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1

Hamstring Strain Injuries: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Hamstring strain injuries remain a challenge for both athletes and clinicians given the high incidence rate, slow healing, and persistent symptoms. Moreover, nearly one-third of these injuries recur within the first year following a return to sport, with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high reinjury rate suggests that commonly utilized rehabilitation programs may be inadequate at resolving possible muscular weakness, reduced tissue extensibility, and/or altered movement patterns associated with the injury. Further, the traditional criteria used to determine the readiness of the athlete to return to sport may be insensitive to these persistent deficits, resulting in a premature return. There is mounting evidence that the risk of reinjury can be minimized by utilizing rehabilitation strategies that incorporate neuromuscular control exercises and eccentric strength training, combined with objective measures to assess musculotendon recovery and readiness to return to sport. In this paper, we first describe the diagnostic examination of an acute hamstring strain injury, including discussion of the value of determining injury location in estimating the duration of the convalescent period. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring injuries including specific criteria for treatment progression and return to sport. Finally, we describe directions for future research including injury-specific rehabilitation programs, objective measures to assess reinjury risk, and strategies to prevent injury occurrence. Level of evidence: Diagnosis/therapy, level 5. PMID:20118524

Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Sherry, Marc A.; Silder, Amy; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2010-01-01

2

Effects of Prior Hamstring Strain Injury on Strength, Flexibility, and Running Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown evidence of residual scar tissue at the musculotendon junction following an acute hamstring strain injury, which could influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bilateral differences in strength, neuromuscular patterns, and musculotendon kinematics during sprinting are present in individuals with a history of unilateral hamstring injury, and whether such differences are linked to the presence of scar tissue. Methods Eighteen subjects with a previous hamstring injury (>5 months prior) participated in a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging exam, isokinetic strength testing, and a biomechanical assessment of treadmill sprinting. Bilateral comparisons were made for peak knee flexion torque, angle of peak torque, and hamstrings:quadriceps strength ratio during strength testing, and muscle activations and peak hamstring stretch during sprinting. MR images were used to measure the volumes of the proximal tendon/aponeurois of the biceps femoris, with asymmetries considered indicative of residual scar tissue. Findings A significantly enlarged proximal biceps femoris tendon volume was measured on the side of prior injury. However, no significant differences between the previously injured and uninjured limbs were found in strength measures, peak hamstring stretch, or muscle activation patterns. Further, the degree of asymmetry in tendon volume was not correlated to any of the functional measures. Interpretation The results of this study indicate that injury-induced changes in morphology do not seem discernable from strength measures, running kinematics, or muscle activity patterns. Further research is warranted to ascertain whether residual scarring alters localized musculotendon tissue mechanics in a way that may contribute to the high rates of muscle re-injury that are observed clinically. PMID:20621753

Silder, Amy; Thelen, Darryl G.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

2010-01-01

3

Examination and Treatment of Hamstring Related Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: There is a wide spectrum of hamstring-related injuries that can occur in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is imperative to prevent delayed return to sport, injury recurrence, and accurate clinical decision making regarding the most efficacious treatment. Evidence Acquisition: This review highlights current evidence related to the diagnosis and treatment of hamstring-related injuries in athletes. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications indexed in MEDLINE from 1988 through May 2011. Results: An accurate diagnostic process for athletes with posterior thigh–related complaints should include a detailed and discriminative history, followed by a thorough clinical examination. Diagnostic imaging should be utilized when considering hamstring avulsion or ischial apophyseal avulsion. Diagnostic imaging may also be needed to further define the cause of referred posterior thigh pain. Conclusions: Differentiating acute hamstring strains, hamstring tendon avulsions, ischial apophyseal avulsions, proximal hamstring tendinopathies, and referred posterior thigh pain is critical in determining the most appropriate treatment and expediting safe return to play. PMID:23016076

2012-01-01

4

Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries  

PubMed Central

Summary Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required. PMID:25506583

Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

2014-01-01

5

Clinical and Morphological Changes Following 2 Rehabilitation Programs for Acute Hamstring Strain Injuries: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. OBJECTIVES To assess differences between a progressive agility and trunk stabilization rehabilitation program and a progressive running and eccentric strengthening rehabilitation program in recovery characteristics following an acute hamstring injury, as measured via physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND Determining the type of rehabilitation program that most effectively promotes muscle and functional recovery is essential to minimize reinjury risk and to optimize athlete performance. METHODS Individuals who sustained a recent hamstring strain injury were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 rehabilitation programs: (1) progressive agility and trunk stabilization or (2) progressive running and eccentric strengthening. MRI and physical examinations were conducted before and after completion of rehabilitation. RESULTS Thirty-one subjects were enrolled, 29 began rehabilitation, and 25 completed rehabilitation. There were few differences in clinical or morphological outcome measures between rehabilitation groups across time, and reinjury rates were low for both rehabilitation groups after return to sport (4 of 29 subjects had reinjuries). Greater craniocaudal length of injury, as measured on MRI before the start of rehabilitation, was positively correlated with longer return-to-sport time. At the time of return to sport, although all subjects showed a near-complete resolution of pain and return of muscle strength, no subject showed complete resolution of injury as assessed on MRI. CONCLUSION The 2 rehabilitation programs employed in this study yielded similar results with respect to hamstring muscle recovery and function at the time of return to sport. Evidence of continuing muscular healing is present after completion of rehabilitation, despite the appearance of normal physical strength and function on clinical examination. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 1b–. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2013;43(5):284-299. Epub 13 March 2013. doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4452 PMID:23485730

SILDER, AMY; SHERRY, MARC A.; SANFILIPPO, JENNIFER; TUITE, MICHAEL J.; HETZEL, SCOTT J.; HEIDERSCHEIT, BRYAN C.

2013-01-01

6

Preseason Hamstring Muscle Weakness Associated with Hamstring Muscle Injury in Australian Footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring muscle strain is the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules Football, accounting for 16% of play ing time missed as a result of injury. Thirty-seven pro fessional footballers from an Australian Football League team had preseason measurements of ham string and quadriceps muscle concentric peak torque at 60, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec measured on a Cybex 340 dynamometer. Players

John Orchard; John Marsden; Stephen Lord; David Garlick

1997-01-01

7

Hamstring strain - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

... Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends on the grade of the injury. A minor grade 1 injury can heal in a few days, while a grade 3 injury could take much longer to heal or need surgery.

8

Hamstring Strains: Basic Science and Clinical  

E-print Network

Sports Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin; 2 Division of Sports Medicine and 3 Biomedical Engineering HAMSTRING INJURY IS THE GREATEST RISK FACTOR FOR A FUTURE HAMSTRING INJURY, WHICH HAS LED SPORTS MEDICINE for the sports medicine and performance team that help return athletes to sport with reduced risk for recurrent

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

9

CONSERVATIVE REHABILITATION OF SCIATIC NERVE INJURY FOLLOWING HAMSTRING TEAR  

PubMed Central

Study Design: Resident's case report Background: There have been only a few case reports in the literature mentioning sciatic nerve injury following a hamstring tear. In previous cases surgical intervention was performed to debride scar tissue around the sciatic nerve with the goal of full return to function for the patient. Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to describe the conservative interventions that allowed for recovery from a hamstring tear with sciatic nerve involvement. Case Description: The subject was a 53 year old female who developed foot drop and weakness in the common fibular nerve distribution following a grade 3 hamstring injury sustained during Nordic skiing. Nerve function and strength gradually returned over the course of several months of conservative rehabilitation which included on neural gliding and strengthening exercises. Outcomes: At 18 months post injury, the subject had returned to 95% of full sport function and 98% of full function with activities of daily living, as rated by the Hip Outcome Scale, and had full strength with manual muscle testing. Isokinetic testing revealed strength deficits of 11–23% in knee flexion peak torque at 60 degrees/second and 180 degrees/second respectively. Discussion: Sciatic nerve injury is a rare, but important potential consequence of severe hamstring strains. Clinicians should be cognizant of the potential injury to the nerve tissue following hamstring strains, so they may be dealt with in a prompt and appropriate manner. The use of neural gliding may be worth considering for a prophylactic effect following hamstring strains. PMID:21589670

Reuteman, Paul

2010-01-01

10

The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of hamstring injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To conduct a detailed analysis of hamstring injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons. Methods: Club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs annotated player injuries over two seasons. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each clubs' current injury status. Results: Completed injury records for the two competitive seasons were obtained from 87% and 76% of the participating clubs respectively. Hamstring strains accounted for 12% of the total injuries over the two seasons with nearly half (53%) involving the biceps femoris. An average of five hamstring strains per club per season was observed. A total of 13 116 days and 2029 matches were missed because of hamstring strains, giving an average of 90 days and 15 matches missed per club per season. In 57% of cases, the injury occurred during running. Hamstring strains were most often observed during matches (62%) with an increase at the end of each half (p<0.01). Groups of players sustaining higher than expected rates of hamstring injury were Premiership (p<0.01) and outfield players (p<0.01), players of black ethnic origin (p<0.05), and players in the older age groups (p<0.01). Only 5% of hamstring strains underwent some form of diagnostic investigation. The reinjury rate for hamstring injury was 12%. Conclusion: Hamstring strains are common in football. In trying to reduce the number of initial and recurrent hamstring strains in football, prevention of initial injury is paramount. If injury does occur, the importance of differential diagnosis followed by the management of all causes of posterior thigh pain is emphasised. Clinical reasoning with treatment based on best available evidence is recommended. PMID:14751943

Woods, C; Hawkins, R; Maltby, S; Hulse, M; Thomas, A; Hodson, A

2004-01-01

11

Hamstring injuries: anatomy, imaging, and intervention.  

PubMed

Injury to the hamstring muscle complex (HMC) is extremely common in the athletic community. Anatomical and functional aspects of the HMC predispose it to injury, including the fact that the muscles cross two joints and undergo eccentric contraction during the gait cycle. Injury most commonly occurs at the muscle tendon junction but may occur anywhere between the origin and insertion. Complete hamstring avulsions require early surgical repair. The principal indication for imaging is in a triage role to rule out or confirm proximal hamstring avulsion. Acute onset and chronic posterior thigh and buttock pain may relate to pathology at the hamstring origin or muscle tendon junction that can be readily defined on magnetic resonance imaging or, less frequently, ultrasound. Some cases of buttock and thigh pain may relate to spinal pathology. In the elite athlete there is an increasing emphasis on optimizing the rehabilitation process after hamstring injury, to minimize the absence from sports and improve the final outcome. Imaging has a role in confirming the site of injury and characterizing its extent, providing some prognostic information and helping plan treatment. There is increasing interest in the use of growth factors to accelerate healing after muscle and tendon injury. Animal studies have demonstrated clear benefits in terms of accelerated healing. There are various methods of delivery of the growth factors, all involving the release of growth factors from platelets. These include plasma rich in platelets and autologous blood. Clinical studies in humans are very limited at this stage but are promising. At present the World Anti-Doping Authority bans the intramuscular administration of these agents. Other percutaneous injection therapies include the use of Actovegin and Traumeel S and antifibrotic agents. PMID:20486024

Linklater, James M; Hamilton, Bruce; Carmichael, James; Orchard, John; Wood, David G

2010-06-01

12

Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify risk factors for hamstring injury at the community level of Australian football. Methods: A total of 126 community level Australian football players participated in this prospective cohort study. To provide baseline measurements, they completed a questionnaire and had a musculoskeletal screen during the 2000 preseason. All were monitored over the season. Injury surveillance and exposure data were collected for the full season. Survival analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hamstring injury. Results: A hamstring injury was the first injury of the season in 20 players (16%). After adjustment for exposure, increasing age and decreased quadriceps flexibility were identified as significant independent predictors of the time to sustaining a hamstring injury. Older age (?23 years) was associated with an increased risk of hamstring injury (RR 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 14.0; p = 0.044). Players with increased quadriceps flexibility (as measured by the modified Thomas test) were less likely to sustain a hamstring injury (RR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in the development of hamstring injury prevention strategies and to identify Australian football players at increased risk of hamstring injury. PMID:15665208

Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Bennell, K; Wajswelner, H

2005-01-01

13

Prophylaxis and management of hamstring muscle injuries in intercollegiate football players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring muscle strains were responsible for the loss of playing time of a significant number of football players at the University of Nebraska in the early 1970s. After the acquisition of a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer, the number of injuries was noted to decrease. A retro spective study was performed over the period 1973 to 1982.Players in Group I, from

Thomas M. Heiser; Jerry Weber; George Sullivan; Patrick Clare; Rae R. Jacobs

1984-01-01

14

Clinical predictors of time to return to competition following hamstring injuries  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives: hamstring strain injuries are the most common sports-related muscle injuries and one of the main causes of missed sporting events. Hypothesis: clinical findings reflecting hamstring injury severity at presentation predict time to sports resumption. Design: cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: five sports medicine specialists at four sports medicine centers prospectively evaluated 120 athletes within 5 days of acute hamstring injury. Patients were interviewed and asked to evaluate their worst pain on a visual analog scale (VAS). Four physical criteria were assessed at baseline: bruising, tenderness to palpation, pain upon isometric contraction, and pain upon passive straightening. The same standardized rehabilitation protocol was used in all patients. A standardized telephone interview was conducted 45 days after the injury to determine the time to-full recovery (?40 days or >40 days). Results: by univariate analysis, clinical criteria associated with a full recovery time >40 days were VAS pain score greater than 6, popping sound injury, pain during everyday activities for more than 3 days, bruising, and greater than 15° motion-range limitation. By multivariate analysis, only VAS pain score and pain during everyday activities were significantly associated with time to recovery >40 days (53% sensitivity, 95% specificity). Conclusion: the initial examination provides valuable information that can be used to predict the time to full recovery after acute hamstring injuries in athletes. PMID:25489558

Guillodo, Yannick; Here-Dorignac, Caroline; Thoribé, Bertrand; Madouas, Gwénaelle; Dauty, Marc; Tassery, Francois; Saraux, Alain

2014-01-01

15

Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study.  

PubMed

The purpose was to test the effect of eccentric strength training and flexibility training on the incidence of hamstring strains in soccer. Hamstring strains and player exposure were registered prospectively during four consecutive soccer seasons (1999-2002) for 17-30 elite soccer teams from Iceland and Norway. The first two seasons were used as baseline, while intervention programs consisting of warm-up stretching, flexibility and/or eccentric strength training were introduced during the 2001 and 2002 seasons. During the intervention seasons, 48% of the teams selected to use the intervention programs. There was no difference in the incidence of hamstring strains between teams that used the flexibility training program and those who did not [relative risk (RR)=1.53, P=0.22], nor was there a difference compared with the baseline data (RR=0.89, P=0.75). The incidence of hamstring strains was lower in teams who used the eccentric training program compared with teams that did not use the program (RR=0.43, P=0.01), as well as compared with baseline data for the same intervention teams (RR=0.42, P=0.009). Eccentric strength training with Nordic hamstring lowers combined with warm-up stretching appears to reduce the risk of hamstring strains, while no effect was detected from flexibility training alone. These results should be verified in randomized clinical trials. PMID:17355322

Arnason, A; Andersen, T E; Holme, I; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R

2008-02-01

16

Isokinetic strength testing does not predict hamstring injury in Australian Rules footballers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and imbalance to hamstring injury using a prospective observational cohort study METHOD: A total of 102 senior male Australian Rules footballers aged 22.2 (3.6) years were tested at the start of a football season. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of both legs

K. Bennell; H. Wajswelner; P. Lew; A. Schall-Riaucour; S. Leslie; D. Plant; J. Cirone

1998-01-01

17

The Effects of a Closed-Chain, Eccentric Training Program on Hamstring Injuries of a Professional Football Cheerleading Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHamstring injuries are a common occurrence among professional football cheerleaders. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention on hamstring injury–associated pain during the course of the football season among professional football cheerleaders.

Jay S. Greenstein; Barton N. Bishop; Jean S. Edward; Robert V. Topp

2011-01-01

18

The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of hamstring injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To conduct a detailed analysis of hamstring injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons.Methods: Club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs annotated player injuries over two seasons. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each clubs’ current injury status.Results: Completed injury records for the two competitive seasons were

C Woods; R D Hawkins; S Maltby; M Hulse; A Thomas; A Hodson

2004-01-01

19

TREATMENT OF HAMSTRING STRAIN IN A COLLEGIATE POLE?VAULTER INTEGRATING DRY NEEDLING WITH AN ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM: A RESIDENT'S CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Background: Hamstring strain injuries are among the most common injuries seen in sports. Management is made difficult by the high recurrence rates. Typical time to return to sport varies but can be prolonged with recurrence. Eccentric strength deficits remain post?injury, contributing to reinjury. Eccentric training has shown to be an effective method at prevention of hamstring injury in multiple systematic reviews and prospective RCTs but limited prospective rehabilitation literature. Functional dry needling is a technique that has been reported to be beneficial in the management of pain and dysfunction after muscle strains, but there is limited published literature on its effects on rehabilitation or recurrence of injury. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to present the management and outcomes of a patient with hamstring strain, treated with functional dry needling and eccentric exercise. Case Description: The subject was an 18?year?old collegiate pole?vaulter who presented to physical therapy with an acute hamstring strain and history of multiple strains on uninvolved extremity. He was treated in Physical Therapy three times per week for 3 weeks with progressive eccentric training and 3 sessions of functional dry needling. Outcomes: By day 12, his eccentric strength on the involved extremity was greater than the uninvolved extremity and he reported clinically meaningful improvement in outcome scores. By Day 20, he was able to return to full sports participation without pain or lingering strength deficits. Discussion: The patient in this case report was able to return to sport within 20 days and without recurrence. He demonstrated significant decreases in pain and dysfunction with dry needling. He had greater strength on the injured extremity compared to contra?lateral previously injured extremity. Conclusions: This case illustrates the use of functional dry needling and eccentric exercise leading to a favorable outcome in a patient with hamstring strain. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:23772348

Westrick, Richard B.; Zylstra, Edo; Johnson, Michael R.

2013-01-01

20

At return to play following hamstring injury the majority of professional football players have residual isokinetic deficits  

PubMed Central

Background There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate isokinetic measurements in MRI-positive hamstring injuries. Methods Isokinetic measurements of professional football players were obtained after completing a standardised rehabilitation programme. An isokinetic strength deficit of more than 10% compared with the contralateral site was considered abnormal. Reinjuries within 2?months were recorded. Results 52 players had a complete set of isokinetic testing before clinical discharge. There were 27 (52%) grade 1 and 25 (48%) grade 2 injuries. 35 of 52 players (67%) had at least one of the three hamstring-related isokinetic parameters that display a deficit of more than 10%. The percentage of players with 10% deficit for hamstring concentric 60°/s, 300°/s and hamstring eccentric was respectively 39%, 29% and 28%. There was no significant difference of mean isokinetic peak torques and 10% isokinetic deficits in players without reinjury (N=46) compared with players with reinjury (N=6). Conclusions When compared with the uninjured leg, 67% of the clinically recovered hamstring injuries showed at least one hamstring isokinetic testing deficit of more than 10%. Normalisation of isokinetic strength seems not to be a necessary result of the successful completion of a football-specific rehabilitation programme. The possible association between isokinetic strength deficit and increased reinjury risk remains unknown. PMID:24493666

Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod

2014-01-01

21

A Comparison of 2 Rehabilitation Programs in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: Prospective randomized comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of 2 rehabilitation programs for acute hamstring strain by evaluating time needed to return to sports and reinjury rate during the first 2 weeks and the first year after return to sport. A third objective was to investigate the relationship

Marc A. Sherry; Thomas M. Best

2004-01-01

22

Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Results The review identified 35 studies, including four analysis studies. These studies show deficiencies in the quality of study designs. Conclusion The study protocols are varied in terms of the length of intervention and follow-up. No RCT studies are available, however, RCT studies should be conducted in the near future. PMID:23785569

Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

2012-01-01

23

Platelet-rich plasma treatment improves outcomes for chronic proximal hamstring injuries in an athletic population  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies is a disabling activity related condition. Currently, there is no well-accepted or extensively documented non-operative treatment option that provides consistently successful results. Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided platelet-rich plasma injections in treating chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies. Methods: a total of 18 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a single injection of platelet rich plasma via ultra-sound guidance by a single radiologist. Outcome measures included a questionnaire evaluating previous treatments, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, subjective improvement, history of injury, and return to activity. Results: the patient population included 12 females and 6 males. The average age at the time of the injection was 42.6 years (19–60). Provocative activities included running, biking, swimming. The average body mass index of patients was 22.9 (17.2–30.2). The average time of chronic pain prior to receiving the first injection was 32.6 months (6–120). All patients had attempted other forms of non-surgical treatment prior to entering the study. The average VAS pre-injection was 4.6 (0–8). Six months after the injection, 10/18 patients had 80% or greater improvement in their VAS. Overall, the average improvement was 63% (5–100). The only documented side effect was post-injection discomfort that resolved within seventy-two hours. Conclusion: chronic hamstring tendinopathy is a debilitating condition secondary to the pain, which limits an athlete’s ability to perform. For refractory cases of chronic insertional proximal hamstring injuries, platelet-rich plasma injections are safe and show benefit in the majority of patients in our study, allowing return to pre-injury activities. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Fader, Ryan R.; Mitchell, Justin J.; Traub, Shaun; Nichols, Roger; Roper, Michelle; Dan, Omer Mei; McCarty, Eric C.

2014-01-01

24

Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme  

PubMed Central

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

2014-01-01

25

Biceps femoris and semitendinosus—teammates or competitors? New insights into hamstring injury mechanisms in male football players: a muscle functional MRI study  

PubMed Central

Background The hamstring injury mechanism was assessed by investigating the exercise-related metabolic activity characteristics of the hamstring muscles using a muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) protocol. Methods 27 healthy male football players and 27 football players with a history of hamstring injuries (recovered and playing fully) underwent standardised mfMR Imaging. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 increase or the signal intensity shift between both scans was used to detect differences in metabolic activation characteristics (1) between the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) between the injury group and the control group. Results A more symmetrical muscle recruitment pattern corresponding to a less economic hamstring muscle activation was demonstrated in the formerly injured group (p<0.05). The injured group also demonstrated a significantly lower strength endurance capacity during the eccentric hamstring exercise. Conclusions These findings suggest that the vulnerability of the hamstring muscles to football-related injury is related to the complexity and close coherence in the synergistic muscle recruitment of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus. Discrete differences in neuromuscular coordination and activity distribution, with the biceps femoris partly having to compensate for the lack of endurance capacity of the semitendinosus, probably increase the hamstring injury risk. PMID:25388959

Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

2014-01-01

26

The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, ?2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, ?2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, ?2:6.70, p = 0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated a trend towards lower limb injury prevention with a significant reduction in primary lower limb muscle strains and weeks missed due to non-contact knee injuries through the addition of a sports chiropractic intervention to the current best practice management. Trial registration The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000533392). PMID:20374662

2010-01-01

27

Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs on Developing Quadriceps and Hamstrings Strength of Young Male Professional Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength. PMID:24511347

Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

2013-01-01

28

Repetitive strain injury.  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injury remains a controversial topic. The term repetitive strain injury includes specific disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, Guyon canal syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and tendonitis of the wrist or hand. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of history and clinical examination. Large high-quality studies using newer imaging techniques, such as MRI and ultrasonography are few. Consequently, the role of such imaging in diagnosis of upper limb disorders remains unclear. In many cases, no specific diagnosis can be established and complaints are labelled as non-specific. Little is known about the effectiveness of treatment options for upper limb disorders. Strong evidence for any intervention is scarce and the effect, if any, is mainly short-term pain relief. Exercise is beneficial for non-specific upper limb disorders. Immobilising hand braces and open carpal tunnel surgery release are beneficial for carpal tunnel syndrome, and topical and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections are helpful for lateral epicondylitis. Exercise is probably beneficial for neck pain, as are corticosteroid injections and exercise for shoulder pain. Although upper limb disorders occur frequently in the working population, most trials have not exclusively included a working population or assessed effects on work-related outcomes. Further high-quality trials should aim to include sufficient sample sizes, working populations, and work-related outcomes. PMID:17531890

van Tulder, Maurits; Malmivaara, Antti; Koes, Bart

2007-05-26

29

Re-injury following acute posterior thigh injuries in elite track and field athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionHamstring muscle strains can lead to an increased risk of reinjury. We recently proposed a clinical classification system for acute hamstring strains. We studied the effect of the grade of the initial injury on the subsequent risk of reinjury. We hypothesised that there would be no difference in reinjury rate between acute low grade (grade I and II) and high

T Isinkaye; N Malliaropoulos; K Tsitas; N Maffulli

2011-01-01

30

Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management. PMID:11228032

O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

2001-01-01

31

Progression of mechanical properties during on-field sprint running after returning to sports from a hamstring muscle injury in soccer players.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the consequences of an acute hamstring injury on performance and mechanical properties of sprint-running at the time of returning to sports and after the subsequent ~2 months of regular soccer training after return. 28 semi-professional male soccer players, 14 with a recent history of unilateral hamstring injury and 14 without prior injury, participated in the study. All players performed two 50-m maximal sprints when cleared to return to play (Test 1), and 11 injured players performed the same sprint test about 2 months after returning to play (Test 2). Sprint performance (i.?e., speed) was measured via a radar gun and used to derive linear horizontal force-velocity relationships from which the following variables obtained: theoretical maximal velocity (V(0)), horizontal force (F(H0)) and horizontal power (Pmax). Upon returning to sports the injured players were moderately slower compared to the uninjured players. F H0 and Pmax were also substantially lower in the injured players. At Test 2, the injured players showed a very likely increase in F(H0) and Pmax concomitant with improvements in early acceleration performance. Practitioners should consider assessing and training horizontal force production during sprint running after acute hamstring injuries in soccer players before they return to sports. PMID:24424959

Mendiguchia, J; Samozino, P; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Brughelli, M; Schmikli, S; Morin, J-B; Mendez-Villanueva, A

2014-07-01

32

Efficacy of Moist Heat Pack Application Over Static Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate flexibility is a contributing factor to muscle in- jury, especially with respect to the hamstring muscle group. Simple therapeutic regimens capable of increasing hamstring flexibility may reduce the injury potential of athletes with below-average hamstring flexibility or history of injury. This study compared 30 seconds of static stretching with 20 min- utes of heat application on hamstring flexibility. A

DAN FUNK; ANN M. SWANK; KENT J. ADAMS; DWAYNE TREOLO

2001-01-01

33

Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in australia.  

PubMed

Ardern, CL, Pizzari, T, Wollin, MR, and Webster, KE. Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in Australia. J Strength Cond Res 29(4): 997-1002, 2015-The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, bilateral eccentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, concentric hamstring-quadriceps ratio <0.47, and mixed ratio <0.80. Fifty-five strength tests involving 42 players were conducted. Ten players (24%) were identified as having hamstring strength imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury. PMID:25426513

Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E

2015-04-01

34

Endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion.  

PubMed

Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. PMID:23767008

Domb, Benjamin G; Linder, Dror; Sharp, Kinzie G; Sadik, Adam; Gerhardt, Michael B

2013-02-01

35

Endoscopic Repair of Proximal Hamstring Avulsion  

PubMed Central

Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. PMID:23767008

Domb, Benjamin G.; Linder, Dror; Sharp, Kinzie G.; Sadik, Adam; Gerhardt, Michael B.

2013-01-01

36

Elevated gastrocnemius forces compensate for decreased hamstrings forces during the weight-acceptance phase of single-leg jump landing: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.  

PubMed

Approximately 320,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the United States each year are non-contact injuries, with many occurring during a single-leg jump landing. To reduce ACL injury risk, one option is to improve muscle strength and/or the activation of muscles crossing the knee under elevated external loading. This study's purpose was to characterize the relative force production of the muscles supporting the knee during the weight-acceptance (WA) phase of single-leg jump landing and investigate the gastrocnemii forces compared to the hamstrings forces. Amateur male Western Australian Rules Football players completed a single-leg jump landing protocol and six participants were randomly chosen for further modeling and simulation. A three-dimensional, 14-segment, 37 degree-of-freedom, 92 muscle-tendon actuated model was created for each participant in OpenSim. Computed muscle control was used to generate 12 muscle-driven simulations, 2 trials per participant, of the WA phase of single-leg jump landing. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis showed both the quadriceps and gastrocnemii muscle force estimates were significantly greater than the hamstrings (p<0.001). Elevated gastrocnemii forces corresponded with increased joint compression and lower ACL forces. The elevated quadriceps and gastrocnemii forces during landing may represent a generalized muscle strategy to increase knee joint stiffness, protecting the knee and ACL from external knee loading and injury risk. These results contribute to our understanding of how muscle's function during single-leg jump landing and should serve as the foundation for novel muscle-targeted training intervention programs aimed to reduce ACL injuries in sport. PMID:25218505

Morgan, Kristin D; Donnelly, Cyril J; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

2014-10-17

37

Hamstring Muscle Fatigue and Central Motor Output during a Simulated Soccer Match  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine changes in hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a 90-minute simulated soccer match, and the concomitant changes in hamstring maximal torque and rate of torque development. Method Eight amateur male soccer players performed a 90-minute simulated soccer match, with measures performed at the start of and every 15-minutes during each half. Maximal torque (Nm) and rate of torque development (RTD; Nm.s–1) were calculated from maximal isometric knee flexor contractions performed at 10° of flexion. Hamstring peripheral fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting twitch (RT). Hamstring central motor output was quantified from voluntary activation (%) and normalized biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MH) electromyographic amplitudes (EMG/M). Results Maximal torque was reduced at 45-minutes by 7.6±9.4% (p<0.05). RTD in time intervals of 0–25, 0–50, and 0–75 ms post-contraction onset were reduced after 15-minutes in the first-half between 29.6 to 46.2% (p<0.05), and were further reduced at the end of the second-half (p<0.05). Maximal EMG/M was reduced for biceps femoris only concomitant to the time-course of reductions in maximal torque (p?=?0.007). The rate of EMG rise for BF and MH was reduced in early time periods (0–75 ms) post-contraction onset (p<0.05). No changes were observed for the size and shape of the RT, indicating no hamstring peripheral fatigue. Conclusion Centrally mediated reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development provide insight into factors that may explain hamstring injury risk during soccer. Of particular interest were early reductions during the first-half of hamstring rate of torque development, and the decline in maximal EMG/M of biceps femoris in the latter stages of the half. These are important findings that may help explain why the hamstrings are particularly vulnerable to strain injury during soccer. PMID:25047547

Marshall, Paul W. M.; Lovell, Ric; Jeppesen, Gitte K.; Andersen, Kristoffer; Siegler, Jason C.

2014-01-01

38

Surgical Repair of Chronic Complete Hamstring Tendon Rupture in the Adult Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in the adult is a rare injury. This report discusses complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in nine patients treated by late operative repair. All patients were referred from outside centers for a second opinion after failed non-operative treatment. The diagnosis was made quite easily on clinical grounds and was confirmed at surgery. Surgical

Mervyn J. Cross; Ronald Vandersluis; David Wood; Margaret Banff

1998-01-01

39

Efficacy of moist heat pack application over static stretching on hamstring flexibility.  

PubMed

Inadequate flexibility is a contributing factor to muscle injury, especially with respect to the hamstring muscle group. Simple therapeutic regimens capable of increasing hamstring flexibility may reduce the injury potential of athletes with below-average hamstring flexibility or history of injury. This study compared 30 seconds of static stretching with 20 minutes of heat application on hamstring flexibility. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationship between the subjects attitude toward each treatment and the efficacy of treatment. Thirty undergraduate student athletes who were current members of a Midwestern collegiate football team participated in a 2 (treatment: heat vs. stretching) by 2 (coun-terbalanced order: heat first vs. stretching first) repeated-measures design. Results indicated that significant benefits to increase hamstring flexibility could be gained by using moist heat packs in comparison with static stretching despite a perceived attitudinal bias in favor of stretching. These findings may have implications for orthopedic fitness as well as injury prevention for an athlete with prior hamstring injury or inadequate flexibility. PMID:11708695

Funk, D; Swank, A M; Adams, K J; Treolo, D

2001-02-01

40

Allograft reconstruction for symptomatic chronic complete proximal hamstring tendon avulsion.  

PubMed

Complete proximal hamstring tendon avulsion is an uncommon injury that can cause significant disability in young, athletic individuals. Surgical reattachment is recommended and can be performed on a delayed basis if the tissue is sufficiently mobile. We report 2-year follow up for two cases where interpositional allograft tissue was used for reconstruction because the tendon was too retracted for primary repair. Two 30-year-old patients with complete proximal hamstring avulsion at least 2 years earlier reported severe hamstring weakness and restrictions with respect to sport and recreational activities. Proximal hamstring tendon reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft was performed for both patients. They were immobilized for 8 weeks with the hip in extension and the knee in flexion using a custom orthosis, followed by physical therapy and weight bearing as tolerated. The patients were followed for over 2 years after the surgery and were evaluated with physical examination, isokinetic strength testing and detailed questions about their function. Following the procedure, both patients returned to a more active lifestyle that was greatly improved with respect to participation in sport and function. This procedure should be considered as a salvage operation as the patients did not return to completely normal function and demonstrated hamstring weakness on the operated side. PMID:18682918

Marx, Robert G; Fives, Gregory; Chu, Samuel K; Daluiski, Aaron; Wolfe, Scott W

2009-01-01

41

Achilles allograft reconstruction of a chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture.  

PubMed

Complete rupture of the origin of the hamstrings is an uncommon injury. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice, but in some not possible. We present a case of an avid cyclist who had significant disability from a 6-year-old injury. He underwent reconstruction with Achilles allograft and suture anchors. With the knee flexed to 90 degrees and after extensive mobilization, the retracted musculotendinous unit would not reach the ischial tuberosity. Two suture anchors were placed in the ischial tuberosity after soft tissue debridement. One limb of suture from each anchor was placed in the end of an Achilles allograft with a locking suture, with the other end used to pull the end of the graft to the ischial tuberosity. An additional suture was placed in running fashion down each side of the graft. Distally, the graft was fanned out and attached to the retracted hamstrings with interrupted sutures with the knee at 40 degrees and maximal proximal pull on the hamstrings. The patient outcome was excellent. He resumed high level cycling by 6 months after surgery with no symptoms. Isokinetic testing demonstrated a hamstring deficit of 25% at 60 degrees/s, and 20% at 180 degrees/s at 8 months. PMID:19034429

Murray, Patrick J; Lowe, Walter R

2009-11-01

42

Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest  

PubMed Central

Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

2013-01-01

43

Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

1983-01-01

44

Comparison of injuries in elite senior and junior Australian football.  

PubMed

Three thousand and thirty one AFL and 1034 injuries in the VSFL U/18 competition were recorded by club doctors over the 1992, 1993 and 1994 seasons. Hamstring strains had the highest incidence (86.4 per 10,000 player hours) and prevalence (30.2 hours missed per 1000 hours) of any injury in the AFL, but were significantly less common in the U/18 competition. Other injuries which were common in both competitions were ankle sprains, thigh haematomas, concussion, groin strains and head lacerations. Injury prevalence was higher overall in the AFL, with lower limb muscle strains (hamstring, calf, quadriceps) being significantly more prevalent than in the U/18 competition. Injuries which were significantly more prevalent in the U/18 competition included stress fractures and concussion. Subsequent to this study, coaches and medical staff in the U/18 competition were made aware of the high risk of stress fractures in young footballers with heavy training loads. The AFL injury survey is ongoing and in the process of being computerised; risk factors for specific injuries with high rates are being studied further. PMID:9732112

Orchard, J; Wood, T; Seward, H; Broad, A

1998-06-01

45

Pain behaviors after spinal cord contusion injury in two commonly used mouse strains.  

PubMed

We have characterized spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors that develop in a model of severe spinal contusion injury using two commonly used strains of mice. Using the Infinite Horizon Tissue Impactor to produce these contusion injuries, we were able to set strict limits on the injury parameters (i.e., force of impact and tissue displacement). This helps to generate a uniform population of spinal cord injury severity and allows for meaningful comparisons to be made across the two strains of mice. After contusion injury, strain differences were apparent in several injury-evoked behaviors such as hindlimb spasticity, spontaneous caudally directed nociceptive behaviors and over-grooming. Similar to the anatomical rearrangements observed in the rat after spinal cord injury, we observed significant changes in sensory innervation of the dorsal horn in both strains. In addition, there was increased expression of protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) in cells outside of the inner region of lamina II (IIi) in both strains after spinal contusion injury. However, the magnitude and intensity of this increase was more pronounced in BALB/c mice. PKCgamma is an important mediator of persistent pain behaviors after peripheral nerve injury and inflammation. Our results suggest that PKCgamma may also contribute to neuropathic pain behaviors after direct lesion to the spinal cord. PMID:17586495

Kerr, Bradley J; David, Samuel

2007-08-01

46

Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.  

PubMed

Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(?1), 3.14 rad · s(?1) and 5.24 rad · s(?1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length. PMID:25517892

Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

2015-06-01

47

The Use of Suramin, an Antifibrotic Agent, to Improve Muscle Recovery After Strain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Muscle strain injuries are extremely common in sports medicine. Muscle healing often is hindered by scar tissue formation after injury.Hypothesis:Suramin can prevent scar tissue formation and improve muscle healing after injury because of its ability to antagonize transforming growth factor– •1, a fibrotic cytokine.Study Design:Controlled laboratory study.Materials and Methods:In vitro, muscle-derived fibroblasts (a potential cell source of muscle fibrosis) were

Yi-Sheng Chan; Yong Li; William Foster; Freddie H. Fu; Johnny Huard

2005-01-01

48

Submaximal fatigue of the hamstrings impairs specific reflex components and knee stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most serious sports-related injuries and requires long recovery\\u000a time. The quadriceps and hamstring muscles are functionally important to control stability of the knee joint complex. Fatigue,\\u000a however, is an important factor that may influence stabilizing control and thus cause ACL injuries. The objective of this\\u000a study was therefore to

Mark Melnyk; Albert Gollhofer

2007-01-01

49

Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z  

E-print Network

Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy #3; Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z Laboratory-dimensional model is presented for the quantitative prediction of skin injury re- sulting from certain thermal exposure on the surface. The model is based on the skin damage equation proposed by Henriques and Moritz

Zhang, Jun

50

Too Much of a Good Thing: Prevention of Computer-Related Repetitive Strain Injuries among Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines computer use and repetitive strain injury (RSI) among children and young adults, emphasizing body-awareness training that teaches people to notice and feel body components; understand principles of relaxation, balance, and movement efficiency; and use economical and strain-free ways of accomplishing movements. Outlines elements of safety…

Linden, Paul

1998-01-01

51

Expert opinion: diagnosis and treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) is a disabilitating disease often causing underperformance in the athletically demanding patients. The main symptom of PHT is lower gluteal pain especially during running or while prolonged sitting. Mainly affecting athletically active individuals, PHT is a considerable challenge for treating health care professionals. Purpose: this paper aims to concisely present the literature on PHT to guide health care professionals treating these patients and doing research on the subject. Methods: we reviewed the literature on PHT through literature search of scientific journal databases. Conclusions: as a tendinopathic pathology, it is a rather recently discovered exertion injury. As with other chronic tendon overuse injuries, current treatment strategies are unspecific with uncertain outcomes due to the unknown etiology of the tendon degeneration. Diagnostic features as well as both operative and non-operative treatments are evaluated from a clinical perspective, providing up to date information for clinicians and sports medicine therapists dealing with hamstring problems. Level of evidence: V. PMID:25878983

Lempainen, Lasse; Johansson, Kristian; Banke, Ingo J.; Ranne, Juha; Mäkelä, Keijo; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari

2015-01-01

52

Biomarkers affected by impact velocity and maximum strain of cartilage during injury.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common, debilitating, musculoskeletal diseases; 12% associated with traumatic injury resulting in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Our objective was to develop a single impact model with cartilage "injury level" defined in terms of controlled combinations of strain rate to a maximum strain (both independent of cartilage load resistance) to study their sensitivity to articular cartilage cell viability and potential PTOA biomarkers. A servo-hydraulic test machine was used to measure canine humeral head cartilage explant thickness under repeatable pressure, then subject it (except sham and controls) to a single impact having controlled constant velocity V=1 or 100mm/s (strain rate 1.82 or 182/s) to maximum strain ?=10%, 30%, or 50%. Thereafter, explants were cultured in media for twelve days, with media changed at day 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12. Explant thickness was measured at day 0 (pre-injury), 6 and 12 (post-injury). Cell viability, and tissue collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) were analyzed immediately post-injury and day 12. Culture media were tested for biomarkers: GAG, collagen II, chondroitin sulfate-846, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Detrimental effects on cell viability, and release of GAG and PGE2 to the media were primarily strain-dependent, (PGE2 being more prolonged and sensitive at lower strains). The cartilage injury model appears to be useful (possibly superior) for investigating the relationship between impact severity of injury and the onset of PTOA, specifically for discovery of biomarkers to evaluate the risk of developing clinical PTOA, and to compare effective treatments for arthritis prevention. PMID:25005436

Waters, Nicole Poythress; Stoker, Aaron M; Carson, William L; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Cook, James L

2014-09-22

53

Injury Incidence in a Spanish Sub-Elite Professional Football Team: A Prospective Study During Four Consecutive Seasons  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours and 44.1 injuries/1000 match hours). The injury incidence during competitive matches was higher (p < 0.001) than in friendly matches (55.8 vs. 22.6 injuries/1000 hours). The incidence of major injuries (>28 days absence) was 0.4 injuries/1000 hours. The thigh was the most commonly (35%) injured region and caused 29% of all competitive match absence. Muscle injuries in the four main groups of the lower limbs (hamstrings, adductors, quadriceps and calf muscles) caused 43% of competitive match unavailability. The results of this study show that the risk to sustain a major injury in the course of the season was low for sub- elite footballers in comparison to elite players. Thigh strains were the first cause of absence in competition due to injury. Key points The incidence of major injuries (absence greater than 4 weeks) was lower in a Spanish sub-elite football team than in elite European teams. The risk of sustaining an injury was 2.5 fold higher (p < 0.001) in official than in friendly matches. Lower limb muscular (hamstrings, quadriceps, hip adductors and calf muscles) and joint (knee and ankle) injuries were the main causes of match unavailability. PMID:24149566

Mallo, Javier; González, Pablo; Veiga, Santiago; Navarro, Enrique

2011-01-01

54

High-strain-rate brain injury model using submerged acute rat brain tissue slices.  

PubMed

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has received increasing attention in recent years due to ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Sudden impacts or explosive blasts generate stress and pressure waves that propagate at high velocities and affect sensitive neurological tissues. The immediate soft tissue response to these stress waves is difficult to assess using current in vivo imaging technologies. However, these stress waves and resultant stretching and shearing of tissue within the nano- to microsecond time scale of blast and impact are likely to cause initial injury. To visualize the effects of stress wave loading, we have developed a new ex vivo model in which living tissue slices from rat brain, attached to a ballistic gelatin substrate, were subjected to high-strain-rate loads using a polymer split Hopkinson pressure bar (PSHPB) with real-time high-speed imaging. In this study, average peak fluid pressure within the test chamber reached a value of 1584±63.3?psi. Cavitation due to a trailing underpressure wave was also observed. Time-resolved images of tissue deformation were collected and large maximum eigenstrains (0.03-0.42), minimum eigenstrains (-0.33 to -0.03), maximum shear strains (0.09-0.45), and strain rates (8.4×10³/sec) were estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). Injury at 4 and 6?h was quantified using Fluoro-Jade C. Neuronal injury due to PSHPB testing was found to be significantly greater than injury associated with the tissue slice paradigm alone. While large pressures and strains were encountered for these tests, this system provides a controllable test environment to study injury to submerged brain slices over a range of strain rate, pressure, and strain loads. PMID:21970544

Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Lee, Sung J; Hong, Yu; King, Michael A; Subhash, Ghatu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Moore, David F

2012-01-20

55

A new model of traumatic axonal injury to determine the effects of strain and displacement rates.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be a major health problem, with over 500,000 cases per year with a societal cost of approximately $85 billion in the US. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of such injuries. In many cases of TBI widespread disruption of the axons occurs through a process known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or traumatic axonal injury (TAI). In the current study, an in vivo TAI model was developed using spinal nerve roots of adult rats. This model was used to determine functional and structural responses of axons to various strains and displacement rates. Fifty-six L5 dorsal nerve roots were each subjected to a predetermined strain range (<10%, 10-20% and >20%) at a specified displacement rate (0.01 mm/sec and 15 mm/sec) only once. Image analysis was used to determine actual strains on the roots during the pull. Neurophysiologic recordings were performed on the nerve root before and after stretch to determine functional changes in response to stretch, including conduction velocity (CV) and area of the evoked compound action potential (CAP). Structural changes including vascular injury, axotomy, and impaired axoplasmic transport (IAT) were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin, Palmgren silver impregnation and beta-APP staining techniques, respectively. Results showed that CV and the area of the CAP decreased as strain and displacement rate increased. Also, threshold strains for complete nerve conduction loss were 16% and 9% at 0.01 mm/sec and 15 mm/sec rate, respectively. These threshold values indicate the rate dependency of functional injury and indicate that axons tolerate slow loading rates better than higher loading rates. Histological studies revealed increased spacing, tearing of axons, IAT and occurrence of hemorrhage to be strain and displacement rate dependent. Linear relationships existed between the increasing strain and the occurrence rate of axonal injury as evidenced by multiple indicators (IAT, hemorrhage, torn fibers or primary axotomy) at both rates. In conclusion, the results from this study indicate that the severity of both functional and structural injury increased with increases in strain and displacement rate. PMID:17311179

Singh, Anita; Lu, Ying; Chen, Chaoyang; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Cavanaugh, John M

2006-11-01

56

Comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in male and female athletes using the patellar tendon and hamstring autografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the higher incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female than in male athletes few authors have studied the effects of gender on the outcome of ACL reconstruction. This prospective study compared the results of ACL reconstruction using the patellar tendon and hamstring techniques in men and women. We prospectively followed 80 comparable athletes (46 males, 32 females)

Alberto Gobbi; Marcin Domzalski; Jose Pascual

2004-01-01

57

Repetitive stress and strain injuries: preventive exercises for the musician.  

PubMed

There are many articles that support stretching, strengthening, good nutrition, hydration, rest, and ergonomics along with many other concepts that may be helpful in preventing repetitive stress injuries. The most conclusive literature proposes early recognition of onset symptoms, and immediate reduction or cessation of the casual activity. This is not well accepted by the musician, because this means an interruption of practice and performance. Just like any worker or athlete at risk for RSI, however, the musician must learn to recognise early signs and take the steps to limit damage to muscular and neural tissues. More studies are needed to provide evidence for effective treatment and prevention of RSI. PMID:17097483

Shafer-Crane, Gail A

2006-11-01

58

[MR functional diagnosis of the cervical spine after strain injury].  

PubMed

50 patients with a history of distortion injury of the cervical spine were examined with static and functional MRI. Functional MRI consisted of different patient's positions from maximal extension to maximal flexion (30 degrees, 0 degrees, 25 degrees, 40 degrees, 50 degrees). T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences were performed in a sagittal view for the different positions. Ligamentous instabilities and disc protrusions were seen only in functional MRI in 17 patients. These findings correlated with the neurological symptoms. Two patients were treated by operative fusion because of these findings. PMID:7749087

Schnarkowski, P; Weidenmaier, W; Heuck, A; Reiser, M F

1995-04-01

59

DISEASE-SPECIFIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ACUTE OZONE-INDUCED INJURY AND INFLAMMATION IN EIGHT RAT STRAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Susceptibility to environmental pollutant-induced injuries may be influenced by presence of disease and genetic make-up. To identify disease-specific susceptibility phenotype, we used eight rat strains with or without genetic cardiovascular disease. Male 12-15 wk old Sprague Dawl...

60

Clinically Relevant Injury Patterns After an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Provide Insight Into Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background The functional disability and high costs of treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have generated a great deal of interest in understanding the mechanism of noncontact ACL injuries. Secondary bone bruises have been reported in over 80% of partial and complete ACL ruptures. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify ACL strain under a range of physiologically relevant loading conditions and (2) to evaluate soft tissue and bony injury patterns associated with applied loading conditions thought to be responsible for many noncontact ACL injuries. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seventeen cadaveric legs (age, 45 ± 7 years; 9 female and 8 male) were tested utilizing a custom-designed drop stand to simulate landing. Specimens were randomly assigned between 2 loading groups that evaluated ACL strain under either knee abduction or internal tibial rotation moments. In each group, combinations of anterior tibial shear force, and knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments under axial impact loading were applied sequentially until failure. Specimens were tested at 25° of flexion under simulated 1200-N quadriceps and 800-N hamstring loads. A differential variable reluctance transducer was used to calculate ACL strain across the anteromedial bundle. A general linear model was used to compare peak ACL strain at failure. Correlations between simulated knee injury patterns and loading conditions were evaluated by the ?2 test for independence. Results Anterior cruciate ligament failure was generated in 15 of 17 specimens (88%). A clinically relevant distribution of failure patterns was observed including medial collateral ligament tears and damage to the menisci, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Only abduction significantly contributed to calculated peak ACL strain at failure (P = .002). While ACL disruption patterns were independent of the loading mechanism, tibial plateau injury patterns (locations) were significantly (P = .002) dependent on the applied loading conditions. Damage to the articular cartilage along with depression of the midlateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with knee abduction moments, while cartilage damage with depression of the posterolateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with internal tibial rotation moments. Conclusion The current findings demonstrate the relationship between the location of the tibial plateau injury and ACL injury mechanisms. The resultant injury locations were similar to the clinically observed bone bruises across the tibial plateau during a noncontact ACL injury. These findings indicate that abduction combined with other modes of loading (multiplanar loading) may act to produce ACL injuries. Clinical Relevance A better understanding of ACL injury mechanisms and associated risk factors may improve current preventive, surgical, and rehabilitation strategies and limit the risk of ACL and secondary injuries, which may in turn minimize the future development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:23144366

Levine, Jason W.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.

2014-01-01

61

Effect of Increased Excursion of the Ankle on the Severity of Acute Eccentric Contraction-Induced Strain Injury in the GastrocnemiusAn in Vivo Rat Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although muscle strain injury models are frequently employed, highly invasive procedures, including surgical intervention, are typically used to produce these models. In this study, a minimally invasive model of acute strain injury was produced with a single eccentric contraction.Hypothesis: The authors tested whether the severity of strain injury in the in vivo gastrocnemius depends on the excursion of the

Hongsun Song; Koichi Nakazato; Hiroyuki Nakajima

2004-01-01

62

Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:22687721

Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

2012-01-01

63

Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

2001-01-01

64

Sprains and Strains  

MedlinePLUS

... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

65

Effects of crushed ice and wetted ice on hamstring flexibility.  

PubMed

Flexibility, which is the ability to move freely through a full range of motion (ROM), is desired to enhance the performance and decrease the likelihood of muscle injury. There are different techniques used to increase ROM and cryotherapy techniques to facilitation flexibility gains. However, the combination of stretching and type of cryotherapy agents are still confounding. The purpose was to determine which type of cryotherapy, crushed or wetted ice, would produce the greatest gains in hamstring ROM when followed by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 3 treatment conditions: crushed ice bag (crushed ice), wetted ice bag (wetted ice), and no ice bag (no ice). Subject's hamstring ROM was measured at baseline, then again after a 20-minute cryotherapy treatment session. Subjects were then stretched using a slow-reversal-hold-relax PNF technique followed by a final ROM measurement. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between cryotherapy and measurement conditions. Post hoc testing indicated that no ice (75.49 ± 12.19° C) was significantly different from wetted ice (81.73 ± 10.34° C) and crushed ice (81.62 ± 13.19° C) at the end of the treatment session, and that no ice (85.27 ± 13.83° C) was significantly different than wetted ice (89.44 ± 11.31° C) and crushed ice (89.16 ± 13.78° C) after the stretching session. However, there were no differences between wetted ice and crushed ice. Results indicate that strength and conditioning specialists can increase ROM with both forms of ice in combination with PNF stretching more so than when using no ice at all. PMID:24378663

Larsen, Chelsea C; Troiano, Jean M; Ramirez, Rebecca J; Miller, Michael G; Holcomb, William R

2015-02-01

66

The 5-Strand Hamstring Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

67

The 5-strand hamstring graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J

2014-10-01

68

Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation. PMID:22522588

Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

2012-01-01

69

Posterior mini-incision hamstring harvest.  

PubMed

Many orthopedists looking for alternatives to autograft bone-patellar-tendon-bone grafts are uncertain of their ability to harvest a hamstring graft of adequate length. They may use an allograft instead for this reason despite recent reports of high failure rates. This article presents step-by-step instructions for a posterior mini-incision hamstring harvest that offers a safe and simple method of reliably harvesting sufficient hamstring for 4 or 6 strand repair, while using tiny incisions for excellent cosmesis and minimal pain. Access from the posterior mini-incision allows easy identification and differentiation of the semitendinosus and gracilis (Gr) tendons, as well as precise placement of the anterior mini-incision for tibial tunnel drilling and fixation. Most importantly sectioning of the intertendinous cross-connections is performed under easy direct vision posteriorly, instead of at a distance from the typical anterior incision under retractors. This prevents the tendons from being cut too short by the tendon stripper and is particularly useful in large patients. In addition to the surgical procedure, details on the required equipment are presented. PMID:20160624

Prodromos, Chadwick C

2010-03-01

70

Isolated hamstrings fatigue alters hip and knee joint coordination during a cutting maneuver.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hamstrings fatigue on lower extremity joint coordination variability during a sidestep cutting maneuver. Twenty female recreational athletes performed five successful trials of a sidestep cutting task pre- and postfatigue. Each participant completed an isolated hamstrings fatigue protocol consisting of isokinetic maximum effort knee flexion and passive extension contractions. Vector coding was used to examine hip and knee joint couplings (consisting of various planar motions) during the impact and weight acceptance phases of the sidestep cut stance phase. Paired t tests were used to analyze differences of each phase as an effect of fatigue, where alpha was set a priori at .05. The hip rotation/knee rotation coupling exhibited a significant decrease in coordination variability as a function of fatigue in both the impact (P = .015) and weight acceptance phases (P = .043). Similarly, the hip adduction-abduction/knee rotation coupling exhibited a significant decrease in coordination variability in the weight acceptance phase (P = .038). Hamstrings fatigue significantly decreased coordination variability within specific lower extremity joint couplings that included knee rotation. Future studies should be conducted to determine if this decrease in coordination variability is related to lower extremity injury mechanisms. PMID:25411821

Samaan, Michael A; Hoch, Matthew C; Ringleb, Stacie I; Bawab, Sebastian; Weinhandl, Joshua T

2015-04-01

71

Empirical Assessment of Dynamic Hamstring Function during Human Walking  

PubMed Central

The hamstrings are often associated with the development of crouch gait, a fatiguing form of walking characterized by excessive hip flexion, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance. However, recent studies have called into question whether abnormally active hamstrings induce the limb to move into a crouch posture. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the influence of the hamstrings on limb posture during stance. Nineteen healthy young adults walked on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred speed. A 90 ms long pulse train was used to stimulate the medial hamstrings during either terminal swing or loading response of random gait cycles. Induced motion was defined as the difference in joint angle trajectories between stimulated and non-stimulated strides. A dynamic musculoskeletal simulation of normal gait was generated and similarly perturbed by increasing hamstring excitation. The experiments show that hamstring stimulation induced a significant increase in posterior pelvic tilt, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance, while having relatively less influence on the hip angular trajectory. The induced motion patterns were similar whether the hamstrings were stimulated during late swing or early stance, and were generally consistent with the direction of induced motion predicted by gait simulation models. Hence, we conclude that overactive hamstrings have the potential to induce the limb to move toward a crouch gait posture. PMID:23540723

Thelen, Darryl G.; Lenz, Amy L.; Francis, Carrie; Lenhart, Rachel; Hernández, Antonio

2013-01-01

72

Posterolateral corner reconstruction using a hamstring allograft and a bioabsorbable tenodesis screw: description of a new surgical technique.  

PubMed

Capsuloligamentous posterolateral corner knee joint deficiencies cause increased anterior cruciate ligament forces during internal knee rotation and increased posterior cruciate ligament forces during external knee rotation. Undiagnosed posterolateral corner knee joint injury in combination with anterior cruciate ligament or posterior cruciate ligament injury can lead to failure of anterior cruciate ligament or posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The purpose of this technical note is to present a new posterolateral corner reconstruction technique for treating patients with chronic capsuloligamentous posterolateral corner deficiency. The technique uses a bioabsorbable tenodesis screw and a hamstring allograft to reconstruct the popliteofibular and lateral collateral ligaments. PMID:15243452

Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar; Caborn, David N M; Nyland, John

2004-07-01

73

The Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Leg Rotation during Knee Extension  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise. PMID:24259833

Kimura, Atsushi

2013-01-01

74

Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09). In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket). It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’) are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season), perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury) have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is unlikely to be reduced in future years, teams may need to develop a squad rotation for fast bowlers, similar to pitching staff in baseball, to reduce the injury rates for fast bowlers. Consideration should be given to rule changes which may reduce the impact of injury. In particular, allowing the 12th man to play as a full substitute in first class cricket (and therefore take some of the bowling workload in the second innings) would probably reduce bowling injury prevalence in cricket. PMID:24198544

Orchard, John; James, Trefor; Kountouris, Alex; Portus, Marc

2010-01-01

75

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Clinical Outcomes of Patella Tendon and Hamstring Tendon Grafts  

PubMed Central

An injury to the ACL can result in significant functional impairment. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 new ACL injuries occur each year. Surgeons employ numerous techniques for reconstruction of the ACL. Of critical importance is the source of the graft to replace the damaged ACL. The graft choices include autografts (the patient's own tissue), allografts (donor tendon), and synthetic/prosthetic ligaments. Tissue harvest sites for autografting include the middle third of the patella tendon, the quadriceps tendon, semitendinosus tendon, gracilis tendon, iliotibial band, tensor fascia lata, and the Achilles tendon. Selection of the type of graft material is predicated upon the tissue's ability to tolerate high levels of stress. Likewise, the clinical presentation and functional outcome is related to the graft material selected. This manuscript specifically examined the patella tendon and hamstring tendon grafts. Numerous manuscripts that studied the outcomes of these graft materials were compiled to help the clinician appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the graft materials. Outcome measures such as thigh circumference, knee range of motion, isokinetic strength, knee stability, pain, and vertical jump/1-leg hop were incorporated. The purpose of this manuscript was to compare and contrast the clinical presentation of patients who underwent an ACL reconstruction using the patella tendon versus the hamstring tendons. This information can be valuable to the clinician when considering the rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction. PMID:24701126

Gulick, Dawn T.; Yoder, Heather N.

2002-01-01

76

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592)  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. Methods and design A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18?years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16?weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16?weeks. The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. Conclusion This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592 PMID:22866670

2012-01-01

77

Endoscopic Transtendinous Repair for Partial-Thickness Proximal Hamstring Tendon Tears  

PubMed Central

Partial tears of the proximal hamstring tendon can successfully be managed with tendon repair in cases of failed conservative management. As in partial-thickness gluteus medius repair, a transtendinous technique can be used to repair partial-thickness undersurface tears of the hamstring origin. This report details an endoscopic transtendinous approach for the treatment of partial-thickness hamstring tendon tears. PMID:24749032

Jackson, Timothy J.; Trenga, Anthony; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Domb, Benjamin G.

2014-01-01

78

Skin dimpling as a complication of hamstring harvesting following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Surgical intervention to repair a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with autogenous hamstring tendons has become popular. However, hamstring graft harvesting complications can occur. This article presents a case of skin dimpling over the pes anserinus during active hamstring contraction in a 32-year-old man following arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. PMID:18686489

Tuncay, Ibrahim; Karalezli, Nazim

2008-07-01

79

The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if hamstring tightness was an increased risk in plantar fasciitis. It was thought that there is an increased risk of plantar fasciitis when hamstring tightness is present. A total of 105 patients (68 women, 37 men) were included in the study, 79 of whom were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the presence of plantar fasciitis, equinus, and calcaneal spurs were assessed. The popliteal angle was measured using standard diagnostic techniques. Without controlling for covariates, BMI, the presence of a calcaneal spur, tightness in the gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius-soleus, and hamstring all had statistically significant association with plantar fasciitis. After controlling for covariates, patients with hamstring tightness were about 8.7 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis (P < .0001). Patients with BMI >35 were approximately 2.4 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis compared with those with BMI <35 (P = .04). This study demonstrates that hamstring tightness plays a significant role in the presence of plantar fasciitis and should be addressed along with equinus and obesity when providing treatment to patients with this diagnosis. PMID:21368068

Labovitz, Jonathan M; Yu, Jenny; Kim, Chul

2011-06-01

80

Inter-session reliability and sex-related differences in hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time during eccentric isokinetic contractions in recreational athlete.  

PubMed

The purposes were twofold: (a) to ascertain the inter-session reliability of hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time; and (b) to examine sex-related differences in the hamstrings reaction times profile. Twenty-four men and 24 women completed the study. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measured during eccentric isokinetic contractions were recorded on three different occasions. Inter-session reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CVTE), percentage change in the mean (CM) and intraclass correlations (ICC). For both biceps femoris and semitendinosus, total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measures demonstrated moderate inter-session reliability (CVTE<10%; CM<3%; ICC>0.7). The results also indicated that, although not statistically significant, women reported consistently longer hamstrings total reaction time (23.5ms), pre-motor time (12.7ms) and motor time (7.5ms) values than men. Therefore, an observed change larger than 5%, 9% and 8% for total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time respectively from baseline scores after performing a training program would indicate that a real change was likely. Furthermore, while not statistically significant, sex differences were noted in the hamstrings reaction time profile which may play a role in the greater incidence of ACL injuries in women. PMID:24418224

Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz de Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

2014-04-01

81

Cerebrovascular injury caused by a high strain rate insult in the thorax  

E-print Network

Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has increased in documented incidence and public prominence in recent conflicts. Evidence for a thoracic mechanism of blast-induced TBI was recently reviewed and, while the totality is compelling, data from experiments isolating this mechanism is sparse. Notably, one recent study showed pericapillar haemorrhage in brain tissue from victims of single, fatal gunshot wounds to the chest. Here, qualitative results are reported for a small field study that isolated a thoracic mechanism for TBI caused by a high strain rate insult in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, mass 49-80 kg) in a natural environment. In each of three cases, petechiae were present on the surface of the frontal, occipital and/or left parietal lobes, along with capillary damage in the choroid plexus. The location of the projectile impact to the thorax seemed to affect the degree of damage. This may be due to the proximity to the great vessels. The data reported here provides direct evid...

Courtney, Amy

2011-01-01

82

AVALIAÇÃO ISOCINÉTICA DE QUADRÍCEPS E ÍSQUIOS-TIBIAIS NOS ATLETAS DE JIU-JITSU Quadriceps and Hamstrings Isokinetic evaluation in Jujitsu Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ju-jitsu is a self-defence martial art based on the principle of defeating the adversary by surrendering to him and subjugating him by his own force. Athletes of contact sports such as soccer, basketball and mainly the fights like the ju-jitsu have in common frequent knee injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic

Myrla Izaías Gomes; Eluciene Maria Santos

83

Development of a strain rate dependent material model of human cortical bone for computer-aided reconstruction of injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Computer-aided methods such as finite-element simulation offer a great potential in the forensic reconstruction of injury mechanisms. Numerous studies have been performed on understanding and analysing the mechanical properties of bone and the mechanism of its fracture. Determination of the mechanical properties of bones is made on the same basis used for other structural materials. The mechanical behaviour of bones is affected by the mechanical properties of the bone material, the geometry, the loading direction and mode and of course the loading rate. Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of cortical bone has been well demonstrated in literature studies, but as many of these were performed on animal bones and at non-physiological strain rates it is questionable how these will apply in the human situations. High strain-rates dominate in a lot of forensic applications in automotive crashes and assault scenarios. There is an overwhelming need to a model which can describe the complex behaviour of bone at lower strain rates as well as higher ones. Some attempts have been made to model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of the bone at high strain rates using constitutive mathematical models with little demonstrated success. The main objective of the present study is to model the rate dependent behaviour of the bones based on experimental data. An isotropic material model of human cortical bone with strain rate dependency effects is implemented using the LS-DYNA material library. We employed a human finite element model called THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety), developed by Toyota R&D Labs and the Wayne State University, USA. The finite element model of the human femur is extracted from the THUMS model. Different methods have been employed to develop a strain rate dependent material model for the femur bone. Results of one the recent experimental studies on human femur have been employed to obtain the numerical model for cortical femur. A forensic application of the model is explained in which impacts to the arm have been reconstructed using the finite element model of THUMS. The advantage of the numerical method is that a wide range of impact conditions can be easily reconstructed. Impact velocity has been changed as a parameter to find the tolerance levels of injuries to the lower arm. The method can be further developed to study the assaults and the injury mechanism which can lead to severe traumatic injuries in forensic cases. PMID:24529781

Asgharpour, Zahra; Zioupos, Peter; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

2014-03-01

84

Triceps reconstruction using hamstring graft for triceps insufficiency or recurrent rupture.  

PubMed

Triceps ruptures are relatively rare injuries. When they occur, primary surgical repair of the tendon to the proximal ulna is recommended. However, some patients require reconstruction using tendon grafting due to shortening or insufficiency of the native triceps tendon. Triceps ruptures associated with biological abnormalities (such as renal insufficiency or metabolic disease) or recurrence of rupture represent situations where a stout augmented repair is desirable. Multiple allograft and autologous tendons have been described for augmentation, but the use of gracilis and semitendinosus tendons provides superior length and size for use in triceps reconstruction. Using an illustrative case example, the evaluation of triceps insufficiency and the need for additional graft is shown. The technique of autologous hamstring augmentation for triceps insufficiency is described in detail. The importance of graded rehabilitation is emphasized with a complete program of triceps strengthening over time. PMID:18776780

Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; McCarty, Eric C; Ritchie, Paul D

2008-09-01

85

Knee Flexion Strength Before and After ACL Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendon Autografts  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common sports injury in both athletes and nonathletes; it can cause disability if not treated correctly. In cases with minor injuries, conservative treatments suffice. But, in cases with ACL tear, surgery by different methods and autografts are indicated. The most prevalent method for ACL reconstruction is the use of hamstring tendon autograft; this requires tendon removal and results in subsequent weakness in patient’s knee flexion strength which can cause dissatisfaction. Objectives In this study we evaluate a common procedure used for treating ACL injuries. Patients and Methods This study was performed at a hospital in Tehran on 30 patients with ACL tears. Patients’ knee flexion strengths before and 2, 4, 6, and 12 months after reconstruction were measured separately at 20, 45, 90, and 110? knee flexion angles, and their means were analyzed using paired t-test. Results In this study, knee flexion strength decreased after ACL reconstruction. The greatest decrease in knee flexion strength was observed at 90 and 110? knee flexion angles. Conclusions Some previous studies have confirmed reduced knee flexion strength following ACL reconstruction at high knee flexion angles. However, some others have denied it. The present study confirmed the reduction in knee flexion strength one year after ACL reconstruction at 90 and 110? flexion angles (P = 0.000). Furthermore, the need for physiotherapy, as a process for rehabilitating these patients was also confirmed. PMID:24350171

Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Jannesari, Morteza; Rahim Nia, Alireza; Yaribeygi, Habib; Sobhani Firoozabad, Vahid; Dorostegan, Ahmad

2013-01-01

86

The genetic basis of strain-dependent differences in the early phase of radiation injury in mouse lung  

SciTech Connect

Substantial differences between mouse strains have been reported in the lesions present in the lung during the early phase of radiation injury. Some strains show only classical pneumonitis, while other strains develop substantial fibrosis and hyaline membranes which contribute appreciably to respiratory insufficiency, in addition to pneumonitis. Other strains are intermediate between these extremes. These differences correlate with intrinsic differences in activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme. The genetic basis of these differences was assessed by examining histologically the early reaction in lungs of seven murine hybrids available commercially after whole-thorax irradiation. Crosses between fibrosing and nonfibrosing parents were uniformly nonfibrosing, and crosses between fibrosing and intermediate parents were uniformly intermediate. No evidence of sex linkage was seen. Thus the phenotype in which fibrosis is found is controlled by autosomal recessive determinants. Strains prone to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hyaline membranes exhibited intrinsically lower activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme than either the nonfibrosing strains or the nonfibrosing hybrid crosses. The median time of death of the hybrids was genetically determined primarily by the longest-lived parent regardless of the types of lesions expressed.

Franko, A.J.; Sharplin, J.; Ward, W.F.; Hinz, J.M. (Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton (Canada))

1991-06-01

87

The study of the neurophysiology of high strain rate nerve injury  

E-print Network

The study of the mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) processes at the cellular level is vital to obtain characterization of nerve cell damage after mechanical deformation. This understanding is needed to find feasible therapeutic targets...

Yang, In Hong

2004-09-30

88

Shockwave Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy in Professional Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy is an overuse syndrome that is usually managed by nonoperative methods. Shockwave therapy has proved to be effective in many tendinopathies.Hypothesis: Shockwave therapy may be more effective than other nonoperative treatments for chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy.Study Design: Randomized controlled clinical study; Level of evidence, 1.Methods: Forty professional athletes with chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy were enrolled

Angelo Cacchio; Jan D. Rompe; John P. Furia; Piero Susi; Valter Santilli; Fosco De Paulis

2011-01-01

89

Gender Dimorphic ACL Strain In Response to Combined Dynamic 3D Knee Joint Loading: Implications for ACL Injury Risk  

PubMed Central

While gender-based differences in knee joint anatomies/laxities are well documented, the potential for them to precipitate gender-dimorphic ACL loading and resultant injury risk has not been considered. To this end, we generated gender-specific models of ACL strain as a function of any six degrees of freedom (6DOF) knee joint load state via a combined cadaveric and analytical approach. Continuously varying joint forces and torques were applied to five male and five female cadaveric specimens and recorded along with synchronous knee flexion and ACL strain data. All data (~10,000 samples) were submitted to specimen-specific regression analyses, affording ACL strain predictions as a function of the combined 6 DOF knee loads. Following individual model verifications, generalized gender-specific models were generated and subjected to 6 DOF external load scenarios consistent with both a clinical examination and a dynamic sports maneuver. The ensuing model-based strain predictions were subsequently examined for gender-based discrepancies. Male and female specimen specific models predicted ACL strain within 0.51% ± 0.10% and 0.52% ± 0.07% of the measured data respectively, and explained more than 75% of the associated variance in each case. Predicted female ACL strains were also significantly larger than respective male values for both of simulated 6 DOF load scenarios. Outcomes suggest that the female ACL will rupture in response to comparatively smaller external load applications. Future work must address the underlying anatomical/laxity contributions to knee joint mechanical and resultant ACL loading, ultimately affording prevention strategies that may cater to individual joint vulnerabilities. PMID:19464897

Mizuno, Kiyonori; Andrish, Jack T.; van den Bogert, Antonie J.; McLean, Scott G.

2009-01-01

90

The effects of hamstring lengthening on hip rotation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect on hip rotation of hamstring lengthening as measured by preoperative and postoperative motion analysis. Thirty-eight patients/76 hips in children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia were retrospectively reviewed using presurgical and postsurgical gait analysis. Physical examination and gait analysis showed an increase in knee extension and decreased popliteal angles postoperatively. Kinematic analysis showed an increase in knee extension and decreased hip internal rotation throughout the gait cycle postoperatively as well. No difference was seen between those with internal and external rotation pattern at the hip preoperatively. As a group, the patients did not improve enough to change from internal to external rotation at the hip, suggesting that children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia with significant internal rotation gait should have other surgical options besides hamstring lengthening when internal rotation gait of the hip is to be treated. PMID:17314637

Lovejoy, Steven A; Tylkowski, Chester; Oeffinger, Donna; Sander, Leah

2007-03-01

91

Strain influences on inflammatory pathway activation, cell infiltration and complement cascade after traumatic brain injury in the rat.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that genetic background affects outcome of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Still, there is limited detailed knowledge on what pathways/processes are affected by genetic heterogeneity. The inbred rat strains DA and PVG differ in neuronal survival following TBI. We here carried out global expressional profiling to identify differentially regulated pathways governing the response to an experimental controlled brain contusion injury. One of the most differentially regulated molecular networks concerned immune cell trafficking. Subsequent characterization of the involved cells using flow cytometry demonstrated greater infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes, as well as a higher degree of microglia activation in DA compared to PVG rats. In addition, DA rats displayed a higher number of NK cells and a higher ratio of CD161bright compared to CD161dim NK cells. Local expression of complement pathway molecules such as C1 and C3 was higher in DA and both the key complement component C3 and membrane-attack complex (MAC) could be demonstrated on axons and nerve cells. A stronger activation of the complement system in DA was associated with higher cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurofilament-light, a biomarker for nerve/axonal injury. In summary, we demonstrate substantial differences between DA and PVG rats in activation of inflammatory pathways; in particular, immune cell influx and complement activation associated with neuronal/axonal injury after TBI. These findings suggest genetic influences acting on inflammatory activation to be of importance in TBI and motivate further efforts using experimental forward genetics to identify genes/pathways that affect outcome. PMID:23044177

Al Nimer, Faiez; Lindblom, Rickard; Ström, Mikael; Guerreiro-Cacais, André Ortlieb; Parsa, Roham; Aeinehband, Shahin; Mathiesen, Tiit; Lidman, Olle; Piehl, Fredrik

2013-01-01

92

Hamstring graft size and anthropometry in south Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size in Indian population remains unclear. Till now, no studies have been done on Indian population. Methods We evaluated 41 consecutive patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length, diameter before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm. Correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) analysis was used. Results As per study there is no correlation between graft diameter, age, sex, weight, activity, and body mass index, of patients. Height of patients correlated to graft diameter in both Indian men and women (p < 0.001). Conclusion Anthropometric measurements such as weight, gender, activity level cannot be used as definitive predictors for the hamstring graft diameter during harvest but height of the patients can be taken as good predictor in Indian population.

Challa, Supradeeptha; Satyaprasad, Jonnalagedda

2013-01-01

93

Variation of hamstrings lengths and velocities with walking speed Kiran J. Agarwal-Harding a  

E-print Network

history: Accepted 18 January 2010 Keywords: Cerebral palsy Gait Walking speed Hamstrings Speed with cerebral palsy, is frequently treated with surgical lengthening of the hamstrings. To assist in surgical as speed-matched controls for comparison to 74 subjects with cerebral palsy who walked in crouch gait. Our

Delp, Scott

94

Medial hamstring lengthening in the presence of hip flexor tightness in spastic diplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of medial hamstring lengthening on gait in patients with diplegic cerebral palsy. A group of patients who underwent medial hamstring lengthening and distal rectus transfer was compared to a group of patients who underwent intramuscular psoas lengthening as well. Patients who underwent a psoas lengthening showed an increased anterior pelvic tilt and a tendency towards

Ernst B Zwick; Vinay Saraph; Gertrude Zwick; Christiane Steinwender; Wolfgang E Linhart; Gerhardt Steinwender

2002-01-01

95

Injuries in professional football: current concepts.  

PubMed

Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. PMID:24225523

Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

2013-01-01

96

Lower hamstring extensibility in men compared to women is explained by differences in stretch tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether passive hamstring tissue stiffness and/or stretch tolerance explain the relationship between sex and hamstring extensibility. Methods Ninety healthy participants, 45 men and 45 women (mean?±?SD; age 24.6?±?5.9 years, height 1.72?±?0.09 m, weight 74.6?±?14.1 kg) volunteered for this study. The instrumented straight leg raise was used to determine hamstring extensibility and allow measurement of stiffness and stretch tolerance (visual analog pain score, VAS). Results Hamstring extensibility was 9.9° greater in women compared to men (p?=?0.003). VAS scores were 16 mm lower in women (p?=?0.001). Maximal stiffness (maximal applied torque) was not different between men and women (p?=?0.42). Passive stiffness (slope from 20-50° hip flexion) was 0.09 Nm.°-1 lower in women (p?=?0.025). For women, linear and stepwise regression showed that no predictor variables were associated with hamstring extensibility (adjusted r2?=?-0.03, p?=?0.61). For men, 44% of the variance in hamstring extensibility was explained by VAS and maximal applied torque (adjusted r2?=?0.44, p?hamstring extensibility, but this relationship is only manifest in men. PMID:25000977

2014-01-01

97

Stiffness and strain energy criteria to evaluate the threshold of injury to an intervertebral joint.  

PubMed

This study is focused to evaluate the threshold of injury to an intervertebral joint based on its mechanical response. The load-deflection behavior of the intervertebral joint indicated non-linear and sigmoidal characteristics with continuously changing stiffness (a measure of the ability to withstand external force). The load corresponding to the point of zero stiffness was identified, according to the classical theories of mechanics, as the maximum load carrying capacity. Further, the initiation of trauma was defined to occur at the point on the load-deflection curve at which the stiffness begins to decrease for the first time. The load, stiffness and energy absorbing capabilities of normal and degenerated intervertebral joints at the initiation of trauma was determined. Axial compressive load experiments were conducted on nine intervertebral joints of fresh human male cadavers and the resulting load-deflection responses were transformed into stiffness-deflection responses using the derivative principle. Energy characteristics were also derived. Load, stiffness and energy at the initiation of trauma were found to be 9.0 kN, 2850 N mm-1, and 10.2 J for normal and 4.4 kN, 1642 N mm-1, and 5.8 J for degenerated segments, respectively. The load and energy values at failure were 11.0 kN, and 18.0 J for normal and 5.3 kN and 5.7 J for degenerated intervertebral joints, respectively. PMID:2708393

Yoganandan, N; Ray, G; Pintar, F A; Myklebust, J B; Sances, A

1989-01-01

98

Integrative Metabolome and Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Discordant Energetic Stress between Mouse Strains with Differential Sensitivity to Acrolein-Induced Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

A respiratory irritant, acrolein is generated by overheating cooking oils or by domestic cooking using biomass fuels, and is in tobacco smoke, an occupational health hazard in the restaurant workplace. To better understand the metabolic role of the lung and to generate insights into the pathogenesis of acrolein-induced acute lung injury, SM/J (sensitive) and 129×1/SvJ (resistant) inbred mouse strains were exposed and the lung metabolome was integrated with the transcriptome profile. A total of 280 small molecules were identified and mean values (log 2 >0.58 or strain comparisons or within-strain responses to acrolein treatment. At baseline, 24 small molecules increased and 33 small molecules decreased in the SM/J mouse lung as compared to 129×1/SvJ mouse lung. Notable among the increased compounds was malonyl carnitine. Following acrolein exposure, several compounds indicative of glycolysis and branched chain amino acid metabolism increased similarly in both strains, whereas SM/J mice were less effective in generating metabolites related to fatty acid ?-oxidation. These findings suggest management of energetic stress varies between these strains, and that the ability to evoke auxiliary energy generating pathways rapidly and effectively may be critical in enhancing survival during acute lung injury in mice. PMID:21823223

Fabisiak, James P.; Medvedovic, Mario; Alexander, Danny C.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Concel, Vincent J.; Bein, Kiflai; Jang, An Soo; Brendt, Annerose; Vuga, Louis J.; Brant, Kelly A.; Pope-Varsalona, Hannah; Dopico, Richard A.; Ganguly, Koustav; Upadhyay, Swapna; Li, Qian; Hu, Zhen; Kaminski, Naftali; Leikauf, George D.

2012-01-01

99

Sport-Specific Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Summer Olympics in 2004 the most frequent musculoskeletal injuries consisted of muscle strains, mainly of biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, adductors and rectus femoris, stress fractures (located mainly in the tibia, navicular bone and metatarsals) and knee injuries including isolated meniscal tears, ACL ruptures followed by more complex ligamentous injuries. Subtle muscle strains could be depicted by ultrasound whereas MRI

Olympia Papakonstantinou; Alexis D. Kelekis; Nikolaos L. Kelekis; Dimitrios A. Kelekis

100

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios in college football players: A high velocity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamstring\\/quadriceps ratios were assessed on 60 in tercollegiate football players at functional speeds of 90, 180, and 300 deg\\/sec on the Cybex II. The ratio rose as velocity of exercise increased and the quadriceps was stronger than the hamstrings at all speeds. The flexor\\/extensor ratio differed bilaterally at all speeds with ratio lower for the dominant knee.The study helped establish

Maureen G. Stafford; William A. Grana

1984-01-01

101

Hip Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... or falling can all sometimes lead to hip injuries. These include Strains Bursitis Dislocations Fractures Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited ...

102

Viscoelasticity of Tau Proteins Leads to Strain Rate-Dependent Breaking of Microtubules during Axonal Stretch Injury: Predictions from a Mathematical Model  

PubMed Central

The unique viscoelastic nature of axons is thought to underlie selective vulnerability to damage during traumatic brain injury. In particular, dynamic loading of axons has been shown to mechanically break microtubules at the time of injury. However, the mechanism of this rate-dependent response has remained elusive. Here, we present a microstructural model of the axonal cytoskeleton to quantitatively elucidate the interaction between microtubules and tau proteins under mechanical loading. Mirroring the axon ultrastructure, the microtubules were arranged in staggered arrays, cross-linked by tau proteins. We found that the viscoelastic behavior specifically of tau proteins leads to mechanical breaking of microtubules at high strain rates, whereas extension of tau allows for reversible sliding of microtubules without any damage at small strain rates. Based on the stiffness and viscosity of tau proteins inferred from single-molecule force spectroscopy studies, we predict the critical strain rate for microtubule breaking to be in the range 22–44 s?1, in excellent agreement with recent experiments on dynamic loading of micropatterned neuronal cultures. We also identified a characteristic length scale for load transfer that depends on microstructural properties and have derived a phase diagram in the parameter space spanned by loading rate and microtubule length that demarcates those regions where axons can be loaded and unloaded reversibly and those where axons are injured due to breaking of the microtubules. PMID:24606936

Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Smith, Douglas H.; Shenoy, Vivek B.

2014-01-01

103

Neurodegeneration and glial activation patterns after mechanical nerve injury are differentially regulated by non-MHC genes in congenic inbred rat strains.  

PubMed

Ventral root avulsion in the rat leads to a retrograde response, with activation of glia and up-regulation of immunologic cell surface molecules such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, and the subsequent degeneration of a large proportion of the lesioned motoneurons. Herein, we examined several inbred congenic rat strains previously known to react differently to experimentally induced autoimmune diseases and demonstrate a substantial genetic diversity in the regulation of glial activation and neuron death in this injury model. The panel of examined inbred rat strains included DA(RT1AV1), PVG.1AV1, LEW.1AV1, LEW.1N, BN(RT1N) and E3(RT1U), and the following parameters were determined: (1) MHC class II expression on glia; (2) expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, C3 complement, and microglial response factor-1 mRNAs in glia; (3) levels of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta cytokine mRNAs; (4) degree of motoneuron loss. The findings of considerable strain-dependent differences in all parameters studied demonstrate important polymorphisms in the genetic regulation of these events. Furthermore, some of the studied features segregated from each other, suggesting independent regulatory mechanisms. Genes outside of the MHC complex are mainly implicated as being of importance for the phenotypic differences, as significant differences were recorded between the MHC congenic strains differing in the non-MHC genes but not vice versa. These results contribute new important insights into the genetic regulation of glial reactivity and neuron death after mechanical nerve injuries. In addition, the finding of conspicuous strain-dependent differences makes it necessary to consider the genetic background when designing and interpreting animal experiments involving noxious insults to the central nervous system resulting in glial activation and nerve cell loss. PMID:11169991

Lundberg, C; Lidman, O; Holmdahl, R; Olsson, T; Piehl, F

2001-02-26

104

Joint infection unique to hamstring tendon harvester used during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.  

PubMed

Joint infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a rare but important clinical issue that must be resolved quickly to prevent secondary joint damage and preserve the graft. After careful analysis, we observed 3 infection cases within a 12-month period after ACL reconstruction, which represented an abnormally elevated risk. All reconstructions were performed by the same surgeon and used hamstring tendon allograft. For each surgery, the Target Tendon Harvester (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) was used to harvest hamstring tendons. Through our review, we learned that this instrument was sterilized while assembled. It is our belief that ineffective sterilization of this hamstring graft harvester served as the origin for these infections. We have determined that appropriate sterilization technique involves disassembly of this particular hamstring tendon harvester before sterilization because of the tube-within-a-tube configuration. We have since continued to use the Target Tendon Harvester, disassembling it before sterilization. There have been no infections in the ensuing 12 months during which the surgeon performed over 40 primary ACL reconstructions via hamstring autograft. The information from this report is intended to provide arthroscopists with information about potential sources of infection after ACL reconstruction surgery. PMID:18442698

Tuman, Jeffrey; Diduch, David R; Baumfeld, Joshua A; Rubino, L Joseph; Hart, Joseph M

2008-05-01

105

Comparative Study of Hamstring and Quadriceps Strengthening Treatments in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50–65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013274

Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohsen; Alenazi, Aqeel M.

2014-01-01

106

Strains and Sprains  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries A to Z: Sprain, Knee Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Sports Medicine Center Knee Injuries A to Z: Sprain, Wrist Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains Strains and Sprains Are a Pain Going to ...

107

"Soft, hard, or just right?" Applications and limitations of axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography in the assessment of tendon injuries.  

PubMed

Injury to a tendon leads to alterations in the mechanical properties of the tendon. Axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography are relatively new, real-time imaging techniques that evaluate the mechanical properties of tendons in addition to the existing morphological and vascular information that is obtained with traditional imaging tools. Axial-strain sonoelastography displays the subjective distribution of strain data on an elastogram caused by tissue compression, whereas shear-wave elastography provides a more objective, quantitative measure of the intrinsic tissue elasticity using the acoustic push-pulse. Recent studies suggest that axial-strain sonoelastography is able to distinguish between asymptomatic and diseased tendons, and is potentially more sensitive than conventional ultrasound in detecting early tendinopathy. Shear-wave elastography seems to be a feasible tool for depicting elasticity and functional recovery of tendons after surgical management. While initial results have been promising, axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography have not yet found routine use in wider clinical practice. Possible barriers to the dissemination of axial-strain sonoelastography technique include operator dependency, technical limitations such as artefacts and lack of reproducibility and quantification of sonoelastography data. Shear-wave elastography may improve the reproducibility of elastography data, although there is only one published study on the topic to date. Large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the clinical relevance and potential applications of axial-strain sonoelastography and shear-wave elastography in diagnosing, predicting, and monitoring the progress of tendon healing before they can be widely adopted into routine clinical practice. PMID:23925561

Ooi, C C; Malliaras, P; Schneider, M E; Connell, D A

2014-01-01

108

Recovery from spinal cord injury differs between rat strains in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a common characteristic of spinal cord injury. The nature of this response, whether it is beneficial or detrimental, has been the subject of debate. It has been reported that susceptibility to autoimmunity is correlated with increased functional impairment following spinal cord injury. As the ability to mount an autoimmune response has most consistently been associated with certain haplotypes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), we analysed the possible effects of the MHC haplotype on functional impairment and recovery following spinal cord injury. A contusion injury was induced in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-susceptible and -resistant rats [Dark Agouti, Lewis and Piebald Viral Glaxo (PVG), respectively]. We found that locomotion recovered significantly better in Dark Agouti rats compared with PVG and Lewis rats but an F2 intercross (PVG x PVG-RT1(av1)) excluded the possibility that this difference was MHC haplotype-dependent. Thus, we conclude that recovery following spinal cord injury is subject to considerable genetic heterogeneity that is not coupled to the MHC haplotype region. Continued research of genetic variants regulating recovery following spinal cord injury is warranted. PMID:17767491

Birdsall Abrams, M; Josephson, Anna; Dominguez, Cecilia; Oberg, Johanna; Diez, Margarita; Spenger, Christian; Olson, Lars; Piehl, Fredrik; Lidman, Olle

2007-09-01

109

Functional and Neuromuscular Changes in the Hamstrings After Drop Jumps and Leg Curls  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key Points Hamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise. It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise. Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime. PMID:24149148

Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut

2013-01-01

110

Rotator Cuff Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

Connors, G. Patrick

111

[Current treatment concepts for muscular injuries].  

PubMed

Muscular lesions represent the most common form of sports injury. The four large muscle groups hamstrings, adductors, gastrocnemius and knee extensor muscles are most often affected. Most injuries occur during excentric tension impact. Diagnostics begin with an exact medical history and detailed clinical investigations. Imaging with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important to differentiate between structural lesions and functional disorders and to determine the extent of the injury. Most frequently treatment remains conservative and is oriented to the three phases of the healing process. In most cases (leisure sports) the rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE) concept with subsequent pain-adapted load increase suffices for a return to sport activities. Infiltration therapy including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an additional therapy option but should not be used to accelerate the healing process. Surgical treatment only rarely becomes necessary for treatment of muscular injuries. PMID:23686299

Mauch, F; Best, R; Bauer, G

2013-06-01

112

Previous injury as a risk factor for injury in elite football: a prospective study over two consecutive seasons  

PubMed Central

Background Previous injury is often proposed to be a risk factor for football injury, but most studies rely on players reporting their own medical history and are thus potentially subject to recall bias. Little is known about the natural variation in injury pattern between seasons. Objectives To study whether prospectively recorded injuries during one season are associated with injuries sustained during the following season, and to compare injury risk and injury pattern between consecutive seasons. Methods The medical staffs of 12 elite Swedish male football teams prospectively recorded individual exposure and time loss injuries over two full consecutive seasons (2001 and 2002). A multivariate model was used to determine the relation between previous injury, anthropometric data, and the risk of injury. Results The training and match injury incidences were similar between seasons (5.1 v 5.3 injuries/1000 training hours and 25.9 v 22.7/1000 match hours), but analysis of injury severity and injury patterns showed variations between seasons. Players who were injured in the 2001 season were at greater risk of any injury in the following season compared with non?injured players (hazard ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.3, p<0.0001). Players with a previous hamstring injury, groin injury, and knee joint trauma were two to three times more likely to suffer an identical injury in the following season, whereas no such relation was found for ankle sprain. Age was not associated with an increased injury risk. Conclusions This study confirmed previous results showing that previous injury is an important risk factor for football injury. Overall injury incidences were similar between consecutive seasons, indicating that an injury surveillance study covering one full season can provide a reasonable overview of the injury problem among elite football players in a specific environment. However, a prolonged study period is recommended for analyses of specific injury patterns. PMID:16855067

Hägglund, M; Waldén, M; Ekstrand, J

2006-01-01

113

Journal of Biomechanics 34 (2001) 437447 Rotational moment arms of the medial hamstrings and adductors  

E-print Network

with cerebral palsy frequently walk with a crouched, internally rotated gait. Spastic medial hamstrings exhibited by 21 subjects with cerebral palsy and excessive hip internal rotation. We found Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Musculoskeletal model; Hip; Anteversion; Gait; Cerebral palsy 1

Delp, Scott

114

Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key Points Overall sit-and-reach tests have a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility, but they have a low mean validity for estimating lumbar extensibility. Among all the sit-and-reach test protocols, the Classic sit-and-reach test seems to be the best option to estimate hamstring extensibility. End scores (e.g., the Classic sit-and-reach test) are a better indicator of hamstring extensibility than the modifications that incorporate fingers-to-box distance (e.g., the Modified sit-and-reach test). When angular tests such as straight leg raise or knee extension tests cannot be used, sit-and-reach tests seem to be a useful field test alternative to estimate hamstring extensibility, but not to estimate lumbar extensibility. PMID:24570599

Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

2014-01-01

115

Arthroscopy-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring autografts.  

PubMed

Isolated ACL reconstructions were performed in 138 patients between 1994 and 1998. Patellar bone-patellar tendon-bone, and hamstring tendon autografts were used in 88 patients, and allografts were used in 50 patients. Eighty-eight knees of 88 patients with autograft reconstructions (17 female, 71 male) were included in this study and evaluation of the patients with allograft reconstruction reported separately. The mean age at the time of the operation was 32 years. All ACL reconstructions were performed arthroscopically. Twenty-seven bone-patellar tendon-bone, and 61 hamstring tendon autografts were used. The mean follow-up was 29 months. In the postoperative course the Lachman test was negative in 62 patients, 1+ in 22 patients, and 2+ in 4 patients. In 17 patients, anterior drawer sign were 1+ in comparison to the contralateral side. Pivot shift test was moderately positive only in 5 cases in the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon autograft groups postoperatively. There were 3 patients with subjective "giving way" symptoms. Second look arthroscopy revealed rupture of the neo-ligament. Arthroscopic washout and debridement were performed, and no revision ligamentoplasties were performed. Two of these patients improved with accelerated proprioceptive physical therapy, and one had to decrease his previous level of activity. There were no cases of arthrofibrosis, infection, or extension lag. Clinical results of patellar bone-tendon-bone and hamstring groups did not show any significant clinical difference. Avoiding the disturbance of the extensor mechanism of the knee is probably the most significant advantage of the hamstring autograft. PMID:10983256

Doral, M N; Leblebicioglu, G; Atay, O A; Baydar, M L; Tetik, O; Atik, S

2000-01-01

116

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon\\u000a tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete\\u000a proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn\\u000a tendons with the

Sujith Konan; Fares Haddad

2010-01-01

117

The mid- to long-term results of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons using Transfix technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, mid to long-term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons and Transfix technique\\u000a were evaluated. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with four-strand hamstring tendon was performed with Transfix\\u000a technique on 271 (198 males, 73 females; mean age 25.7; 17–52) patients with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. The patients\\u000a were followed up with clinical examination, Lysholm and

Mehmet Asik; Cengiz Sen; Ibrahim Tuncay; Mehmet Erdil; Cem Avci; Omer F. Taser

2007-01-01

118

Trunk and hip muscle recruitment patterns during the prone leg extension following a lateral ankle sprain: A prospective case study pre and post injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND CASE PRESENTATION: The prone leg extension (PLE) is commonly used to identify dysfunction of muscle recruitment patterns. The prone leg extension is theorized to identify proximal muscle disturbances which are a result of distal injury or dysfunction (i.e. an ankle sprain). This case study compares the trunk and hip muscle (bilateral lower erector spine, ipsilateral hamstring and ipsilateral

Gregory J Lehman

2006-01-01

119

Crossover Cutting During Hamstring Fatigue Produces Transverse Plane Knee Control Deficits  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effects of eccentric work-induced hamstring fatigue on sagittal and transverse plane (axial) knee and ankle biodynamics and kinetics during a running crossover cut directional change (functional pivot shift). Design and Setting: A pretest-posttest, single-group intervention experimental design was employed. All data were collected in a biodynamics laboratory. Subjects: Twenty healthy athletic females were trained for 3 weeks in crossover cutting before testing. Measurements: Data were sampled during 3 unfatigued and 3 fatigued (20% eccentric isokinetic knee-flexor torque reduction) crossover cut trials. Three-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction-force data were sampled at 200 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively, and joint moment estimates were calculated. Data were standardized to initial force-plate heelstrike for comparisons of mean differences between conditions using paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Pearson product-moment correlations compared kinematic and eccentric hamstring-torque relationships. Results: During internal rotation phase 1, between heelstrike and impact absorption, mean internal rotation velocity increased by 21.2°/s ± 114°/s. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak transverse plane knee rotation during propulsion decreased by 3.1° ± 9°. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak ankle plantar flexor moment onsets occurred 12.7 ± 53 milliseconds earlier, and this activation demonstrated a moderately positive relationship with the onset of mean peak knee internal rotation during propulsion and a weak negative relationship with mean peak hamstring torque/lean body weight. Conclusions: The increased knee internal rotation velocity during phase I indicates transverse plane dynamic knee-control deficits during hamstring fatigue. Earlier peak ankle plantar-flexor moments and decreased internal rotation during phase II in the presence of hamstring fatigue may represent compensatory attempts at dynamic knee stabilization from the posterior lower leg musculature during the pivot shift portion of the crossover cut. The weak relationship between decreased hamstring torque/lean body weight and delayed knee internal rotation during propulsion further supports greater dependence on ankle plantar flexors for dynamic knee stabilization compensation ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:16558556

Nyland, John A.; Caborn, David N.M.; Shapiro, Robert; Johnson, Darren L.

1999-01-01

120

Epidemiology of time-loss injuries in English community-level rugby union  

PubMed Central

Objectives Using a prospective cohort study design, to establish the incidence and nature of time-loss injuries in English community rugby and to assess the differences between different playing levels. Setting English community rugby clubs. Participants Injury information for 4635 matches was collected during seasons 2009/2010 (46 clubs), 2010/2011(67 clubs) and 2011/2012 (76 clubs). Clubs were subdivided into groups A (semiprofessional), B (amateur) and C (recreational) for analysis. Primary and secondary outcome measures Any injury resulting in 8?days or greater absence from match play was reported by injury management staff at the clubs. The primary outcome measure was injury incidence (per 1000 player match-hours) and the secondary outcome measure was severity (ie, days absence). Results Overall match injury incidence was 16.9 injuries per 1000 player match-hours. Incidence was higher for group A (21.7; 95% CI 19.8 to 23.6) compared with group B (16.6; 95% CI 15.2 to 17.9) and C (14.2; 95% CI 13.0 to 15.5, both p<0.001). The mean time-loss was 7.6?weeks absence, with knee and shoulder injuries the most severe with mean absences of 11.6 and 9.3?weeks, respectively. Half of all injuries occurred to the lower limb, with knee and ankle joint/ligament injuries the most common diagnoses. Shoulder joint/ligament injuries were the most common and severe upper limb injuries. Contact events accounted for 80% of all injuries and tackles accounted for 50%. Running was the most common non-contact injury event, of which 56% were hamstring injuries. Conclusions More time-loss injuries occur at higher levels of community rugby. Injury prevention strategies should focus on good technique in the tackle and conditioning exercises for the knee, ankle, hamstrings and shoulder. PMID:24240143

Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Shaddick, Gavin; Stokes, Keith A

2013-01-01

121

A taxonomically unique Acinetobacter strain with proteolytic and hemolytic activities recovered from a patient with a soft tissue injury.  

PubMed

A taxonomically unique bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. A47, has been recovered from several soft tissue samples from a patient undergoing reconstructive surgery owing to a traumatic amputation. The results of 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB gene comparative sequence analyses showed that A47 does not belong to any of the hitherto-known taxa and may represent an as-yet-unknown Acinetobacter species. The recognition of this novel organism contributes to our knowledge of the taxonomic complexity underlying infections caused by Acinetobacter. PMID:25392359

Almuzara, Marisa; Traglia, German Matías; Krizova, Lenka; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Bakai, Romina; Tuduri, Alicia; Vay, Carlos; Nemec, Alexandr; Ramírez, María Soledad

2015-01-01

122

Effects on hamstring muscle extensibility, muscle activity, and balance of different stretching techniques.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance. PMID:24648633

Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

2014-02-01

123

Hamstring graft motion in the femoral bone tunnel when using titanium button\\/ polyester tape fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the relative motion of a quadruple hamstring graft within the femoral bone tunnel\\u000a (graft-tunnel motion) under tensile loading. Six graft constructs were prepared from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons\\u000a of human cadavers and were fixed with a titanium button and polyester tape within a bone tunnel in a cadaveric femur. Three\\u000a different

Jürgen Höher; Glen A. Livesay; C. Benjamin Ma; John D. Withrow; Freddie H. Fu; S. L. Y. Woo

1999-01-01

124

Acute changes in hamstring flexibility: PNF versus static stretch in senior athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have reported on the amount of acute changes in flexibility of the hamstrings resulting from stretching prior to activity, and no studies of this nature have focused on an elderly population. Methods: Ninety-seven subjects (mean age=65 years, range 55–79 years) participating in the World Senior Games were randomly selected for participation in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned

J. Brent Feland; J. W. Myrer; R. M. Merrill

2001-01-01

125

The use of hamstrings in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients over 40 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an increasingly established method even in patients over 40 years old. Recent\\u000a studies with regard to this procedure used BTB transplants. We did a retrospective follow-up examination on over-40-year-old\\u000a patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring transplants and compared them to a younger control\\u000a group. Our hypothesis is that functional outcome after ACL-reconstruction is comparable

Bastian Marquass; Pierre Hepp; Thomas Engel; Thomas Düsing; Helmut Lill; Christoph Josten

2007-01-01

126

Concurrent validity of clinical tests for measuring hamstring flexibility in school age children.  

PubMed

The objectives were 1) to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in children and adolescents; 2) to examine the relative contribution of the spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and hamstring flexibility on the sit-and-reach (SR) score; and 3) to determine the validity of the sit-and-reach test through both active and passive hip flexion tests. 118 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years; 60 males and 58 females) were tested for sit-and-reach (SR), passive straight leg raise (PSLR) and active straight leg raise (ASLR). The spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were assessed during the SR test by means of the Spinal Mouse system. Females showed a statistically greater anterior pelvic tilt, distance reached in the SR test and hip flexion in both PSLR and ASLR tests than males. The pelvic tilt independently explained more than 60% of the variance (distance reached in the SR test) and in conjunction with lumbar flexion explained more than 80% of the variance. In conclusion, the pelvic tilt is the main determinant of SR test in school age children. The SR test can be considered an appropriate and valid test for evaluating pelvic tilt and lumbar flexion in school age children, but not to measure hamstring flexibility. PMID:24424962

Muyor, J M; Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Kotyra, M

2014-07-01

127

Lumbar Extension during Stoop Lifting is Delayed by the Load and Hamstring Tightness  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between lumbar pelvic rhythm and the physical characteristics of stoop lifting. [Subjects and Methods] Participants performed a stoop lifting task under two conditions: with and without load. We assessed the lumbar kyphosis and sacral inclination angles using the SpinalMouse® system, as well as hamstring flexibility. During stoop lifting, surface electromyograms and the lumbar and sacral motions were recorded using a multi-channel telemetry system and flexible electrogoniometers. [Results] In the initial phase of lifting, lumbar extension was delayed by load; the delay showed a negative correlation with sacral inclination angle at trunk flexion, whereas a positive correlation was observed with electromyogram activity of the lumbar multifidus. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between sacral inclination angle and hip flexion range of motion during the straight leg raise test. [Conclusion] We found that a disorder of the lumbar pelvic rhythm can be caused by both load and hamstring tightness. In the initial phase of stoop lifting, delayed lumbar extension is likely to lead to an increase in spinal instability and stress on the posterior ligamentous system. This mechanism shows that stoop lifting of a load may be harmful to the lower back of people with hamstring tightness. PMID:24567676

Iwasaki, Risa; Yokoyama, Ginga; Kawabata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tomotaka

2014-01-01

128

Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendon graft with remnant augmentation.  

PubMed

Despite good early functional results, the posterior laxity of the knee is not completely eliminated after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. The PCL can retain the normal tension only when the injured ligament is maintained anatomically. This article describes a technique of PCL reconstruction using hamstring tendon graft with PCL remnant augmentation. The harvested hamstring tendons were quadrupled, sized, and pretensioned before use. The PCL remnants and the synovium were preserved. Minimal debridement was performed to gain access to the insertion sites. The tibia and femoral tunnels were created with graft size-matched reamers. The graft was transfixed at 70 degrees of knee flexion with a 15-lb anterior drawer force on the proximal tibia. This surgical technique has several advantages. The hamstring graft acts as an independent PCL reconstruction and maintains the PCL remnant tension. The PCL remnants and synovium may be beneficial to ligament healing and postoperative rehabilitation. The procedure is technically feasible and cosmetically acceptable. The selection of autograft precludes the risks of allograft and artificial ligament. The short-term results are encouraging, but long-term results are needed to confirm the value of this technique for PCL reconstruction. PMID:16325098

Wang, Ching-Jen; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Weng, Lin-Hsiu

2005-11-01

129

A musculoskeletal modeling approach for estimating anterior cruciate ligament strains and knee anterior-posterior shear forces in stop-jumps performed by young recreational female athletes.  

PubMed

The central goal of this study was to contribute to the advancements being made in determining the underlying causes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. ACL injuries are frequently incurred by recreational and professional young female athletes during non-contact impact activities in sports like volleyball and basketball. This musculoskeletal-neuromuscular study investigated stop-jumps and factors related to ACL injury like knee valgus and internal-external moment loads, knee anterior-posterior (AP) shear forces, ACL strains and internal forces. Motion capture data was obtained from the landing phase of stop-jumps performed by eleven young recreational female athletes and electromyography (EMG) data collected from quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnimius muscles which were then compared to numerically estimated activations. Numerical simulation tools used were Inverse Kinematics, Computed Muscle Control and Forward Dynamics and the knee modeled as a six degree of freedom joint. Results showed averaged peak strains of 12.2 ± 4.1% in the right and 11.9 ± 3.0% in the left ACL. Averaged peak knee AP shear forces were 482.3 ± 65.7 N for the right and 430.0 ± 52.4 N for the left knees, approximately equal to 0.7-0.8 times body weight across both knees. A lack of symmetry was observed between the knees for valgus angles (p < 0.04), valgus moments (p < 0.001) and muscle activations (p < 0.001), all of which can be detrimental to ACL stability during impact activities. Comparisons between recorded EMG data and estimated muscle activations show the relation between electrical signal and muscle depolarization. In summary, this study outlines a musculoskeletal simulation approach that provides numerical estimations for a number of variables associated with ACL injuries in female athletes performing stop-jumps. PMID:23015067

Kar, Julia; Quesada, Peter M

2013-02-01

130

Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity  

PubMed Central

Summary Our purpose was to determine if females demonstrate decreased hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque (H/Q) ratios compared to males and if H/Q ratios increase with increased isokinetic velocity in both sexes. Maturation disproportionately increases hamstrings peak torque at high velocity in males, but not females. Therefore, we hypothesised that mature females would demonstrate decreased H/Q ratios compared to males and the difference in H/Q ratio between sexes would increase as isokinetic velocity increased. Studies that analysed the H/Q ratio with gravity corrected isokinetic strength testing reported between 1967 and 2004 were included in our review and analysis. Keywords were hamstrings/quadriceps, isokinetics, peak torque and gravity corrected. Medline and Smart databases were searched combined with cross-checked bibliographic reference lists of the publications to determine studies to be included. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 1568 subjects (1145 male, 423 female). Males demonstrated a significant correlation between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R = 0.634, p < 0.0001), and a significant difference in the isokinetic H/Q ratio at the lowest angular velocity (47.8 ± 2.2% at 30°/s) compared to the highest velocity (81.4 ± 1.1% at 360°/s, p < 0.001). In contrast, females did not demonstrate a significant relationship between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R = 0.065, p = 0.77) or a change in relative hamstrings strength as the speed increased (49.5 ± 8.8% at 30°/s; 51.0 ± 5.7% at 360°/s, p = 0.84). Gender differences in isokinetic H/Q ratios were not observed at slower angular velocities. However, at high knee flexion/extension angular velocities, approaching those that occur during sports activities, significant gender differences were observed in the H/Q ratio. Females, unlike males, do not increase hamstrings to quadriceps torque ratios at velocities that approach those of functional activities. PMID:17875402

Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.

2012-01-01

131

Is the Modified Tardieu Scale in Semi-Standing Position Better Associated with Knee Extension and Hamstring Activity in Terminal Swing than the Supine Tardieu?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven children diagnosed with…

Faber, Irene R.; Nienhuis, Bart; Rijs, Nique P. A. M.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Duysens, Jacques

2008-01-01

132

Genu recurvatum in cerebral palsy--part B: hamstrings are abnormally long in children with cerebral palsy showing knee recurvatum.  

PubMed

Hyperextension of the knee in stance (knee recurvatum) is a common disorder in patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). A group 35 children with CP (47 lower limbs) was divided into two subgroups according to the timing of maximum knee extension during the stance phase of gait. Gait analysis and musculoskeletal modelling data were compared with a control group of 12 normally developing children. We observed no difference in kinematics between the CP groups who showed an equinus position of the foot at initial contact. Both groups showed increased external extensor moments across the knee. The muscle-tendon lengths of the hamstrings were abnormally long at initial contact, and in both recurvatum groups, contracted faster compared with the control group. Surface electromyography revealed prolonged activity of the hamstrings in stance and early activation in swing. Abnormally long hamstrings at initial contact together with equinus position of the foot are the main causes of genu recurvatum in children with CP. PMID:20308923

Zwick, Ernst B; Svehlík, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Saraph, Vinay; Linhart, Wolfgang E

2010-07-01

133

Plasma microRNAs are sensitive indicators of inter-strain differences in the severity of liver injury induced in mice by a choline- and folate-deficient diet  

SciTech Connect

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, conserved, tissue-specific regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes and play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between inter-individual differences in susceptibility to NAFLD and altered miRNA expression is largely unknown. In view of this, the goals of the present study were (i) to determine whether or not individual differences in the extent of NAFLD-induced liver injury are associated with altered miRNA expression, and (ii) assess if circulating blood miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the noninvasive evaluation of the severity of NAFLD. A panel of seven genetically diverse strains of inbred male mice (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, 129S/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 weeks. This diet induced liver injury in all mouse strains; however, the extent of NAFLD-associated pathomorphological changes in the livers was strain-specific, with A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ mice being the least sensitive and WSB/EiJ mice being the most sensitive. The morphological changes in the livers were accompanied by differences in the levels of hepatic and plasma miRNAs. The levels of circulating miR-34a, miR-122, miR-181a, miR-192, and miR-200b miRNAs were significantly correlated with a severity of NAFLD-specific liver pathomorphological features, with the strongest correlation occurring with miR-34a. These observations suggest that the plasma levels of miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury and susceptibility to NAFLD. -- Highlights: ? Choline- and folate-deficiency induces a strain-specific fatty liver injury in mice. ? The extent of liver pathology was accompanied by the changes in microRNA expression. ? The levels of circulating microRNAs mirror the magnitude of fatty liver injury. ? Plasma microRNAs may be sensitive noninvasive indicators of the fatty liver injury.

Tryndyak, Volodymyr P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Latendresse, John R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Montgomery, Beverly [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ross, Sharon A. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

2012-07-01

134

Can we use peroneus longus in addition to hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible effects of removing the peroneus longus on the ankle and gait parameters, in order to add insufficient hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 375 patients with ACL rupture who underwent ACL reconstruction arthroscopically using hamstring tendons in the orthopedic clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2010 and 2011 were selected. Fifteen patients were included because their hamstring tendon diameter was lower than 8 mm and peroneus longus was added. After 6 months, the patients were followed using “Kistler force plate” to detect 3D kinematics and kinetics of the ankles and spatiotemporal walking parameters. Results: There was a significant difference between both operated and non-operated ankles in flexion/extension range of motion (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the moments of both ankles in sagittal and coronal planes (P > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between the moments of both ankles in the transverse plane (P = 0.006). There was a significant difference in the force of operated and non-operated ankles in all three planes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean values of spatiotemporal gait parameters between operated and non-operated sides (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Removing the peroneus longus tendon has no effect on gait parameters and does not lead to instability of the ankle. So, it can be used as an autogenous graft in orthopedic surgeries. PMID:24949286

Nazem, Khalilallah; Barzegar, Mohammadreza; Hosseini, Alireza; Karimi, Mohammadtaghi

2014-01-01

135

Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups. PMID:25729210

Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

2015-01-01

136

Prevalence and associations of symptoms of upper extremities, repetitive strain injuries (RSI) and 'RSI-like condition'. A cross sectional study of bank workers in Northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The repetitive strain injury syndrome (RSI) is a worldwide occupational health problem affecting all types of economic activities. We investigated the prevalence and some risk factors for RSI and related conditions, namely 'symptoms of upper limbs' and 'RSI-like condition'. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 395 bank workers in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Symptoms of upper limbs and 'RSI-like condition' were assessed by a simple questionnaire, which was used to screen probable cases of RSI. The diagnosis of RSI was confirmed by clinical examination. The associations of potential risk factors and the outcomes were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results We found prevalence rates of 56% for symptoms of the upper limbs and 30% for 'RSI-like condition'. The estimated prevalence of clinically confirmed cases of RSI was 22%. Female sex and occupation (as cashier or clerk) increased the risk of all conditions, but the associations were stronger for cases of RSI than for less specific diagnoses of 'RSI-like condition' and symptoms of upper limbs. Age was inversely related to the risk of symptoms of upper limbs but not to 'RSI-like' or RSI. Conclusion The variation in the magnitude of risk according to the outcome assessed suggests that previous studies using different definitions may not be immediately comparable. We propose the use of a simple instrument to screen cases of RSI in population based studies, which still needs to be validated in other populations. The high prevalence of RSI and related conditions in this population suggests the need for urgent interventions to tackle the problem, which could be directed to individuals at higher risk and to changes in the work organization and environment of the general population. PMID:16219095

Lacerda, Eliana M; Nácul, Luis C; da S Augusto, Lia G; Olinto, Maria Teresa A; Rocha, Dyhanne C; Wanderley, Danielle C

2005-01-01

137

Changes in quadriceps and hamstring cocontraction following landing instruction in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Study Design Pretest/posttest controlled laboratory study. Objectives To determine changes in the neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings following instructions aimed at improving knee flexion during a single-limb landing task in persons who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Background Clinicians advise patients who have undergone ACLR to increase knee flexion during landing tasks to improve impact attenuation. Another long-standing construct underlying such instruction involves increasing cocontraction of the hamstrings with the quadriceps to limit anterior shear of the tibia on the femur. The current study examined whether cocontraction of the knee musculature changes following instruction to increase knee flexion during landing. Methods Thirty-four physically active subjects with unilateral ACLR participated in a 1-time testing session. The kinetics and kinematics of single-leg landing on the surgical limb were analyzed before and after instruction to increase knee flexion and reduce the impact of landing. Vastus lateralis and biceps femoris activities were analyzed using surface electromyography and normalized to a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Cocontraction indices were integrated over the weight-acceptance phase of landing. Results Following instruction, peak knee flexion increased (preinstruction mean ± SD, 56° ± 11°; postinstruction, 77° ± 12°; P<.001) and peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased (preinstruction, 3.50 ± 0.42 body mass; postinstruction, 3.06 ± 0.44 body mass; P<.001). Cocontraction also decreased following instruction (preinstruction, 30.88% ± 17.68% MVIC; postinstruction, 23.74% ± 15.39% MVIC; P<.001). The change in cocontraction was correlated with a decrease in hamstring activity (preinstruction, 23.79% ± 12.88% MVIC; postinstruction, 19.72% ± 13.92% MVIC; r = 0.80; P<.001). Conclusion Landing instruction produced both a statistically and clinically significant change in landing mechanics in persons post-ACLR. Conscious improvement of the absorptive power of the surgical limb was marked by decreased hamstring activity and cocontraction during single-limb landing. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(4):273-280. Epub 13 Feb 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5335. PMID:25679342

Elias, Audrey R C; Hammill, Curt D; Mizner, Ryan L

2015-04-01

138

Bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and morphine: comparison of toxicity on human hamstring-derived stem\\/progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and morphine are commonly administered intraarticularly after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.\\u000a However, their effects on human tendon stem\\/progenitor cells (TSPC) have not been studied. Therefore, this study investigates\\u000a the cytotoxicity of these analgetics on TSPC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cells were isolated from human hamstring grafts of 3 female (age 15, 16 and 59) and 2 male patients (age 16 and

Florian Haasters; Hans Polzer; Wolf Christian Prall; Maximilian Michael Saller; Julia Kohler; Stefan Grote; Wolf Mutschler; Denitsa Docheva; Matthias Schieker

139

THE EFFECTS OF INJURY PREVENTION WARM-UP PROGRAMMES ON KNEE STRENGTH IN MALE SOCCER PLAYERS  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the effects of the 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programmes on knee strength in male soccer players. Under-21-year-old players (n=36) were divided equally into: the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programmes were performed for 24 sessions (20-25 min each). The hamstrings and quadriceps strength were measured bilaterally at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1. The concentric quadriceps peak torque (PT) of the 11+ increased by 27.7% at 300°·s-1 in the dominant leg (p<0.05). The concentric quadriceps PT of HarmoKnee increased by 36.6%, 36.2% and 28% in the dominant leg, and by 31.3%, 31.7% and 20.05% at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1 in the non-dominant leg respectively. In the 11+ group the concentric hamstring PT increased by 22%, 21.4% and 22.1% at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1, respectively in the dominant leg, and by 22.3%, and 15.7% at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1, in the non-dominant leg. In the HarmoKnee group the hamstrings in the dominant leg showed an increase in PT by 32.5%, 31.3% and 14.3% at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1, and in the non-dominant leg hamstrings PT increased by 21.1% and 19.3% at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1 respectively. The concentric hamstrings strength was significantly different between the 11+ and control groups in the dominant (p=0.01) and non-dominant legs (p=0.02). The HarmoKnee programme enhanced the concentric strength of quadriceps. The 11+ and HarmoKnee programmes are useful warm-up protocols for improving concentric hamstring strength in young professional male soccer players. The 11+ programme is more advantageous for its greater concentric hamstring strength improvement compared to the HarmoKnee programme. PMID:24795499

Mokhtar, AH.; Rahnama, N.; Yusof, A.

2013-01-01

140

Hamstring and psoas length of crouch gait in cerebral palsy: a comparison with induced crouch gait in age- and sex-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait. Methods Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait. Results No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.456) lengths of patients and controls mimicking crouch gait. However, patients showed significantly shorter excursions of hamstring (p=0.022) and psoas (p=0.036) muscles than controls, whereas no significant excursion differences were observed between controls during normal gait and mimicking crouch gait. Conclusions Normal controls mimicking crouch gait and cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait demonstrate similar muscle length patterns. However, mimicked crouch gait did not reproduce the excursion pattern shown by patients with crouch gait, which suggests that reduced hamstring and psoas excursion is an innate characteristic of pathologic crouch gait. PMID:23363928

2013-01-01

141

Jump Landing Strategies in Male and Female College Athletes and the Implications of Such Strategies for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Female athletes are more likely than male athletes to injure the anterior cruciate ligament. Causes of this increased injury incidence in female athletes remain unclear, despite numerous investigations.Hypothesis: Female athletes will exhibit lower hamstring muscle activation and smaller knee flexion angles than male athletes during jump landings, especially when the knee muscles are fatigued.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Eight

Ray Fagenbaum; Warren G. Darling

2003-01-01

142

Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.  

PubMed

Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies. PMID:7886357

Gibbs, N

1994-12-01

143

Treatment of knee contracture in cerebral palsy by hamstring lengthening, posterior capsulotomy, and quadriceps mechanism shortening.  

PubMed

Results of surgery to correct fixed flexion contracture of the knee and improve voluntary knee extension in 39 knees in 20 children (11 females, 9 males; mean age 12 years 8 months, age range 5 to 20 years) with cerebral palsy were analyzed. All patients had neuromotor disease and 18 children had spastic diplegia or quadriplegia. All patients could initiate voluntary knee extension but lacked full passive extension. Five patients (10 knees) were free walkers with a mean motor severity index of 19 and mean fixed knee contracture of 20 degrees. Fifteen patients (29 knees) were not free walkers and 13 were wheelchair ambulators. They had a mean motor severity index of 8 and mean fixed knee contractures of 30 degrees. Surgical procedures included various combinations of hamstring lengthening and/or posterior capsulotomy to allow free passive knee extension, with or without quadriceps mechanism shortening, to enhance voluntary extension. The best results were in patients who had hamstring lengthening, posterior capsulotomy, and quadriceps mechanism shortening. PMID:11769265

Beals, R K

2001-12-01

144

Back Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

145

Head Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

146

Successful return to high level sports following early surgical repair of complete tears of the proximal hamstring tendons.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical management of acute complete proximal hamstring tendon tears. This was a prospective review of a case series from a tertiary referral centre. Ten patients presenting with complete proximal hamstring tendon tears were confirmed on MRI. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of the torn tendons with the aim of returning to normal activities and sports. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed using a dynamometer. The Cybex dynamometer (Cybex International, Ronkonkowa, NY) testing revealed almost comparable readings for the operated versus the non-operated side. An average peak torque of the operated hamstring muscles of 82.78% (range 47.16-117.88%), compared to the contralateral leg, was noted at six months. An excellent outcome was found in terms of return to normal activities and sports. Early surgical repair and physiotherapy has been noted to be associated with a good outcome and enables an early return to high level sports after complete tear of the proximal hamstring tendons. PMID:19252829

Konan, Sujith; Haddad, Fares

2010-02-01

147

The use of the LARS artificial ligament to augment a short or undersized ACL hamstrings tendon graft.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the midterm results of using Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) artificial ligament for augmentation of the short (<15 cm length) and small-sized (3-4 mm) diameter for the gracilis and (4-5 mm) for the semitendinosus harvested hamstring tendons in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and to assess the knee stability, patient satisfaction and early- and midterm complications following surgery. A total of 112 patients were included in this study and were operated with arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using (augmented hamstring tendon graft with LARS) between January 2004 and December 2006. Assessment before and after the surgery include the history, clinical examination, modified international knee documentation committee score (IKDC), KT1000 measurements for clinical knee stability and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) for patient satisfaction. Clinical results measured by IKDC evaluation, KT1000 and Lysholm scores showed significant postoperative values compared with the preoperative ones. Our findings suggest that at the end of a 5-year follow-up, augmented hamstring tendon graft with LARS artificial ligament is a useful, safe and satisfactory treatment option for ACL reconstruction in deficient knees with short- and small-sized harvested hamstring tendons, especially when an early return to high levels of sport activity is needed. PMID:21062673

Hamido, F; Misfer, A K; Al Harran, H; Khadrawe, T A; Soliman, A; Talaat, A; Awad, A; Khairat, S

2011-12-01

148

Do the hamstrings and adductors contribute to excessive internal rotation of the hip in persons with cerebral palsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive internal rotation of the hip. Spastic medial hamstrings or adductors are presumed to contribute to the excessive internal rotation in some patients; however, the capacity of these muscles to produce internal rotation during walking in individuals with cerebral palsy has not been adequately investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine

Allison S. Arnold; Deanna J. Asakawa; Scott L. Delp

2000-01-01

149

Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

2012-01-01

150

Motor Vehicle Restraint System Use and Risk of Spine Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Motor vehicle collision (MVC)-related spinal injury is a severe and often permanently disabling injury. In addition, strain injuries have been reported as a common outcome of MVCs. Although advances in automobile crashworthiness have reduced both fatalities and severe injuries, the impact of varying occupant restraint systems (seatbelts and airbags) on thoracolumbar spine injuries is unknown. This study examined the

Mark A. Reed; Robert P. Naftel; Susanna Carter; Paul A. MacLennan; Gerald McGwin Jr; Loring W. Rue III

2006-01-01

151

Reducing muscle injuries and reinjuries in one italian professional male soccer team  

PubMed Central

Summary Background. The incidence rate of muscle injuries and re-injuries in professional elite soccer players actually is very high and may interfere with the fate of a championship. Purpose. To investigate the effect of a two-tiered injury prevention programme on first injury and re-injury incidence in top level male soccer players. Study design Case Series Study. Muscle injuries and re-injuries sustained by a group of 36 soccer player of an italian elite soccer team have been collected during 2010–2011 season. These data have been compared with those collected during the previous season in the same elite soccer team. Results. A total of 64 injuries occurred, 36 (56%) of which during practice and 28 (44%) during matches. Muscle injuries accounted for 31.3% of the total (n=20), 70% (n=14) of which occurred during practice and 30% (n=6) during matches. Hamstring were the muscles most often injured (n=11) In all, 3 re-injuries occurred (15% of muscle injuries). No early re-injuries occurred. The incidence was 2.5 injuries/1000 hours and the burden was 37 days absence/1000 hours. Conclusions. Through the implementation of a group and personalized injury prevention program, we were able to reduce the total number of muscle injuries and days absent because of injury, in a team of elite soccer players, as compared to the previous season. Specifically, muscle injuries accounted for 31% of all injuries, as compared to 59% of all injuries sustained by the team during the previous season. The number of injuries/1000 hours of exposure was reduced by half (from 5.6 to 2.5) and the days absent/1000 hours fell from 106 to 37. PMID:24596697

Melegati, Gianluca; Tornese, Davide; Gevi, Maurizio; Trabattoni, Alessandro; Pozzi, Grazia; Schonhuber, Herbert; Volpi, Piero

2013-01-01

152

A 7Year Follow-up of Patellar Tendon and Hamstring Tendon Grafts for Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionDifferences and Similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: For arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the most commonly used graft constructs are either the hamstring tendon or patellar tendon. Well-controlled, long-term studies are needed to determine the differences between the 2 materials.Hypothesis: There is a difference between hamstring and patellar tendon grafts in the clinical results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions at 7 years.Study Design: Cohort study; Level

Justin Roe; Leo A. Pinczewski; Vivianne J. Russell; Lucy J. Salmon; Tomomaro Kawamata; Melvin Chew

2005-01-01

153

Biomechanical evaluation of a bioabsorbable expansion bolt for hamstring graft fixation in ACL reconstruction: an experimental study in calf tibial bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the primary fixation strength of a novel bioabsorbable two shell expansion bolt (EB) with that of a well-established interference screw-fixation technique in hamstring reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Materials and methods: Thirty calf tibia plateaus (age 5–6 months) were assigned to three groups: In group I (n=10) triple-stranded hamstring

S. Piltz; R. Dieckmann; L. Meyer; P. Strunk; W. Plitz; G. Lob

2005-01-01

154

Tunnel widening following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring autograft: a comparison between double cross-pin and suspensory graft fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoral and tibial tunnel widening following ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft has been described. Greater tunnel\\u000a widening has been reported with suspensory fixation systems. We hypothesized that greater tunnel widening will be observed\\u000a in patients whose hamstring autograft was fixated using a cortical, suspensory system, compared to double cross-pin fixation\\u000a on the femur. We performed clinical and radiographic evaluation on

Joshua A. Baumfeld; David R. Diduch; L. Joseph Rubino; Jennifer A. Hart; Mark D. Miller; Michelle S. Barr; Joseph M. Hart

2008-01-01

155

Failure strengths of concentric and eccentric implants for hamstring graft fixation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare the initial failure strengths of various interference screw devices used for tibial fixation of hamstring grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and the effect of concentric or eccentric screw position. Quadrupled tendon grafts were harvested from freshly killed sheep. The grafts were then prepared and fixed in the distal femur using various devices (Intrafix (DePuy Mitek Raynham, MA, USA), RCI screw (Smith and Nephew Acufex, Mansfield, MA, USA), Wedge screw (Stryker Endoscopy, San Jose, CA, USA) in concentric position and Wedge screw in eccentric position with an interlock pin). The load required to cause mechanical failure of each construct was measured. The Intrafix device had a significantly greater mean strength to failure than all the other implants (mean 941 +/- 280 N) (P = 0.015 to P < 0.0001). The wedge screw inserted concentrically (737 +/- 134 N) had significantly greater initial failure strength than the wedge eccentric with interlock pin (458 +/- 266 N) (P = 0.03) and the RCI screw (464 +/- 107 N) (P = 0.00036). In this sheep model the Intrafix device with sheath inserted concentrically had significantly greater initial failure strength than the other interference screws. Concentric positioning of the wedge interference screw gave significantly greater initial failure strength of a quadruple tendon graft than eccentric positioning. The use of the Intrafix device or concentric positioning of an interference screw should result in increased initial fixation strength of hamstring grafts. This may allow more vigorous early rehabilitation and may result in less late graft laxity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:18269483

Gwynne-Jones, David P; Draffin, Joanne; Vane, Andrew G S; Craig, Roy A; McMahon, Simon F

2008-03-01

156

Mechanical evaluation of cross pins used for femoral fixation of hamstring grafts in ACL reconstructions.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to test the mechanical strength of 4 different cross pins currently available for femoral fixation by loading each cross pin to failure as received and determine the effect of 1 million cycles of fatigue loading. Additionally, the strength of resorbable pins was tested after prolonged exposure to biologic conditions. Six implants each of the Arthrotek LactoSorb (Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana), Mitek RigidFix (DePuy Mitek Inc, Raynham, Massachusetts), Arthrotek Bone Mulch Screw (Biomet), cortical allograft, and control were tested for 3-point failure without prior loading and after cyclic loading between 50 to 200 N at 10 Hz for 1 million cycles. The bioabsorbable pins were placed in sterile water at 37°C and tested after 2, 4, and 6 months for 3-point failure strength. All implants tested without antecedent loading demonstrated adequate strength for initial fixation for hamstring grafts. During fatigue testing, RigidFix implants (n=6) failed at 18,893±8365 cycles (with a central deformation of 0.48±0.11 mm prior to fracture). All of the other implants tested endured 1 million cycles of loading (50-200 N) without fracture or 1.5 mm central deformation. Neither of the bioabsorbable pins demonstrated a significant change in yield strength after prolonged exposure to water. All implants tested demonstrated adequate strength for initial fixation of hamstring grafts. The metal and bone implants far exceed the strength required to sustain mechanical fixation until biological fixation occurs; both polymeric implants demonstrated that they maintained enough mechanical strength to achieve this goal. PMID:20954667

Bellisari, Gregory E; Kaeding, Christopher C; Litsky, Alan S

2010-10-01

157

Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

158

Birth Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Caregivers > Children's Health Issues > Problems in Newborns 4 Birth Injury Birth injury is damage sustained during the birthing process, usually occurring during transit through the birth canal. Many newborns have minor injuries during birth. ...

159

Groin Injuries in Sports Medicine  

PubMed Central

Context: An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Persistent groin pain and muscle imbalance may lead to athletic pubalgia. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database from 1990 to 2009, as well as a manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Results: Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey and soccer players throughout the world, approximately 10% to 11% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries have been linked to hip muscle weakness, a previous injury to that area, preseason practice sessions, and level of experience. This injury may be prevented if these risk factors are addressed before each season. Conclusion: Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for athletes, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. If groin pain persists, the possibility of athletic pubalgia needs to be explored, because of weakening or tears in the abdominal wall muscles. A diagnosis is confirmed by exclusion of other pathology. PMID:23015943

Tyler, Timothy F.; Silvers, Holly J.; Gerhardt, Michael B.; Nicholas, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

160

Comparison of hamstring muscle behavior for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patient and normal subject during local marching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to investigate the hamstring muscle activity after the surgery by carrying out an electromyography experiment on the hamstring and to compare the behavior of the ACL muscle activity between ACL patient and control subject. Electromyography (EMG) is used to study the behavior of muscles during walking activity. Two hamstring muscles involved which are semitendinosus and bicep femoris. The EMG data for both muscles were recorded while the subject did maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and marching. The study concluded that there were similarities between bicep femoris of the ACL and control subjects. The analysis showed that the biceps femoris muscle of the ACL subject had no abnormality and the pattern is as normal as the control subject. However, ACL patient has poor semitendinosus muscle strength compared to that of control subject because the differences of the forces produced. The force of semitendinosus value for control subject was two times greater than that of the ACL subject as the right semitendinosus muscle of ACL subject was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that was injured.

Amineldin@Aminudin, Nurul Izzaty Bt.; Rambely, A. S.

2014-09-01

161

Injuries in women's ice hockey: special considerations.  

PubMed

Ice hockey is a popular collision sport with a growing number of female athletes participating each year. As participation among girls and women continues to increase, it will be important to recognize common injuries occurring during women's games. Despite difference in the rules that prohibit body checking in women's and girls' games, injury profiles are similar to those of their male counterparts. Concussions, contusions, acromioclavicular joint injuries, ligamentous knee injuries, and muscle strains occur during women's ice hockey games, with groin strains accounting for the most common practice injury. This article will review both injury rates and common injuries occurring in women's ice hockey, with a focus on the observed concussion rate and groin injuries. PMID:25391093

Abbott, Kristin

2014-01-01

162

Ocular Injury  

MedlinePLUS

What causes eye injuries? Injuries to the eye and surrounding structures can be caused by blunt trauma from a ball or fist, sharp ... eye,or the eyeball itself. What are some injuries to the eyelids? Eyelid injuries usually occur as ...

163

The comparison of the immediate effects of application of the suboccipital muscle inhibition and self-myofascial release techniques in the suboccipital region on short hamstring  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to research the effect of performing the suboccipital muscle inhibition (SMI) and self-myofascial release (SMFR) techniques in the suboccipital area on the flexibility of the hamstring. [Subjects] Fifty persons with short hamstrings participated in this research. According to the results of the finger-floor distance (FFD) test, the subjects were allocated to SMI and SMFR groups of 25 subjects each. [Methods] The SMI and SMFR techniques were applied to the groups. For the analysis, we used the FFD test and the straight leg raise (SLR) test for the flexibility of hamstring. The evaluator was blindfolded. [Results] In the SMI group, FFD, SLR, and PA were significantly changed after the intervention, and in the SMFR group, there was a significant change in SLR after the intervention. In a comparison between the groups, FED was found to be significantly increased in the SMI group. [Conclusion] Application of the SMI and SMFR to persons with short hamstrings resulted in immediate increases in flexibility of the hamstring. However, we could see that the SMI technique was more effective. PMID:25642072

Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

2015-01-01

164

Injuries to athletes with disabilities: identifying injury patterns.  

PubMed

Participation in sport activities for people with disabilities continues to gain in popularity. With participation in sports, there is an inherent risk of injury. A review of current sport epidemiological studies was used and we concluded that injury patterns for this population are similar to those for athletes without disabilities. Injury data from Paralympic competitions dating back to 1976 indicate that most elite athletes with disabilities seek medical care for illness and musculo-skeletal injuries. However, there are very limited injury data regarding Winter Paralympic events or skiing injuries. For those athletes who participate in Summer Paralympic events, abrasions, strains, sprains and contusions are more common than fractures and dislocations. However, location of injuries appears to be disability and sport dependent. Lower extremity injuries are more common in ambulatory athletes (visually impaired, amputee, cerebral palsy) and upper extremity injuries are more frequent in athletes who use a wheelchair. While it appears that the majority of the injuries occurring in this population are minor in nature, inconsistencies in the definition of injury in the literature make this conclusion tenuous. When injuries are expressed as time lost in participation, 52% of injuries resulted in 7 days lost or less, 29% in 8 to 21 days lost and 19% in greater than 22 days lost. The only prospective study addressing injury rates of athletes with disabilities in a manner consistent with other sport epidemiological studies found an injury rate of 9.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AE). This injury rate is less than American football (10.1 to 15/1000 AE) and soccer (9.8/1000 AE), and greater than basketball (7.0/1000 AE). It is unclear whether comparative statistics such as these take into consideration the number of illness and injury episodes that resulted from the disability. Further complicating epidemiological studies for athletes with disabilities is the definition of the population and samples of convenience which are frequently used. These samples are often not representative of the multiplicity of disability conditions, levels of competition and range of sport activities available. Prospective studies comparing athletes to sedentary control individuals to measure differences in injury rates, type and frequency between and within disability groups, sports and levels of competition are desperately needed to further the knowledge of injury trends and develop and establish accurate injury prevention programmes. PMID:10966152

Ferrara, M S; Peterson, C L

2000-08-01

165

AN ORGANOTYPIC UNIAXIAL STRAIN MODEL USING MICROFLUIDICS  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injuries are the leading cause of disability each year in the US. The most common and devastating consequence is the stretching of axons caused by shear deformation that occurs during rotational acceleration of the brain during injury. The injury effects on axonal molecular and functional events are not fully characterized. We have developed a strain injury model that maintains the three dimensional cell architecture and neuronal networks found in vivo with the ability to visualize individual axons and their response to a mechanical injury. The advantage of this model is that it can apply uniaxial strains to axons that make functional connections between two organotypic slices and injury responses can be observed in real-time and over long term. This uniaxial strain model was designed to be capable of applying an array of mechanical strains at various rates of strain, thus replicating a range of modes of axonal injury. Long term culture, preservation of slice and cell orientation, and slice-slice connection on the device was demonstrated. The device has the ability to strain either individual axons or bundles of axons through the control of microchannel dimensions. The fidelity of the model was verified by observing characteristic responses to various strain injuries which included axonal beading, delayed elastic effects and breakdown in microtubules. Microtubule breakdown was shown to be dependent on the degree of the applied strain field, where maximal breakdown was observed at peak strain and minimal breakdown is observed at low strain. This strain injury model could be a powerful tool in assessing strain injury effects on functional axonal connections. PMID:23233120

Dollé, Jean-Pierre; Morrison, Barclay; Schloss, Rene R.; Yarmush, Martin L.

2012-01-01

166

The influence of screw geometry on hamstring tendon interference fit fixation.  

PubMed

We used a standardized model of calf tibial bone to investigate the influence of screw diameter and length on interference fit fixation of a three-stranded semitendinosus tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Biodegradable poly-(L-lactide) interference screws with a diameter of 7, 8, and 9 mm and a length of 23 and 28 mm were used. We examined results in three groups of 10 specimens each: group 1, screw diameter equaled graft diameter and screw length was 23 mm; group 2, screw diameter equaled graft diameter plus 1 mm and screw length was 23 mm; group 3, screw diameter equaled graft diameter and screw length was 28 mm. The mean pull-out forces in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 367.2+/-78 N, 479.1+/-111.1 N, and 537.4+/-139.1 N, respectively. The force data from groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher than those from group 1. These results indicate that screw geometry has a significant influence on hamstring tendon interference fit fixation. Increasing screw length improves fixation strength more than oversizing the screw diameter. This is important, especially for increasing tibial fixation strength because the tibial graft fixation site has been considered to be the weak link of such a reconstruction. PMID:10843127

Weiler, A; Hoffmann, R F; Siepe, C J; Kolbeck, S F; Südkamp, N P

2000-01-01

167

Inhalation Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

168

Corneal injury  

MedlinePLUS

... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

169

Continuous cultivation of human hamstring tenocytes on microcarriers in a spinner flask bioreactor system.  

PubMed

Tendon healing is a time consuming process leading to the formation of a functionally altered reparative tissue. Tissue engineering-based tendon reconstruction is attracting more and more interest. The aim of this study was to establish tenocyte expansion on microcarriers in continuous bioreactor cultures and to study tenocyte behavior during this new approach. Human hamstring tendon-derived tenocytes were expanded in monolayer culture before being seeded at two different seeding densities (2.00 and 4.00 3 106 cells/1000 cm2 surface) on CytodexTM type 3 microcarriers. Tenocytes’ vitality, growth kinetics and glucose/ lactic acid metabolism were determined dependent on the seeding densities and stirring velocities (20 or 40 rpm) in a spinner flask bioreactor over a period of 2 weeks. Gene expression profiles of tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) markers (type I/III collagen, decorin, cartilage oligomeric protein [COMP], aggrecan) and the tendon marker scleraxis were analyzed using real time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR). Type I collagen and decorin deposition was demonstrated applying immunolabeling. Tenocytes adhered on the carriers, remained vital, proliferated and revealed an increasing glucose consumption and lactic acid formation under all culture conditions. “Bead-to-bead” transfer of cells from one microcarrier to another, a prerequisite for continuous tenocyte expansion, was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Type I and type III collagen gene expression was mainly unaffected, whereas aggrecan and partly also decorin and COMP expression was significantly downregulated compared to monolayer cultures. Scleraxis gene expression revealed no significant regulation on the carriers. In conclusion, tenocytes could be successfully expanded on microcarriers. Therefore, bioreactors are promising tools for continuous tenocyte expansion. PMID:24124166

Stich, Stefan; Ibold, Yvonne; Abbas, Amro; Ullah, Mujib; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Müller, Christiane; Kohl, Benjamin; John, Thilo

2014-01-01

170

Combined reconstruction for posterolateral rotatory instability with anterior cruciate ligament injuries of the knee.  

PubMed

If posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI) injury in patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not diagnosed and treated, ACL reconstruction can fail. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcome after reconstructions between 2002 and 2007 of both the ACL and the posterolateral corner (PLC) in 44 knees with combined ACL and PLC injuries. The median follow-up duration was 49 months (range, 24-68 months). ACL reconstruction employed autogenous hamstring grafts from the ipsilateral knee. For grade II PLRI, a posterolateral corner sling through the fibular head was placed obliquely from the anteroinferior aspect to the posterosuperior aspect using autogenous hamstring grafts of the contralateral knee. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the OAK (Orthopadishe Arbeitsgruppe Knie) and IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) knee scoring systems. Anterior stability was measured on pull stress radiographs using a Telos stress device and the manual maximum displacement test using a KT-1000 arthrometer with the knee flexed 30 degrees. PLRI was classified according to varus and rotational instability preoperatively and at final follow-up. Median OAK scores improved from 71 points (range, 48-86) to 93 points (range, 75-100). Satisfactory IKDC results were achieved in 39 knees (89%). As for anterior stability, as measured by anterior stress radiography, mean side-to-side displacement difference dropped significantly from 6.9 +/- 1.9 preoperatively to 1.4 +/- 1.1 mm at final follow-up. Forty patients (91%) had the same or better rotational stability compared to the normal side. Varus stress radiographs showed mean side-to-side displacement differences dropped from 1.8 +/- 1.7 preoperatively to 0.4 +/- 0.8 mm at final follow-up. Thus, chronic ACL deficiency is often accompanied by grade II PLRI and can be treated successfully by arthroscopic ACL reconstruction paired with posterolateral reconstruction employing a single sling through the fibular tunnel and a hamstring tendon autograft. PMID:20182869

Lee, Sang Hak; Jung, Young Bok; Jung, Ho Joong; Song, Kwang Sup; Ko, Young Bong

2010-09-01

171

Characterization of the dose response relationship for lung injury following acute radiation exposure in three well-established murine strains: developing an interspecies bridge to link animal models with human lung.  

PubMed

Approval of radiation countermeasures through the FDA Animal Rule requires pivotal efficacy screening in one or more species that are expected to react with a response similar to humans (21 C.F.R. § 314.610, drugs; § 601.91, biologics). Animal models used in screening studies should reflect the dose response relationship (DRR), clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of lung injury in humans. Over the past 5 y, the authors have characterized systematically the temporal onset, dose-response relationship (DRR), and pathologic outcomes associated with acute, high dose radiation exposure in three diverse mouse strains. In these studies, C57L/J, CBA/J, and C57BL/6J mice received wide field irradiation to the whole thorax with shielding of the head, abdomen, and forelimbs. Doses were delivered at a rate of 69 cGy min using an x-ray source operated at 320 kVp with half-value layer (HVL) of 1 mm Cu. For all strains, radiation dose was associated significantly with 180 d mortality (p < 0.0001). The lethal dose for 50% of animals within the first 180 d (LD50/180) was 11.35 Gy (95% CI 11.1-11.6 Gy) for C57L/J mice, 14.17 Gy (95% CI 13.9-14.5 Gy) for CBA/J mice, and 14.10 Gy (95% CI 12.2-16.4 Gy) for C57BL/6J mice. The LD50/180 in the C57L/J strain was most closely analogous to the DRR for clinical incidence of pneumonitis in non-human primates (10.28 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-10.7 Gy) and humans (10.60 Gy; 95% CI 9.9-12.1 Gy). Furthermore, in the C57L/J strain, there was no gender-specific difference in DRR (p = 0.5578). The reliability of the murine models is demonstrated by the reproducibility of the dose-response and consistency of disease presentation across studies.Health Phys. 106(1):000-000; 2014. PMID:24276549

Jackson, Isabel L; Xu, Pu-Ting; Nguyen, Giao; Down, Julian D; Johnson, Cynthia S; Katz, Barry P; Hadley, Caroline C; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

2014-01-01

172

Cheerleading injuries: epidemiology and recommendations for prevention.  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention. PMID:23090348

LaBella, Cynthia R; Mjaanes, Jeffrey

2012-11-01

173

Feet injuries in rock climbers.  

PubMed

While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

2013-01-01

174

Feet injuries in rock climbers  

PubMed Central

While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

2013-01-01

175

Isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings and functional ability of anterior cruciate deficient knees in recreational athletes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that increasing the hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) isokinetic strength ratio will, in the short term, improve the functional ability of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee. METHODS: The isokinetic muscular characteristics at a speed of 60 degrees s-1 and 180 degrees s-1 of 46 recreational athletes with an arthroscopically confirmed ACL tear were determined using the Cybex II+ isokinetic dynamometer. The variables tested included peak torque, endurance ratio, total work output, and explosive power. Functional ability was scored with the Cincinnati rating system, measuring the severity of pain and swelling, the degree of giving way, and the overall ability to walk, run, ascent and descent stairs, jump and twist. RESULTS: Among all muscular characteristics, the H:Q ratio at 180 degrees s-1 at 30 degrees of knee flexion was shown to have the highest correlation to the functional score (r = 0.6249, P < 0.001). All variables involving hamstring strength were shown to be significantly correlated to the functional ability score (P < 0.01), while none of the variables involving quadriceps strength showed significant correlation with the functional ability of the injured knee. CONCLUSIONS: The H:Q ratio is strongly correlated to the functional ability of ACL deficient knees in Chinese recreational athletes. It could be used as an additional measure to guide in the decision making process in the management of ACL deficient knees. PMID:8799604

Li, R C; Maffulli, N; Hsu, Y C; Chan, K M

1996-01-01

176

An electromyographic exploratory study comparing the difference in the onset of hamstring and quadriceps contraction in patients with anterior knee pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic anterior knee pain in teenagers and young adults is a common condition. Patellar maltracking has been considered as a causative factor. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there was a difference in the timing of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the medial and lateral hamstring and quadriceps muscles of patients with anterior knee pain compared to asymptomatic

Sunit Patil; John Dixon; Lisa C. White; Alex P. Jones; Anthony C. W. Hui

2011-01-01

177

The role of estimating muscle-tendon lengths and velocities of the hamstrings in the evaluation and treatment of crouch gait  

E-print Network

February 2005; accepted 17 March 2005 Abstract Persons with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive. # 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cerebral palsy; Gait; Hamstrings; Musculoskeletal among children with cerebral palsy, is characterized by excessive knee flexion during the terminal swing

Delp, Scott

178

Measuring Strain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity utilizes randomly oriented strain markers created in Illustrator to estimate strain by measuring angular strain and lengths of lines, calculating shear strain, defining and orienting the principal strain axes, calculating stretching, and creating a Mohr Strain diagram using measurements as well as the strain equations.

Sarah Brownlee

179

Strain and strain rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung. Myokardiale Verformung (strain) und Verformungsgeschwindigkeit (strain rate) sind neue Parameter der regionalen Myokardfunktion, die sich aus Gewebedopplerdaten berechnen lassen. Sie sind weniger von der Bildqualität abhängig als die Erkennung der Endokardkontur und weniger subjektiv als die visuelle Beurteilung der Wandbewegung. Die regionalen Verformungsparameter können echokardiographisch mit sehr hoher zeitlicher Auflösung (weitaus höher als mittels Magnetresonanztomographie) errechnet werden. Dadurch werden

J.-U. Voigt; F. A. Flachskampf

2004-01-01

180

Lightning Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning strikes the earth millions of times every day. Lightning causes serious injuries in 1000- 1500 individuals and over 1000 people death every year worldwide. Lightning causes damage to a wide range of body systems including cardiopulmonary, neurological, vascular, cutaneous burns, ophthalmic, and otological injuries. The most common cause of death in lightning strikes is cardiop- ulmonary arrest. If multiple

Hsien-Tsung Hsu; Tzong-Luen Wang

2004-01-01

181

High school football injuries: Identifying the risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This epidemiologic survey of the literature on the factors contributing to the high number of high school football injuries consolidates the current information on the characteristics and risk factors associated with these injuries. To reduce the incidence of knee sprains and strains, the most common injuries to this population, the following preventive recommendations are pre sented : 1) optimum maintenance

Brian Halpern; Nancy Thompson; Walton W. Curl; James R. Andrews; Stephen C. Hunter; John R. Boring

1987-01-01

182

Rowing Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

2012-01-01

183

Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Newly Accepted Strain Details Strain Code: 01XBU  Common Strain Name: p16INKa4a L   Strain Nomenclature: B6.129(Cg)-Cdkn2atm2.1Nesh/Nci/Nci  Register Interest in this Strain Strain Description: Conditional knockout for p16INK4a gene when deleted somatically

184

Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Newly Accepted Strain Details Strain Code: 01XJA  Common Strain Name: PML (conventional k/o) - C57BL/6  Strain Nomenclature: B6.129S7-Pmltm1Ppp>/Nci  Register Interest in this Strain Strain Description: The promyelocytic leukemia gene PML was originally

185

Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes and proper riding technique, coupled with attentive and proper behaviour, are encouraged to reduce unnecessary injury. This article provides information on the causation and risk factors associated with injury among young mountain bikers, and recommendations to minimize trauma and enhance optimal performance and long-term enjoyment in this outdoor sport. PMID:20020788

Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

2010-01-01

186

Sports injuries in adolescents' ball games: soccer, handball and basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective study of 302 adolescent players in three ball games (soccer, handball and basketball), 119 incurred injuries. The injury incidence (number of injuries per 1000 playing hours) was 5.6 in soccer, 4.1 in handball and 3.0 in basketball. Ankle sprains accounted for 25 per cent of the injuries, finger sprains 32 per cent, strains in the thigh and

J Yde; A B Nielsen

1990-01-01

187

Overuse Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... physical examination. This is best done by a sports medicine specialist with specific interest and knowledge of your ... relieve symptoms. OVERUSE INJURIES If symptoms persist, a sports medicine specialist will be able to create a more ...

188

Head Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... object that's stuck in the wound. Back Continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

189

Blast Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... DVBIC & TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Blast Injuries (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati) ... games. More Information: 04/12/11: Research Examines Blast Impact on Human Brain 04/06/09: Military ...

190

Elbow Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sports-related elbow injuries have increased over the last decade. With one in every four members of a household participating\\u000a in sports, both clinics and radiology departments are seeing more patients with elbow injuries. The most common clinical presentation\\u000a is lateral elbow pain. Familiar terms such as “tennis elbow,” “golfer’s elbow,” and “little leaguer’s elbow,” are mostly due\\u000a to the popularity

Kenneth S. Lee; Michael J. Tuite; Humberto G. Rosas

191

Incidence of injury in kickboxing participation.  

PubMed

Cardio kickboxing classes have become a popular form of exercise to enhance fitness. This study surveyed kickboxing participants and instructors to ascertain the severity, type, and incidence of injuries sustained while performing cardio kickboxing exercise. The respondents consisted of 77.4% instructors and 29.3% participants with a mean age of 32.29 years (+/-8.98 years). Injury from kickboxing exercise was reported by 29.3% of the respondents, 31% of the instructors, and 15.5% of the participants. The most common site of injury for instructors was the back, followed by the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common site of injury for participants was the back, knee, and ankle. Strains were the most common type of injury reported, followed by sprains and tendinitis. More than half of the injuries reported were new injuries (64%), with almost 59% of the total injuries reported causing a disruption of the normal exercise routine or an alteration of normal daily activities. Instructors who reported using music speeds greater than 140 beats per minute had a higher incidence of injury, compared with instructors who used music between 125 and 139 beats per minute. The wrist and elbow had the highest percentage of new injuries reported. This study suggests that kickboxing exercise can be a safe form of exercise for fitness purposes. Keeping music speeds below 140 beats per minute and limiting the number of kickboxing sessions per week may help to reduce injury rates. PMID:12930190

Romaine, Linda J; Davis, Shala E; Casebolt, Kevin; Harrison, Kelly A

2003-08-01

192

Patellar Tendon Versus Hamstring Tendon Autografts for Reconstructing the Anterior Cruciate LigamentA Meta-Analysis Based on Individual Patient Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The best means of ensuring knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains a core debate in sports medicine.Hypothesis: There is no difference between ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendon autografts with regard to postoperative knee laxity and instability.Study Design: Meta-analysis of individual patient data.Methods: Pooled analysis of individual patient data from 6 published randomized clinical

David Jean Biau; Sandrine Katsahian; Jüri Kartus; Arsi Harilainen; Julian A. Feller; Matjaz Sajovic; Lars Ejerhed; Stefano Zaffagnini; Martin Röpke; Rémy Nizard

2009-01-01

193

A 10Year Comparison of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions With Hamstring Tendon and Patellar Tendon AutograftA Controlled, Prospective Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are no controlled, prospective studies comparing the 10-year outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon (PT) and 4-strand hamstring tendon (HT) autografts.Hypothesis: Comparable results are possible with HT and PT autografts.Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.Methods: One hundred eighty ACL-deficient knees that met inclusion criteria underwent ACL reconstruction (90 HT autograft, 90 PT

Leo A. Pinczewski; Jeffrey Lyman; Lucy J. Salmon; Vivianne J. Russell; Justin Roe; James Linklater

2007-01-01

194

Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests as a measure of hamstring extensibility in athletes.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (a) to determine and compare the concurrent hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests in different athletes (tennis players, kayakers, canoeists, and cyclists); (b) to determine the criterion-related validity of the pelvic tilt assessed by the Spinal Mouse system as a measure of hamstring flexibility in athletes; and (c) to evaluate the influence of spinal posture, pelvic tilt, and hamstring muscle flexibility in the SR and TT scores. Twenty-four tennis players, 30 canoeists, 43 kayakers, and 44 cyclists were recruited. Passive straight leg raise (PSLR), SR, and TT tests were randomly performed. Spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system when the maximal trunk flexion was achieved in the SR and TT tests. Tennis players and cyclists showed moderate correlations between PSLR with respect to SR (? = 0.78 and ? = 0.76, respectively) and TT (? = 0.77 and ? = 0.74, respectively). Correlations were slightly lower in canoeists (SR, ? = 0.64; TT, ? = 0.75). Kayakers showed the lowest correlation values (SR, ? = 0.53; TT, ? = 0.57). Correlation values between PSLR and pelvic tilt angle in both the SR and TT tests were ? < 0.70 in all the groups of athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed a high variance explained from pelvic tilt and lumbar spine in the SR score. In conclusion, the SR and TT tests can be appropriate measures to determine spine flexibility and pelvic tilt range of motion but not to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in tennis players, canoeists, kayakers, and cyclists. PMID:24476746

Muyor, José M; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

2014-02-01

195

Ankle Injury TYPES OF ANKLE INJURIES  

E-print Network

Ankle Injury TYPES OF ANKLE INJURIES: Ankle injuries can be acute or chronic in nature. Inverting (turning in) of the ankle, accounts for most acute injuries. Damage occurs when ankle is twisted or moved. Sometimes, a severe injury or repeated sprain can cause chronic (recurrent) ankle pain. Chronic problems

Virginia Tech

196

Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES  

E-print Network

Knee Injury TYPES OF KNEE INJURIES: Knee injuries can be acute or chronic in nature. A direct blow or twisting of the knee accounts for most acute injuries. Chronic problems arise from overuse of the joint, such as contact sports or any repetitive movements involving the knee can increase risk for injury. TREATING KNEE

Virginia Tech

197

Reliability of panoramic ultrasound imaging in simultaneously examining muscle size and quality of the hamstring muscles in young, healthy males and females.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of ultrasound (US) measures of cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) of the hamstrings, with comparisons between males and females. In 20 healthy participants (10 males, 10 females), CSA, MT and EI were measured from panoramic US scans of the hamstrings on 2 separate days. The intra-class correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement as a percentage of the mean for CSA, MT and EI ranged from 0.715 to 0.984 and from 3.145 to 12.541% in the males and from 0.724 to 0.977 and from 4.571 to 17.890% in the females, respectively. The males had greater CSAs and MTs and lower EIs than the females (p = 0.002-0.049), and significant relationships were observed between CSA and MT (r = 0.714-0.938, p ? 0.001-0.023). From an overall reliability standpoint, these findings suggest that panoramic US may be a reliable technique for examining muscle size and quality of the hamstrings in both males and females. PMID:25683219

Palmer, Ty B; Akehi, Kazuma; Thiele, Ryan M; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

2015-03-01

198

Cold injuries.  

PubMed

Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood vessels in the feet, is observed in shipwreck survivors or in soldiers whose feet have been wet, but not freezing, for long periods. Patients with frostbite frequently present with multisystem injuries (e.g., systemic hypothermia, blunt trauma, substance abuse). The freezing of the corneas has been reported to occur in individuals who keep their eyes open in high wind-chill situations without protective goggles (e.g., snowmobilers, cross-country skiers). PMID:15715518

Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

2005-01-01

199

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

200

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

201

Preventing Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

202

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Injury Prevention & Control : Traumatic Brain Injury CDC's Injury Center Share Compartir This Page has ... redirected to a new page on the Traumatic Brain Injury website. If you have this page book marked, ...

203

Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... of Cold Injuries Hypothermia Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries Frostbite Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Injuries and Poisoning > Cold Injuries 4 ...

204

Strain Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Structural geology laboratory on strain analysis. Emphasizes basic methods for determining strain from points, lines, ellipses, and polygons. Introduces two-dimensional strain using hyperboloidal geometry and projections. Students use the computer program EllipseFit to digitize and analyze images. Higher level material on hyperboloidal contouring, pre-strain fabrics, and three-dimensional analysis may be included.

Frederick Vollmer

205

Natural Strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

Freed, Alan D.

1997-01-01

206

Hand Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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207

Testicular Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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208

Foot Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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209

Leg Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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210

Knee Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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211

Shoulder Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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212

Elbow Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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213

Coccygeal Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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214

Ankle Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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215

Wrist Injury  

MedlinePLUS

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216

Impact of limited hamstring flexibility on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility in young football players.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyse the impact of limited hamstring flexibility (HF) on specific football skills, such as sprinting and jumping ability, agility, and kicking speed in young football players. Forty-three male football players (aged 14-18) from a semi-professional football academy participated voluntarily in this study. Data about anthropometric measurements, HF (unilateral passive straight-leg raise test: PSLR), vertical jumping ability (countermovement jump: CMJ), sprinting ability (5, 10, 20 m: S5 m, S10 m, S20 m), agility (Balsom agility test: BAT), and kicking speed in terms of ball speed (dominant and non-dominant leg: KSdom and KSnon-dom) were collected. Cluster analysis grouped according to HF, dividing participants into a flexible group (FG, n = 24) and a non-flexible group (NFG, n = 19) in relation to performances on the PSLR test. Despite finding no significant differences between groups in body composition and age, the FG performed better in terms of sprint scores (S5 m: 6.12%, S10 m: 4.09%, S20 m: 3.29%), BAT score (4.11%), CMJ score (10.49%), and scores for KSdom (6.86%) and KSnon-dom (8%) than the NFG. The results suggest that HF is a key factor for performing football-specific skills, such as sprinting, jumping, agility, and kicking in young football players. These results support the rationale that muscle flexibility must be specifically trained in football players beginning at early ages. PMID:25761523

García-Pinillos, F; Ruiz-Ariza, A; Moreno Del Castillo, R; Latorre-Román, P Á

2015-06-01

217

Natural Strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

Freed, Alan D.

1995-01-01

218

An integrated approach to change the outcome part I: neuromuscular screening methods to identify high ACL injury risk athletes.  

PubMed

An important step for treatment of a particular injury etiology is the appropriate application of a treatment targeted to the population at risk. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk algorithm has been defined that employs field-based techniques in lieu of laboratory-based motion analysis systems to identify athletes with high ACL injury risk landing strategies. The resultant field-based assessment techniques, in combination with the developed prediction algorithm, allow for low-cost identification of athletes who may be at increased risk of sustaining ACL injury. The combined simplicity and accuracy of the field-based tool facilitate its use to identify specific factors that may increase risk of injury in female athletes. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate novel algorithmic techniques to accurately capture and analyze measures of knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length and quadriceps to hamstrings ratio with video analysis software typically used by coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, and athletic trainers. The field-based measurements and software analyses were used in a prediction algorithm to identify those at potential risk of noncontact ACL injury that may directly benefit from neuromuscular training. PMID:22580976

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Brent, Jensen L; Hewett, Timothy E

2012-08-01

219

An Integrated Approach To Change the Outcome Part I: Neuromuscular Screening Methods To Identify High Acl Injury Risk Athletes  

PubMed Central

An important step for treatment of a particular injury etiology is the appropriate application of a treatment targeted to the population at risk. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk algorithm has been defined that employs field-based techniques in lieu of laboratory-based motion analysis systems to identify athletes with high ACL injury risk landing strategies. The resultant field-based assessment techniques, in combination with the developed prediction algorithm, allow for low-cost identification of athletes who may be at increased risk of sustaining ACL injury. The combined simplicity and accuracy of the field-based tool facilitate its use to identify specific factors that may increase risk of injury in female athletes. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate novel algorithmic techniques to accurately capture and analyze measures of knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length and quadriceps to hamstrings ratio with video analysis software typically used by coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, and athletic trainers. The field-based measurements and software analyses were used in a prediction algorithm to identify those at potential risk of noncontact ACL injury that may directly benefit from neuromuscular training. PMID:22580976

Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Brent, Jensen L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

220

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD).  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with CVD susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic CVD will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...

221

Youth Versus Adult “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

222

Pediatric sports elbow injuries.  

PubMed

Elbow injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can be categorized as medial tension injuries, lateral compression injuries, and posterior shear injuries. Early and accurate diagnosis can improve outcomes for both nonoperative and operative treatments. Prevention strategies are important to help reduce the increasing incidence of elbow injuries in youth athletes. PMID:20883904

Greiwe, R Michael; Saifi, Comron; Ahmad, Christopher S

2010-10-01

223

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries  

PubMed Central

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-01-01

224

Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.  

PubMed

This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to be younger than 18 years. Recent rule changes have no significant effect on head injuries. PMID:20037692

Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

2009-12-01

225

High knee abduction moments are common risk factors for patellofemoral pain (PFP) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in girls: Is PFP itself a predictor for subsequent ACL injury?  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying risk factors for knee pain and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be an important step in the injury prevention cycle. Objective We evaluated two unique prospective cohorts with similar populations and methodologies to compare the incidence rates and risk factors associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and ACL injury. Methods The ‘PFP cohort’ consisted of 240 middle and high school female athletes. They were evaluated by a physician and underwent anthropometric assessment, strength testing and three-dimensional landing biomechanical analyses prior to their basketball season. 145 of these athletes met inclusion for surveillance of incident (new) PFP by certified athletic trainers during their competitive season. The ‘ACL cohort’ included 205 high school female volleyball, soccer and basketball athletes who underwent the same anthropometric, strength and biomechanical assessment prior to their competitive season and were subsequently followed up for incidence of ACL injury. A one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate potential group (incident PFP vs ACL injured) differences in anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Knee abduction moment (KAM) cut-scores that provided the maximal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of PFP or ACL injury risk were also compared between the cohorts. Results KAM during landing above 15.4 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk to develop PFP compared to a 2.9% risk if below the PFP risk threshold in our sample. Likewise, a KAM above 25.3 Nm was associated with a 6.8% risk for subsequent ACL injury compared to a 0.4% risk if below the established ACL risk threshold. The ACL-injured athletes initiated landing with a greater knee abduction angle and a reduced hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio relative to the incident PFP group. Also, when comparing across cohorts, the athletes who suffered ACL injury also had lower hamstring/quadriceps ratio than the players in the PFP sample (p<0.05). Conclusions In adolescent girls aged 13.3 years, >15 Nm of knee abduction load during landing is associated with greater likelihood of developing PFP. Also, in girls aged 16.1 years who land with >25 Nm of knee abduction load during landing are at increased risk for both PFP and ACL injury. PMID:24687011

Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Di Stasi, Stephanie L; Foss, Kim D Barber; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

2014-01-01

226

Timing sequence of multi-planar knee kinematics revealed by physiologic cadaveric simulation of landing: Implications for ACL injury mechanism  

E-print Network

strain occurred, while both anterior tibial translation and knee abduction had already reached: Anterior cruciate ligament Biomechanics Cadaveric experiments Landing Injury Background: Challenges-contact injury mechanisms. Biomechanical testing on human cadaveric tissue, if properly designed, offers

Cooper, Robin L.

227

Arthroscopically Assisted Combined Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Autologous Hamstring Grafts–Isokinetic Assessment with Control Group  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the study was to: 1) evaluate the differences in pre-post operative knee functioning, mechanical stability, isokinetic knee muscle strength in simultaneous arthroscopic patients after having undergone an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) with hamstring tendons reconstruction, 2) compare the results of ACL/PCL patients with the control group. Design Controlled Laboratory Study. Materials and Methods Results of 11 ACL/PCL patients had been matched with 22 uninjured control participants (CP). Prior to surgery, and minimum 2 years after it, functional assessment (Lysholm and IKDC 2000), mechanical knee joint stability evaluation (Lachman and “drawer” test) and isokinetic tests (bilateral knee muscle examination) had been performed. Different rehabilitation exercises had been used: isometric, passive exercises, exercises increasing the range of motion and proprioception, strength exercises and specific functional exercises. Results After arthroscopy no significant differences had been found between the injured and uninjured leg in all isokinetic parameters in ACL/PCL patients. However, ACL/PCL patients had still shown significantly lower values of strength in relative isokinetic knee flexors (p?=?0.0065) and extensors (p?=?0.0171) compared to the CP. There were no differences between groups regarding absolute isokinetic strength and flexors/extensors ratio. There was statistically significant progress in IKDC 2000 (p?=?0.0044) and Lysholm (p?=?0.0044) scales prior to (44 and 60 points respectively) and after the reconstruction (61 for IKDC 2000 and 94 points for Lysholm). Conclusions Although harvesting tendons of semitendinosus and/or gracilis from the healthy extremity diminishes muscle strength of knee flexors in comparison to the CP, flexor strength had improved. Statistically significant improvement of the knee extensor function may indicate that the recreation of joint mechanical stability is required for restoring normal muscle strength. Without restoring normal muscle function and strength, surgical intervention alone may not be sufficient enough to ensure expected improvement of the articular function. PMID:24386099

Piontek, Tomasz; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Szulc, Andrzej; Naczk, Jakub; Wardak, Martyna; Trzaska, Tadeusz; Dudzinski, Witold; Grygorowicz, Monika

2013-01-01

228

Wounds and Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

229

Spinal injury - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury Association - ...

230

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

231

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric Autologous BMMNC for Severe TBI The purpose of this study ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

232

Nerve Injuries in Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

Collins, Kathryn; And Others

1988-01-01

233

Preventing Children's Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... type of injury. For acute injuries , many pediatric sports medicine specialists usually take a "better safe than sorry" ... or if your child needs to see a sports medicine specialist. Doctors usually can diagnose overuse injuries by ...

234

Head injury - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

... a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the ... function. This is called a traumatic brain injury. Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury. Symptoms of ...

235

Spinal Cord Injury Map  

MedlinePLUS

Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what part of the spinal cord is damaged, as well ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

236

Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric rehabilitation ...

237

Bilateral Simultaneous Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Case Report and National Survey of Orthopedic Surgeon Management Preference  

PubMed Central

Unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common injury seen by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. However, a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury is extremely rare and has been reported only three times in the literature. We present a young female skier with simultaneous bilateral ACL tears that were managed with staged ACL reconstruction. We then conducted a nationwide survey (United States) to determine the prevalence of simultaneous bilateral ACL tear and preferred management strategies by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. Sports medicine fellowship directors were contacted and asked to send an 8-item survey to colleagues (sports medicine fellowship trained surgeons) asking about overall number of ACL reconstructions performed, number of bilateral simultaneous ACL injuries seen and optimal management strategies of such an injury. Out of 43 responses, only 22 (51.2%) surgeons had seen a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury. Of these, 16 (76.2%) preferred staged reconstruction. Graft choice was mixed between autograft and allograft, but a large majority preferred either patellar tendon autograft (58%) or hamstring autograft (41%) were the most common choice. Staged reconstruction is the treatment of choice by surgeons surveyed in our study. PMID:25568728

Saadat, Ehsan; Curry, Emily J.; Li, Xinning; Matzkin, Elizabeth G.

2014-01-01

238

Bilateral simultaneous anterior cruciate ligament injury: a case report and national survey of orthopedic surgeon management preference.  

PubMed

Unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common injury seen by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. However, a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury is extremely rare and has been reported only three times in the literature. We present a young female skier with simultaneous bilateral ACL tears that were managed with staged ACL reconstruction. We then conducted a nationwide survey (United States) to determine the prevalence of simultaneous bilateral ACL tear and preferred management strategies by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. Sports medicine fellowship directors were contacted and asked to send an 8-item survey to colleagues (sports medicine fellowship trained surgeons) asking about overall number of ACL reconstructions performed, number of bilateral simultaneous ACL injuries seen and optimal management strategies of such an injury. Out of 43 responses, only 22 (51.2%) surgeons had seen a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury. Of these, 16 (76.2%) preferred staged reconstruction. Graft choice was mixed between autograft and allograft, but a large majority preferred either patellar tendon autograft (58%) or hamstring autograft (41%) were the most common choice. Staged reconstruction is the treatment of choice by surgeons surveyed in our study. PMID:25568728

Saadat, Ehsan; Curry, Emily J; Li, Xinning; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

2014-10-27

239

Mechanical ventilation after injury.  

PubMed

Injury is a major cause of critical illness worldwide. Severely injured patients often require mechanical ventilation not only to manage primary respiratory failure but also as adjunct to manage other conditions. Injury induces fundamental changes in multiple organ systems which directly impact ventilator management; these changes are not shared by patients without concomitant tissue injury. In this article, we review the physiologic changes after injury and discuss the impact of injury on ventilator strategies and management. We also explore the special considerations in patients with traumatic brain injury, thermal injury, blast injury or bronchopleural fistula. PMID:22956744

Maung, Adrian A; Kaplan, Lewis J

2014-01-01

240

Effects of abdominal drawing-in during prone hip extension on the muscle activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae in subjects with lumbar hyperlordosis.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), measured using a pressure bio-feedback unit, on the activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles during prone hip extension. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult subjects (14 male, 16 female), were recruited. Subjects' lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt angles were measured, and based on the results, the subjects were divided into two groups: a hyperlordotic lumbar angle (HLLA) group (n=15) and a normal lordotic lumbar angle (NLLA) group (n=15). The muscle activities of the hamstring and gluteus maximus, and of the erector spinae on the right side of the body, were recorded using surface electromyography. [Results] When performing ADIM with prone hip extension, the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus of the HLLA group significantly improved compared with that the NLLA group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that ADIM with prone hip extension was more effective at eliciting gluteus maximus activity in the HLLA group than in the NLLA group. Therefore, ADIM with prone hip extension may be useful for increasing the gluteus maximus activity of individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. PMID:25729173

Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

2015-02-01

241

Revision anterior capsular shoulder stabilization using hamstring tendon autograft and tibialis tendon allograft reinforcement: minimum two-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Surgical treatment of anterior shoulder capsular deficiency has been a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons dealing with failed anterior shoulder stabilization procedures. We have used hamstring tendon autograft or tibialis tendon allograft to reinforce deficient anterior capsular tissue in patients with failed anterior shoulder stabilization. We performed a clinical follow-up of 15 patients at a minimum of 2 years after surgery, using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons questionnaire, a physical examination, and radiographs. Thirteen patients were satisfied with their surgery. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 73, (range, 7-100). There were no postoperative dislocations. The operative shoulder had decreased range of motion compared with the contralateral shoulder. The operative arm lacked 10 degrees of forward flexion, 21 degrees of external rotation at the side, 24 degrees of external rotation with the arm in abduction, and 4 spinal levels of internal rotation. Two patients required total shoulder arthroplasty for painful glenohumeral arthritis. Clinical failure was related to glenohumeral arthritis or residual anterior shoulder apprehension. Our results support the use of hamstring autograft or tibialis anterior allograft for the reconstruction of the anterior capsule during revision shoulder stabilization surgery. PMID:17321165

Alcid, Jess G; Powell, Scott E; Tibone, James E

2007-01-01

242

Patellar tendon and hamstring moment-arms and cross-sectional area in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and controls.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the moment-arm and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the patellar tendon (PT) and the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The right knee of five males who underwent ACL reconstruction with a PT graft and five age-matched controls was scanned using magnetic resonance image scans. Based on three-dimensional (3D) solids of the PT, CSAs and moment-arms of semitendinous (ST), biceps femoris (BF) long head and semimembranosus (SM) were estimated. Analysis of variance indicated no significant group differences in muscle moment-arms (p>0.05). 3D moment-arms of PT, ST and BF were significantly lower than the corresponding 2D values (p < 0.05). The ACL group displayed a significantly higher maximum BF CSA, a lower ST CSA (p < 0.05) but similar PT and SM CSAs compared with controls. It is concluded that any alterations in PT properties 1 year after harvesting do not affect knee muscle moment-arms compared with age-matched controls. Moment-arm estimation differed between 3D and 2D data, although it did not affect comparisons between ACL reconstruction group and controls. Design of rehabilitation programmes should take into consideration a potential alteration in hamstring morphology following surgery with a PT graft. PMID:24460238

Kellis, Eleftherios; Karagiannidis, Evaggelos; Patsika, Glykeria

2015-08-01

243

Effects of abdominal drawing-in during prone hip extension on the muscle activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae in subjects with lumbar hyperlordosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), measured using a pressure bio-feedback unit, on the activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles during prone hip extension. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult subjects (14 male, 16 female), were recruited. Subjects’ lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt angles were measured, and based on the results, the subjects were divided into two groups: a hyperlordotic lumbar angle (HLLA) group (n=15) and a normal lordotic lumbar angle (NLLA) group (n=15). The muscle activities of the hamstring and gluteus maximus, and of the erector spinae on the right side of the body, were recorded using surface electromyography. [Results] When performing ADIM with prone hip extension, the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus of the HLLA group significantly improved compared with that the NLLA group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that ADIM with prone hip extension was more effective at eliciting gluteus maximus activity in the HLLA group than in the NLLA group. Therefore, ADIM with prone hip extension may be useful for increasing the gluteus maximus activity of individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. PMID:25729173

Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

2015-01-01

244

Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players  

PubMed Central

Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non?dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis?specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

2007-01-01

245

Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-10-01

246

Correlation between Injury Pattern and Finite Element Analysis in Biomechanical Reconstructions of Traumatic Brain Injuries.  

PubMed

At present, Finite Element (FE) analyses are often used as a tool to better understand the mechanisms of head injury. Previously, these models have been compared to cadaver experiments, with the next step under development being accident reconstructions. Thus far, the main focus has been on deriving an injury threshold and little effort has been put into correlating the documented injury location with the response displayed by the FE model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce a novel image correlation method that compares the response of the FE model with medical images. The injuries shown on the medical images were compared to the strain pattern in the FE model and evaluated by two indices; the Overlap Index (OI) and the Location Index (LI). As the name suggests, OI measures the area which indicates both injury in the medical images and high strain values in the FE images. LI evaluates the difference in center of mass in the medical and FE images. A perfect match would give an OI and LI equal to 1. This method was applied to three bicycle accident reconstructions. The reconstructions gave an average OI between 0.01 and 0.19 for the three cases and between 0.39 and 0.88 for LI. Performing injury reconstructions are a challenge as the information from the accidents often is uncertain. The suggested method evaluates the response in an objective way which can be used in future injury reconstruction studies. PMID:25817473

Fahlstedt, Madelen; Depreitere, Bart; Halldin, Peter; Vander Sloten, Jos; Kleiven, Svein

2015-05-01

247

Head Injuries in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

Pennington, Nicole

2010-01-01

248

Head injuries in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common

R C Cantu

1996-01-01

249

Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Spinal Cord Injury Information Page Condensed from Spinal Cord Injury: Hope Through Research Table of Contents (click to jump to ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Spinal Cord Injury? A spinal cord injury usually begins with a ...

250

Alterations in body composition and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation training in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate alterations in body composition variables and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training in an adult population with spinal cord injury (SCI). Fourteen sedentary adults with SCI (thoracic [T]4-T11; American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A/B; time since injury: 10.17 +/- 11.17 yr) were recruited from the National SCI database. Four adhesive electrodes (175 cm2 each) were placed bilaterally on the proximal and distal quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups and subtetanic contractions were elicited using a handheld NMES device. Lean body mass (LBM) and other body composition variables were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spasticity was measured using the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATs) and visual analog scales. Verbal and written feedback was obtained to subjectively evaluate spasticity. LBM and spasticity measurements were taken before and after an 8 wk NMES training program in order to assess change. A statistically significant increase in lower-limb LBM, i.e., muscle tissue (p > 0.001), and a reduction in SCATs (p < 0.001) score, indicating reduced spasticity, was observed. Subjective responses were positive. Improvements in body composition and SCATs scores indicate that subtetanic NMES training elicits favorable responses and may have important clinical implications for an SCI population. PMID:23761000

Carty, Amanda; McCormack, Kirsty; Coughlan, Garret F; Crowe, Louis; Caulfield, Brian

2013-01-01

251

Accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy.  

PubMed

People with pilepsy are thought to be at an increased risk of accidents and injuries. This results in stigmatization of patients with epilepsy and contributes to a number of limitations in their daily living activities. However, even with differing results, several observational studies (including a large multicenter European survey) report that most accidental injuries are minor and are mostly caused by an epileptogenic clinical condition, an associated handicap or the recurrence of seizures. Domestic, street and work accidents are, in decreasing order, the most common places for such injuries to occur. Contusions and wounds are the most common injuries, followed by abrasions, fractures, brain concussions, sprains/strains and burns. Associated handicaps and comorbidity, where present, as well as antiepileptic drugs, may cause accidents and injuries by impairing cognitive functions and increasing the patient's susceptibility to suffer from the complications of injuries. Patients with epilepsy are also at a slightly higher risk of accidental death than the general population; accidental causes include fires and flames, drowning, suffocation, foreign bodies, falls, suicide and transport accidents. When epileptogenic conditions and seizure-related events are excluded, patients with epilepsy are only at a slightly greater risk of accidents and injuries than the general population. PMID:19210202

Beghi, Ettore

2009-02-01

252

Traumatic brain injury using mouse models.  

PubMed

The use of mouse models in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has several advantages compared to other animal models including low cost of breeding, easy maintenance, and innovative technology to create genetically modified strains. Studies using knockout and transgenic mice demonstrating functional gain or loss of molecules provide insight into basic mechanisms of TBI. Mouse models provide powerful tools to screen for putative therapeutic targets in TBI. This article reviews currently available mouse models that replicate several clinical features of TBI such as closed head injuries (CHI), penetrating head injuries, and a combination of both. CHI may be caused by direct trauma creating cerebral concussion or contusion. Sudden acceleration-deceleration injuries of the head without direct trauma may also cause intracranial injury by the transmission of shock waves to the brain. Recapitulation of temporary cavities that are induced by high-velocity penetrating objects in the mouse brain are difficult to produce, but slow brain penetration injuries in mice are reviewed. Synergistic damaging effects on the brain following systemic complications are also described. Advantages and disadvantages of CHI mouse models induced by weight drop, fluid percussion, and controlled cortical impact injuries are compared. Differences in the anatomy, biomechanics, and behavioral evaluations between mice and humans are discussed. Although the use of mouse models for TBI research is promising, further development of these techniques is warranted. PMID:24493632

Zhang, Yi Ping; Cai, Jun; Shields, Lisa B E; Liu, Naikui; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Shields, Christopher B

2014-08-01

253

Low-back injuries in a heavy industry. I. Worker and workplace factors.  

PubMed

The costs and circumstances of low-back strains, low-back impact injuries, and non-low-back injuries among field employees of an offshore petroleum drilling company, 1979-1985, were compared. The objectives were to identify worker and workplace factors associated with low-back injuries, to identify factors differentially associated with lost-time injuries, and to formulate recommendations for the control of low-back injuries. Low-back-impact injuries resulted largely from falls. Efforts to prevent falls would have a potential to reduce other serious consequences as well as back injuries. Workers performing the heaviest physical labor were at highest risk of low-back strains. Based on activities precipitating the injury, modifications of work site, equipment, and procedures to help reduce low-back strains are recommended. Only job was a predictor of whether a low-back strain was likely to be associated with lost time. Even this association was lacking for low-back impact injuries. Cost control by preventing the small proportion of high cost injuries may not be feasible. Rather, subsets of low-back injuries defined, for example, by work site or activity can suggest options for intervention. PMID:1833829

Clemmer, D I; Mohr, D L; Mercer, D J

1991-07-01

254

Martial arts injuriesThe results of a five year national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5 year national survey of martial arts was done using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Seventy-four percent of the injuries involved the extremities and 95% were mild to moderate in nature. Even though most of the injury types were contusions\\/abrasions (36%), lacerations (14%), and sprains\\/strains (28%), 15% were dislocations and frac tures. Five percent of all injuries

R. B. Birrer; S. P. Halbrook

1988-01-01

255

The nature and circumstances of tackle injuries in rugby union.  

PubMed

This study describes the nature and circumstances of injury occurring in rugby union tackles (33% of 569 injury events) using data from the Rugby Injury and Performance Project (RIPP) and provides supplementary information on the nature of tackles involving injury from analysis of videotape of tackle injury events. The most common tackle injuries in the RIPP data were sprains/strains (41%) followed by haematomas/bruising (26%). The most frequently injured body sites were the head/neck/face (22%) and the knee (17%). The ball carrier and tackler were injured in tackles in similar proportions in both RIPP and New Zealand Rugby Football Union (NZRFU) video tackle incidents. Both players were most often in motion in the tackle at the time of injury with approximately 70% of injuries occurring when the injured player was running or diving/falling to the ground. Tackle injury was most often caused by impact with another player rather than impact with the ground. The use of protective padding may reduce the risk of impact injury. The majority of tackle injuries were associated with stopping tackles to the trunk which were from the front (63%), rather than from the side or behind. Thus consideration should be given to coaching strategies or to rule changes which reduce the likelihood or prohibit front-on tackles. PMID:10476979

Wilson, B D; Quarrie, K L; Milburn, P D; Chalmers, D J

1999-06-01

256

Assessment of injuries sustained in mixed martial arts competition.  

PubMed

Mixed martial arts (MMA) competitions have gained much popularity, and the sport is watched by many millions annually. Despite ongoing controversy, there have been no objective studies of the injuries sustained in MMA based on on-site evaluation. In the study reported in this article, we attempted to delineate injury patterns for MMA participants. We conducted an observational cohort study of MMA competitions held in Hawaii between 1999 and 2006. The study included 116 bouts, involving 232 "exposures" and 179 male participants between ages 18 and 40. All the fighters were examined by 1 of 4 physicians, both before and after each bout. Fighters were referred to an emergency department when necessary, and follow-up was recommended as needed. Among the 232 exposures were 55 injuries: 28 abrasions and lacerations (6 requiring on-site suturing or referral to an emergency department for suturing), 11 concussions (4 with retrograde amnesia), 5 facial injuries (2 nasal fractures, 1 tympanum rupture, 1 temporomandibular joint sprain, 1 Le Fort fracture), and 11 orthopedic injuries (3 metacarpal injuries, with 1 confirmed fracture; 1 acromioclavicular separation; 1 traumatic olecranon bursitis; 1 elbow subluxation; 1 midfoot sprain; 1 aggravation of elbow medial collateral ligament sprain; 1 elbow lateral collateral ligament strain; 1 trapezius strain; 1 Achilles tendon contusion). We describe the injuries sustained in MMA competition to make comparisons with other sports. We discuss distribution and mechanism of injuries as well as injury incidence based on on-site evaluation in MMA. PMID:20567743

Scoggin, James F; Brusovanik, Georgiy; Pi, Michael; Izuka, Byron; Pang, Pierre; Tokumura, Seren; Scuderi, Gaetano

2010-05-01

257

Contractional Strain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use gesture to describe the bulk deformation and local deformation apparent in images of a contractional analog experiment. Students then calculate bulk shortening and bulk thickening for the experiment and describe the structures accommodating that strain.

Carol Ormand

258

Severe snowboarding injuries.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven consecutive patients with severe snowboard-related injuries (defined by referral to a Level I trauma centre) were reviewed. The type and mechanism of each injury were examined and found to be similar to those reported for skiers. Mild closed head injuries were common (54 per cent). Head and abdominal injuries were more common among snowboarders than skiers, but chest and skeletal injuries were rare. There were no deaths. Serious snowboarding injury rates were similar to those for serious skiing injuries. The incidence of snowboarding injuries sufficiently severe to require tertiary referral was estimated at 0.03 injuries/1000 snowboarder days. Similar to reports of minor snowboarding injury, these data indicate that injury patterns in more serious snowboarding accidents are quite different from those of serious downhill skiing accidents. Injured snowboarders suffer splenic injuries more often and chest and spinal injuries less often than do skiers, and should be evaluated for blunt injuries with these statistical differences in mind. PMID:8550144

Prall, J A; Winston, K R; Brennan, R

1995-10-01

259

Clinical Correlates to Laboratory Measures for use in Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Prediction Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective measures of high knee abduction moment during landing identify female athletes at high risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Biomechanical laboratory measurements predict high knee abduction moment landing mechanics with high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (93%). The purpose of this study was to identify correlates to laboratory-based predictors of high knee abduction moment for use in a clinic-based anterior cruciate ligament injury risk prediction algorithm. The hypothesis was that clinically obtainable correlates derived from the highly predictive laboratory-based models would demonstrate high accuracy to determine high knee abduction moment status. Methods Female basketball and soccer players (N=744) were tested for anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Pearson correlation was used to identify clinically feasible correlates and logistic regression to obtain optimal models for high knee abduction moment prediction. Findings Clinical correlates to laboratory-based measures were identified and predicted high knee abduction moment status with 73% sensitivity and 70% specificity. The clinic-based prediction algorithm, including (Odds Ratio: 95% confidence interval) knee valgus motion (1.43:1.30–1.59 cm), knee flexion range of motion (.98:0.96–1.01 deg), body mass (1.04:1.02–1.06 kg), tibia length (1.38:1.25–1.52 cm) and quadriceps to hamstring ratio (1.70:1.06–2.70) predicted high knee abduction moment status with C statistic 0.81. Interpretation The combined correlates of increased knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length and quadriceps to hamstrings ratio predict high knee abduction moment status in female athletes with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20554101

Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Khoury, Jane; Succop, Paul; Hewett, Timothy E.

2010-01-01

260

Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries with Muscle Tightness, Core Stability, and Balance by Longitudinal Measurements in Junior High School Baseball Players  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain. PMID:24926133

Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

2014-01-01

261

Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.  

PubMed

A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822

Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

2015-04-01

262

ROLLER?MASSAGER APPLICATION TO THE HAMSTRINGS INCREASES SIT?AND?REACH RANGE OF MOTION WITHIN FIVE TO TEN SECONDS WITHOUT PERFORMANCE IMPAIRMENTS  

PubMed Central

Background: Foam rollers are used to mimic myofascial release techniques and have been used by therapists, athletes, and the general public alike to increase range of motion (ROM) and alleviate pressure points. The roller?massager was designed to serve a similar purpose but is a more portable device that uses the upper body rather than body mass to provide the rolling force. Objectives/Purpose: A roller massager was used in this study to examine the acute effects on lower extremity ROM and subsequent muscle length performance. Methods: Seven male and ten female volunteers took part in 4 trials of hamstrings roller?massager rolling (1 set – 5 seconds, 1 set – 10 seconds, 2 sets – 5 seconds, and 2 sets – 10 seconds) at a constant pressure (13 kgs) and a constant rate (120 bpm). A group of 9 participants (three male, six female) also performed a control testing session with no rolling intervention. A sit and reach test for ROM, along with a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and muscle activation of the hamstrings were measured before and after each session of rolling. Results: A main effect for testing time (p<0.0001) illustrated that the use of the roller?massager resulted in a 4.3% increase in ROM. There was a trend (p=0.069) for 10s of rolling duration to increase ROM more than 5s rolling duration. There were no significant changes in MVC force or MVC EMG activity after the rolling intervention. Conclusions: The use of the roller?massager had no significant effect on muscle strength, and can provide statistically significant increases in ROM, particularly when used for a longer duration. PMID:23772339

Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Silvey, Dustin B.J.; Button, Duane C.

2013-01-01

263

Injury Free Coalition for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Sites Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News Injury Free Celebrates Criticized Super Bowl Ad ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

264

JAMA Patient Page: Head Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Head Injury M ore than 1 million head injuries occur every year in the United States. Because head injuries (also known as traumatic brain injuries ) are ...

265

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event discomfort. Long term neck problems are more likely when pain develops gradually or discomfort is recurrent over a period of time. Chronic neck pain is often triggered by prior injuries, especially if original

Virginia Tech

266

Football injuries: current concepts.  

PubMed

Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries. PMID:23531977

Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

2011-01-01

267

Rotator Cuff Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

268

Facial Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

269

Hand Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

270

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

271

Arm Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

272

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)  

MedlinePLUS

... For more information about brain injury in the military, visit the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center website . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). How many people have TBI? ...

273

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults CDC Pediatric MTBI Workgroup Online Training Press, Social Media, and New Media Guide to Writing about Traumatic Brain Injury in News and Social Media Heads Up to Concussion Injury Center Topics Saving ...

274

Eye Injuries at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Home Tweet You might think that ... the American National Standards Institute eye protection standard.) Eye Injury Risks in the House Using hazardous products ...

275

Brachial Plexus Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research ...

276

Brain injury - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... one was in the hospital after a serious brain injury. First, doctors and nurses provided treatment to prevent ... and treatment to help them recover from the brain injury. They may have stayed in special units that ...

277

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Inspires Others With Brain-injury Recovery Research Examines Blast Impact on Human Brain DOD Issues Purple Heart ... Helmets Throughout History Brainline Military: Mechanics of a Blast Injury Brainline.org: TBI News Widget Incidence Charts ( ...

278

Experimental traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

2010-01-01

279

Head Injury Prevention Tips  

MedlinePLUS

Head Injury Prevention Tips Preventing sports-related head injuries Buy and use helmets or protective head gear approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for specific sports 100 ...

280

Sports injuries of the ear.  

PubMed

The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries. PMID:20468791

Wagner, G A

1972-07-01

281

Thermal injury of Yersinia enterocolitica.  

PubMed Central

Procedures were developed to evaluate thermal injury to three strains of Yersinia enterocolitica (serotypes 0:3, 0:8, and 0:17). Serotype 0:17 (atypical strain) was more sensitive to bile salts no. 3 (BS) and to sublethal heat treatment than the typical strains, 0:3 and 0:8. When the 0:3, 0:8, and 0:17 serotypes were thermally stressed in 0.1 M PO4 buffer, pH 7.0, at 47 degrees C for 70, 60, and 12 min, respectively, greater than 99% of the total viable cell population was injured. Injury was determined by the ability of cells to form colonies on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar, but not on Trypticase soy agar (TSA) plus 0.6% BS for serotypes 0:3 and 0:8 and TSA plus 0.16% BS for 0:17. Heat injury of serotype 0:17 cells for 15 min in 0.1 M PO4 buffer caused an approximate 1,000-fold reduction in cell numbers on selective media as compared with cells heated in pork infusion (PI), BHI broth, and 10% nonfat dry milk (NFDM). The extended lag and resuscitation period in BHI broth was 2.5 times greater for 0:17 cells injured in 0.1 M PO4 than for cells injured in BHI or PI. The rate and extent of repair of Y. enterocolitica 0:17 cells in three recovery media were directly related to the heating menstruum used for injury. The use of metabolic inhibitors demonstrated that ribonucleic acid synthesis was required for repair, whereas deoxyribonucleic, cell wall, and protein synthesis were not necessary for recovery of 0:17 cells injured in 0.1 M PO4 buffer, BHI, or PI. Inhibition of respiration by 2,4-dinitrophenol slowed repair only for 0:17 cells injured in 0.1 M PO4 buffer, not for cells injured in PI or BHI. PMID:6160814

Restaino, L; Jeter, W S; Hill, W M

1980-01-01

282

Development and Validation of a Clinic-Based Prediction Tool to Identify Female Athletes at High Risk for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective measures of high knee abduction moment (KAM) during landing identify female athletes at high risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Laboratory-based measurements demonstrate 90% accuracy in prediction of high KAM. Clinic-based prediction algorithms that employ correlates derived from laboratory-based measurements also demonstrate high accuracy for prediction of high KAM mechanics during landing. Hypotheses Clinic-based measures derived from highly predictive laboratory-based models are valid for the accurate prediction of high KAM status, and simultaneous measurements using laboratory-based and clinic-based techniques highly correlate. Study Design Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods One hundred female athletes (basketball, soccer, volleyball players) were tested using laboratory-based measures to confirm the validity of identified laboratory-based correlate variables to clinic-based measures included in a prediction algorithm to determine high KAM status. To analyze selected clinic-based surrogate predictors, another cohort of 20 female athletes was simultaneously tested with both clinic-based and laboratory-based measures. Results The prediction model (odds ratio: 95% confidence interval), derived from laboratory-based surrogates including (1) knee valgus motion (1.59: 1.17-2.16 cm), (2) knee flexion range of motion (0.94: 0.89°-1.00°), (3) body mass (0.98: 0.94-1.03 kg), (4) tibia length (1.55: 1.20-2.07 cm), and (5) quadriceps-to-hamstrings ratio (1.70: 0.48%-6.0%), predicted high KAM status with 84% sensitivity and 67% specificity (P < .001). Clinic-based techniques that used a calibrated physician’s scale, a standard measuring tape, standard camcorder, ImageJ software, and an isokinetic dynamometer showed high correlation (knee valgus motion, r = .87; knee flexion range of motion, r = .95; and tibia length, r = .98) to simultaneous laboratory-based measurements. Body mass and quadriceps-to-hamstrings ratio were included in both methodologies and therefore had r values of 1.0. Conclusion Clinically obtainable measures of increased knee valgus, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length, and quadriceps-to-hamstrings ratio predict high KAM status in female athletes with high sensitivity and specificity. Female athletes who demonstrate high KAM landing mechanics are at increased risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury and are more likely to benefit from neuromuscular training targeted to this risk factor. Use of the developed clinic-based assessment tool may facilitate high-risk athletes’ entry into appropriate interventions that will have greater potential to reduce their injury risk. PMID:20595554

Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Khoury, Jane; Succop, Paul; Hewett, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

283

Catastrophic Cheerleading Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are few epidemiologic studies of cheerleading injuries.Purpose: To develop a profile of catastrophic injuries in cheerleading and to describe relevant risk factors.Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.Methods: We reviewed 29 of 39 incidents of cheerleading injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research from 1982 to 2002.Results: Twenty-seven of the injured cheerleaders were women. There were

Barry P. Boden; Robin Tacchetti; Frederick O. Mueller

2003-01-01

284

Overuse injuries in adolescents.  

PubMed

The incidence of overuse injuries in young athletes is on the rise and accounts for a significant number of visits to the primary care office. There are distinctive intrinsic and extrinsic factors that place young athletes at risk for overuse injuries. These injuries vary in severity from being a temporary inconvenience to having potential lifelong morbidity. An understanding of the young athlete and their unique injuries is important for enabling early recognition and treatment. Prevention strategies are also discussed. PMID:18605393

Pommering, Thomas L; Kluchurosky, Lisa

2007-05-01

285

Abdominal vascular injuries.  

PubMed

Injuries to major abdominal arteries and veins frequently are associated with exsanguinating hemorrhage and visceral ischemia. Expeditious management is the key to survival and good outcome. Knowledge of anatomic relationships between viscera and vessels forms the basis for directed dissection, optimal exposure, and lasting repair of vessels. Although penetrating mechanism of injury remains the most common cause of these injuries, trauma surgeons must be familiar with patterns of blunt trauma-mediated injury to avoid the devastating consequences of delayed management. PMID:8782475

Mullins, R J; Huckfeldt, R; Trunkey, D D

1996-08-01

286

Impact Injury in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts in sport can cause severe and fatal head, spinal and thoracic injuries. As sports have developed during the last half\\u000a century, methods have been developed to control injury risks, such as rule modifications, helmets, padded clothing and training.\\u000a The biomechanics of severe injury is well understood through investigations of motor vehicle accident trauma. Research into\\u000a sports injury can assist

Andrew S. McIntosh

287

Karate and karate injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes,

G. McLatchie

1981-01-01

288

Traumatic Brain Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Very concise description of what constitutes a traumatic brain injury and the cost to society in hospitalizations, injuries and deaths resulting from traumatic brain injury. It also looks very concisely at new understandings of the nature of TBIs and the research being done to find better treatments.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2000-02-01

289

Spinal Cord Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

290

Prevention of Football Injuries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2010-01-01

291

Assessment of Ankle Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

2009-01-01

292

Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

2005-01-01

293

[Trauma registry and injury].  

PubMed

The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers. PMID:11681128

Shapira, S C

2001-10-01

294

Open extensor tendon injuries.  

PubMed

The extensor tendons in the dorsum of the hand lie relatively superficially, making open injuries to the extensor mechanism a common source of morbidity. These injuries can range from simple clean lacerations to complex open injuries associated with severe skin and soft tissue loss. Although many advances in the treatment of tendon injuries focused on the flexor tendon, the extensor tendon has begun to receive more attention in recent literature. Knowledge of modern repair techniques and rehabilitation protocols may improve patient outcomes. This Current Concepts article summarizes the treatment of open extensor tendon injuries with a focus on the recent literature. PMID:25557773

Amirtharajah, Mohana; Lattanza, Lisa

2015-02-01

295

Randomized prospective study of ACL reconstruction with interference screw fixation in patellar tendon autografts versus femoral metal plate suspension and tibial post fixation in hamstring tendon autografts: 5-year clinical and radiological follow-up results.  

PubMed

Patellar tendon graft has been the most frequently used material in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but the hamstring tendons have been increasingly used as well; however, which graft is to be preferred is not adequately supported by existing clinical studies. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, the study hypothesis was that the hamstring tendons are equally good graft material as the patellar tendon in ACL reconstruction. Ninety-nine patients with laxity due to a torn ACL underwent arthroscopically assisted reconstruction with graft randomization according to their birth year to either patellar tendon with metal interference screw fixation or double looped semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with fixation similar to the Endobutton technique using a titanium metal plate suspension proximally and screw-washer postdistally. Excluding preoperative Lysholm knee score, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the preoperative and operative data. A standard rehabilitation regimen was used for all the patients, including immediate postoperative mobilization without a knee brace, protected weight bearing for 2 weeks, and return to full activity at 6-12 months postoperatively. Forty patients in the patellar tendon group and 39 patients in the hamstring tendon group were available for clinical evaluation at median 5 years after surgery (ranges 3 years 11 months-6 years 7 months). The results revealed no statistically significant differences with respect to clinical and instrumented laxity testing, isokinetic muscle torque measurements, International Knee Documentation Committee ratings, Lysholm (knee score), Tegner (activity level) and Kujala patellofemoral knee scores. There was an enlargement of the drill tunnels, statistically more in the hamstring tendon group, but no increase from 2 to 5 years in either group. Narrowing of the joint spaces (IKDC measurement method) from 2 to 5 years postoperatively was seen in both the groups, however, without difference between the two groups. PMID:16552549

Harilainen, Arsi; Linko, Eric; Sandelin, Jerker

2006-06-01

296

Injuries in Swedish skydiving  

PubMed Central

Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n?=?257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non?fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n?=?85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non?fatal injury events was 48 per 100?000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student?training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

2007-01-01

297

A 1-year prospective analysis of injuries in amateur and elite fistball.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and mechanisms of acute injuries in the sport of fistball. No scientific studies on injury characteristics have yet been conducted in this traditional sport game. The study was conducted prospectively over the course of 12 months. During a total of 40.308 h of sport-specific exposure, 240 players reported 492 injuries, representing an overall injury rate of 12.2 injuries/1000 h of exposure. Most injuries were classified as bagatelle injuries (67.8%). The majority of the injuries were located in the knee (23.5%) followed by the elbow (11.9%) and the hip (11.5%). Ankle injuries resulted in the longest impairment from sports participation. The most common types of injury were abrasions (38.2%), contusions (21.1%), distortions (7.5%) and muscle strains (6.9%). Wrong or insufficient equipment (15.0%) was the most commonly mentioned causes of injury. The data indicate that the injury risk in fistball is rather high; however, the sport should not be considered a high-risk sport because most of the injuries are slight and do not prevent the players from training or competition. Injury prevention strategies should include the development of fistball-specific protective equipment with focus on the knee and elbow joint. PMID:24033688

Runer, A; Runer, F; Neunhäuserer, D; Ring-Dimitriou, S; Resch, H; Moroder, P

2014-06-01

298

Genetic susceptibility to irritant-induced acute lung injury in mice.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that genetic variability can influence irritant-induced lung injury and inflammation. To begin identifying genes controlling susceptibility to inhaled irritants, seven inbred mouse strains were continuously exposed to nickel sulfate (NiSO(4)), polytetrafluoroethylene, or ozone (O(3)), and survival time was recorded. The A/J (A) mouse strain was sensitive, the C3H/He (C3) strain was intermediate, and the C57BL/6 (B6) strain was resistant to NiSO(4)-induced acute lung injury. The B6AF(1) offspring were also resistant. The strain sensitivity pattern for NiSO(4) exposure was similar to that of polytetrafluoroethylene or ozone (O(3)). Pulmonary pathology was comparable for A and B6 mice. In the A strain, 15 microg/m(3) of NiSO(4) produced 20% mortality. The strain sensitivity patterns for lavage fluid proteins (B6 > C3 > A) and neutrophils (A >/= B6 > C3) differed from those for acute lung injury. This phenotype discordance suggests that these traits are not causally linked (i.e., controlled by independent arrays of genes). As in acute lung injury, B6C3F(1) offspring exhibited phenotypes (lavage fluid proteins and neutrophils) resembling those of the resistant parental strain. Agreement of acute lung injury strain sensitivity patterns among irritants suggested a common mechanism, possibly oxidative stress, and offspring resistance suggested that sensitivity is inherited as a recessive trait. PMID:10956633

Wesselkamper, S C; Prows, D R; Biswas, P; Willeke, K; Bingham, E; Leikauf, G D

2000-09-01

299

Histopathological findings, phenotyping of inflammatory cells, and expression of markers of nitritative injury in joint tissue samples from calves after vaccination and intraarticular challenge with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of caseonecrotic lesions developing in lungs and joints of calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis is not clear and attempts to prevent M. bovis-induced disease by vaccines have been largely unsuccessful. In this investigation, joint samples from 4 calves, i.e. 2 vaccinated and 2 non-vaccinated, of a vaccination experiment with intraarticular challenge were examined. The aim was to characterize the histopathological findings, the phenotypes of inflammatory cells, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II) molecules, and the expression of markers for nitritative stress, i.e. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), in synovial membrane samples from these calves. Furthermore, the samples were examined for M. bovis antigens including variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and M. bovis organisms by cultivation techniques. Results The inoculated joints of all 4 calves had caseonecrotic and inflammatory lesions. Necrotic foci were demarcated by phagocytic cells, i.e. macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, and by T and B lymphocytes. The presence of M. bovis antigens in necrotic tissue lesions was associated with expression of iNOS and NT by macrophages. Only single macrophages demarcating the necrotic foci were positive for MHC class II. Microbiological results revealed that M. bovis had spread to approximately 27% of the non-inoculated joints. Differences in extent or severity between the lesions in samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were not seen. Conclusions The results suggest that nitritative injury, as in pneumonic lung tissue of M. bovis-infected calves, is involved in the development of caseonecrotic joint lesions. Only single macrophages were positive for MHC class II indicating down-regulation of antigen-presenting mechanisms possibly caused by local production of iNOS and NO by infiltrating macrophages. PMID:25162202

2014-01-01

300

The rising long-term trend in occupational injury rates.  

PubMed Central

Establishment survey data for the United States as a whole and workers' compensation data for the State of California were used to document long-term trends in occupational injury and acute illness rates. After declining throughout the first half of the century, national rates of disabling injuries in manufacturing, construction, and the trade sector have risen sharply in recent decades. Injury rates in mining show no strong trend either up or down since 1960. Increases over recent years have been especially pronounced for strains and sprains, cuts, lacerations and punctures, bone fractures, and acute illnesses. Injury rates in the manufacturing sector are strongly influenced by general economic conditions--rising sharply with business upsurges and declining during recessions. Increases in the rate of unemployment, which decrease worker and labor union bargaining power, are associated with increases in injury rates within manufacturing. PMID:3341497

Robinson, J C

1988-01-01

301

Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).  

PubMed

Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship between CSDM - BrIC and MPS - BrIC respectively. AIS 3+, 4+ and 5+ field risk of anatomic brain injuries was also estimated using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database for crash conditions similar to the frontal NCAP and side impact conditions that the ATDs were tested in. This was done to assess the risk curve ratios derived from HIC risk curves. The results of the study indicated that: (1) the two available human head models - SIMon and GHBMC - were found to be highly correlated when CSDMs and max principal strains were compared; (2) BrIC correlates best to both - CSDM and MPS, and rotational velocity (not rotational acceleration) is the mechanism for brain injuries; and (3) the critical values for angular velocity are directionally dependent, and are independent of the ATD used for measuring them. The newly developed brain injury criterion is a complement to the existing HIC, which is based on translational accelerations. Together, the two criteria may be able to capture most brain injuries and skull fractures occurring in automotive or any other impact environment. One of the main limitations for any brain injury criterion, including BrIC, is the lack of human injury data to validate the criteria against, although some approximation for AIS 2+ injury is given based on the angular velocities calculated at 50% probability of concussion in college football players instrumented with 5 DOF helmet system. Despite the limitations, a new kinematic rotational brain injury criterion - BrIC - may offer a way to capture brain injuries in situations when using translational accelerations based HIC alone may not be sufficient. PMID:24435734

Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

2013-11-01

302

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XH6  Common Strain Name: HB-PLAP  Strain Nomenclature: FVB-Tg(ACTB-ALPP)01Jrst/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C1 Sample MTA for this strain Strain Description: Transgenic

303

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XC5  Common Strain Name: SV11  Strain Nomenclature: C57BL/6-Tg(TAg)11Bri/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Strain Information

304

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XE8  Common Strain Name: P190 BCR-ABL  Strain Nomenclature: B6;CBA-Tg(BCR/ABL)623Hkp/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Strain

305

Effects of bicycle saddle height on knee injury risk and cycling performance.  

PubMed

Incorrect bicycle configuration may predispose athletes to injury and reduce their cycling performance. There is disagreement within scientific and coaching communities regarding optimal configuration of bicycles for athletes. This review summarizes literature on methods for determining bicycle saddle height and the effects of bicycle saddle height on measures of cycling performance and lower limb injury risk. Peer-reviewed journals, books, theses and conference proceedings published since 1960 were searched using MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, EBSCO and Google Scholar databases, resulting in 62 references being reviewed. Keywords searched included 'body positioning', 'saddle', 'posture, 'cycling' and 'injury'. The review revealed that methods for determining optimal saddle height are varied and not well established, and have been based on relationships between saddle height and lower limb length (Hamley and Thomas, trochanteric length, length from ischial tuberosity to floor, LeMond, heel methods) or a reference range of knee joint flexion. There is limited information on the effects of saddle height on lower limb injury risk (lower limb kinematics, knee joint forces and moments and muscle mechanics), but more information on the effects of saddle height on cycling performance (performance time, energy expenditure/oxygen uptake, power output, pedal force application). Increasing saddle height can cause increased shortening of the vastii muscle group, but no change in hamstring length. Length and velocity of contraction in the soleus seems to be more affected by saddle height than that in the gastrocnemius. The majority of evidence suggested that a 5% change in saddle height affected knee joint kinematics by 35% and moments by 16%. Patellofemoral compressive force seems to be inversely related to saddle height but the effects on tibiofemoral forces are uncertain. Changes of less than 4% in trochanteric length do not seem to affect injury risk or performance. The main limitations from the reported studies are that different methods have been employed for determining saddle height, small sample sizes have been used, cyclists with low levels of expertise have mostly been evaluated and different outcome variables have been measured. Given that the occurrence of overuse knee joint pain is 50% in cyclists, future studies may focus on how saddle height can be optimized to improve cycling performance and reduce knee joint forces to reduce lower limb injury risk. On the basis of the conflicting evidence on the effects of saddle height changes on performance and lower limb injury risk in cycling, we suggest the saddle height may be set using the knee flexion angle method (25-30°) to reduce the risk of knee injuries and to minimize oxygen uptake. PMID:21615188

Bini, Rodrigo; Hume, Patria A; Croft, James L

2011-06-01

306

Injuries in Irish dance.  

PubMed

Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

2013-12-01

307

The Effects of Injury Preventive Warm-Up Programs on Knee Strength Ratio in Young Male Professional Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+) and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR), dynamic control ratio (DCR) and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR) in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. Methods Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n?=?12 per group). These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions). The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. Results After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s?1, 180°.s?1 and 300°.s?1, respectively). The CSR (60°.s?1) increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s?1) in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p?=?0.02). As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p?=?0.04). For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. Conclusions It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR). Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players. PMID:23226553

Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Rahnama, Nader; Yusof, Ashril

2012-01-01

308

Sports hip injuries: assessment and management.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years, the understanding, assessment, and management of hip pain and injuries in the athlete have improved. Traditionally, the evaluation of hip pain and injuries was limited to obvious disorders, such as hip arthritis and fractures, or disorders that were previously considered to be simply soft-tissue strains and contusions, such as groin pulls, hip pointers, and bursitis. Two parallel tracks of progress have improved understanding of the complexities of hip joint athletic injuries and the biomechanical basis of early hip disease. In the field of sports medicine, improved diagnostic skills now allow better interpretation of debilitating intra-articular hip disorders and their effects on core performance. In the field of hip preservation, there has been an evolution in understanding the effects of biomechanical mismatches between the femoral head and the acetabulum on the development of early hip damage, injury, and arthritis. The integration of these two parallel fields has accelerated the understanding of the importance of hip biomechanics and early hip injury in human performance and function. PMID:23395055

Kelly, Bryan T; Maak, Travis G; Larson, Christopher M; Bedi, Asheesh; Zaltz, Ira

2013-01-01

309

On the Role of a Nonlinear Stress-Strain Relation in Brain Trauma  

E-print Network

On the Role of a Nonlinear Stress-Strain Relation in Brain Trauma Igor Szczyrba School-strain relation (that leads to a stiffening of the brain matter under strain) influences the brain dynamics head using our generalization of the viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt brain injury model that includes

Burtscher, Martin

310

The influence of hamstring autograft size on patient reported outcomes and risk of revision following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A MOON cohort study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of graft size on patient-reported outcomes and revision risk following ACL reconstruction. Methods A retrospective chart review of prospectively collected cohort data, 263 of 320 consecutive patients (82.2%) undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft were evaluated. Graft size, femoral tunnel drilling technique, patient age, sex, and BMI at the time of ACL reconstruction, pre-operative and 2-year post-operative KOOS and IKDC scores, and whether each patient underwent revision ACL reconstruction during the 2 year follow-up period were recorded. Revision was used as a marker for graft failure. The relationship between graft size and patient-reported outcomes was determined by multiple linear regression. The relationship between graft size and risk of revision was determined by dichotomizing graft size at 8mm and stratifying by age. Results After controlling for age, sex, operative side, surgeon, BMI, graft choice, and femoral tunnel drilling technique, a 1 mm increased in graft size was noted to correlate with 3.3-point increase in the KOOS-pain subscale (p = 0.003), a 2.0-point increased in the KOOS activities of daily living subscale (p = 0.034), a 5.2-point increase in the KOOS-sport/recreation function subscale (p = 0.004), and a 3.4-point increase in the subjective IKDC score (p = 0.026). Revision was required in 0 of 64 patients (0.0%) with grafts greater than 8mm in diameter and 14 of 199 patients (7.0%) with 8 mm or smaller grafts (p = 0.037). Among patients age 18 and under, revision was required in 0 of 14 patients (0.0%) with grafts greater than 8mm in diameter and 13 of 71 patients (18.3 %) with 8 mm or smaller grafts. Conclusions Smaller hamstring autograft size is a predictor of poorer KOOS Sport and Recreation function 2 years following primary ACL reconstruction. Larger sample size is required to confirm the relationship between graft size and risk of revision ACL reconstruction. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:24140144

Mariscalco, Michael W.; Flanigan, David C.; Mitchell, Joshua; Pedroza, Angela D.; Jones, Morgan H.; Andrish, Jack T.; Parker, Richard D.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Magnussen, Robert A.

2013-01-01

311

Gait Characteristics, Range of Motion, and Spasticity Changes in Response to Massage in a Person with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Our study set out to measure the effect of a specific routine of massage on gait characteristics, range of motion, and spasticity in a person with incomplete spinal cord injury. Methods: This descriptive, pre–post case study, conducted at the outpatient program of a rehabilitation facility, used neuromuscular techniques in massage for a 42-year-old man with incomplete chronic C5 spinal cord injury. The massage was applied to the iliopsoas, triceps surae, and hamstring muscle groups for 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: Pre- and post-intervention testing included standard goniometric measurement of joint range of motion in the lower extremities, spasticity evaluation using the modified Ashworth scale, and evaluation of gait characteristics using GAITRite Walkway (CIR Systems, Havertown, PA, USA) pressure mapping for ambulation time, cadence, velocity, stride length, base of support, and single- and double-limb support. Results: After the therapeutic intervention, the following gait changes were demonstrated: increase in velocity and cadence of gait, decrease in ambulation time, increase in stride length, and improvements in the percentages of the swing and stance phases of the gait cycle. Conclusions: Specific application of massage therapy influenced gait speed, stride length, and swing and stance phase percentages in one person with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further study is warranted to determine the extent to which massage may affect musculoskeletal and neural impairments that limit gait in people with incomplete spinal cord injury, and the method or routine whose application will yield the most benefit. PMID:21589693

Manella, Christine; Backus, Deborah

2011-01-01

312

Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ischemia-reperfusion injury describes the experimentally and clinically prevalent finding that tissue ischemia with\\u000a inadequate oxygen supply followed by successful reperfusion initiates a wide and complex array of inflammatory responses that\\u000a may both aggravate local injury as well as induce impairment of remote organ function. Conditions under which ischemia-reperfusion\\u000a injury is encountered include the different forms of acute vascular

Bernhard Dorweiler; Diethard Pruefer; Terezia B. Andrasi; Sasa M. Maksan; Walther Schmiedt; Achim Neufang; Christian F. Vahl

2007-01-01

313

Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors.  

PubMed

Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players by 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes the most time lost from competition in soccer which has influenced a strong research focus to determine the risk factors for injury. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature defining potential modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that increase the risk of injury. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature that reports potential mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injury in soccer players. Most ACL tears in soccer players are non-contact in nature. Common playing situations precluding a non-contact ACL injury include: change of direction or cutting maneuvers combined with deceleration, landing from a jump in or near full extension, and pivoting with knee near full extension and a planted foot. The most common non-contact ACL injury mechanism include a deceleration task with high knee internal extension torque (with or without perturbation) combined with dynamic valgus rotation with the body weight shifted over the injured leg and the plantar surface of the foot fixed flat on the playing surface. Potential extrinsic non-contact ACL injury risk factors include: dry weather and surface, and artificial surface instead of natural grass. Commonly purported intrinsic risk factors include: generalized and specific knee joint laxity, small and narrow intercondylar notch width (ratio of notch width to the diameter and cross sectional area of the ACL), pre-ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle in females not using oral contraceptives, decreased relative (to quadriceps) hamstring strength and recruitment, muscular fatigue by altering neuromuscular control, decreased "core" strength and proprioception, low trunk, hip, and knee flexion angles, and high dorsiflexion of the ankle when performing sport tasks, lateral trunk displacement and hip adduction combined with increased knee abduction moments (dynamic knee valgus), and increased hip internal rotation and tibial external rotation with or without foot pronation. The identified mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injuries have been mainly studied in female soccer players; thus, further research in male players is warranted. Non-contact ACL injuries in soccer players likely has a multi-factorial etiology. The identification of those athletes at increased risk may be a salient first step before designing and implementing specific pre-season and in-season training programs aimed to modify the identified risk factors and to decrease ACL injury rates. Current evidence indicates that this crucial step to prevent ACL injury is the only option to effectively prevent the sequelae of osteoarthritis associated with this traumatic injury. PMID:19452139

Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón

2009-07-01

314

Injury rates of the German Women's American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011  

PubMed Central

American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men's football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE). The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE) than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01)]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE) compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE). Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined. PMID:23066496

Ezechieli, Marco; Berger, Stephan; Siebert, Christian-Helge; Miltner, Oliver

2012-01-01

315

Spinal injuries in sports.  

PubMed

Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:19084763

Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

2009-02-01

316

Spinal injuries in sports.  

PubMed

Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:18295084

Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

2008-02-01

317

Extravasation injuries: a review.  

PubMed

Extravasation injuries are common emergencies in clinical practice. If they are not recognized and treated promptly, they can lead to deleterious functional and cosmetic outcomes. There is a vast range of agents involved in these injuries and marked paucity of evidence to support their specific management. Following an extensive literature review, we outline management principles for clinicians involved in the care of patients with extravasation injuries. Key parameters in deciding appropriate management plans include the volume/toxicity of the agent, the necrosis interval of the injury, patient-related factors, as well as the facilities and expertise available in the setting of individual cases of extravasation. PMID:24401738

Goutos, I; Cogswell, L K; Giele, H

2014-10-01

318

Lightning and thermal injuries.  

PubMed

Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be treated. The exact mechanism of nerve injury has not been explained, but both direct injury by electrical current overload or a vascular cause receive the most attention. Because electrical injuries carry both externally visible cutaneous injuries and possible hidden musculoskeletal damage, conventional burn resuscitation formulas based on body surface area injured may not provide enough fluid to maintain urine output. Damaged muscle resulting in swelling within the investing fascia of an extremity may result in compartment syndromes, requiring further attention. If myoglobin has been detected in the urine, treatment is aggressive volume resuscitation and possibly alkalinization of the urine or mannitol is given IV push to minimize pigment precipitation in the renal tubules. Approximately 15% of electrical burn victims also sustain traumatic injuries. This is because of falls from height or being thrown against an object. The tetanic contractions that result from exposure to electrical injury cause imbalance in flexor versus extensor muscles, with the flexor groups being stronger. Not only is the victim unable to release from the electrical contact, but they are at risk for fracture of bones from this prolonged muscular contracture. Neurologic and psychological symptoms were the most common sequelae of electrical and lightning injuries. Many of these symptoms are nonspecific, and they often do not appear until several months after the injury. A full neurologic examination must be performed on admission, documenting initial presentation and at any change in symptoms. Electrical injuries can have devastating consequences. Prevention of electrical injuries is clearly the preferable strategy for treatment. PMID:24365365

Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

2014-01-01

319

Contrasting genetic effects of major histocompatibility complex on ischemic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury in female rats.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts a regulatory influence on the development of neuropathic pain-like behaviors after partial sciatic nerve injury in male rats. In the present study, we assessed the role of the MHC in peripheral nerve injury-induced pain as well as central pain following spinal cord injury in female rats using the following inbred strains: Dark Agouti (DA; RT1(av1)), Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG; RT1(c)) and in the MHC-congenic strain PVG-RT1(av1). In line with our previous observation in male rats, PVG-RT1(c) displayed more severe allodynia compared to the strains carrying the RT1(av1) haplotype (PVG-RT1(av1) and DA-RT1(av1)) following sciatic nerve injury in female rats. However, the MHC did not seem to impact the development of allodynia following spinal cord injury since the two congenic strains PVG-RT1(c) and PVG-RT1(av) did not differ after spinal cord injury. Interestingly, the DA-RT1(av1) strain displayed significantly more severe allodynia than both PVG strains and this difference was not explained by the extent of spinal cord injury. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic mechanisms for neuropathic pain development following peripheral or central nervous system injury, both in regarding to the role of the MHC complex as well as non-MHC genes. PMID:18675884

Dominguez, Cecilia A; Lidman, Olle; Olsson, Tomas; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Piehl, Fedrik; Xu, Xiao-Jun

2008-10-01

320

Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size Print Bookmark Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

321

Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury  

MedlinePLUS

LCL injury; Knee injury - lateral collateral ligament (LCL) ... ligament helps keep the outer side of the knee joint stable. ... by pressure or an injury that pushes the knee joint from the inside, which results in stress ...

322

Living with Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... techniques that may prevent injury and disease. A spinal cord injury (SCI) can result from trauma, such as a ... with daily living skills. What can persons with spinal cord injuries and their friends and families do? ? Get involved ...

323

What Are Growth Plate Injuries?  

MedlinePLUS

... for growth plate injuries are: ? Falling down ? Competitive sports (like football) ? Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are: ? Child abuse ? Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite) ? Radiation ( ...

324

What Are Growth Plate Injuries?  

MedlinePLUS

... for growth plate injuries are: Falling down Competitive sports (like football) Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are: Child abuse Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite) Radiation ( ...

325

Distal biceps tendon injuries--current treatment options.  

PubMed

Three percent of all biceps tendon ruptures occur at the distal aspect, where the tendon inserts into the radial tuberosity. Distal bicep tendon ruptures typically occur in middle-aged males after an eccentric extension load is applied to the elbow. Patients usually complain of a sudden, sharp, and painful tearing sensation in the antecubital region, with a palpable defect. The biceps squeeze and hook tests are specific maneuvers by which to diagnose distal biceps ruptures on physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound maybe be helpful to distinguish between partial and complete tears. Anatomic studies suggest there are two distinct insertions for the short and long heads of the distal biceps. The short head may be a more powerful flexor, and the long head may be a more powerful supinator. Nonoperative treatment typically results in loss of flexion and supination strength and endurance. Early anatomic re-attachment is the goal. Surgical approaches include one- or two-incision techniques, and tendon fixation methods include the use of suture anchors, bone tunnels, an endobutton, or biotenodesis screws. Biomechanical studies have shown that endobuttons have higher load-to-failure strengths, compared to the other fixation methods. However, clinical studies have demonstrated that patients do well regardless of surgical approach or fixation method. Possible complications include nerve injuries, heterotopic ossification, postoperative fracture, tendon rerupture, complex regional pain syndrome, and wound infection. Partial ruptures are significantly less common and initially can be treated conservatively. Chronic tears are more difficult to treat because of possible tendon retraction and poor tissue quality. Tendon grafts using semitendinosus, fascia lata, hamstring, Achilles (calcaneal), or flexor carpi radialis have been successfully used for length restoration in these cases. PMID:20632985

Quach, Tony; Jazayeri, Reza; Sherman, Orrin H; Rosen, Jeffrey E

2010-01-01

326

Anterior-Posterior Instability of the Knee Following ACL Reconstruction with Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Ligament in Comparison with Four-Strand Hamstrings Autograft  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate anterior-posterior knee laxity using two different autografts. Material-Methods. 40 patients, (34 males and 6 women), 17–54 years old (mean: 31), were included in the present study. Group A (4SHS = 20) underwent reconstruction using four-strand hamstrings, and group B (BPBT = 20) underwent reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Using the KT-1000 arthrometer, knee instability was calculated in both knees of all patients preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery at the ACL-operated knee. The contralateral healthy knee was used as an internal control group. Results. Anterior-posterior instability using the KT1000 Arthrometer was found to be increased after ACL insufficiency. The recorded laxity improved after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in both groups. However, statistically significant greater values were detected in the bone-patellar tendon-bone group, which revealed reduction of anteroposterior stability values to an extent, where no statistical significance with the normal values even after 3 months after surgery was observed. Conclusions. Anterior-Posterior instability of the knee improved significantly after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The bone-patellar tendon-bone graft provided an obvious greater stability. PMID:23956862

Angoules, A. G.; Balakatounis, K.; Boutsikari, E. C.; Mastrokalos, D.; Papagelopoulos, P. J.

2013-01-01

327

Double-bundle medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and mediolateral patellar tunnel fixation: a meta-analysis of outcomes and complications.  

PubMed

Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is used to treat patellar instability and recurrent patellar dislocation. Anatomical studies have found the MPFL to be a double-bundle structure. We carried out a meta-analysis of studies reporting outcomes of patellofemoral reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft in a double-bundle configuration and patellar fixation via mediolateral patellar tunnels. A literature search was undertaken with no language restriction in various databases from their year of inception to July 2012. The primary outcome examined was the post-operative Kujala score. We identified 320 MPFL reconstructions in nine relevant articles. The combined mean post-operative Kujala score was 92.02 (standard error (se) 1.4, p = 0.001) using a fixed effects model and 89.45 (se 37.9, p = 0.02) using random effect modelling. The reported rate of complications with MPFL reconstruction was 12.5% (40 of 320) with stiffness of the knee being the most common. High-quality evidence in assessing double-bundle MPFL reconstruction is lacking. The current literature consists of a mixture of prospective and retrospective case series. High-quality randomised trials evaluating this procedure are still awaited. PMID:23814240

Singhal, R; Rogers, S; Charalambous, C P

2013-07-01

328

Boxing, wrestling, and martial arts related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States, 2002-2005.  

PubMed

The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts-related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between 2002 and 2005. Pearson's chi-square statistics were calculated to compare injury rates for each activity accounting for complex sample design. Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses (p<0.001). Boxing had lower injury rates compared to wrestling for strains/sprains and dislocations. Boxing and wrestling had similar injury rates for concussions. Injury prevention efforts should consider the distribution of injuries and concentrate on preventing strains/sprains in wrestling, concussions in boxing and wrestling, and fractures for all three activities. The findings of the present study do not provide evidence that combat sports have alarmingly high rates of injuries resulting in emergency department visits. Key pointsMartial arts have lower emergency department injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling.Wrestling has higher strains/sprains and dislocation injury rates compared to boxing.Combat sports do not appear to have higher injury rates compared to non-combat sports. PMID:24198705

Pappas, Evangelos

2007-01-01

329

Injuries in female football players in top?level international tournaments  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the growing popularity of women's football and the increasing number of female players, there has been little research on injuries sustained by female football players. Purpose Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and circumstances of injury in elite female football players in top?level international tournaments. Study design Prospective survey. Methods Injuries incurred in seven international football tournaments were analysed using an established injury report system. Doctors of all participating teams reported all injuries after each match on a standardised injury reporting form. The mean response rate was 95%. Results 387 injuries were reported from 174 matches, equivalent to an incidence of 67.4 injuries/1000 player hours (95% CI 60.7 to 74.1) or 2.2 injuries/match (95% CI 2.0 to 2.4). Most injuries (84%; 317/378) were caused by contact with another player. The injuries most commonly involved the lower extremity (n?=?248; 65%), followed by injuries of the head and neck (n?=?67, 18%), trunk (n?=?33, 9%) and upper extremity (n?=?32, 8%). Contusions (n?=?166; 45%) were the most frequent type of injury, followed by sprains or ligament rupture (n?=?96; 26%) and strains or muscle fibre ruptures (n?=?31; 8%). The most common diagnosis was an ankle sprain. There were 7 ligament ruptures and 15 sprains of the knee. On average 1 injury/match (95% CI 0.8 to 1.2) was expected to result in absence from a match or training. Conclusion The injury rate in women's top?level tournaments was within the range reported previously for match injuries in elite male and female players. However, the diagnoses and mechanisms of injury among the female players differed substantially from those previously reported in male football players. PMID:17646248

Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2007-01-01

330

Injuries in Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

Obeng, Cecilia

2009-01-01

331

update: acute KIDNEY INJURY  

E-print Network

Guidelines update: acute KIDNEY INJURY August 2012, Issue 8 Tlaleletso is a monthly publication that have acute kidney injury. We review the common presentations and causes, especially in patients living it to cover, please send us your feedback­ either on content or format. Respectfully, Mike Reid Acute kidney

Bushman, Frederic

332

Laser Eye Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation.

Yaniv Barkana; Michael Belkin

2000-01-01

333

FIREARM INJURY SURVEILLANCE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established an interagency agreement with CPSC to begin collecting data on nonfatal firearm-related injuries to monitor the incidence and characteristics of perso...

334

Conquering Athletic Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

335

Management of Tracheobronchial Injuries  

PubMed Central

Tracheobronchial injury is one of cases which are relatively uncommon, but must be suspected to make the diagnosis and managed immediately. In such a case, primary initial goals are to stabilize the airway and localize the injury and then determine its extend. These can be possible mostly with flexible bronchoscopy conducted by a surgeon who can repair the injury. Most of the penetrating injuries occur in the cervical region. On the other hand, most of the blunt injuries occur in the distal trachea and right main bronchus and they can be best approached by right posterolateral thoracotomy. The selection of the manner and time of approaching depends on the existence and severity of additional injuries. Most of the injuries can be restored by deploying simple techniques such as individual sutures, while some of them requires complex reconstruction techniques. Apart from paying attention to the pulmonary toilet, follow-up is crucial for determination of anastomotic technique or stenosis. Conservative treatment may be considered an option with a high probability of success in patients meeting the criteria, especially in patients with iatrogenic tracheobronchial injury. PMID:25610327

Altinok, Tamer; Can, Atilla

2014-01-01

336

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... cry a lot. They may not have much motivation or much control over their emotions. A child with TBI may not have all of the above difficulties . Brain injuries can range from mild to severe, and so can the changes that result from the injury. This means that it’s hard to predict how an individual ...

337

Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 250 per 100,000 of the population sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually (Cassidy et al., 2004), making it the most commonly occurring neurological condition. Of these 102 per 100,000 are hospitalised (Chesnut, Carney, Maynard, Patterson, Mann, & Helfand, 1998). Because of advances in trauma care these individuals are surviving injuries that would previously have been fatal (Klimczak, Donovick, &

Janet M. Leathem; Muriel Christianson

338

Eye injury in sport.  

PubMed

Eye injury sustained during sport is increasing in incidence worldwide, reflecting the rise in popularity of sport as recreation. It can account for up to 25% of severe eye injuries. This paper considers the historical context and demography of sports injuries, and the physical mechanisms and results of various types of ocular trauma in relation to sport. It reviews the specific problems associated with the sports considered to be most important in the epidemiology of eye injuries today. Certain sports, such as boxing, have an intrinsic risk of injury so high that some consider the sport should be banned. The risk of injury in many sports can be mitigated by changes in rules, such as the prevention of high sticking in ice hockey. Other sports with high risk of trauma could be made far safer with the widespread introduction of eye protection, and this applies especially to squash and badminton. The various types of eye protection are discussed. There is an urgent need to increase awareness of the risk of eye injury, to teach safe techniques, and to encourage the use of appropriate ocular protective wear in those at high risk of injury, especially the one-eyed. PMID:2660211

Jones, N P

1989-03-01

339

Depression and Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Depression and Spinal Cord Injury [ Download this pamphlet: “Depression and Spinal Cord Injury” (PDF - 477KB)] Depression is a common illness that ...

340

Analysis of cervical injuries in persons with head injuries.  

PubMed

To determine which clinical factors are useful for predicting concomitant injuries of the cervical spine and cervical spinal cord in persons with head injuries, we examined the nature and mechanisms of cervical injuries. For 109 forensic autopsies of persons with head injuries, the cause of injury, mechanism of cervical injury, survival time, and anatomic injury severity (1990 revision of the abbreviated injury scale [AIS] and injury severity score) were determined. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of injuries (41.3%), followed by slips and falls (24.8%), assaults (17.4%), and falls from height (9.2%). The mean maximum AIS scores and the AIS scores of the head or neck were similar in the 4 groups. Cervical spine injuries and epidural or subdural hemorrhages of the cervical spinal cord were more common in persons dying in traffic accidents and falls from height than in persons dying in slips and falls or assaults. Cervical injuries were significantly more common in persons sustaining frontal impacts than lateral or rear impacts. The most common cervical hyperextension injuries were atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial dislocation and injuries of the 5th intervertebral disc. Our results suggest that persons with injuries of the head due to high-energy frontal impacts should be carefully examined for concomitant cervical injuries. These findings should be helpful for decreasing preventable deaths from undiagnosed cervical injuries in head-injured persons. PMID:19749612

Hitosugi, Masahito; Maegawa, Mayumi; Motozawa, Yasuki; Kido, Masahito; Kawato, Hitoshi; Nagai, Toshiaki; Tokudome, Shogo

2008-03-01

341

The physical basis of ventilator-induced lung injury  

PubMed Central

Although mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it can aggravate or cause lung injury, known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The biophysical characteristics of heterogeneously injured ARDS lungs increase the parenchymal stress associated with breathing, which is further aggravated by MV. Cells, in particular those lining the capillaries, airways and alveoli, transform this strain into chemical signals (mechanotransduction). The interaction of reparative and injurious mechanotransductive pathways leads to VILI. Several attempts have been made to identify clinical surrogate measures of lung stress/strain (e.g., density changes in chest computed tomography, lower and upper inflection points of the pressure–volume curve, plateau pressure and inflammatory cytokine levels) that could be used to titrate MV. However, uncertainty about the topographical distribution of stress relative to that of the susceptibility of the cells and tissues to injury makes the existence of a single ‘global’ stress/strain injury threshold doubtful. PMID:20524920

Plataki, Maria; Hubmayr, Rolf D

2010-01-01

342

Mole gun injury.  

PubMed

A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

2013-09-01

343

Spinal Injuries in Children  

PubMed Central

About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia. PMID:22855681

Basu, Saumyajit

2012-01-01

344

Extratemporal facial nerve injury.  

PubMed

Isolated traumatic facial nerve injury, frequently seen in wartime combat, may also be encountered among civilians. The clinical picture occurring as a result of such injury may be confusing because partial, or incomplete, damage to the peripheral nerve may mimic impairment of the central facial motor mechanism. In treating the patient with facial injury, life-threatening aspects of the injury must be assessed and stabilized first. Then, attention may be focused on the injured facial nerve, for which prompt surgical repair is the treatment of choice. Prior to surgery, the assessment of taste and hearing, as well as mastoid and skull x-ray films and electrodiagnostic tests are helpful in localizing the facial nerve injury. PMID:933404

Sternbach, G L; Rosen, P; Meislin, H W

1976-04-01

345

Prevention of youth injuries.  

PubMed Central

There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

1999-01-01

346

Biological Approaches to Improve Skeletal Muscle Healing after Injury and Disease  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle injury and repair are complex processes, including well-coordinated steps of degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis. We have reviewed the recent literature including studies by our group that describe how to modulate the processes of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. Antiinflammatory drugs that target cyclooxy-genase-2 were found to hamper the skeletal muscle repair process. Muscle regeneration phase can be aided by growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor-1 and nerve growth factor, but these factors are typically short-lived, and thus more effective methods of delivery are needed. Skeletal muscle damage caused by traumatic injury or genetic diseases can benefit from cell therapy; however, the majority of transplanted muscle cells (myoblasts) are unable to survive the immune response and hypoxic conditions. Our group has isolated neonatal skeletal muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) that appear to repair muscle tissue in a more effective manner than myoblasts, most likely due to their better resistance to oxidative stress. Enhancing antioxidant levels of MDSCs led to improved regenerative potential. It is becoming increasingly clear that stem cells tissue repair by direct differentiation and paracrine effects leading to neovascularization of injured site and chemoattraction of host cells. The factors invoked in paracrine action are still under investigation. Our group has found that angiotensin II receptor blocker (losartan) significantly reduces fibrotic tissue formation and improves repair of murine injured muscle. Based on these data, we have conducted a case study on two hamstring injury patients and found that losartan treatment was well tolerated and possibly improved recovery time. We believe this medication holds great promise to optimize muscle repair in humans. PMID:22457179

Gharaibeh, Burhan; Chun-Lansinger, Yuri; Hagen, Tanya; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Wright, Vonda; Fu, Freddie; Huard, Johnny

2015-01-01

347

Topical Diclofenac Patch Relieves Minor Sports Injury Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports-related soft tissue injuries, such as sprains, strains, and contusions, are a common painful condition. Current treatment includes oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have a high incidence of intolerable gastrointestinal side effects. Topically applied drugs have the potential to act locally in the soft tissues without systemic effects. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac (NSAID)

Bradley S Galer; Michael Rowbotham; Jill Perander; Allison Devers; Erika Friedman

2000-01-01

348

Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent

John Puentes; Hélène Langet; Christophe Herry; Monique Frize

2011-01-01

349

Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

1991-06-01

350

Biophysical mechanisms of traumatic brain injuries.  

PubMed

Despite years of effort to prevent traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), the occurrence of TBI in the United States alone has reached epidemic proportions. When an external force is applied to the head, it is converted into stresses that must be absorbed into the brain or redirected by a helmet or other protective equipment. Complex interactions of the head, neck, and jaw kinematics result in strains in the brain. Even relatively mild mechanical trauma to these tissues can initiate a neurochemical cascade that leads to TBI. Civilians and warfighters can experience head injuries in both combat and noncombat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic and blunt impact, acceleration, and blast. It is critical to understand the physics created by these threats to develop meaningful improvements to clinical care, injury prevention, and mitigation. Here the authors review the current state of understanding of the complex loading conditions that lead to TBI and characterize how these loads are transmitted through soft tissue, the skull and into the brain, resulting in TBI. In addition, gaps in knowledge and injury thresholds are reviewed, as these must be addressed to better design strategies that reduce TBI incidence and severity. PMID:25714862

Young, Lee Ann; Rule, Gregory T; Bocchieri, Robert T; Burns, Jennie M

2015-02-01

351

[Kickboards - Cause of injury, patterns of injury and prevention].  

PubMed

69 patients with kickboard injuries were treated over a 5-month period. 6 patients were admitted to hospital. Fractures (48%), contusions/ lacerations (45%) and capsular/ ligamentuous injuries (27%) were the most prevalent types of injury. Injuries of the elbow, forearm, wrist and hand accounted for 54% of all cases. Ankle (23%), head (6%) and knee were other regions frequently involved. It is concluded that kickboard-driving imposes a severe risk of injuries. The typical kickboard injuries was the fracture of the wrist and the ankle sprain. Protective equipment for the injured regions is very important to prevant injury. PMID:11562799

Losch, A; Fuchs, M; Stürmer, K M

2001-09-01

352

Sex differences in "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms.  

PubMed

Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training-related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with strength training in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, nonaccidental), and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in type, mechanism, and location of strength training injuries. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 14 and 30 years were included in the study. CPSC sampling weights were used to calculate national estimates from the sample of 3,713 patients (men = 3,102; women = 611). Weighted Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences in mechanism, type, and location of injury for men versus women. Men had significantly more sprains and strains (p = 0.004), whereas women demonstrated increased accidental injuries compared to men (p < 0.001). The trunk was the most commonly injured body part for both men (36.9%) and women (27.4%). Men had more trunk injuries than women (p < 0.001), whereas women had more foot (p < 0.001) and leg (p = 0.03) injuries than men (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that men may suffer more exertional-type resistance injuries during strength training (sprains and strains) compared to women, especially at the trunk. Conversely, women may be more susceptible to lower-extremity injuries resulting from accidents during resistance training. PMID:19855331

Quatman, Carmen E; Myer, Gregory D; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-10-01

353

Sex Differences in “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms  

PubMed Central

Benefits of resistance training include improved muscle strength and sports performance, and may include reduced injuries. However, few studies have examined sex differences in resistance training related injuries. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate sex differences in injuries associated with weightlifting, in adolescents and young adults by type (sprains and strains, fractures), mechanism (accidental, non-accidental) and location (head, trunk, arm, hand, leg, foot) of injury. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in type, mechanism and location of “weightlifting” injuries. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2002-2005, using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 14 and 30 were included in the study. CPSC sampling weights were used to calculate national estimates from the sample of 3,713 patients (Males= 3,102; Females= 611). Weighted Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences in mechanism, type, and location of injury for males versus females. Males had significantly more sprains and strains (P=0.004), while females demonstrated increased accidental injuries compared to males (P<0.001). The trunk was the most commonly injured body part for both males (36.9%) and females (27.4%). However, males had more trunk injuries than females (P<0.001), while females had more foot (P<0.001) and leg (P=0.03) injuries than males (P<0.001). The findings indicate that males may suffer more exertional type resistance injuries during weightlifting (sprains and strains) compared to females, especially at the trunk. Conversely, females may be more susceptible to lower extremity injuries resulting from accidents during resistance training. PMID:19855331

Quatman, Carmen E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2009-01-01

354

Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain of Bacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as controls. Behavior tests showed that compared to control rats, the time taken for instrumental conditioned reflex recovery was significantly shorter and the ability to keep the balance on the rotating bar was significantly better in bacterial melanin-treated rats. Histomorphological tests showed that bacterial melanin promoted axon regeneration after sciatic nerve injury. These findings suggest that bacterial melanin exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve, contributes to limb motor function recovery, and therefore can be used for rehabilitation treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25788932

Gevorkyan, Olga. V.; Meliksetyan, Irina B.; Petrosyan, Tigran R.; Hovsepyan, Anichka S.

2015-01-01

355

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

356

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XG2  Common Strain Name: MMTV/c-myc  Strain Nomenclature: FVB-Tg(MMTV-Myc)141-3Led/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B5 , D Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health

357

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XD8  Common Strain Name: Fabp1-Cre  Strain Nomenclature: FVB/N-Tg(Fabp1-Cre)1Jig/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health Report

358

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XBL  Common Strain Name: Myf6-ires-cre knock-in  Strain Nomenclature: B6;129-Myf6tm2(cre)Mrc/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Animal

359

Mouse Repository Strain Details  

Cancer.gov

Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01X68  Common Strain Name: CAG-LSL-EGFRvIII  Strain Nomenclature: STOCK Col1a1tm2(CAG-EGFR*)Char/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 , D Sample MTA for this

360

Acute lung injury: functional genomics and genetic susceptibility.  

PubMed

Initiated by numerous factors, acute lung injury is marked by epithelial and endothelial cell perturbation and inflammatory cell influx that leads to surfactant disruption, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. This syndrome has been associated with a myriad of mediators including cytokines, oxidants, and growth factors. To better understand gene-environmental interactions controlling this complex process, the sensitivity of inbred mouse strains was investigated following acute lung injury that was induced by fine nickel sulfate aerosol. Measuring survival time, protein and neutrophil concentrations in BAL fluid, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and histology, we found that these responses varied between inbred mouse strains and that susceptibility is heritable. To assess the progression of acute lung injury, the temporal expression of genes and expressed sequence tags was assessed by complementary DNA microarray analysis. Enhanced expression was noted in genes that were associated with oxidative stress, antiprotease function, and extracellular matrix repair. In contrast, expression levels of surfactant proteins (SPs) and Clara cell secretory protein (ie, transcripts that are constitutively expressed in the lung) decreased markedly. Genome-wide analysis was performed with offspring derived from a sensitive and resistant strain (C57BL/6xA F(1) backcrossed with susceptible A strain). Significant linkage was identified for a locus on chromosome 6 (proposed as Aliq4), a region that we had identified previously following ozone-induced acute lung injury. Two suggestive linkages were identified on chromosomes 1 and 12. Using haplotype analysis to estimate the combined effect of these regions (along with putative modifying loci on chromosomes 9 and 16), we found that five loci interact to account for the differences in survival time of the parental strains. Candidate genes contained in Aliq4 include SP-B, aquaporin 1, and transforming growth factor-alpha. Thus, the functional genomic approaches of large gene set expression (complementary DNA microarray) and genome-wide analyses continue to provide novel insights into the genetic susceptibility of lung injury. PMID:11893692

Leikauf, George D; McDowell, Susan A; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Hardie, William D; Leikauf, John E; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Prows, Daniel R

2002-03-01

361

Catastrophic injuries among young athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While very rare, catastrophic injuries in youth sports have a major impact on athletes and their families when they do occur. This article reviews and summarises the sparse research on direct catastrophic injuries in youth sports, a direct catastrophic sports injury being defined as a sport injury that resulted from participation in the skills of the sport, and resulted in

E D Zemper

2010-01-01

362

Acute Backpack Injuries in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify the most common mechanisms and sites of injury associated with book backpacks in school-aged children, who present to the emergency department. This should help with the devel- opment of backpack injury prevention strategies. Design. A descriptive analysis of The National Elec- tronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Injury Information

Brent M. Wiersema; Eric J. Wall; Susan L. Foad

363

Prevention of injury in karate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of knuckle protection on the type and incidence of injuries in traditional karate contests. Knuckle protection was mandatory at the Danish karate championships 1983 and 1986 (290 matches, 0.26 injuries per match), and prohibited at the championships 1984 and 1985 (620 matches, 0.25 injuries per match). Head injuries were more

H V Johannsen; F O Noerregaard

1988-01-01

364

Injuries in intercollegiate rodeo athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collegiate rodeo athletes (N = 156) in the National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association (NIRA) Southern Re gion, were examined for injuries during a 7 month (10 rodeo) season from 1987 to 1988. Sixty-two athletes sustained a total of 138 acute injuries resulting from 3292 exposures. One hundred twenty-seven injuries (92% of total injuries) occurred in the roughstock and steer wrestling events,

Michael C. Meyers; Jerry R. Elledge; James C. Sterling; Homer Tolson

1990-01-01

365

Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips  

MedlinePLUS

Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips Preventing SCI Biking prevention tips While many cycling injuries are head injuries, the proper ... NeurosurgeryToday.org Every year, an estimated 11,000 spinal cord injury (SCI) accidents occur in the United States. Motor ...

366

DARPA challenge: developing new technologies for brain and spinal injuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.

Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey

2012-06-01

367

Computational Models Predict Larger Muscle Tissue Strains at Faster Sprinting Speeds  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Proximal biceps femoris musculotendon strain injury has been well established as a common injury among athletes participating in sports that require sprinting near or at maximum speed; however, little is known about the mechanisms that make this muscle tissue more susceptible to injury at faster speeds. Purpose: Quantify localized tissue strain during sprinting at a range of speeds. Methods: Biceps femoris long head (BFlh) musculotendon dimensions of 14 athletes were measured on magnetic resonance (MR) images and used to generate a finite element computational model. The model was first validated through comparison with previous dynamic MR experiments. After validation, muscle activation and muscle-tendon unit length change were derived from forward dynamic simulations of sprinting at 70%, 85% and 100% maximum speed and used as input to the computational model simulations. Simulations ran from mid-swing to foot contact. Results: The model predictions of local muscle tissue strain magnitude compared favorably with in vivo tissue strain measurements determined from dynamic MR experiments of the BFlh. For simulations of sprinting, local fiber strain was non-uniform at all speeds, with the highest muscle tissue strain where injury is often observed (proximal myotendinous junction). At faster sprinting speeds, increases were observed in fiber strain non-uniformity and peak local fiber strain (0.56, 0.67 and 0.72, for sprinting at 70%, 85% and 100% maximum speed). A histogram of local fiber strains showed that more of the BFlh reached larger local fiber strains at faster speeds. Conclusions: At faster sprinting speeds, peak local fiber strain, fiber strain non-uniformity and the amount of muscle undergoing larger strains are predicted to increase, likely contributing to the BFlh muscle’s higher injury susceptibility at faster speeds. PMID:24145724

Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Rehorn, Michael R; Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Thelen, Darryl G; Blemker, Silvia S

2014-01-01

368

Direct catastrophic injury in sports.  

PubMed

Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes. PMID:16272269

Boden, Barry P

2005-11-01

369

Tendon injuries of the hand  

PubMed Central

Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265

Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas

2012-01-01

370

Comparison of endoscopic and two-incision techniques for reconstructing a torn anterior cruciate ligament using hamstring tendons.  

PubMed

This study compared the differences in clinical outcome between an endoscopic (67 of 70) and two-incision (41 of 49) technique used to reconstruct tom anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) using a double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis (DLSTG) graft. In both techniques, the graft was placed without roof impingement, the looped end of the graft was fixed around a post with bone compaction, and the free ends were fixed with either double staples or a soft tissue washer(s). No graft required suture fixation. The postoperative treatment featured an aggressive rehabilitation protocol without a brace, and allowed unrestricted sports participation 4 months after reconstruction. Age, sex distribution, duration from injury to surgery, and preoperative laxity were not significantly different between treatment groups. The operative time for the endoscopic technique averaged 48 minutes less than the two-incision technique. There were no significant differences in thigh circumference, knee extension, stability, and the single leg hop test between the two treatment groups at 4 and 24 months. Ninety-one percent of the knees in the endoscopic group and 90% in the two-incision group had less than a 3 mm increase in anterior translation compared with the normal knee using the manual maximum test (KT-1000) and had either a normal or near normal knee (IKDC score) at 2 years. A second surgery for removal of painful, prominent hardware was required in 21% of the subjects in the endoscopic group and 12% of the subjects in the two-incision treatment group. Patients preferred the endoscopic technique because the result was more cosmetic and aggressive rehabilitation could be accomplished without the assistance of a physical therapist. Unfortunately, objective stability could not be restored in about 10% of knees with either technique. Reoperation for removal of prominent staples and washers continues to be the primary source of postoperative morbidity. PMID:10495175

Howell, S M; Deutsch, M L

1999-09-01

371

Aetiology of handball injuries: a case--control study.  

PubMed Central

This article presents the results of a case--control study regarding the background to handball injuries among players of 12 years and older. Data were collected by means of a written questionnaire on the nature, location and direct causes of the injuries as well as information on risk factors. Injured players (n = 130) are compared with non-injured players (n = 512). The response for the cases was 67% and for the controls 75%. These injuries are frequently located at the lower extremities (54% of injuries), especially the ankle, and the majority involve distortions (35%) and strains (26%). Players greater than 20 years have a significantly greater risk of injury than players less than 20 years (odds ratio 1.9). Several factors seem to increase the injury risk, although not significantly: having greater than 5 years experience, not doing stretching exercises and not wearing tape or bandages. Another factor, not wearing elbow protectors, appears to decrease the injury risk significantly. It is advisable to interpret the results of this study with some caution, as selection and information bias might have influenced the validity to some extent. Furthermore, the reliability of the data is limited due to the relatively small number of injured players in the study. Some guidelines for future studies are formulated. Images p124-a PMID:1422643

Dirx, M; Bouter, L M; de Geus, G H

1992-01-01

372

Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... skills can include walking, talking and feeding yourself. Physical therapy is made up of stretching, strengthening exercises and ... brain injury and not know it? How can physical and occupational therapy help me? Are there support groups for people ...

373

Biomarkers of Lung Injury  

EPA Science Inventory

Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

374

What Causes Pediatric Injury?  

MedlinePLUS

... The CDC and the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) provide a range of information for parents, caregivers, ... For more information, visit: CDC Safe Child website CPSC Consumer Safety website National Center for Injury Prevention ...

375

Head injury criterion  

E-print Network

In the design of robotic systems that safely interact with people, it is useful to have validated criteria for measuring injury risks. To this end, some researchers have advocated the use of metrics developed for assessing ...

Wampler, Charles Wilson

376

Injury reduction at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

2005-06-01

377

Ear Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

378

Severe Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... but it also has a large societal and economic toll. The estimated economic cost of TBI in 2010, including direct and ... P, Miller T and associates. The Incidence and Economic Burden of Injuries in the United States. New ...

379

Peroneal Tendon Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Peroneal Tendon Injuries Text Size Print Bookmark ... foot run side-by-side behind the outer ankle bone. One peroneal tendon attaches to the outer ...

380

Home Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... soles at all times. Home Injury Prevention www.myasthenia.org www.myasthenia.org 800.541.5454 A helpful guide for ... diagnosis and optimal care of individuals affected by myasthenia gravis and closely related disorders and to improve ...

381

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... and severity of eye injuries. Only 3-mm polycarbonate lenses should be used in protective sports eyewear. ... lenses are available in plain and prescription forms. Polycarbonate lenses are impact resistant. They also are the ...

382

Hand and Wrist Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... American Physical Therapy Association American Medical Society for Sports Medicine HAND AND WRIST INJURIES Sports Tips are brought to you by the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. They provide general information only and are not ...

383

Photobiomodulation on sports injuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

2003-12-01

384

Seasonal Hand Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... away from all moving parts. O VERLOOKING THE RISKS FOR BUSY LITTLE HANDS Buy nonsharp serrated cutting ... Scooters, Skateboarding, and Skating Neck or Back Injury Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians Express Safety Concerns As Kids Go ...

385

Injuries in taekwondo  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 6th Taekwondo World Championship more than 4 per cent of the competitors were admitted to hospital. The majoirity of the severe injuries were to the head and neck. More padding and a change of rules are recommended.

J E Siana; P Borum; H Kryger

1986-01-01

386

Tissue injury and healing.  

PubMed

This article provides a primer on the biochemistry of wound healing for clinical oral and maxillofacial surgeons, recognizing that time frames, tissue growth, and cell types are important factors in the healing process that may influence treatment, whereas the specifics of molecular composition and fiber interaction are less critical at the tissue level. Various injury patterns, including different types of lacerations, blunt and penetrating trauma, blast injuries, and ballistic injuries, are described with an eye toward the ultimate clinical goals of functional and cosmetic reconstruction. As injuries of our incredibly brave military soldiers are studied and treated and their outcomes ultimately assessed, they serve as the models to help us understand changing wound patterns and effects in this new age of terroristic warfare. PMID:18088781

Kincaid, Brent; Schmitz, John P

2005-08-01

387

Preventing Knee Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... injuries may result in various symptoms including pain, instability, swelling, and stiffness. ... in the front of the knee can also be caused by patellar tendinitis (jumper’s knee), which causes pain in the ...

388

Spinal Cord Injury 101  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

389

Medline Plus: Sports Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercising and playing sports can lead to a sound mind and body, but sports-related injuries can be frustrating for anyone. This very helpful site, offered as part of the Medline Plus series from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, contains dozens of fact sheets, media presentations, and other items regarding various sports injuries. Visitors who know exactly what they need can click on over to the "Related Topics" area on the right-hand side of the homepage, where they will find resources on everything from ankle injuries to general wellness. Their homepage also contains sections like "Basics", "Research", and "Multimedia & Cool Tools". Two items that are definitely worth checking out are the tennis elbow tutorial and the basic overview of sports injuries offered by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

390

Catastrophic spine injuries in sports.  

PubMed

Catastrophic spine injuries in sports are rare but tragic events. The sports with the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing and snowboarding, rugby, cheerleading, and baseball. A common mechanism of injury for all at-risk sports is an axial compression force to the top of the head with the neck slightly flexed. We review common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for spine injuries in the at-risk sports. PMID:15659279

Boden, Barry P; Prior, Chris

2005-02-01

391

Neurologic injury in snowmobiling  

PubMed Central

Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling. PMID:25024887

Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

392

Posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of a basketball injury.  

PubMed

Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is a serious although rare occurrence that was sparsely documented in the orthopedic literature until Schwartz et al reported on a series of 21 cases. Although classically associated with high-energy femur fracture, thigh contusion, or the use of military anti-shock trousers, compartment syndrome of the thigh has recently been diagnosed in seemingly low-energy injuries. A complete hamstring avulsion from its ischial origin during routine ambulation and rupture of the quadriceps tendon after a low-energy fall have been shown to result in compartment syndrome. In light of the potential medicolegal ramifications surrounding the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, emergency room consultations to rule out compartment syndrome are on the rise. Specifically, the time to fasciotomy was found to be linearly related to indemnity payment, and a fasciotomy performed within 8 hours was uniformly associated with a successful defense. This article describes a case of a 29-year-old healthy man who developed posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of an intrasubstance tear of the biceps femoris muscle sustained while attempting a lay-up during a recreational basketball game. His posterior thigh compartment pressure measured 70 mm Hg and he required emergent posterior thigh compartment fasciotomy. PMID:19968230

Mallo, Gregory C; Stanat, Scott J C; Al-Humadi, Mohaned; Divaris, Nicholas

2009-12-01

393

Epidemiology of Waterskiing Injuries  

PubMed Central

Coast Guard statistics indicate a national boating fatality rate of 9.6 deaths per 100,000 crafts. In 1977 in California, five fatalities and 70 serious injuries were directly attributable to waterskiing. The four cases reported here include three patients with propeller injuries, including one nearly fatal amputation. In each case basic measures for boating safety were overlooked. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:117637

Banta, John V.

1979-01-01

394

1. Avoiding back injury.  

PubMed

This article looks at healthcare professionals, in particular midwives, and considers how to maintain back health and prevent injury through principles of good practice. Knowledge of back pain, mindfulness in working conditions and modifications of current practice will reduce the risk of repetitive injury, and present management options in the short- and long term. Considerations on improving the 'working lifestyle' rather than quick fixes are ultimately the long-term goal. PMID:25597130

Randall, Sara

2014-12-01

395

Dentoalveolar nerve injury.  

PubMed

Nerve injury associated with dentoalveolar surgery is a complication contributing to the altered sensation of the lower lip, chin, buccal gingivae, and tongue. This surgery-related sensory defect is a morbid postoperative outcome. Several risk factors have been proposed. This article reviews the incidence of trigeminal nerve injury, presurgical risk assessment, classification, and surgical coronectomy versus conventional extraction as an approach to prevent neurosensory damage associated with dentoalveolar surgery. PMID:21798439

Auyong, Thomas G; Le, Anh

2011-08-01

396

Injury alliance in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve greater societal impact within a highly competitive charitable marketplace, the four major, national, injury prevention organisations have decided to collaborate toward the following purposes:Long-term goalTo save more lives and prevent more potentially life-altering injuries in Canada.Medium-term objectiveTo raise awareness and to facilitate attitudinal and behavioural shifts among the organisations respective target populations, in partnership with their natural allies,

P Fuselli; P Kellsbert Baker; R Nesdale-Tucker

2010-01-01

397

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) are heterogeneous. This injury falls on a broad spectrum, from very mild neurometabolic\\u000a changes in the brain with rapid recovery to permanent problems due to structural brain damage. It is incorrect to assume that\\u000a MTBIs cannot cause permanent brain damage and it is incorrect to assume that MTBIs typically cause permanent brain damage. This is

Grant L. Iverson; Rael T. Lange

398

Muscle strain (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

399

Creatine supplementation during college football training does not increase the incidence of cramping or injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on the incidence of injury observed during 3-years of NCAA Division IA college football training and competition. In an open label manner, athletes participating in the 1998-2000 football seasons elected to take creatine or non-creatine containing supplements following workouts/practices. Subjects who decided to take creatine were administered 15.75 g of creatine for 5 days followed by ingesting an average of 5 g/day thereafter administered in 5-10 g doses. Creatine intake was monitored and recorded by research assistants throughout the study and ranged between 34-56% of players during the course of the study. Subjects practiced or played in environmental conditions ranging from 8-40 degrees C (mean 24.7 +/- 9 degrees C) and 19-98% relative humidity (49.3 +/- 17%). Injuries treated by the athletic training staff were recorded and categorized as cramping, heat/dehydration, muscle tightness, muscle strains/pulls, noncontact joint injuries, contact injuries, and illness. The number of missed practices due to injury/illness was also recorded. Data are presented as the total number of treated injuries for creatine users/total injuries observed and percentage occurrence rate of injuries for creatine users for all seasons. The incidence of cramping (37/96, 39%), heat/dehydration (8/28, 36%), muscle tightness (18/42, 43%), muscle pulls/strains (25/51, 49%), non-contact joint injuries (44/132, 33%), contact injuries (39/104, 44%), illness (12/27, 44%), number of missed practices due to injury (19/41, 46%), players lost for the season (3/8, 38%), and total injuries/missed practices (205/529, 39%) were generally lower or proportional to the creatine use rate among players. Creatine supplementation does not appear to increase the incidence of injury or cramping in Division IA college football players. PMID:12701814

Greenwood, Michael; Kreider, Richard B; Melton, Charlie; Rasmussen, Christopher; Lancaster, Stacy; Cantler, Edward; Milnor, Purvis; Almada, Anthony

2003-02-01

400

Isolated syndesmosis ankle injury.  

PubMed

Isolated syndesmosis injuries often go unrecognized and are diagnosed as lateral ankle sprains; however, they are more disabling than lateral ankle sprains. The reported incidence of isolated syndesmosis injuries in acute ankle sprains ranges between 1% and 16%. When ankle disability lasts for more than 2 months after an ankle sprain, the incidence increases to 23.6%. Diagnostic workup may include stress radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, or diagnostic arthroscopy. A simple stress test radiograph may reveal an unstable grade III syndesmosis sprain that may go unrecognized on plain anteroposterior and mortise or lateral radiographs of the ankle. The duration of symptoms in isolated syndesmosis injury is longer and more severe, often leading to chronic symptoms or ankle instability requiring operative stabilization.This article describes the clinical presentation, injury classification, and operative stabilization techniques of isolated syndesmosis injuries. The authors performed their preferred operative stabilization technique for isolated syndesmosis injury-arthroscopic debridement of the ankle with syndesmotic stabilization with a syndesmotic screw-in 4 patients. All patients were evaluated 1 year postoperatively with subjective and objective assessment scales. Three of 4 patients showed good improvement of general subjective ankle symptoms and subjective ankle instability rating and a high Sports Ankle Rating System score after 1 year. PMID:23218625

Valkering, Kars P; Vergroesen, Diederik A; Nolte, Peter A

2012-12-01

401

Laser eye injuries.  

PubMed

Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons. PMID:10906379

Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

2000-01-01

402

Craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury  

PubMed Central

The increase in neurotrophic factors after craniocerebral injury has been shown to promote fracture healing. Moreover, neurotrophic factors play a key role in the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerve. However, whether craniocerebral injury alters the repair of peripheral nerve injuries remains poorly understood. Rat injury models were established by transecting the left sciatic nerve and using a free-fall device to induce craniocerebral injury. Compared with sciatic nerve injury alone after 6–12 weeks, rats with combined sciatic and craniocerebral injuries showed decreased sciatic functional index, increased recovery of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight, recovery of sciatic nerve ganglia and corresponding spinal cord segment neuron morphologies, and increased numbers of horseradish peroxidase-labeled cells. These results indicate that craniocerebral injury promotes the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25374593

Wang, Wei; Gao, Jun; Na, Lei; Jiang, Hongtao; Xue, Jingfeng; Yang, Zhenjun; Wang, Pei

2014-01-01

403

Dancers' and musicians' injuries.  

PubMed

This overview is based on the over 30 years of performing arts medicine experience of the author, an orthopaedic surgeon who devoted his professional life entirely to the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of dancers' and musicians' injuries. After a short introduction on the specific demands of professional dance and music making, it describes some general principles of orthopaedic dance medicine and causes of injuries in dancers. The relation of dance injuries with compensatory mechanisms for insufficient external rotation in the hips is explained, as well as hypermobility and the importance of 'core-stability'. As a general principle of treatment, the physician must respect the 'passion' of the dancer and never give an injured dancer the advice to stop dancing. Mental practice helps to maintain dance technical capabilities. The specific orthopaedic dance-medicine section deals with some common injuries of the back and lower extremities in dancers. An important group of common dance injuries form the causes of limited and painful 'relevé' in dancers, like 'dancer's heel' (posterior ankle impingement syndrome), 'dancer's tendinitis' (tenovaginitis of the m.flexor hallucis longus) and hallux rigidus. The second half of the overview deals with the general principles of orthopaedic musicians' medicine and causes of injuries in musicians, like a sudden change in the 'musical load' or a faulty playing posture. Hypermobility in musicians is both an asset and a risk factor. As a general principle of treatment, early specialized medical assessment is essential to rule out specific injuries. Making the diagnosis in musicians is greatly facilitated by examining the patient during playing the musical instrument. The playing posture, stabilisation of the trunk and shoulder girdle and practising habits should always be checked. Musicians in general are intelligent and the time spent on extensive explanation and advice is well spent. In overuse injuries, relative rest supported by 'mental practice' is effective. The specific orthopaedic musicians' medicine section deals with some common injuries of the neck and upper extremities, like (posture related) cervicobrachialgia, and thoracic outlet syndrome. An important group of causes of musicians' injuries form the entrapment neuropathies (especially ulnaropathy), osteoarthritis of the hands and hypermobility. PMID:23572035

Rietveld, A B M Boni

2013-04-01

404

Snowblading injuries in Eastern Canada  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate injury patterns of snowbladers and compare them with those of skiers and snowboarders. To determine possible effects of helmet use in these sports on injury to the head and neck. Methods: This prospective case series observational study was conducted by collecting the injury reports from the ski patrol during the 1999–2000 season at Mont Tremblant ski resort, Quebec. All participants in downhill winter sports who presented themselves to the ski patrol with traumatic injury related to their sport were included. A concussion was defined as any loss of consciousness, amnesia, confusion, disorientation, vertigo, or headache that resulted from injury. The ski patroller reported helmet use on the accident report at the time of injury. Results: Snowbladers present with a unique pattern of injury compared with skiers and snowboarders. The incidence of leg, knee, and ankle/foot injuries were 20.5%, 25.6%, and 10.3% respectively. Concussions represented 11% of all injuries. There was no increase in other injury, including neck injury, related to helmet use. Conclusions: Unique injury patterns in snowbladers warrant reconsideration of equipment design. Concussion is a common injury on the ski slope. Although the effects of helmet use on concussion rate are inconclusive based on this study, helmet use did not increase the rate of neck injury, even when adjusted for age. PMID:14665590

Bridges, E; Rouah, F; Johnston, K

2003-01-01

405

Strains at the myotendinous junction predicted by a micromechanical model  

PubMed Central

The goal of this work was to create a finite element micromechanical model of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) to examine how the structure and mechanics of the MTJ affect the local micro-scale strains experienced by muscle fibers. We validated the model through comparisons with histological longitudinal sections of muscles fixed in slack and stretched positions. The model predicted deformations of the A-bands within the fiber near the MTJ that were similar to those measured from the histological sections. We then used the model to predict the dependence of local fiber strains on activation and the mechanical properties of the endomysium. The model predicted that peak micro-scale strains increase with activation and as the compliance of the endomysium decreases. Analysis of the models revealed that, in passive stretch, local fiber strains are governed by the difference of the mechanical properties between the fibers and the endomysium. In active stretch, strain distributions are governed by the difference in cross-sectional area along the length of the tapered region of the fiber near the MTJ. The endomysium provides passive resistance that balances the active forces and prevents the tapered region of the fiber from undergoing excessive strain. These model predictions lead to the following hypotheses: (i) the increased likelihood of injury during active lengthening of muscle fibers may be due to the increase in peak strain with activation and (ii) endomysium may play a role in protecting fibers from injury by reducing the strains within the fiber at the MTJ. PMID:21945569

Sharafi, Bahar; Ames, Elizabeth G.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Blemker, Silvia S.

2011-01-01

406

Pediatric head injury and concussion.  

PubMed

Children with head injuries frequently present to emergency departments. Even though most of these children have minor injuries, head injury is the most common cause of traumatic deaths in pediatric patients. The pediatric GCS and decision rules for obtaining head CT imaging help the provider evaluate head-injured infants and children. The provider must be vigilant to diagnose those who have life-threatening intracranial injuries or are victims of abusive head trauma. The goal of the emergency physician is to diagnose and treat the consequences of the primary injury and to limit or prevent secondary injury. PMID:23915598

Wing, Robyn; James, Catherine

2013-08-01

407

Both MHC and non-MHC genes regulate inflammation and T-cell response after traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic regulation of autoimmune neuroinflammation is a well known phenomenon, but genetic influences on inflammation following traumatic nerve injuries have received little attention. In this study we examined the inflammatory response in a rat traumatic brain injury (TBI) model, with a particular focus on major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) presentation, in two inbred rat strains that have been extensively

Faiez Al Nimer; Amennai Daniel Beyeen; Rickard Lindblom; Mikael Ström; Shahin Aeinehband; Olle Lidman; Fredrik Piehl

2011-01-01

408

Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

2003-01-01

409

Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discuss the anatomy and biomechanics of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint, along with the clinical evaluation and treatment of an athlete with an AC joint injury. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE from 1970 through 1999 under the key words “acromioclavicular joint,” “clavicle,” “acromioclavicular separation,” and “acromioclavicular dislocation.” Knowledge base was an additional source. Data Synthesis: AC joint injury is common in athletes and a source of significant morbidity, particularly for athletes in overhead sports. Because this injury can masquerade as other shoulder conditions, the examiner must understand the anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder in order to perform a systematic clinical evaluation and identify the injury. Conclusions/Recommendations: Careful attention to the clinical evaluation allows the clinician to categorize the athlete's AC joint injury and institute appropriate treatment in a timely fashion, thus permitting the athlete to return to sport as quickly and safely as possible. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:16558638

Beim, Gloria M.

2000-01-01

410

Principal Strain Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the strain components ex, ey, and exy, this calculator computes the principal strains e1 and e2, the principal angle qp, the maximum shear strain exy max and its angle qs. It also illustrates an approximate Mohr's cirlce for the given strain state.

411

Magnetic resonance imaging of sports injuries of the elbow.  

PubMed

Many abnormalities seen in the elbow result from trauma, often from sports such as baseball and tennis. Elbow problems are frequently related to the medial tension-lateral compression phenomenon, where repeated valgus stress produces flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, ulnar traction spurring, and ulnar neuropathy. Lateral compression causes osteochondral lesions of the capitellum and radial head, degenerative arthritis, and loose bodies. Other elbow abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging include radial collateral ligament injuries, biceps and triceps tendon injuries, other nerve entrapment syndromes, loose bodies, osseous and soft-tissue trauma, arthritis, and masses, including bursae. PMID:12606870

Thornton, Raymond; Riley, Geoffrey M; Steinbach, Lynne S

2003-02-01

412

TECHWR-L: Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you work in front of a computer a lot, you are probably a candidate for Repetitive-Stress Injuries (RSI). This article from TECHWR-L entitled, Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries: A Guide for the Technical Communicator gives some helpful tips for preventing the aches, pains, hand problems and eye strain associated with repeated computer usage. The article discusses different mouse options, keyboard options, and other adjustments you can make to lessen your risk of RSI and make typing at the computer a little more pleasant. Additional links at the bottom provide further information on healthy computing.

413

Head injury and aging: the importance of bleeding injuries.  

PubMed

The current study analyzed 1993-2007 data from NASS/CDS (National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System) to explore the types of serious head injuries sustained by adult motor vehicle crash occupants and how the types of head injuries sustained shifted with age. The purpose was to determine which head injuries are most important for older occupants by identifying specific injuries that become more likely for aging occupants and taking into consideration previous reports on the potential outcome of those injuries for an older population. Results confirmed previous reports that older head injury victims in motor vehicle collisions were more likely to sustain bleeding injuries than younger head injury victims. The current study showed that, in particular, the rate of extra-axial bleeding injury (which includes epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid bleeding) increased with age. The increase in extra-axial bleeding injury rate was especially prominent in relatively low Delta-V crashes. Among the extra-axial bleeding injuries that had increased odds of injury for older occupants, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage were notable, with increased odds of injury for occupants age 50 to 69 as well as for occupants age 70 and older. The importance of subdural hematoma for aging occupants is emphasized by previous studies showing its high mortality rate, while the impact of subarachnoid hemorrhage is linked in previous studies to its aggravating effect on other injuries. The results highlight a need to further explore the injury mechanisms of subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in older occupants in order to define age-adjusted injury tolerance and develop countermeasures. PMID:21050591

Mallory, Ann

2010-01-01

414

Head Injury and Aging: The Importance of Bleeding Injuries  

PubMed Central

The current study analyzed 1993–2007 data from NASS/CDS (National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System) to explore the types of serious head injuries sustained by adult motor vehicle crash occupants and how the types of head injuries sustained shifted with age. The purpose was to determine which head injuries are most important for older occupants by identifying specific injuries that become more likely for aging occupants and taking into consideration previous reports on the potential outcome of those injuries for an older population. Results confirmed previous reports that older head injury victims in motor vehicle collisions were more likely to sustain bleeding injuries than younger head injury victims. The current study showed that, in particular, the rate of extra-axial bleeding injury (which includes epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid bleeding) increased with age. The increase in extra-axial bleeding injury rate was especially prominent in relatively low Delta-V crashes. Among the extra-axial bleeding injuries that had increased odds of injury for older occupants, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage were notable, with increased odds of injury for occupants age 50 to 69 as well as for occupants age 70 and older. The importance of subdural hematoma for aging occupants is emphasized by previous studies showing its high mortality rate, while the impact of subarachnoid hemorrhage is linked in previous studies to its aggravating effect on other injuries. The results highlight a need to further explore the injury mechanisms of subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in older occupants in order to define age-adjusted injury tolerance and develop countermeasures. PMID:21050591

Mallory, Ann

415

Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.  

PubMed

The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

2002-06-01

416

Injury as disease.  

PubMed

Consideration of injury as disease is an arbitrary distinction that nonetheless may have some utility. The disease concept includes the understanding that the agents and mechanisms of human/environmental interaction for injury causation are similar to those for many of the chronic diseases, with differences in the timing rather than the agent or mechanism of the transmission. As with other aspects of medical practice, injury control requires careful and knowledgeable epidemiologic, technological, psychological and social planning, and equally careful and knowledgeable attention to proper evaluation of intervention programs. Such evaluation has rarely been attempted with behavioral interventions but has been carried out somewhat more often with environmental countermeasures. Evaluation of both costs and benefits must include attention to factors that often cannot be measured in economic terms and that may differ not only in degree but in kind. Therefore, no methods for comparability may exist at this time for some of these costs and effects. PMID:3566898

Waller, J A

1987-02-01

417

Injuries among teens employed in the homebuilding industry in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Objective—To describe injuries of teens employed in the residential construction industry and to assess whether their injury experiences are significantly different from those of adults in this high risk industry. Methods and setting—North Carolina homebuilders workers' compensation data for a 41 month period were analyzed. Injuries of teens were identified and described by body part injured, nature, and cause of injury. Proportionate injury ratios were used to summarize and compare the injury experience of teens with those of adult construction workers. Results—Teens had proportionately more injuries to the eye and foot and fewer injuries to the back than adults. They had more cuts and scratches and fewer sprains and strains. They also had proportionately fewer injuries from falls from elevations and overexertion, injuries that account for a significant cost burden in construction. Consistent with these findings, teens had significantly fewer injuries resulting in medical costs or lost time costs of $1000 or more. Conclusions—The analyses indicate that injuries of teens are less serious than those of adults. This finding may indicate that their work exposures are less dangerous than those of adults in comparable broad categories of construction. However, the data also provide documentation of injuries to teens resulting from work at heights, use of power tools, and motor vehicles with the majority of more expensive claims involving one of these exposures. Construction is dangerous work and these results add to the documentation of the need for additional measures to prevent work related injuries among all workers—teens and adults—in this industry. PMID:11565985

Lipscomb, H; Li, L

2001-01-01

418

Inflammation and Vascular Injury  

PubMed Central

The invited special lecture at the 76th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society focused on the central role of inflammation in vascular injury and repair. Early studies pioneered the concept that mechanical injury, such as balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent deployment, elicits an inflammatory response from the vessel wall. This hypothesis was developed and substantiated at a time when the prevailing dogma viewed restenosis following angioplasty as a primarily proliferative smooth muscle cell disease. Antibody targeting of Mac-1 reduced leukocyte accumulation and limited neointimal formation following balloon injury or stent implantation. Genetic absence of Mac-1 resulted in diminished leukocyte accumulation and neointimal thickening after carotid artery injury in mice. In the course of those studies, our laboratory made fundamental discoveries regarding the mechanism of leukocyte recruitment at sites of vascular injury and identified platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib?, a component of the GPIb-IX-V complex, as the previously unknown platelet counter-receptor for Mac-1. Follow-on studies have focused extensively on the structure, function, and signaling of the leukocyte integrin Mac-1. The binding site for GPIb? in Mac-1 has been mapped and subsequently showed that leukocyte engagement of platelet GPIb? via Mac-1 is critical not only for the biological response to vascular injury, but also for thrombosis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and multiple sclerosis, thereby advancing the hypothesis that virtually all inflammation is platelet-dependent. Furthermore, ligand engagement of Mac-1 initiates a novel gene program that promotes inflammation by activating NF?B and downregulating the expression of the forkhead transcription factor Foxp1 that controls monocyte differentiation. Small molecule inhibitors of Mac-1 function have been pursued, including targeting of Mac-1-GPIb? binding or the downstream tyrosine kinase spleen tyrosine kinase. Drs Teruo Inoue, Koichi Node, Tatsuya Fukotomi, Masashi Sakuma, Toshifumi Morooka, and Kohsuke Nakajima, valued Japanese collaborators and post-doctoral fellows, have contributed enormously to these discoveries. PMID:22785436

Simon, Daniel I.

2014-01-01

419

Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare incidences and patterns of injury for female and male elite teams when playing football on artificial turf and grass. Twenty teams (15 male, 5 female) playing home matches on third-generation artificial turf were followed prospectively; their injury risk when playing on artificial turf pitches was compared with the risk when playing on grass. Individual exposure, injuries (time loss) and injury severity were recorded by the team medical staff. In total, 2105 injuries were recorded during 246,000 h of exposure to football. Seventy-one percent of the injuries were traumatic and 29% overuse injuries. There were no significant differences in the nature of overuse injuries recorded on artificial turf and grass for either men or women. The incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours) of acute (traumatic) injuries did not differ significantly between artificial turf and grass, for men (match 22.4 v 21.7; RR 1.0 (95% CI 0.9-1.2); training 3.5 v 3.5; RR 1.0 (0.8-1.2)) or women [match 14.9 v 12.5; RR 1.2 (0.8-1.8); training 2.9 v 2.8; RR 1.0 (0.6-1.7)]. During matches, men were less likely to sustain a quadriceps strain (P=0.031) and more likely to sustain an ankle sprain (P=0.040) on artificial turf. PMID:20456680

Ekstrand, J; Hägglund, M; Fuller, C W

2011-12-01

420

Emergency department-reported injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment in the USA.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to generate national estimates of injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment, and to describe these injuries across all ages. Emergency department (ED)-treated injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment were identified from 2007 to 2011 from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Text narratives provided exercise equipment type (treadmill, elliptical, stationary bicycle, unspecified/other exercise machine). Approximately 70 302 (95% CI 59 086 to 81 519) mechanical exercise equipment-related injuries presented to US EDs nationally during 2007-2011, of which 66% were attributed to treadmills. Most injuries among children (?4 years) were lacerations (34%) or soft tissue injuries (48%); among adults (?25 years) injuries were often sprains/strains (30%). Injured older adults (?65 years) had greater odds of being admitted, held for observation, or transferred to another hospital, compared with younger ages (OR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.45 to 4.60). Mechanical exercise equipment is a common cause of injury across ages. Injury awareness and prevention are important complements to active lifestyles. PMID:24061163

Graves, Janessa M; Iyer, Krithika R; Willis, Margaret M; Ebel, Beth E; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

2014-08-01

421

Severe Traumatic Injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives The public health implications of regional variation in incidence and outcome of severe traumatic injury remain to be analyzed. The objective of this study was to determine whether the incidence and outcome associated with severe traumatic injury differs across geographic regions of North America. Methods A prospective, observational study was conducted of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium of all patients in 9 North American sites (6 US and 3 Canadian) sustaining severe traumatic injury from April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007 followed to hospital discharge. Eligible patients were assessed by organized emergency medical services, and had field-based physiologic criteria including systolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg, Glasgow Coma Scale score ?12, respiratory rate <10 or >29 per minute, advanced airway procedure, or traumatic death in the field. Census data were used to determine rates adjusted for age and sex. The main outcome measures were incidence rate, mortality rate, case fatality rate, and survival to discharge for patients sustaining severe traumatic injury assessed by EMS. Results The total catchment population of 20.5 million yielded 7080 cases of severe traumatic injury. Median age was 36 years and 67% were male. The median incidence of EMS-assessed severe traumatic injury per 100,000 population across sites was 37.4 (interquartile range [IQR] = 24.6 – 69.6); survival ranged from 39.8% to 80.8%, with a median of 64.5% (IQR = 55.5–78.4). About 942 cases were pronounced dead at the scene and 5857 patients were transported to hospital; 4477 (63.2%) were discharged alive. The median incidence of severe trauma due to a blunt mechanism, transported to hospital, was 25.8 (IQR = 13.1–44.3); survival ranged from 52.6% to 87.3%, with a median of 78.0% (IQR = 68.4–83.5). The median incidence of severe penetrating trauma, transported to hospital, was 2.6 (IQR = 1.5–10.4); survival ranged from 37.5% to 84.7%, with a median of 67.5% (IQR = 54.1–75.9). All P values for differences across sites for incidence and survival were <0.001. Conclusions In this study involving 9 geographic regions in North America, there were significant and important regional differences in severe traumatic injury, incidence, and outcome. These differences were sustained for patients with either isolated blunt or penetrating injury mechanisms. PMID:20531005

Minei, Joseph P.; Schmicker, Robert H.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Stiell, Ian G.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Bulger, Eileen; Tisherman, Samuel; Hoyt, David B.; Nichol, Graham

2014-01-01

422

Spinal Cord Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses how spinal cord injuries are caused and their treatment options. It also includes tips on how to prevent spinal cord injuries. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

423

Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities  

MedlinePLUS

... current research Comparing fatal work injuries in the United States and the European Union See more Monthly Labor ... counts ( PDF 111K) Fatal Occupational Injuries in the United States, 1995-1999: A Chartbook Use of Workers' Compensation ...

424

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Traumatic Brain Injury National Data Center (TBINDC) at Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center is the coordinating center for the research and dissemination efforts of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program funded by the National Instit...

425

Recreation-Related Head Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Injuries by Product Product Category Estimated Injuries 1. Toys (all toy categories combined) 17,924 2. Swimming/Wading Pools, ... Stereo Equipment, Musical Instruments 4,651 11. Riding Toys (powered and unpowered) 3,387 12. Computers 3, ...

426

Traumatic Brain Injury and Dystonia  

MedlinePLUS

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma damages to the brain. TBI can occur when the head suddenly ... between dystonia and TBI is urgently needed. Traumatic Brain Injury & Dystonia Diagnosis & Treatment • TBI may involve physical, cognitive, ...

427

JAMA Patient Page: Burn Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Burn Injuries B urns, most commonly caused by fire, ... burn injuries in the United States. TYPES OF BURNS FOR MORE INFORMATION • World Health Organization www.who. ...

428

What Is Spinal Cord Injury?  

MedlinePLUS

... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media ... 3 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Spinal cord injury: Hope through research. Retrieved June 19 , 2013 , from ...

429

Preventing head injuries in children  

MedlinePLUS

... simple steps to keep their children from getting head injuries. ... Helmets help to prevent head injuries. Your child should wear a helmet that fits properly for the following sports or activities: Playing contact sports, such ...

430

FastStats: All Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home All Injuries Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... first-listed diagnostic categories [PDF - 58 KB] Mortality All injury deaths Number of deaths: 192,945 Deaths ...

431

Group-wise evaluation and comparison of white matter fiber strain and maximum principal strain in sports-related concussion.  

PubMed

Sports-related concussion is a major public health problem in the United States and yet its biomechanical mechanisms remain unclear. In vitro studies demonstrate axonal elongation as a potential injury mechanism; however, current response-based injury predictors (e.g., maximum principal strain, [Formula: see text]) typically do not incorporate axonal orientations. We investigated the significance of white matter (WM) fiber orientation in strain estimation and compared fiber strain ([Formula: see text]) with [Formula: see text] for 11 athletes with a clinical diagnosis of concussion. Geometrically accurate subject-specific head models with high mesh quality were created based on the Dartmouth Head Injury Model (DHIM), which was successfully validated (performance categorized as "good" to "excellent"). For WM regions estimated to be exposed to high strains using a range of injury thresholds (0.09-0.28), substantial differences existed between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in both distribution (Dice coefficient of 0.13-0.33) and extent (?5-10-fold differences), especially at higher threshold levels and higher rotational acceleration magnitudes. For example, an average of 3.2% vs. 29.8% of WM was predicted above an optimal threshold of 0.18 established from an in vivo animal study using [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, with an average Dice coefficient of 0.14. The distribution of WM regions with high [Formula: see text] was consistent with typical heterogeneous patterns of WM disruptions in diffuse axonal injury, and the group-wise extent at the optimal threshold matched well with the percentage of WM voxels experiencing significant longitudinal changes of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (3.2% and 3.44%, respectively) found from a separate independent study. These results suggest the significance of incorporating WM microstructural anisotropy in future brain injury studies. PMID:24735430

Ji, Songbai; Zhao, Wei; Ford, James C; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Bolander, Richard P; Greenwald, Richard M; Flashman, Laura A; Paulsen, Keith D; McAllister, Thomas W

2015-04-01

432

What is a sports injury?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhile athletes and coaches, government policy-makers, and sports managers need evidence for decision-making, unambiguous terms and definitions for reporting and analyzing sports injuries across settings are lacking.ObjectiveTo define unambiguous concepts for reporting sports injuries across settings.DesignMeta-analysis of sports injury-related concepts followed by development of an integrated conceptual framework and appraisal of current sports injury definition practices.SettingDefinitions used in the scientific

T Timpka; J Jacobsson; J Ekberg; L Nordenfeldt

2011-01-01

433

Ophthalmic injuries from a TASER.  

PubMed

The TASER (TASER International) is an energy-conducting weapon, that is becoming more frequently used by law enforcement officials to subdue combative individuals. Though generally regarded as a safe alternative, the use of such weapons has been reported to cause serious injuries. We describe a case in which ocular injuries were sustained by impalement with a TASER dart. Emergency physicians should be aware of the potential for serious ophthalmic injuries from TASERs and how such injuries should be managed. PMID:19166645

Han, Jay S; Chopra, Anil; Carr, David

2009-01-01

434

Sports and peripheral nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerve injury is one of the serious compli cations of athletic injuries; however, they have rarely been reported. According to the report by Takazawa et al.,6 there were only 28 cases of peripheral nerve injury among 9,550 cases of sports injuries which had been treated in the previous 5 years at the clinic of the Japanese Athletic Association.The authors

Yasusuke Hirasawa; Kisaburo Sakakida

1983-01-01

435

Osseous Stress Injury in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Osseous fatigue injuries occur as a result of cumulative stresses placed upon physiologically normal bone. Such injuries are\\u000a frequently encountered in athletes and military recruits. Particularly in athletes, the early diagnosis of stress injury is\\u000a essential to prevent the development of more serious injury, to facilitate rehabilitation and to enable early return to training\\u000a and competition. Imaging plays a central

Melanie A. Hopper; Philip Robinson

436

Cervical disk injuries in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical disk injuries are defined as a cervical injury associated with neurological deficits, radicular symptoms, or radiological evidence of disk degeneration, but not with a fracture or a dislocation of the cervical spine. Thirty cases covering the period from July 1982 to June 1984 were analyzed, and the following findings are presented. Fifty percent of the injuries were sustained in

K. Kumano; T. Umeyama

1986-01-01

437

Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

438

Soccer injuries in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soccer injuries which were seen at the King Fahd University Hospital over a period of 12 months were analyzed. The majority of the patients were under 20 years of age. Two-thirds of the injuries involved soft tissue, while those to the bone and joint comprised one-third. The lower extremity was involved in 59%. Sixteen percent of the injuries were considered

M. Sadat-Ali; M. Sankaran-Kutty

1987-01-01

439

Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

2010-01-01

440

[Hemodynamic disorders in isolated craniocerebral injuries and craniocerebral injuries associated with injuries of the musculoskeletal system].  

PubMed

Hemodynamic disorders were studied in 60 patients with isolated craniocerebral injury and in 145 patients with craniocerebral injury and injury to the locomotor apparatus. The authors studied the changes in the mean dynamic arterial pressure, the cardiac contraction rate, the cardiac output, the general peripheral vascular resistance to blood flow, and the circulation volume. It was found that in isolated craniocerebral injury the circulation volume deficiency does not exceed 13%, the mean dynamic arterial pressure and the cardiac output increase. In cases of craniocerebral injury combined with injury to the locomotor apparatus the required level of the mean dynamic arterial pressure is maintained by a higher cardiac output and an increase in the general peripheral vascular resistance to the blood flow. The changes in hemodynamic indices including the circulating volume deficiency depend on the degree of injury to the locomotor apparatus and of craniocerebral injury. PMID:3984618

Virozub, I D; Kalinkin, O G; Tantsiura, V P

1985-01-01