. Playing was the most common activity at time of injury. The peak time of injuries tended to be the early evening. Because most injuries occurred in an environment that seemed safe to parents, reduction in home injuries may require identification of potential hazards in the context of the stages of children's psychological and motor development. PMID:8358687

Hu, X; Wesson, D; Kenney, B

1993-01-01

357

Fliker injuries in children.  

PubMed

The Fliker, the new version of the foot-propelled scooter, has emerged as an increasingly popular recreational activity for children. This increase in popularity has led to a number of attendances to our tertiary paediatric emergency department (ED) with Fliker-associated injuries. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and type of such injuries. This was a prospective descriptive study of all children (aged 0-16 years) attending the ED during a summer with Fliker-related injuries. Patients were identified through the ED Symphony Information System. Clinical notes of identified patients were investigated for the mechanism, location and type of injury. The clinical outcome of identified patients was also determined. Eighty patients, 39 boys (48.8%) and 41 girls (51.2%), were identified in the study period. The mean age of the patients was 7.9 years (range from 2 to 13 years). Upper limb injuries were most common, found in 33 (41.2%) children. There were 12 head injuries. The rest sustained lower limb injuries, soft tissue lacerations and dental injuries. The Fliker is one of a number of fad recreational activities to have emerged in recent times. Similar to some of its predecessors (e.g. Heelys, rollerblades), it is associated with a spectrum of injuries in children. PMID:22960801

Howard, Ruth; McCoy, Siobhan C; Cronin, John; Walsh, Sean; O'Sullivan, Ronan

2013-06-01

358

Lightning and thermal injuries.  

PubMed

Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be treated. The exact mechanism of nerve injury has not been explained, but both direct injury by electrical current overload or a vascular cause receive the most attention. Because electrical injuries carry both externally visible cutaneous injuries and possible hidden musculoskeletal damage, conventional burn resuscitation formulas based on body surface area injured may not provide enough fluid to maintain urine output. Damaged muscle resulting in swelling within the investing fascia of an extremity may result in compartment syndromes, requiring further attention. If myoglobin has been detected in the urine, treatment is aggressive volume resuscitation and possibly alkalinization of the urine or mannitol is given IV push to minimize pigment precipitation in the renal tubules. Approximately 15% of electrical burn victims also sustain traumatic injuries. This is because of falls from height or being thrown against an object. The tetanic contractions that result from exposure to electrical injury cause imbalance in flexor versus extensor muscles, with the flexor groups being stronger. Not only is the victim unable to release from the electrical contact, but they are at risk for fracture of bones from this prolonged muscular contracture. Neurologic and psychological symptoms were the most common sequelae of electrical and lightning injuries. Many of these symptoms are nonspecific, and they often do not appear until several months after the injury. A full neurologic examination must be performed on admission, documenting initial presentation and at any change in symptoms. Electrical injuries can have devastating consequences. Prevention of electrical injuries is clearly the preferable strategy for treatment. PMID:24365365

Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

2014-01-01

359

INJURIES OF THE FINGERS AND HANDS--A Review of Cases from the Standpoint of Compensation  

PubMed Central

Review of records in cases of injury to the hand that come before the California Industrial Accident Commission indicate that: 1. Primary closure at a suitable level in finger amputations is often preferable to plastic repair. 2. Complications incident to plastic repair in minor injuries frequently increase disability and cost to employer. 3. Tendon injury resulting from strain is a frequently overlooked cause of disability.

Barritt, J. L.

1955-01-01

360

Longitudinal effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellar tendon autograft reconstruction on neuromuscular performance.  

PubMed

We examined persons after anterior cruciate ligament injury and for 1.5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to analyze changes in anterior knee laxity, lower extremity muscle strength, endurance, and several parameters of neuromuscular function. Sixteen men and nine women (average age, 23.8 years) were evaluated preoperatively, then underwent intraarticular autogenous patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by the same surgeon and were evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Muscle strength was measured isokinetically and neuromuscular function was quantified with simultaneous anterior tibial translation and surface electromyography tests. Forty subjects (26 men and 14 women; average age, 23.5 years) with no known knee abnormalities served as the control group. Subjective questionnaire results showed that by 18 months postoperatively, 20 subjects (80%) believed they had regained their preoperative levels of function. Unfortunately, muscle function in most subjects had not returned to normal. At 12 to 18 months postoperatively, when knee rehabilitation was terminated, significant deficiencies in muscle performance persisted in most patients. Interestingly, in this group of stable knees, quadriceps and hamstring muscle reaction times appeared to be the best objective indicators of subjective knee function. PMID:10843124

Wojtys, E M; Huston, L J

2000-01-01

361

JAMA Patient Page: Head Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... to do) and improve their overall recovery. PREVENTING BRAIN INJURY T R A U M A The Journal ... States. Because head injuries (also known as traumatic brain injuries ) are common and may have devastating effects, preventing ...

362

Injury Free Coalition for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Sites Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News 2014 ToysRUs Great Trade In Event Children ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

363

PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the principles of protection against radiation ; injury and of the recommendations of Emergency Health Services, Department of ; National Health and Welfare, to those responsible for the protection of the ; health of persons at risk from nuclear weapon fallout radiations. Protection ; against injury is based on 2 concepts: procedures that result in

F. C. Pace; W. R. Waters

1961-01-01

364

FIREARM INJURY SURVEILLANCE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established an interagency agreement with CPSC to begin collecting data on nonfatal firearm-related injuries to monitor the incidence and characteristics of perso...

365

Conquering Athletic Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

366

Abdominal injuries and sport  

PubMed Central

Serious abdominal injuries resulting from sport are rare. The potential for misdiagnosis is significant and the consequences may be serious. Patients with abdominal pain should be taken very seriously and investigated with appropriate diagnostic equipment. Sporting bodies have a responsibility to address safety within a particular sport and to change the rules where necessary as injury patterns are identified. ?????

Ryan, J. M.

1999-01-01

367

Swimming Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Nearly 203,600 swimming-related injuries were treated in emergency rooms, doctors' offices, and clinics in 2009 according to the U.S. Consumer Product ... Orthopaedic Surgeons offers the following tips to prevent swimming injuries. General Guidelines Learn how to swim and ...

368

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... protection for your specific sport. When can an athlete with an eye injury return to play? Athletes with a serious eye injury should be examined ... should feel comfortable and have adequate vision. The athlete should wear eye protection. For a less serious ...

369

Musculoskeletal Injuries in Tennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that tens of millions of people play tennis in the United States (1,2). More than half a million are adolescents (3), and growing num- ber of seniors continue to play tennis (4). The results of epidemiologic studies in tennis players have shown some variability in injury patterns (5-9). The most common types of injury in tennis players

Robert H. Perkins; Denise Davis

2006-01-01

370

Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 250 per 100,000 of the population sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually (Cassidy et al., 2004), making it the most commonly occurring neurological condition. Of these 102 per 100,000 are hospitalised (Chesnut, Carney, Maynard, Patterson, Mann, & Helfand, 1998). Because of advances in trauma care these individuals are surviving injuries that would previously have been fatal (Klimczak, Donovick, &

Janet M. Leathem; Muriel Christianson

371

Injuries in Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

Obeng, Cecilia

2009-01-01

372

DISCUSSION ON SPINAL INJURIES  

PubMed Central

(1).—Varieties of spinal injuries, the three groups of common usage: fractures, dislocations, fracture-dislocations. Shall not refer in detail to fractures of the spinous or transverse processes. (2) Mechanics of injury to vertebræ. Two variables: (1) the nature of the bones; (2) the qualities of the force. Spinal injury usually caused by indirect violence. (3) The different results of injuries applied to the head; may break skull, failing that, the neck. Atlas fracture. Difference in qualities of the force causing atlas fracture and low cervical dislocation. (4) The compound nature of the vertebral body. The two columns, anterior, spongy; posterior, compact. The nature of wedge-compression of the vertebral body. Variations in the shape of the wedge. Reasons. Occur at all levels, including cervical spine. (5) Frequency of injury at different levels of vertebral column. “Localization” of injury. The two places of the graph of injury. The cervical at C. 5. Reason. The thoracic-lumbar peak at T. 12, L. 1 industrial. Is there a third peak at C. 2? (6) The effects of violent flexion of the spine: cervical flexion causes luxation at C. 5 or so. Extension causes fracture of odontoid. Violent flexion and extension therefore cause injury at very different levels. Thoracic region, why is there no “peak” of injury at T.6, 7? Lumbar region. (7) Displacement of fragments. Continuation of violence after the essential injury has been effected. Kümmell's disease, no inflammatory process involved. (8) Injury to the intervertebral discs, essential for displacement. Imperfect rupture a cause for difficulty in reducing luxations. The worst cases those in which it is most easily done, but most of these have cord damage. (9) Spinal injury from minimal violence. Examples of trivial cases, diving, brushing hair and so forth. Vertebral displacement in disease a much more serious thing. (10) Curious stability of many cervical luxations. Reasons. Locking of the inferior zygaphophyses. (11) Injury to nervous elements left principally to other speakers. Cord compression very rare. Immediate and irremediable damage. Root injuries. Falling mortality of modern statistics due to better diagnosis. (12) Primary operation for fractures of spine relegated to oblivion. Rarity of indications for open operation. Reduction the best treatment. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6

1928-01-01

373

Preventing playground injuries.  

PubMed

With concerns increasing around childhood obesity and inactivity, playgrounds offer a chance for children to be active. But playgrounds also have risks, with injuries from falls being the most common. Research has shown that playground injuries can be reduced by lowering the heights of play equipment and using soft, deep surfaces to cushion falls. The Canadian Standards Association has published voluntary standards for playgrounds to address these risks for several years. Parents can further reduce injury risks by following simple playground strategies. This statement outlines the burden of playground injuries. It also provides parents and health care providers with opportunities to reduce injury incidence and severity through education and advocacy, and to implement evidence-informed safety standards and safer play strategies in local playgrounds. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2002. PMID:23730171

Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

2012-06-01

374

Spinal Injuries in Children  

PubMed Central

About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia.

Basu, Saumyajit

2012-01-01

375

Sports related ocular injuries  

PubMed Central

Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision.

Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

376

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents.

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

377

Biomechanical strain of goldsmiths.  

PubMed

The work of the goldsmiths consists in the manufacture of jewelry. The piece, be it an earring, bracelet or necklace, is hand-assembled. This task requires precision, skill, kindness and patience. In this work, we make use of tools such as cuticle clippers and rounded tip, beads or precious stones and also pieces of metal. This type of activity requires a biomechanical stress of hands and wrists. In order to quantify the biomechanical stress, we performed a case study to measure the movements performed by an assembly of pieces of jewelry. As method for research, filming was done during assembly of parts to a paste, using a Nikon digital camera, for 1 (one) hour. The film was edited by Kinovea software, and the task was divided into cycles, each cycle corresponds to a complete object. In one cycle, there are four two movements of supination and pronation movements of the forearm. The cycle lasts approximately sixteen seconds, totaling 1800 cycles in eight hours. Despite the effort required of the wrists, the activity shows no complaints from the employees, but this fact does not mischaracterizes the ability of employees to acquire repetitive strain injuries and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:22317096

Cândido, Paula Emanuela Fernandes; Teixeira, Juliana Vieira Schmidt; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

2012-01-01

378

Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries.  

PubMed

Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for clinical state, MRI is warranted. Follow-up is best done with MRI as it is more sensitive to parenchymal changes. In routine MR protocol gradient-recalled-echo sequences should be included at any other time after a traumatic event since they are very sensitive in detection of hemosiderin as well as former hematoma without hemosiderin. The MR signal intensity varies depending on sequences and time scanning after trauma. PMID:12042929

Besenski, N

2002-06-01

379

Web Based Injury Surveillance System (WBISS) for Road Traffic Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic injuries are a major, but neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka. As their economic costs are high and emergency trauma care is lacking in the country, the prevention of the road traffic injuries is extremely important. To prevent road traffic injuries, accurate information are mandatory on modes, patterns and trends of crashes and injuries. However, existing surveillance

Achala Upendra Jayatilleke; Chandrajith Ashuboda Marasinghe; Shinji Nakahara; S. T. Nandasara; M. Jimba

2007-01-01

380

Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent

John Puentes; Hélène Langet; Christophe Herry; Monique Frize

2011-01-01

381

Personality, stress, and injuries in professional ballet dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine soloist and principal dancers (mean age, 29.08 years) from America's two most celebrated ballet companies were administered questionnaires measur ing personality (API), occupational stress (OES), strain (PSQ), and coping mechanisms (PRQ), and injury pat terns. The results revealed that male dancers demon strated significantly more negative personality traits and psychological distress than female dancers or men in the general

Linda H. Hamilton; William G. Hamilton; James D. Meltzer; Peter Marshall; Marika Molnar

1989-01-01

382

Topical Diclofenac Patch Relieves Minor Sports Injury Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports-related soft tissue injuries, such as sprains, strains, and contusions, are a common painful condition. Current treatment includes oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have a high incidence of intolerable gastrointestinal side effects. Topically applied drugs have the potential to act locally in the soft tissues without systemic effects. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac (NSAID)

Bradley S Galer; Michael Rowbotham; Jill Perander; Allison Devers; Erika Friedman

2000-01-01

383

Power lawnmower injuries.  

PubMed

Power lawnmowers are among the most ubiquitous household tools, yet they pose significant danger to operator and bystanders. Despite of the United States Consumer Products Safety Commission's push to have safety standards established for walk-behind mowers in 1982 and for ride-on mowers in 1986, by 2000 approximately 80,000 injuries nationwide were estimated to be associated with power mowers. Large numbers of these injuries are thought to be preventable, especially those to individuals younger than 14 years. Orthopaedic surgeons treat a significant number of the injuries associated with mower use including lacerations, amputations, fractures, infections, and skin defects. Therefore, the orthopaedic community has a stake in the prevention and outcome of these injuries. To date, changes in mower design have seemed to be more successful than user education programs in decreasing the numbers of these injuries. Involving orthopaedists in safety education programs to help prevent injuries associated with power mower use may be one method of increasing user knowledge and preventing injury. PMID:12671483

Robertson, William W

2003-04-01

384

ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon.  

PubMed

The technique of quadrupled semitendinosus autograft for ACL reconstruction using the EndoButton for femoral fixation has been described. Dr. Rosenberg, this article's senior author, has used this for over 10 years with no known instance of fixation failure at the femur or tibia. This technique using QST reconstruction has little morbidity, low reoperation rate, and excellent clinical results. PMID:12735197

Chen, Leo; Cooley, Vernon; Rosenberg, Thomas

2003-01-01

385

Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment".

Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D

1996-01-01

386

Gunshot and Explosion Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7.8% in the GSW group compared with 5.3% in the explosion group. A larger proportion of gunshot victims died during the first day (97% versus 58%). Conclusions: GSW and injuries from explosions differ in the body region of injury, distribution of severity, LOS, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and time of inpatient death. These findings have implications for treatment and for preparedness of hospital resources to treat patients after a terrorist attack in any region of the world. Tailored protocol for patient evaluation and initial treatment should differ between GSW and explosion victims. Hospital organization toward treating and admitting these patients should take into account the different arrival and injury patterns.

Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

2004-01-01

387

[Injuries of the heart].  

PubMed

The authors had 53 patients with heart injuries under observation; 52 patients were operated on for vital indications. The heart wound was sutured, the concomitant injuries to other organs were removed, and the pericardial and pleural cavities were drained. Air-tightness of the injured heart muscle was attained in all cases. Seven of the patients who were operated on died. One patient who did not undergo operation died suddenly in complete well-being from acute cardiac tamponade 2 days after injury to the chest inflicted with a pin-like object. The authors emphasize the importance of organizational measures promoting earliest performance of the operation. PMID:1770711

Kolkin, Ia G; Gredzhev, A F; Vecherko, V N; Kravets, V M; Paniotov, A P; Giul'mamedov, S I; Kolesnik, V V

1991-06-01

388

Karate and karate injuries.  

PubMed Central

The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable methods of attack. Images p84-a Fig. I Fig. II

McLatchie, G.

1981-01-01

389

Closed kidney injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to discuss the prevalence of blunt renal trauma and the nature of the problem, including the risk of renal injury with sports participation and epidemiology. Patient history of mechanism of injury, as well as examination findings, will risk-stratify patients to determine who needs immediate surgical intervention, who requires imaging, and what patients do not need further imaging. Computed tomography is readily available, fast, and accurate in the diagnosis of renal injury. Discussion of the athlete with congenital renal disease and the solitary kidney concludes this article. PMID:23522503

Viola, Tracey A

2013-04-01

390

Major peripheral nerve injuries.  

PubMed

Major peripheral nerve injuries in the upper extremities can result in significant morbidity. Understanding the pathophysiology of these injuries aids in the assessment and planning of appropriate treatment. With limited nerve mobilization, tension-free repairs can often be performed using sutures, fibrin glue, or nerve connectors. Acellular allograft and autograft reconstruction are better for bridging any gaps greater than a few millimeters. Adherence to proper principles of nerve repair improves the chances of achieving a favorable result, although in general these injuries portend a guarded prognosis. PMID:23895717

Isaacs, Jonathan

2013-08-01

391

HALLUCINOSIS FOLLOWING HEAD INJURY  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Eleven patients who evinced hallucinations during the early recovery after head injury were studied in detail in comparison to the head injured controls. All of them had suffered from acceleration injuries. Among the clinical variables, post traumatic amnesia was significantly longer in these patients. Length of FTA was found to be correlated with duration of occurrence of hallucinations. Severity of coma, skull fracture, early seizures and alcohol dependence were not discriminatory between the hallucinated patients and the controls. The disorder tended to be self-limiting and patients recovered without the aid of psychopharmacological measures. Theoretical significance of the findings are discussed in the context of recent literature on head injury.

Sabhesan, S.; Natarajan, M.

1990-01-01

392

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

393

An unusual shoulder injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery is a rare sequel of shoulder injury. We report here a unique phenomenon of delayed presentation axillary pseudoaneurysm some time after an initial blunt injury, with no evidence of gross bony injury. The gentleman presented again some weeks later after a failure of rehabilitation and progressive neurological deficit in the affected arm. Ultimate management of the lesion was by endovascular insertion of a covered stent, and decompression of the axilla. Unfortunately the lack of subsequent neurological recovery parallels some of the findings in the literature, from cases where relief of the brachial plexus was not undertaken soon enough.

Moss, AJ; Valenti, D; Fraser, SC; Murie, J

2011-01-01

394

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01X62  Common Strain Name: Arf floxed  Strain Nomenclature: B6.129-Cdkn2atm4Cjs/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health Report in

395

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01X67  Common Strain Name: CAG-LSL-EGFR-WT  Strain Nomenclature: STOCK Col1a1tm1(CAG-EGRF)Char/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 , D Sample MTA for this

396

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01X68  Common Strain Name: CAG-LSL-EGFRvIII  Strain Nomenclature: STOCK Col1a1tm2(CAG-EGFR*)Char/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 , D Sample MTA for this

397

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XB2  Common Strain Name: Ink4a/Arf null (FVB)  Strain Nomenclature: FVB.129-Cdkn2atm1Rdp/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C3 Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health

398

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XBL  Common Strain Name: Myf6-ires-cre knock-in  Strain Nomenclature: B6;129-Myf6tm2(cre)Mrc/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Animal

399

Prevention and Control of Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

400

Injuries in intercollegiate rodeo athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collegiate rodeo athletes (N = 156) in the National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association (NIRA) Southern Re gion, were examined for injuries during a 7 month (10 rodeo) season from 1987 to 1988. Sixty-two athletes sustained a total of 138 acute injuries resulting from 3292 exposures. One hundred twenty-seven injuries (92% of total injuries) occurred in the roughstock and steer wrestling events,

Michael C. Meyers; Jerry R. Elledge; James C. Sterling; Homer Tolson

1990-01-01

401

Acute Backpack Injuries in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify the most common mechanisms and sites of injury associated with book backpacks in school-aged children, who present to the emergency department. This should help with the devel- opment of backpack injury prevention strategies. Design. A descriptive analysis of The National Elec- tronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Injury Information

Brent M. Wiersema; Eric J. Wall; Susan L. Foad

402

Neck strains and sprains among motor vehicle occupants—United States, 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Motor vehicle (MV)-related injury is a leading cause of death and emergency department visits in the US. Information has been limited regarding the magnitude and types of injuries suffered by the survivors of MV crashes.Objective: To estimate the incidence and patterns of neck strain\\/sprain injury among MV occupants treated in US hospital emergency departments.Design and participants: Descriptive epidemiologic analysis

Kyran P Quinlan; Joseph L Annest; Barry Myers; George Ryan; Howard Hill

2004-01-01

403

Occupational injuries in a poor inner-city population.  

PubMed

This study aims to characterize occupational injuries in a defined poor inner-city population in terms of demographic features, types, and circumstances of injuries, and medical and financial consequences. It is a case series drawn from a larger population-based injury registry in emergency departments that serve 17 poor census tracts in Philadelphia. Of 335 patients from the study area who had been treated at the emergency departments under study for occupational injuries, 107 could be contacted by telephone 2 to 3 years after their injuries. Interviews sought information on the patients, their employment, their injuries, and the consequences. Respondents were almost all African-American, approximately 50% male, and had a median age of 32. Approximately one third were employed in the health care industry, one fourth in the service sector (including conventional service firms, restaurants, and hotels), and the remainder in construction, retail and wholesale trade, education, transportation, and manufacturing. Major causes of injuries included overexertion, contact with sharp objects, and falls. Major types on injuries included sprain/strains and lacerations. Approximately half the respondents had missed more than 3 days of work, with 15% missing more than 1 month. Almost 40% of respondents reported persistent health problems after their injuries. Only about one quarter had received workers' compensation. We conclude that poor and minority workers are at risk of a wide range of occupational injuries, which may result in considerable lost work time and have serious medical and economic consequences. More, attention to the workplace risks of these relatively marginalized workers and more vigorous preventive interventions are needed. PMID:8749743

Frumkin, H; Williamson, M; Magid, D; Holmes, J H; Grisso, J A

1995-12-01

404

Modeling neck and brain injuries in infants.  

PubMed

Researchers have studied brain injury in children by assessing linear and angular accelerations, without taking into account vibratory loads. A proposed approach employs a new mathematical head model that includes vibration to analyze how shaken-baby syndrome affects babies. To account for vibrations, it applies the finite-element method to model the stresses, strains, and displacements in the neck vertebrae and brain. This research also modeled the effects of a single blow to the head. In both cases, researchers determined the extent of alterations by comparing brain tissue strength with predictions of increased tension. The vibration results predict alterations in the cervical vertebrae in some oscillation modes and are consistent with studies of cervical cord whiplash injuries. The single-blow results predict brain and spinal cord alterations and are consistent with scanner slices made by other researchers. PMID:24808262

Ponce, E; Ponce, D

2011-01-01

405

Tendon injuries of the hand  

PubMed Central

Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing.

Schoffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Kupper, Thomas

2012-01-01

406

Mutilated hand injuries.  

PubMed

The authors provide a review of treatment of the mutilated hand, discussing the effect of injury on soft tissue loss, intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, paravascular structures, tendons, and the bony skeleton. The authors review functional loss and restoration. PMID:22032584

Hegge, Theresa; Neumeister, Michael W

2011-10-01

407

Head injury - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

... is vomiting, to prevent choking, roll the person's head, neck, and body as one unit onto his or ... The person stops breathing You suspect a serious head or neck injury , or the person develops any signs or ...

408

Injuries in taekwondo.  

PubMed Central

During the 6th Taekwondo World Championship more than 4 per cent of the competitors were admitted to hospital. The majoirity of the severe injuries were to the head and neck. More padding and a change of rules are recommended.

Siana, J E; Borum, P; Kryger, H

1986-01-01

409

Medline Plus: Sports Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercising and playing sports can lead to a sound mind and body, but sports-related injuries can be frustrating for anyone. This very helpful site, offered as part of the Medline Plus series from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, contains dozens of fact sheets, media presentations, and other items regarding various sports injuries. Visitors who know exactly what they need can click on over to the "Related Topics" area on the right-hand side of the homepage, where they will find resources on everything from ankle injuries to general wellness. Their homepage also contains sections like "Basics", "Research", and "Multimedia & Cool Tools". Two items that are definitely worth checking out are the tennis elbow tutorial and the basic overview of sports injuries offered by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

410

Ear Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

411

Biomarkers of Lung Injury  

EPA Science Inventory

Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

412

Fire Deaths and Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... to an estimated 40% of residential fire deaths (Smith 1999). Learn More about How to Prevent Home ... edition. Washington, D.C.: Home Safety Council, 2004. Smith GS, Branas C, Miller TR. Fatal nontraffic injuries ...

413

Hand and Wrist Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... American Physical Therapy Association American Medical Society for Sports Medicine HAND AND WRIST INJURIES Sports Tips are brought to you by the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. They provide general information only and are not ...

414

Photobiomodulation on sports injuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

2003-12-01

415

Peroneal Tendon Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... peroneal tendon injuries are tendonitis, tears, and subluxation. Tendonitis is an inflammation of one or both tendons. ... trauma (such as an ankle sprain). Symptoms of tendonitis include: Pain Swelling Warmth to the touch Acute ...

416

Penetrating craniofacial arrow injury  

PubMed Central

Arrow injuries are an extinct form of injury in most parts of the developed world, but are still seen, albeit infrequently in developing countries. Reports of penetrating injuries of the craniofacial region secondary to projectiles are few and far between. The morbidity-free outcome of surgical removal, in case of penetrating arrow injuries, despite the delay in presentation and, moreover, in the emergency surgical practice, are the salient points to be remembered whilst managing such cases, for ‘what the mind knows is what the eyes see and what the eyes see is what can be practiced’. We report the case of a patient who was attacked by a projectile fired from a crossbow. Immediate surgery under general anesthesia was required to remove the arrow, with utmost care to avoid any neurovascular compromise to the facial nerve, as well as minimize postoperative complications such as otitis media and subsequent meningitis.

Jain, DK; Aggarwal, Gaurav; Lubana, PS; Moses, Sonia

2010-01-01

417

Knee Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... a big impact on your life. The most common disease affecting the knee is osteoarthritis. The cartilage in ... twisting motion. ACL and other knee injuries are common sports ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

418

High School Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... school sports. An injury to a high school athlete can be a significant disappointment for the teen, ... proper treatment. To ensure the best possible recovery, athletes, coaches, and parents must follow safe guidelines for ...

419

[Injuries in field hockey].  

PubMed

Frequency and mechanisms of injuries in field hockey are evaluated in a retrospective study of 322 players. Each athlete sustains 0.6 (female) respectively 1.0 (male) injuries per season on the average, mostly minor lesions. Severe injuries are most