Science.gov

Sample records for hamstring strain injuries

  1. Biomechanical response to hamstring muscle strain injury.

    PubMed

    Schache, Anthony G; Wrigley, Tim V; Baker, Richard; Pandy, Marcus G

    2009-02-01

    Hamstring strains are common injuries, the majority of which occur whilst sprinting. An understanding of the biomechanical circumstances that cause the hamstrings to fail during sprinting is required to improve rehabilitation specificity. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the biomechanics of an acute hamstring strain. Bilateral kinematic and ground reaction force data were captured from a sprinting athlete prior to and immediately following a right hamstring strain. Ten sprinting trials were collected: nine normal (pre-injury) trials and one injury trial. Joint angles, torques and powers as well as hamstring muscle-tendon unit lengths were computed using a three-dimensional biomechanical model. For the pre-injury trials, the right leg compared to the left displayed greater knee extension and hamstring muscle-tendon unit length during terminal swing, an increased vertical ground reaction force peak and loading rate, and an increased peak hip extensor torque and peak hip power generation during initial stance. For the injury trial, significant biomechanical reactions were evident in response to the right hamstring strain, most notably for the right leg during the proceeding swing phase after the onset of the injury. The earliest kinematic deviations in response to the injury were displayed by the trunk and pelvis during right mid-stance. Taking into account neuromuscular latencies and electromechanical delays, the stimulus for the injury must have occurred prior to right foot-strike during the swing phase of the sprinting cycle. It is concluded that hamstring strains during sprinting most likely occur during terminal swing as a consequence of an eccentric contraction. PMID:19038549

  2. Effects of Prior Hamstring Strain Injury on Strength, Flexibility, and Running Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Silder, Amy; Thelen, Darryl G.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown evidence of residual scar tissue at the musculotendon junction following an acute hamstring strain injury, which could influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bilateral differences in strength, neuromuscular patterns, and musculotendon kinematics during sprinting are present in individuals with a history of unilateral hamstring injury, and whether such differences are linked to the presence of scar tissue. Methods Eighteen subjects with a previous hamstring injury (>5 months prior) participated in a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging exam, isokinetic strength testing, and a biomechanical assessment of treadmill sprinting. Bilateral comparisons were made for peak knee flexion torque, angle of peak torque, and hamstrings:quadriceps strength ratio during strength testing, and muscle activations and peak hamstring stretch during sprinting. MR images were used to measure the volumes of the proximal tendon/aponeurois of the biceps femoris, with asymmetries considered indicative of residual scar tissue. Findings A significantly enlarged proximal biceps femoris tendon volume was measured on the side of prior injury. However, no significant differences between the previously injured and uninjured limbs were found in strength measures, peak hamstring stretch, or muscle activation patterns. Further, the degree of asymmetry in tendon volume was not correlated to any of the functional measures. Interpretation The results of this study indicate that injury-induced changes in morphology do not seem discernable from strength measures, running kinematics, or muscle activity patterns. Further research is warranted to ascertain whether residual scarring alters localized musculotendon tissue mechanics in a way that may contribute to the high rates of muscle re-injury that are observed clinically. PMID:20621753

  3. MR OBSERVATIONS OF LONG-TERM MUSCULOTENDON REMODELING FOLLOWING A HAMSTRING STRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Thelen, Darryl G.; Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to use MR imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. Materials and Methods MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I/II hamstring strain injury between 5-23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon/scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon (PSMT) and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon (PBFT). Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Results Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The thirteen subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p<0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. Conclusion The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running, and may contribute to re-injury risk. PMID:18649077

  4. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Xavier; L.Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition: In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. Results: The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Conclusions: Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP. PMID:26715969

  5. Hamstring Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven B.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Zoga, Adam; Irrgang, Jay J.; Makda, Junaid; Deluca, Peter F.; Bradley, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for detailed evaluation of hamstring injuries; however, there is no classification that allows prediction of return to play. Purpose: To correlate time for return to play in professional football players with MRI findings after acute hamstring strains and to create an MRI scoring scale predictive of return to sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Thirty-eight professional football players (43 cases) sustained acute hamstring strains with MRI evaluation. Records were retrospectively reviewed, and MRIs were evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists, graded with a traditional radiologic grade, and scored with a new MRI score. Results were correlated with games missed. Results: Players missed 2.6 ± 3.1 games. Based on MRI, the hamstring injury involved the biceps femoris long head in 34 cases and the proximal and distal hamstrings in 25 and 22 cases, respectively. When < 50% of the muscle was involved, the average number of games missed was 1.8; if > 75%, then 3.2. Ten players had retraction, missing 5.5 games. By MRI, grade I injuries yielded an average of 1.1 missed games; grade II, 1.7; and grade III, 6.4. Players who missed 0 or 1 game had an MRI score of 8.2; 2 or 3 games, 11.1; and 4 or more games, 13.9. Conclusions: Rapid return to play (< 1 week) occurred with isolated long head of biceps femoris injures with < 50% of involvement and minimal perimuscular edema, correlating to grade I radiologic strain (MRI score < 10). Prolonged recovery (missing > 2 or 3 games) occurs with multiple muscle injury, injuries distal to musculotendinous junction, short head of biceps injury, > 75% involvement, retraction, circumferential edema, and grade III radiologic strain (MRI score > 15). Clinical Relevance: MRI grade and this new MRI score are useful in determining severity of injury and games missed—and, ideally, predicting time missed from sports. PMID:23016038

  6. Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required. PMID:25506583

  7. Lower eccentric hamstring strength and single leg hop for distance predict hamstring injury in PETE students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Witvrouw, E; Vanden Bossche, L; De Clercq, D

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring injuries have not been under research in physical education teacher education (PETE) students so far. Within the frame of the development of an injury prevention program, for this study we conducted an analysis of modifiable risk factors for hamstring injuries in PETE students. Hamstring injuries of 102 freshmen bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Eighty-one students completed maximum muscle strength tests of hip extensors, hamstrings, quadriceps (isometric) and hamstrings (eccentric) at the start of the academic year. Sixty-nine of the latter completed a single leg hop for distance (SLHD). Risk factors for hamstring injuries were statistically detected using logistic regression. Sixteen hamstring injuries (0.16 injuries/student/academic year; 0.46 injuries/1000 h) occurred to 10 participants. Eight cases were included in the risk factor analysis. Lower eccentric hamstring strength (odds ratio (ODD) = 0.977; p = 0.043), higher isometric/eccentric hamstring strength ratio (ODD = 970.500; p = 0.019) and lower score on the SLHD (ODD = 0.884; p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for hamstring injury. A combination of eccentric hamstring strength test and SLHD could give a good risk analysis of hamstring injuries in PETE students. This might offer great perspectives for easily applicable screening in a clinical setting. PMID:25189278

  8. Factors associated with recurrent hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    A history of muscle injury represents a predominant risk factor for future insult in that muscle group. The high frequency of re-injury and persistent complaints after a hamstring strain comprise major difficulties for the athlete on return to athletic activities. Some of the risk factors associated with the possible recurrence of the injury are, in all probability, already implicated in the initial injury. One can distinguish between those events peculiar to the sport activity modalities (extrinsic factors) and other contributing factors based on the athletes individual features (intrinsic factors). For both categories, the persistence of mistakes or abnormalities in action represent an irrefutable component contributing to the re-injury cycle. Additional factors leading to chronicity can come from the first injury per se through modifications in the muscle tissue and possible adaptive changes in biomechanics and motor patterns of sporting movements. We emphasise the role of questionable approaches to the diagnosis process, drug treatment or rehabilitation design. To date, the risk factors examined in the literature have either been scientifically associated with injury and/or speculated to be associated with injury. In this context, quantifying the real role of each factor remains hypothetical, the most likely ones corresponding to inadequate warm-up, invalid structure and the content of training, muscle tightness and/or weakness, agonist/antagonist imbalances, underestimation of an extensive injury, use of inappropriate drugs, presence of an extensive scar tissue and, above all, incomplete or aggressive rehabilitation. Such a list highlights the unavoidable necessity of developing valid assessment methods, the use of specific measurement tools and more rigorous guidelines in the treatment and rehabilitation. This also implies a scientific understanding as well as specifically qualified medical doctors, physiotherapists and trainers acting in partnership. PMID:15335244

  9. Hamstring injuries: anatomy, imaging, and intervention.

    PubMed

    Linklater, James M; Hamilton, Bruce; Carmichael, James; Orchard, John; Wood, David G

    2010-06-01

    Injury to the hamstring muscle complex (HMC) is extremely common in the athletic community. Anatomical and functional aspects of the HMC predispose it to injury, including the fact that the muscles cross two joints and undergo eccentric contraction during the gait cycle. Injury most commonly occurs at the muscle tendon junction but may occur anywhere between the origin and insertion. Complete hamstring avulsions require early surgical repair. The principal indication for imaging is in a triage role to rule out or confirm proximal hamstring avulsion. Acute onset and chronic posterior thigh and buttock pain may relate to pathology at the hamstring origin or muscle tendon junction that can be readily defined on magnetic resonance imaging or, less frequently, ultrasound. Some cases of buttock and thigh pain may relate to spinal pathology. In the elite athlete there is an increasing emphasis on optimizing the rehabilitation process after hamstring injury, to minimize the absence from sports and improve the final outcome. Imaging has a role in confirming the site of injury and characterizing its extent, providing some prognostic information and helping plan treatment. There is increasing interest in the use of growth factors to accelerate healing after muscle and tendon injury. Animal studies have demonstrated clear benefits in terms of accelerated healing. There are various methods of delivery of the growth factors, all involving the release of growth factors from platelets. These include plasma rich in platelets and autologous blood. Clinical studies in humans are very limited at this stage but are promising. At present the World Anti-Doping Authority bans the intramuscular administration of these agents. Other percutaneous injection therapies include the use of Actovegin and Traumeel S and antifibrotic agents. PMID:20486024

  10. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Bennell, K; Wajswelner, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for hamstring injury at the community level of Australian football. Methods: A total of 126 community level Australian football players participated in this prospective cohort study. To provide baseline measurements, they completed a questionnaire and had a musculoskeletal screen during the 2000 preseason. All were monitored over the season. Injury surveillance and exposure data were collected for the full season. Survival analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hamstring injury. Results: A hamstring injury was the first injury of the season in 20 players (16%). After adjustment for exposure, increasing age and decreased quadriceps flexibility were identified as significant independent predictors of the time to sustaining a hamstring injury. Older age (?23 years) was associated with an increased risk of hamstring injury (RR 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 14.0; p = 0.044). Players with increased quadriceps flexibility (as measured by the modified Thomas test) were less likely to sustain a hamstring injury (RR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in the development of hamstring injury prevention strategies and to identify Australian football players at increased risk of hamstring injury. PMID:15665208

  11. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015

  12. Hamstring Injuries--An Examination of Possible Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    On the basis of research, the following characteristics appear to be important factors relative to precluding hamstring strains in sprinters: bilaterality relative to hamstring and quadricep strength development, optimum strength ratios between ipsilateral antagonists throughout the range of movement, and above-normal hip-joint flexibility. (JD)

  13. Surgical Management of Recurrent Musculotendinous Hamstring Injury in Professional Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Daggett, Matt; Gardon, Roland; Pupim, Barbara; Clechet, Julien; Thaunat, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injury is the most common muscular lesion in athletes. The conservative treatment is well described, and surgical management is often indicated for proximal tendinous avulsions. To our knowledge, no surgical treatment has been proposed for failure of conservative treatment in musculotendinous hamstring lesions. Purpose: To describe the surgical management of proximal and distal hamstring musculotendinous junction lesions in professional athletes after failure of conservative treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A consecutive series of 10 professional athletes, including 4 soccer players, 4 rugby players, and 2 handball players, underwent surgical intervention between October 2010 and June 2014 for the treatment of recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injuries. All athletes had failed at least 3 months of conservative treatment for a recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injury. Surgical resection of the musculotendinous scar tissue was performed using a longitudinal muscular suture. Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at the 3-month follow-up, and a final phone interview was completed to determine recurrence of hamstring injury and return to previous level of play. Results: The mean age at surgery was 25.2 years (range, 19-35 years). The musculotendinous hamstring lesions involved 8 semitendinosus and 2 biceps femoris, with 6 injuries located proximally and 4 distally. Conservative treatment lasted a mean 5.1 months (range, 3-9 months) after last recurrence, and the patients had an average of 2.7 (range, 2-5) separate incidents of injury recurrence before surgical intervention was decided upon. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. All 10 patients returned to the same level of play at a mean 3.4 months (range, 2-5 months). At a mean follow-up of 28.7 months, none of the athletes had suffered a recurrence. No surgical complication was encountered. Conclusion: In cases of failed conservative treatment of musculotendinous hamstring lesions, surgical intervention may be a viable treatment option in professional athletes and allows the patient to return to the same level of play. PMID:26535376

  14. How Joint Torques Affect Hamstring Injury Risk in Sprinting Swing–Stance Transition

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YULIANG; WEI, SHUTAO; ZHONG, YUNJIAN; FU, WEIJIE; LI, LI; LIU, YU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. Results During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. Conclusions During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases. PMID:24911288

  15. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Wayne T; Pollard, Henry P

    2005-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:15967047

  16. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days missed due to a hamstring injury during the 2012 season. This number was less than the 2011 season (273 days missed) and the 2010 season (309 days missed). Conclusion: Study results indicate the initiation of Nordic hamstring exercises may decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries and potentially decrease the total number of days missed due to injury in professional baseball players. Clinical Relevance: The financial and competitive interest in professional baseball players is of large importance to the player, team, and fans. Prevention of injuries is as important to all parties involved as the treatment and rehabilitation following an injury. This prospective study shows the initiation of a simple, free exercise can reduce the incidence of hamstring injury in the professional-level baseball player. PMID:26535336

  17. Hamstring Strength and Morphology Progression after Return to Sport from Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Silder, Amy; Sherry, Marc A; Tuite, Michael J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring strain re-injury rates can reach 30% within the initial two weeks following return to sport (RTS). Incomplete recovery of strength may be a contributing factor. However, relative strength of the injured and unaffected limbs at RTS is currently unknown. PURPOSE: Characterize hamstring strength and morphology at the time of RTS and six months later. METHODS: Twenty-five athletes that experienced an acute hamstring strain injury participated, following completion of a controlled rehabilitation program. Bilateral isokinetic strength testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at RTS and 6-months later. Strength (knee flexion peak torque, work, angle of peak torque) and MRI (muscle and tendon volumes) measures were compared between limbs and over time using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The injured limb showed a peak torque deficit of 9.6% compared to the uninjured limb at RTS (60°/s, p<0.001), but not 6-months following. The knee flexion angle of peak torque decreased over time for both limbs (60°/s, p<0.001). MRI revealed that 20.4% of the muscle cross-sectional area showed signs of edema at RTS with full resolution by the 6-month follow-up. Tendon volume of the injured limb tended to increase over time (p=0.108), while muscle volume decreased 4–5% in both limbs (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Residual edema and deficits in isokinetic knee flexion strength were present at RTS, but resolved during the subsequent six months. This occurred despite MRI evidence of scar tissue formation (increased tendon volume) and muscle atrophy, suggesting that neuromuscular factors may contribute to the return of strength. PMID:23059864

  18. TREATMENT OF HAMSTRING STRAIN IN A COLLEGIATE POLE?VAULTER INTEGRATING DRY NEEDLING WITH AN ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM: A RESIDENT'S CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Westrick, Richard B.; Zylstra, Edo; Johnson, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hamstring strain injuries are among the most common injuries seen in sports. Management is made difficult by the high recurrence rates. Typical time to return to sport varies but can be prolonged with recurrence. Eccentric strength deficits remain post?injury, contributing to reinjury. Eccentric training has shown to be an effective method at prevention of hamstring injury in multiple systematic reviews and prospective RCTs but limited prospective rehabilitation literature. Functional dry needling is a technique that has been reported to be beneficial in the management of pain and dysfunction after muscle strains, but there is limited published literature on its effects on rehabilitation or recurrence of injury. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to present the management and outcomes of a patient with hamstring strain, treated with functional dry needling and eccentric exercise. Case Description: The subject was an 18?year?old collegiate pole?vaulter who presented to physical therapy with an acute hamstring strain and history of multiple strains on uninvolved extremity. He was treated in Physical Therapy three times per week for 3 weeks with progressive eccentric training and 3 sessions of functional dry needling. Outcomes: By day 12, his eccentric strength on the involved extremity was greater than the uninvolved extremity and he reported clinically meaningful improvement in outcome scores. By Day 20, he was able to return to full sports participation without pain or lingering strength deficits. Discussion: The patient in this case report was able to return to sport within 20 days and without recurrence. He demonstrated significant decreases in pain and dysfunction with dry needling. He had greater strength on the injured extremity compared to contra?lateral previously injured extremity. Conclusions: This case illustrates the use of functional dry needling and eccentric exercise leading to a favorable outcome in a patient with hamstring strain. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:23772348

  19. Effect of Varying Hamstring Tension on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain During in Vitro Impulsive Knee Flexion and Compression Loading

    PubMed Central

    Withrow, Thomas J.; Huston, Laura J.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The hamstring muscles are well positioned to limit both anterior tibial translation and anterior cruciate ligament strain during the knee flexion phase of a jump landing. We hypothesized that systematically increasing or decreasing hamstring tension during the knee flexion phase of a simulated jump landing would significantly affect peak relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament. Methods: Ten cadaveric knees from four male and six female donors (mean age [and standard deviation] at the time of death, 60.3 ± 23.6 years) were mounted in a custom fixture to initially position the specimen in 25° of knee flexion and simulate axial impulsive loading averaging 1700 N to cause an increase in knee flexion. Quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle forces were simulated with use of pretensioned linear springs, with the tension in the hamstrings arranged to be increased, held constant, decreased, at “baseline,” or absent during knee flexion. Impulsive loading applied along the tibia and femur was monitored with use of triaxial load transducers, while uniaxial load cells monitored quadriceps and medial and lateral hamstring forces. Relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament was measured with use of a differential variable reluctance transducer, and tibiofemoral kinematics were measured optoelectronically. For each specimen, anterior cruciate ligament strains were recorded over eighty impact trials: ten preconditioning trials, ten “baseline” trials involving decreasing hamstring tension performed before and after three sets of ten trials conducted with increasing hamstring tension, constant hamstring tension, or no hamstring tension. Peak relative strains in the anterior cruciate ligament were normalized for comparison across specimens. Results: Increasing hamstring force during the knee flexion landing phase decreased the peak relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament by >70% compared with the baseline condition (p = 0.005). Neither a constant hamstring muscle force nor the absence of a hamstring force significantly changed the peak strain in the anterior cruciate ligament relative to the baseline condition. Conclusions: Increasing hamstring muscle force during the knee flexion phase of a simulated jump landing significantly reduces the peak relative strain in the anterior cruciate ligament in vitro. Clinical Relevance: It may be possible to proactively limit peak anterior cruciate ligament strain during the knee flexion phase of jump landings by accentuating hip flexion, thereby increasing the tension in active hamstring muscles by lengthening them. PMID:18381320

  20. Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Results The review identified 35 studies, including four analysis studies. These studies show deficiencies in the quality of study designs. Conclusion The study protocols are varied in terms of the length of intervention and follow-up. No RCT studies are available, however, RCT studies should be conducted in the near future. PMID:23785569

  1. Platelet-rich plasma treatment improves outcomes for chronic proximal hamstring injuries in an athletic population

    PubMed Central

    Fader, Ryan R.; Mitchell, Justin J.; Traub, Shaun; Nichols, Roger; Roper, Michelle; Mei Dan, Omer; McCarty, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies is a disabling activity related condition. Currently, there is no well-accepted or extensively documented non-operative treatment option that provides consistently successful results. Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided platelet-rich plasma injections in treating chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies. Methods: a total of 18 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a single injection of platelet rich plasma via ultra-sound guidance by a single radiologist. Outcome measures included a questionnaire evaluating previous treatments, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, subjective improvement, history of injury, and return to activity. Results: the patient population included 12 females and 6 males. The average age at the time of the injection was 42.6 years (19–60). Provocative activities included running, biking, swimming. The average body mass index of patients was 22.9 (17.2–30.2). The average time of chronic pain prior to receiving the first injection was 32.6 months (6–120). All patients had attempted other forms of non-surgical treatment prior to entering the study. The average VAS pre-injection was 4.6 (0–8). Six months after the injection, 10/18 patients had 80% or greater improvement in their VAS. Overall, the average improvement was 63% (5–100). The only documented side effect was post-injection discomfort that resolved within seventy-two hours. Conclusion: chronic hamstring tendinopathy is a debilitating condition secondary to the pain, which limits an athlete’s ability to perform. For refractory cases of chronic insertional proximal hamstring injuries, platelet-rich plasma injections are safe and show benefit in the majority of patients in our study, allowing return to pre-injury activities. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. PMID:25767784

  2. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  3. Saphenous nerve injury during harvesting of one or two hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    de Padua, Vitor Barion Castro; Nascimento, Paulo Emílio Dourado; Silva, Sergio Candido; de Gusmão Canuto, Sergio Marinho; Zuppi, Guilherme Nunes; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether harvesting of two hamstring tendons (semitendinosus and gracilis) has the same rate of nerve injury as harvesting of the semitendinosus tendon alone, used as a triple graft. Methods Changes in sensitivity relating to injury of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve were evaluated in 110 patients six months after they underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendons. They were divided into two groups: one in which only the semitendinosus was used and the other, the semitendinosus and gracilis. Results The group in which only the semitendinosus was used as a graft presented a nerve injury rate of 36.1%. In the group in which the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were used, 58.1% of the patients presented altered sensitivity. In the general assessment on all the patients, the nerve injury rate was 50.9%. Conclusion Harvesting the semitendinosus alone and using it in triple form is a viable option for ACL reconstruction and may give rise to fewer nerve injuries relating to branches of the saphenous nerve. PMID:26535201

  4. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, ?2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, ?2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, ?2:6.70, p = 0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated a trend towards lower limb injury prevention with a significant reduction in primary lower limb muscle strains and weeks missed due to non-contact knee injuries through the addition of a sports chiropractic intervention to the current best practice management. Trial registration The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000533392). PMID:20374662

  5. Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs on Developing Quadriceps and Hamstrings Strength of Young Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

    2013-01-01

    Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength. PMID:24511347

  6. Electromechanical delay of the hamstrings during eccentric muscle actions in males and females: Implications for non-contact ACL injuries.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; ElNagar, Youssif O; Iga, John; James, David; Ayala, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Sex differences in neuromuscular functioning has been proposed as one of the factors behind an increased relative risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in females. The aim of this study was to explore sex differences in electromechanical delay (EMD) of the hamstring muscles during eccentric muscle actions and during a range of movement velocities. This study recruited 110 participants (55 males, 55 females) and electromyography of the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris was determined during eccentric actions at 60, 120 and 240°/s. No significant sex differences were observed irrespective of muscle examined or movement velocity. Irrespective of sex EMD significantly increased with increasing movement velocity (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the EMD of the 3 muscles examined. Our findings suggest that during eccentric actions of the hamstrings that there are no sex differences, irrespective of movement velocity. This would suggest that other factors are probably responsible for the increased relative risk of non-contact ACL injury in females compared to males. PMID:26522999

  7. Hamstring Fatigue and Muscle Activation Changes During Six Sets of Nordic Hamstring Exercise in Amateur Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Lovell, Ric; Knox, Michael F; Brennan, Scott L; Siegler, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    Marshall, PWM, Lovell, R, Knox, MF, Brennan, SL, and Siegler, JC. Hamstring fatigue and muscle activation changes during six sets of Nordic hamstring exercise in amateur soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3124-3133, 2015-The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a bodyweight movement commonly prescribed to increase eccentric hamstring strength and reduce the incidence of strain injury in sport. This study examined hamstring fatigue and muscle activation responses throughout 6 sets of 5 repetitions of the NHE. Ten amateur-level soccer players performed a single session of 6 sets of 5 repetitions of NHE. Maximal eccentric and concentric torque output (in newton meters) was measured after every set. Hamstrings electromyograms (EMG) were measured during all maximal contractions and exercise repetitions. Hamstring maximal eccentric torque was reduced throughout the range of motion after only a single set of NHE between 7.9 and 17.1% (p ? 0.05), with further reductions in subsequent sets. Similarly, maximal concentric torque reductions between 7.8 and 17.2% were observed throughout the range of motion after 1 set of NHE (p ? 0.05). During the descent phase of the NHE repetitions, hamstring muscle activity progressively increased as the number of sets performed increased. These increases were observed in the first half of the range of motion. During the ascent phase, biceps femoris muscle activity but not medial hamstrings was reduced from the start of exercise during latter sets of repetitions. These data provide unique insight into the extent of fatigue induced from a bodyweight only exercise after a single set of 5 repetitions. Strength and conditioning coaches need to be aware of the speed and extent of fatigue induced from NHE, particularly in practical settings in which this exercise is now prescribed before sport-specific training sessions (i.e., the FIFA-11 before soccer training). PMID:25886019

  8. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (?50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  9. Progression of mechanical properties during on-field sprint running after returning to sports from a hamstring muscle injury in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, J; Samozino, P; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Brughelli, M; Schmikli, S; Morin, J-B; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the consequences of an acute hamstring injury on performance and mechanical properties of sprint-running at the time of returning to sports and after the subsequent ~2 months of regular soccer training after return. 28 semi-professional male soccer players, 14 with a recent history of unilateral hamstring injury and 14 without prior injury, participated in the study. All players performed two 50-m maximal sprints when cleared to return to play (Test 1), and 11 injured players performed the same sprint test about 2 months after returning to play (Test 2). Sprint performance (i.?e., speed) was measured via a radar gun and used to derive linear horizontal force-velocity relationships from which the following variables obtained: theoretical maximal velocity (V(0)), horizontal force (F(H0)) and horizontal power (Pmax). Upon returning to sports the injured players were moderately slower compared to the uninjured players. F H0 and Pmax were also substantially lower in the injured players. At Test 2, the injured players showed a very likely increase in F(H0) and Pmax concomitant with improvements in early acceleration performance. Practitioners should consider assessing and training horizontal force production during sprint running after acute hamstring injuries in soccer players before they return to sports. PMID:24424959

  10. Distal tears of the hamstring muscles: review of the literature and our results of surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Mattila, Kimmo; Heikkilä, Jouni; Orava, Sakari

    2007-01-01

    Background Hamstring strains are among the most frequent injuries in sports, especially in events requiring sprinting and running. Distal tears of the hamstring muscles requiring surgical treatment are scarcely reported in the literature. Objective To evaluate the results of surgical treatment for distal hamstring tears. Design A case series of 18 operatively treated distal hamstring muscle tears combined with a review of previously published cases in the English literature. Retrospective study; level of evidence 4. Setting Mehiläinen Sports Trauma Research Center, Mehiläinen Hospital and Sports Clinic, Turku, Finland. Patients Between 1992 and 2005, a total of 18 athletes with a distal hamstring tear were operated at our centre. Main outcome measurements At follow?up, the patients were asked about possible symptoms (pain, weakness, stiffness) and their return to the pre?injury level of sport. Results The final results were rated excellent in 13 cases, good in 1 case, fair in 3 cases and poor in 1 case. 14 of the 18 patients were able to return to their former level of sport after an average of 4?months (range 2–6?months). Conclusions Surgical treatment seems to be beneficial in distal hamstring tears in selected cases. PMID:17138628

  11. Elevated gastrocnemius forces compensate for decreased hamstrings forces during the weight-acceptance phase of single-leg jump landing: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kristin D; Donnelly, Cyril J; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-17

    Approximately 320,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the United States each year are non-contact injuries, with many occurring during a single-leg jump landing. To reduce ACL injury risk, one option is to improve muscle strength and/or the activation of muscles crossing the knee under elevated external loading. This study's purpose was to characterize the relative force production of the muscles supporting the knee during the weight-acceptance (WA) phase of single-leg jump landing and investigate the gastrocnemii forces compared to the hamstrings forces. Amateur male Western Australian Rules Football players completed a single-leg jump landing protocol and six participants were randomly chosen for further modeling and simulation. A three-dimensional, 14-segment, 37 degree-of-freedom, 92 muscle-tendon actuated model was created for each participant in OpenSim. Computed muscle control was used to generate 12 muscle-driven simulations, 2 trials per participant, of the WA phase of single-leg jump landing. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis showed both the quadriceps and gastrocnemii muscle force estimates were significantly greater than the hamstrings (p<0.001). Elevated gastrocnemii forces corresponded with increased joint compression and lower ACL forces. The elevated quadriceps and gastrocnemii forces during landing may represent a generalized muscle strategy to increase knee joint stiffness, protecting the knee and ACL from external knee loading and injury risk. These results contribute to our understanding of how muscle's function during single-leg jump landing and should serve as the foundation for novel muscle-targeted training intervention programs aimed to reduce ACL injuries in sport. PMID:25218505

  12. Hamstring Muscle Fatigue and Central Motor Output during a Simulated Soccer Match

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Paul W. M.; Lovell, Ric; Jeppesen, Gitte K.; Andersen, Kristoffer; Siegler, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine changes in hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a 90-minute simulated soccer match, and the concomitant changes in hamstring maximal torque and rate of torque development. Method Eight amateur male soccer players performed a 90-minute simulated soccer match, with measures performed at the start of and every 15-minutes during each half. Maximal torque (Nm) and rate of torque development (RTD; Nm.s–1) were calculated from maximal isometric knee flexor contractions performed at 10° of flexion. Hamstring peripheral fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting twitch (RT). Hamstring central motor output was quantified from voluntary activation (%) and normalized biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MH) electromyographic amplitudes (EMG/M). Results Maximal torque was reduced at 45-minutes by 7.6±9.4% (p<0.05). RTD in time intervals of 0–25, 0–50, and 0–75 ms post-contraction onset were reduced after 15-minutes in the first-half between 29.6 to 46.2% (p<0.05), and were further reduced at the end of the second-half (p<0.05). Maximal EMG/M was reduced for biceps femoris only concomitant to the time-course of reductions in maximal torque (p?=?0.007). The rate of EMG rise for BF and MH was reduced in early time periods (0–75 ms) post-contraction onset (p<0.05). No changes were observed for the size and shape of the RT, indicating no hamstring peripheral fatigue. Conclusion Centrally mediated reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development provide insight into factors that may explain hamstring injury risk during soccer. Of particular interest were early reductions during the first-half of hamstring rate of torque development, and the decline in maximal EMG/M of biceps femoris in the latter stages of the half. These are important findings that may help explain why the hamstrings are particularly vulnerable to strain injury during soccer. PMID:25047547

  13. Relationship between the peak time of hamstring stretch and activation during sprinting.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Ayako; Nagano, Yasuharu; Ono, Takashi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the time series relationships between the peak musculotendon length and electromyography (EMG) activation during overground sprinting to clarify the risk of muscle strain injury incidence in each hamstring muscle. Full-body kinematics and EMG of the right biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were recorded in 13 male sprinters during overground sprinting at maximum effort. The hamstring musculotendon lengths during sprinting were computed using a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model. The time of the peak musculotendon length, in terms of the percentage of the running gait cycle, was measured and compared with that of the peak EMG activity. The maximum length of the hamstring muscles was noted during the late swing phase of sprinting. The peak musculotendon length was synchronous with the peak EMG activation in the BFlh muscle, while the time of peak musculotendon length in the ST muscle occurred significantly later than the peak level of EMG activation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the BFlh muscle is exposed to an instantaneous high tensile force during the late swing phase of sprinting, indicating a higher risk for muscle strain injury. PMID:25360992

  14. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Maríe C.; Puentedura, Emilio J.; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3 × 2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested. PMID:26464889

  15. Evaluation of a Model of Human-Computer Interaction and the Incidence of Repetitive Strain Injuries

    E-print Network

    Regina, University of

    Evaluation of a Model of Human-Computer Interaction and the Incidence of Repetitive Strain Injuries Overview The issue of Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) in the workplace and in educational institutions increases. Introduction Repetitive Strain Injury Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) is a cumulative trauma

  16. Proximal Hamstring Repair Strength

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Margaret Ann; Singh, Hardeep; Obopilwe, Elifho; Charette, Ryan; Miller, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proximal hamstring repair for complete ruptures has become a common treatment. There is no consensus in the literature about postoperative rehabilitation protocols following proximal hamstring repair. Some protocols describe bracing to prevent hip flexion or knee extension while others describe no immobilization. There are currently no biomechanical studies evaluating proximal hamstring repairs; nor are there any studies evaluating the effect of different hip flexion angles on these repairs. Hypothesis: As hip flexion increases from 0° to 90°, there will be a greater gap with cyclical loading. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Proximal hamstring insertions were detached from the ischial tuberosity in 24 cadavers and were repaired with 3 single-loaded suture anchors in the hamstring footprint with a Krakow suture technique. Cyclic loading from 10 to 125 N at 1 Hz was then performed for 0°, 45°, and 90° of hip flexion for 1500 cycles. Gap formation, stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load were compared between groups using paired t tests. Results: Cyclic loading demonstrated the least amount of gap formation (P < .05) at 0° of hip flexion (2.39 mm) and most at 90° of hip flexion (4.19 mm). There was no significant difference in ultimate load between hip flexion angles (326, 309, and 338 N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively). The most common mode of failure occurred with knot/suture failure (n = 17). Conclusion: Increasing hip flexion from 0° to 90° increases the displacement across proximal hamstring repairs. Postoperative bracing that limits hip flexion should be considered. Clinical Relevance: Repetitive motion involving hip flexion after a proximal hamstring repair may cause compromise of the repair.

  17. Decrease in eccentric hamstring strength in runners in the Tirol Speed Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Koller, A; Sumann, G; Schobersberger, W; Hoertnagl, H; Haid, C

    2006-01-01

    Background The local muscular endurance of knee flexors, during eccentric work in particular, is important in preventing or delaying kinematic changes associated with fatigue during treadmill running. This result, however, may not be transferable to overground running. Objective To test the hypothesis that overground running is associated with eccentric hamstring fatigue. Methods Thirteen runners (12 male and one female) performed an isokinetic muscle test three to four days before and 18?hours after a marathon. Both legs were tested. The testing protocol consisted of concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring contractions. Results There were no significant differences between peak torque before and after the race, except that eccentric peak hamstring torque (both thighs) was reduced. Conclusion Overground running (running a marathon) is associated with eccentric hamstring fatigue. Eccentric hamstring fatigue may be a potential risk factor for knee and soft tissue injuries during running. Eccentric hamstring training should therefore be introduced as an integral part of the training programme of runners. PMID:16825267

  18. 'Nordic' hamstrings exercise - engagement characteristics and training responses.

    PubMed

    Iga, J; Fruer, C S; Deighan, M; Croix, M D S; James, D V B

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined the neuromuscular activation characteristics of the hamstrings during the 'Nordic' hamstrings exercise (NHE) and changes in the eccentric strength of the knee flexors with NHE training. Initially, the normalised root mean square electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hamstrings of both limbs during various phases (90-61°, 60-31° and 30-0° of knee extension) of the NHE were determined in 18 soccer players. Subsequently participants were randomly allocated to either a training (n=10) or control group. The isokinetic eccentric peak torques of the dominant and non-dominant limbs were recorded at 60, 120 and 240°/s pre- and post-training. The EMG values of both limbs were comparable (P=0.184) and greater EMG activity was recorded at more extended knee positions of the NHE (P=0.001). 4 weeks of NHE training significantly improved peak torque by up to 21% in all assessment conditions. Data indicate the hamstrings of both limbs are engaged identically during the NHE and training results in gains in the eccentric peak torque of the hamstrings of both limbs; these gains may augment the force that the hamstrings can withstand when forcefully stretched, attenuating injury risk. PMID:22895870

  19. Effect of hamstring stretching on hamstring muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Worrell, T W; Smith, T L; Winegardner, J

    1994-09-01

    The relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring muscle performance has not been reported. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the most effective stretching method for increasing hamstring flexibility and 2) to determine the effects of increasing hamstring flexibility on isokinetic peak torque. Nineteen subjects participated in this study. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare two stretching techniques: proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch and static stretch. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare hamstring isokinetic values pre- and poststretching. No significant increase occurred (p < .05) in hamstring flexibility even though increases occurred with each technique: static stretch (+21.3%) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (+25.7%). Significant increases occurred in peak torque eccentrically at 60 degrees/sec (p < .05, +8.5%) and 120 degrees/sec (p < .05, +13.5%) and concentrically at 120 degrees/sec (p < .05, +11.2%). No significant increase occurred at 60 degrees/sec (p > .05, +2.5%). We concluded that increasing hamstring flexibility was an effective method for increasing hamstring muscle performance at selective isokinetic conditions. Further study is needed to determine if increasing hamstring flexibility will increase performance in closed kinetic chain activities. PMID:7951292

  20. Analysis of the Three Most Prevalent Injuries in Australian Football Demonstrates a Season to Season Association Between Groin/Hip/Osteitis Pubis Injuries With ACL Knee Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Verrall, Geoffrey M.; Esterman, Adrian; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Injuries are common in contact sports like Australian football. The Australian Football League (AFL) has developed an extensive injury surveillance database that can be used for epidemiological studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify any association between the three most prevalent injuries in the AFL. Patients and Methods: From the AFL injury surveillance data 1997-2012 the injury incidence (new injuries per club per season) and the injury prevalence data (missed games per club per season) were analysed to detect the three most common injuries that would cause a player to miss a match in the AFL. The three most prevalent injuries in the AFL are hamstring strains, groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) knee injuries. Following this, further study was undertaken to detect the presence of any statistical relationship between injury incidences of the three most prevalent injuries over this sixteen year study period. Results: Statistical analysis demonstrates for any given year that there was an association between having a groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuriy and having a knee ACL injury (P < 0.05) over the entire sixteen years. In other words if the number of groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries in any given season were higher than average (alternatively lower) then the number of knee ACL injuries were also higher than average (alternatively lower) for that same season. Hamstring injuries had the highest variance of incidence of the three most prevalent injuries. Conclusions: Analysis of the AFL injury data demonstrates an association between incidence of groin/hip/osteitis pubis injuries and incidence of knee ACL injuries for any given playing season. This finding is difficult to explain with further research being required. PMID:25520768

  1. The effects of isometric and isotonic training on hamstring stiffness and anterior cruciate ligament loading mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J Troy; Norcross, Marc F

    2014-02-01

    Greater hamstring musculotendinous stiffness is associated with lesser ACL loading mechanisms. Stiffness is enhanced via training, but previous investigations evaluated tendon rather than musculotendinous stiffness, and none involved the hamstrings. We evaluated the effects of isometric and isotonic training on hamstring stiffness and ACL loading mechanisms. Thirty-six healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to isometric, isotonic, and control groups. Isometric and isotonic groups completed 6 weeks of training designed to enhance hamstring stiffness. Stiffness, anterior tibial translation, and landing biomechanics were measured prior to and following the interventions. Hamstring stiffness increased significantly with isometric training (15.7%; p=0.006), but not in the isotonic (13.5%; p=0.089) or control (0.4%; p=0.942) groups. ACL loading mechanisms changed in manners consistent with lesser loading, but these changes were not statistically significant. These findings suggest that isometric training may be an important addition to ACL injury prevention programs. The lack of significant changes in ACL loading mechanisms and effects of isotonic training were likely due to the small sample sizes per group and limited intervention duration. Future research using larger sample sizes and longer interventions is necessary to determine the effects of enhancing hamstring stiffness on ACL loading and injury risk. PMID:24268874

  2. Chapter 5 -Manual Handling Manual handling or strain injuries can keep farm workers away from work for weeks at a

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    32 Chapter 5 - Manual Handling Manual handling or strain injuries can keep farm workers away from activities. Check injury records to see which activities have caused most strain injuries. Look for difficult or restraining. Injuries occur through: · Increased wear and tear or damage, e.g. from intense or strenuous

  3. Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jun

    Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy #3; Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z Laboratory-dimensional model is presented for the quantitative prediction of skin injury re- sulting from certain thermal exposure on the surface. The model is based on the skin damage equation proposed by Henriques and Moritz

  4. Too Much of a Good Thing: Prevention of Computer-Related Repetitive Strain Injuries among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linden, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examines computer use and repetitive strain injury (RSI) among children and young adults, emphasizing body-awareness training that teaches people to notice and feel body components; understand principles of relaxation, balance, and movement efficiency; and use economical and strain-free ways of accomplishing movements. Outlines elements of safety…

  5. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching

    PubMed Central

    Le Sant, Guillaume; Ates, Filiz; Brasseur, Jean-Louis; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography. Methods/Results The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion) on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%), semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2%) and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%), but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%). Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh. Conclusion This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury. PMID:26418862

  6. Effects of hamstring-emphasized neuromuscular training on strength and sprinting mechanics in football players.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, J; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Morin, J B; Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Alcaraz, P E; Esparza-Ros, F; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program combining eccentric hamstring muscle strength, plyometrics, and free/resisted sprinting exercises on knee extensor/flexor muscle strength, sprinting performance, and horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running in football (soccer) players. Sixty footballers were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Twenty-seven players completed the EG and 24 players the CG. Both groups performed regular football training while the EG performed also a neuromuscular training during a 7-week period. The EG showed a small increases in concentric quadriceps strength (ES?=?0.38/0.58), a moderate to large increase in concentric (ES?=?0.70/0.74) and eccentric (ES?=?0.66/0.87) hamstring strength, and a small improvement in 5-m sprint performance (ES?=?0.32). By contrast, the CG presented lower magnitude changes in quadriceps (ES?=?0.04/0.29) and hamstring (ES?=?0.27/0.34) concentric muscle strength and no changes in hamstring eccentric muscle strength (ES?=?-0.02/0.11). Thus, in contrast to the CG (ES?=?-0.27/0.14), the EG showed an almost certain increase in the hamstring/quadriceps strength functional ratio (ES?=?0.32/0.75). Moreover, the CG showed small magnitude impairments in sprinting performance (ES?=?-0.35/-0.11). Horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running remained typically unchanged in both groups. These results indicate that a neuromuscular training program can induce positive hamstring strength and maintain sprinting performance, which might help in preventing hamstring strains in football players. PMID:25556888

  7. Brain-on-a-chip microsystem for investigating traumatic brain injury: Axon diameter and mitochondrial membrane changes play a significant role in axonal response to strain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dollé, Jean-Pierre; Morrison, Barclay; Schloss, Rene S.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a devastating consequence of traumatic brain injury, resulting in significant axon and neuronal degeneration. Currently, therapeutic options are limited. Using our brain-on-a-chip device, we evaluated axonal responses to DAI. We observed that axonal diameter plays a significant role in response to strain injury, which correlated to delayed elasticity and inversely correlated to axonal beading and axonal degeneration. When changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were monitored an applied strain injury threshold was noted, below which delayed hyperpolarization was observed and above which immediate depolarization occurred. When the NHE-1 inhibitor EIPA was administered before injury, inhibition in both hyperpolarization and depolarization occurred along with axonal degeneration. Therefore, axonal diameter plays a significant role in strain injury and our brain-on-a-chip technology can be used both to understand the biochemical consequences of DAI and screen for potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25101309

  8. DISEASE-SPECIFIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ACUTE OZONE-INDUCED INJURY AND INFLAMMATION IN EIGHT RAT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Susceptibility to environmental pollutant-induced injuries may be influenced by presence of disease and genetic make-up. To identify disease-specific susceptibility phenotype, we used eight rat strains with or without genetic cardiovascular disease. Male 12-15 wk old Sprague Dawl...

  9. In vivo imaging of rapid deformation and strain in an animal model of traumatic brain injury*

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, Philip V.; Black, Erin E.; Pedersen, Rachel C.; Leister, Elizabeth P.; Genin, Guy M.

    2005-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) rapid deformation of brain tissue leads to axonal injury and cell death. In vivo quantification of such fast deformations is extremely difficult, but important for understanding the mechanisms of degeneration post-trauma and for development of numerical models of injury biomechanics. In this paper, strain fields in the brain of the perinatal rat were estimated from data obtained in vivo during rapid indentation. Tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained with high spatial (0.2 mm) and temporal (3.9 ms) resolution by gated image acquisition during and after impact. Impacts were repeated either 64 or 128 times to obtain images of horizontal and vertical tag lines in coronal and sagittal planes. Strain fields were estimated by harmonic phase (HARP) analysis of the tagged images. The original MR data was filtered and Fourier-transformed to obtain HARP images, following a method originally developed by Osman et al. (IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(3) (2000) 186). The displacements of material points were estimated from intersections of HARP contours and used to generate estimates of the deformation gradient and Lagrangian strain tensors. Maximum principal Lagrangian strains of >0.20 at strain rates >40/s were observed during indentations of 2 mm depth and 21 ms duration. PMID:16549098

  10. Male and female runners demonstrate different sagittal plane mechanics as a function of static hamstring flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Williams III, D. S. Blaise; Welch, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Injuries to runners are common. However, there are many potential contributing factors to injury. While lack of flexibility alone is commonly related to injury, there are clear differences in hamstring flexibility between males and females. Objective: To compare the effect of static hamstring length on sagittal plane mechanics between male and female runners. Method: Forty subjects (30.0±6.4 years) participated and were placed in one of 4 groups: flexible males (n=10), inflexible males (n=10), flexible females (n=10), and inflexible females (n=10). All subjects were free of injury at the time of data collection. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected while subjects ran over ground across 2 force platforms. Sagittal plane joint angles and moments were calculated at the knee and hip and compared with a 2-way (sex X flexibility) ANOVA (?=0.05). Results: Males exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than females (M=2.80±0.47, F=2.48±0.52 Nm/kg*m, p=0.05) and inflexible runners exhibited greater peak knee extension moment than flexible runners (In=2.83±0.56, Fl=2.44±0.51 Nm/kg*m, p=0.01). For hip flexion at initial contact, a significant interaction existed (p<0.05). Flexible females (36.7±7.4º) exhibited more hip flexion than inflexible females (27.9±4.6º, p<0.01) and flexible males (30.1±9.5º, p<0.05). No differences existed for knee angle at initial contact, peak knee angle, peak hip angle, or peak hip moment. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility results in different mechanical profiles in males and females. Flexibility in the hamstrings may result in decreased moments via active or passive tension. These differences may have implications for performance and injury in flexible female runners. PMID:26537812

  11. Clinically Relevant Injury Patterns After an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Provide Insight Into Injury Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jason W.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional disability and high costs of treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have generated a great deal of interest in understanding the mechanism of noncontact ACL injuries. Secondary bone bruises have been reported in over 80% of partial and complete ACL ruptures. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify ACL strain under a range of physiologically relevant loading conditions and (2) to evaluate soft tissue and bony injury patterns associated with applied loading conditions thought to be responsible for many noncontact ACL injuries. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seventeen cadaveric legs (age, 45 ± 7 years; 9 female and 8 male) were tested utilizing a custom-designed drop stand to simulate landing. Specimens were randomly assigned between 2 loading groups that evaluated ACL strain under either knee abduction or internal tibial rotation moments. In each group, combinations of anterior tibial shear force, and knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments under axial impact loading were applied sequentially until failure. Specimens were tested at 25° of flexion under simulated 1200-N quadriceps and 800-N hamstring loads. A differential variable reluctance transducer was used to calculate ACL strain across the anteromedial bundle. A general linear model was used to compare peak ACL strain at failure. Correlations between simulated knee injury patterns and loading conditions were evaluated by the ?2 test for independence. Results Anterior cruciate ligament failure was generated in 15 of 17 specimens (88%). A clinically relevant distribution of failure patterns was observed including medial collateral ligament tears and damage to the menisci, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Only abduction significantly contributed to calculated peak ACL strain at failure (P = .002). While ACL disruption patterns were independent of the loading mechanism, tibial plateau injury patterns (locations) were significantly (P = .002) dependent on the applied loading conditions. Damage to the articular cartilage along with depression of the midlateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with knee abduction moments, while cartilage damage with depression of the posterolateral tibial plateau was primarily associated with internal tibial rotation moments. Conclusion The current findings demonstrate the relationship between the location of the tibial plateau injury and ACL injury mechanisms. The resultant injury locations were similar to the clinically observed bone bruises across the tibial plateau during a noncontact ACL injury. These findings indicate that abduction combined with other modes of loading (multiplanar loading) may act to produce ACL injuries. Clinical Relevance A better understanding of ACL injury mechanisms and associated risk factors may improve current preventive, surgical, and rehabilitation strategies and limit the risk of ACL and secondary injuries, which may in turn minimize the future development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:23144366

  12. Repetitive strain injury. 2. Diagnostic and treatment tips on six common problems. The Goff Group.

    PubMed

    Sheon, R P

    1997-10-01

    Repetitive strain injury is caused by recurrent overuse, resulting in microtrauma to tissues. Local pain and tenderness, weakness, inflammation, and limited function are common findings. Some of the strain injuries seen most often are carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, shoulder impingement syndrome, tennis elbow, thoracic outlet syndrome, and myofascial pain disorders. Often, treatment can be started at the initial visit, after systemic disorders have been ruled out. A vital step is elimination of aggravating factors, such as improper posture, inadequate attention to ergonomic factors at work, and contributory habits (e.g., jaw or hand clenching). Use of simple joint-protection measures can alleviate much of the discomfort. Appropriate self-help strategies used at home may restore flexibility and strength with a minimum of medical intervention, but pain relief must be achieved before patients can be expected to follow through with rehabilitation efforts. Use of ice packs, massage, NSAIDs, or topical pain-relief agents is often helpful. Prompt, temporary pain relief can also be achieved with injection of a local anesthetic-corticosteroid mixture. Persistent disability should prompt consideration of psychosocial factors. In addition, fraudulent claims of disability do occur. Although physicians should make every effort to support legitimate claims of work-related injury, they should also be aware of the possibility that activities outside of work (e.g., sports participation, accidental injuries) may be contributing factors. PMID:9336597

  13. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePLUS

    ... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

  14. UEFA Champions League study: a prospective study of injuries in professional football during the 2001–2002 season

    PubMed Central

    Walden, M; Hagglund, M; Ekstrand, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: No previous study on adult football involving several different countries has investigated the incidence and pattern of injuries at the highest club competitive level. Objective: To investigate the risk exposure, risk of injury, and injury pattern of footballers involved in UEFA Champions League and international matches during a full football season. Method: Eleven top clubs (266 players) in five European countries were followed prospectively throughout the season of 2001–2002. Time-lost injuries and individual exposure times were recorded during all club and national team training sessions and matches. Results: A total of 658 injuries were recorded. The mean (SD) injury incidence was 9.4 (3.2) injuries per 1000 hours (30.5 (11.0) injuries per 1000 match hours and 5.8 (2.1) injuries per 1000 training hours). The risk of match injury was significantly higher in the English and Dutch teams than in the teams from France, Italy, and Spain (41.8 (3.3) v 24.0 (7.9) injuries per 1000 hours; p = 0.008). Major injuries (absence >4 weeks) constituted 15% of all injuries, and the risk of major injury was also significantly higher among the English and Dutch teams (p = 0.04). National team players had a higher match exposure, with a tendency towards a lower training injury incidence than the rest of the players (p = 0.051). Thigh strain was the most common injury (16%), with posterior strains being significantly more common than anterior ones (67 v 36; p<0.0001). Conclusions: The risk of injury in European professional football is high. The most common injury is the thigh strain typically involving the hamstrings. The results suggest that regional differences may influence injury epidemiology and traumatology, but the factors involved are unclear. National team players have a higher match exposure, but no higher risk of injury than other top level players. PMID:16046340

  15. Mouse Strain Modulates the Role of the Ciliated Cell in Acute Tracheobronchial Airway Injury-Distal Airways

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Gregory W.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Toskala, Elina; Senior, Robert M.; Parks, William C.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding cellular repair mechanisms in vivo has been advanced through the use of well-defined injury and repair models and their application to knockout and transgenic animals, primarily mice generated in a variety of background strains. However, little is known concerning the effect that mouse strain itself has on the interpretation and comparability of observations when the strain used for genetic manipulation is not the strain used to develop the model. We compared acute bronchiolar injury and repair in three strains of mice used in knockout mouse development (C57BL/6, 129/TerSv, and 129/SvEv) to the model strain (Swiss Webster) after treatment with the same dose of naphthalene and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days after treatment. Extent of Clara cell toxicity and exfoliation was identical in the distal airways of all strains. There were significant strain-related differences in ciliated cell squamation, initiation and duration of proliferation, epithelial differentiation, and time to completion of epithelial repair. We conclude that ciliated cells play a prominent role in repair of distal airway injury, but that all phases of the repair process differ by strain. In addition, our findings reinforce that control animals must be of the same strain, ideally litter mates, when transgenic or knockout mice are used for the study of airway repair processes and mechanisms. PMID:11786425

  16. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation. PMID:22522588

  17. Giant pseudocyst of the rectus femoris muscle--repetitive strain injury in recreational soccer player.

    PubMed

    Cicvari?, Tedi; Lucin, Ksenija; Roth, Sandor; Ivanci?, Aldo; Marinovi?, Marin; Santi?, Veljko

    2010-04-01

    We report a case of a traumatic pseudocyst, in a recreational soccer player, after rupture of rectus femoris muscle. 37-year-old male, with history of repetitive painful accidents, was examined because of a double fist-sized mass in the anterior thigh. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic mass in the rectus femoris muscle. Surgical removal of the mass and proximal remnant of muscle was done. Primary healing and functional recovery was achieved. Histological analysis revealed pseudocyst filled with degenerating clot and surrounded with thick fibrous capsule. The repetitive strain muscle injury, with prolonged period of healing, can occur like pseudocyst. PMID:21302702

  18. Effects of crushed ice and wetted ice on hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Chelsea C; Troiano, Jean M; Ramirez, Rebecca J; Miller, Michael G; Holcomb, William R

    2015-02-01

    Flexibility, which is the ability to move freely through a full range of motion (ROM), is desired to enhance the performance and decrease the likelihood of muscle injury. There are different techniques used to increase ROM and cryotherapy techniques to facilitation flexibility gains. However, the combination of stretching and type of cryotherapy agents are still confounding. The purpose was to determine which type of cryotherapy, crushed or wetted ice, would produce the greatest gains in hamstring ROM when followed by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 3 treatment conditions: crushed ice bag (crushed ice), wetted ice bag (wetted ice), and no ice bag (no ice). Subject's hamstring ROM was measured at baseline, then again after a 20-minute cryotherapy treatment session. Subjects were then stretched using a slow-reversal-hold-relax PNF technique followed by a final ROM measurement. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between cryotherapy and measurement conditions. Post hoc testing indicated that no ice (75.49 ± 12.19° C) was significantly different from wetted ice (81.73 ± 10.34° C) and crushed ice (81.62 ± 13.19° C) at the end of the treatment session, and that no ice (85.27 ± 13.83° C) was significantly different than wetted ice (89.44 ± 11.31° C) and crushed ice (89.16 ± 13.78° C) after the stretching session. However, there were no differences between wetted ice and crushed ice. Results indicate that strength and conditioning specialists can increase ROM with both forms of ice in combination with PNF stretching more so than when using no ice at all. PMID:24378663

  19. Isolated hamstrings fatigue alters hip and knee joint coordination during a cutting maneuver.

    PubMed

    Samaan, Michael A; Hoch, Matthew C; Ringleb, Stacie I; Bawab, Sebastian; Weinhandl, Joshua T

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hamstrings fatigue on lower extremity joint coordination variability during a sidestep cutting maneuver. Twenty female recreational athletes performed five successful trials of a sidestep cutting task pre- and postfatigue. Each participant completed an isolated hamstrings fatigue protocol consisting of isokinetic maximum effort knee flexion and passive extension contractions. Vector coding was used to examine hip and knee joint couplings (consisting of various planar motions) during the impact and weight acceptance phases of the sidestep cut stance phase. Paired t tests were used to analyze differences of each phase as an effect of fatigue, where alpha was set a priori at .05. The hip rotation/knee rotation coupling exhibited a significant decrease in coordination variability as a function of fatigue in both the impact (P = .015) and weight acceptance phases (P = .043). Similarly, the hip adduction-abduction/knee rotation coupling exhibited a significant decrease in coordination variability in the weight acceptance phase (P = .038). Hamstrings fatigue significantly decreased coordination variability within specific lower extremity joint couplings that included knee rotation. Future studies should be conducted to determine if this decrease in coordination variability is related to lower extremity injury mechanisms. PMID:25411821

  20. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... competition for the athlete. Lateral View of the Ankle Common Types of Sports Injuries Muscle sprains and ... Acute Injuries Acute injuries, such as a sprained ankle, strained back, or fractured hand, occur suddenly during ...

  1. Snapping Knee Syndrome of the Medial Hamstrings.

    PubMed

    Protzman, Nicole M; Conkle, Sean B; Busch, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Snapping of the medial hamstrings is a rare condition, with few cases reported throughout the literature. The snapping sensation reportedly occurs when a hamstring tendon passes over the medial tibial condyle, a muscle belly, or another tendon. The semitendinosus tendon is frequently involved, but concomitant involvement of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons has also been described. Although the exact etiology remains unclear, authors have theorized that the condition results from a congenital malformation or degradation of the accessory tendinous expansions of the semitendinosus. Whereas most cases resolve with conservative treatments, select cases require surgical intervention. Both the distal surgical release and tendon harvest have proved viable surgical procedures, achieving symptom alleviation with minimal patient morbidity. In this article, a case of medial snapping hamstring tendons involving both the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons is reviewed. A 17-year-old African American girl presented with extreme pain and snapping on the posteromedial aspect of her knee was appreciated. Radiographs were ordered and showed no acute fracture, no acute dislocation, normal medial joint space, normal lateral joint space, and normal patellofemoral space. Conservative and surgical options were reviewed, and the patient elected to undergo harvest of the tendons. Four weeks postoperatively, the patient reported complete resolution of symptoms. To date, there has been no recurrence of symptoms. The authors hope to increase awareness of this condition and add to the existing body of literature. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(10):e940-e942.]. PMID:26488792

  2. Nintendonitis? A case report of repetitive strain injury in a child as a result of playing computer games.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, D M

    2000-10-01

    Repetitive strain injury is a common occupational hazard but has not been previously reported in a child. With the escalating use of computers both in the home for recreational purposes and in schools for teaching, the possible incidence of hand and wrist problems may need to be highlighted. Perhaps "hand care" instruction should be implemented in UK schools as prophylaxis. PMID:11130299

  3. Empirical Assessment of Dynamic Hamstring Function during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Thelen, Darryl G.; Lenz, Amy L.; Francis, Carrie; Lenhart, Rachel; Hernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The hamstrings are often associated with the development of crouch gait, a fatiguing form of walking characterized by excessive hip flexion, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance. However, recent studies have called into question whether abnormally active hamstrings induce the limb to move into a crouch posture. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the influence of the hamstrings on limb posture during stance. Nineteen healthy young adults walked on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred speed. A 90 ms long pulse train was used to stimulate the medial hamstrings during either terminal swing or loading response of random gait cycles. Induced motion was defined as the difference in joint angle trajectories between stimulated and non-stimulated strides. A dynamic musculoskeletal simulation of normal gait was generated and similarly perturbed by increasing hamstring excitation. The experiments show that hamstring stimulation induced a significant increase in posterior pelvic tilt, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance, while having relatively less influence on the hip angular trajectory. The induced motion patterns were similar whether the hamstrings were stimulated during late swing or early stance, and were generally consistent with the direction of induced motion predicted by gait simulation models. Hence, we conclude that overactive hamstrings have the potential to induce the limb to move toward a crouch gait posture. PMID:23540723

  4. Empirical assessment of dynamic hamstring function during human walking.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Darryl G; Lenz, Amy L; Francis, Carrie; Lenhart, Rachel L; Hernández, Antonio

    2013-04-26

    The hamstrings are often associated with the development of crouch gait, a fatiguing form of walking characterized by excessive hip flexion, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance. However, recent studies have called into question whether abnormally active hamstrings induce the limb to move into a crouch posture. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the influence of the hamstrings on limb posture during stance. Nineteen healthy young adults walked on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred speed. A 90 ms pulse train was used to stimulate the medial hamstrings during either terminal swing or loading response of random gait cycles. Induced motion was defined as the difference in joint angle trajectories between stimulated and non-stimulated strides. A dynamic musculoskeletal simulation of normal gait was generated and similarly perturbed by increasing hamstring excitation. The experiments show that hamstring stimulation induced a significant increase in posterior pelvic tilt, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during stance, while having relatively less influence on the hip angular trajectory. The induced motion patterns were similar whether the hamstrings were stimulated during late swing or early stance, and were generally consistent with the direction of induced motion predicted by gait simulation models. Hence, we conclude that overactive hamstrings have the potential to induce the limb to move toward a crouch gait posture. PMID:23540723

  5. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John; James, Trefor; Kountouris, Alex; Portus, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men's cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008-09). In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game - Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket). It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15-20 injuries per team per defined 'season') are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season), perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury) have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is unlikely to be reduced in future years, teams may need to develop a squad rotation for fast bowlers, similar to pitching staff in baseball, to reduce the injury rates for fast bowlers. Consideration should be given to rule changes which may reduce the impact of injury. In particular, allowing the 12th man to play as a full substitute in first class cricket (and therefore take some of the bowling workload in the second innings) would probably reduce bowling injury prevalence in cricket. PMID:24198544

  6. Low back pain, radiculopathy, and bilateral proximal hamstring ruptures: a case report.

    PubMed

    Deren, Matthew E; DeFroda, Steven F; Mukand, Nita H; Mukand, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint in the United States, with an incidence of 6.3%-15.4% and yearly recurrence in 54%-90% of patients.1 Trends show more frequent diagnostic testing, opioid use, and surgical intervention as the incidence of LBP increases.2 LBP is defined as pain at and near the lumbosacral region that can vary with physical activity and time.3 LBP is usually related to pathology of muscles, ligaments, spinal column joints, nerve roots, and the spinal cord. During the assessment of LBP, practitioners must also consider less common causes of pain in that region. For instance, patients with indolent or nighttime pain may have infectious or malignant processes. Referred pain from injuries to pelvic musculature or abdominal contents should be considered, especially following a traumatic event. One of these injuries, which can present as acute low back pain, is rupture of the proximal hamstring tendon. On rare occasion, concomitant LBP, radiculopathy, and hamstring injuries can occur;. This diagnostic challenge is described in the following case. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2015-12.asp, free with no login]. PMID:26623451

  7. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats?

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Lauren Izabel Medeiros; Wuicik, William Luiz; Kuhn, Ivan; Capriotti, Juan Rodolfo Vilela; Repka, João Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG), after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG) and the arginine group (AG) respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's t methods were used and p ? 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. Results In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. Conclusion Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain. PMID:26401505

  8. Development of a strain rate dependent material model of human cortical bone for computer-aided reconstruction of injury mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Asgharpour, Zahra; Zioupos, Peter; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided methods such as finite-element simulation offer a great potential in the forensic reconstruction of injury mechanisms. Numerous studies have been performed on understanding and analysing the mechanical properties of bone and the mechanism of its fracture. Determination of the mechanical properties of bones is made on the same basis used for other structural materials. The mechanical behaviour of bones is affected by the mechanical properties of the bone material, the geometry, the loading direction and mode and of course the loading rate. Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of cortical bone has been well demonstrated in literature studies, but as many of these were performed on animal bones and at non-physiological strain rates it is questionable how these will apply in the human situations. High strain-rates dominate in a lot of forensic applications in automotive crashes and assault scenarios. There is an overwhelming need to a model which can describe the complex behaviour of bone at lower strain rates as well as higher ones. Some attempts have been made to model the viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties of the bone at high strain rates using constitutive mathematical models with little demonstrated success. The main objective of the present study is to model the rate dependent behaviour of the bones based on experimental data. An isotropic material model of human cortical bone with strain rate dependency effects is implemented using the LS-DYNA material library. We employed a human finite element model called THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety), developed by Toyota R&D Labs and the Wayne State University, USA. The finite element model of the human femur is extracted from the THUMS model. Different methods have been employed to develop a strain rate dependent material model for the femur bone. Results of one the recent experimental studies on human femur have been employed to obtain the numerical model for cortical femur. A forensic application of the model is explained in which impacts to the arm have been reconstructed using the finite element model of THUMS. The advantage of the numerical method is that a wide range of impact conditions can be easily reconstructed. Impact velocity has been changed as a parameter to find the tolerance levels of injuries to the lower arm. The method can be further developed to study the assaults and the injury mechanism which can lead to severe traumatic injuries in forensic cases. PMID:24529781

  9. High hamstring tendinopathy in 3 female long distance runners

    PubMed Central

    White, Kristin E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of 3 female long distance runners with high hamstring tendinopathy. Clinical Features Three female runners presented to a chiropractic office with proximal hamstring pain that was aggravated by running. Increasing mileage, hills, and/or interval training preceded the onset of symptoms in each case. The subjects all displayed weakness of the hip abductors, pelvic joint dysfunction, hamstring tightness, and ischial tuberosity tenderness. Other clinical findings included overpronation, proprioceptive weakness, and lumbar dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome All 3 patients were treated with Graston Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization, lumbopelvic manipulation, and electrical muscle stimulation with ultrasound. Active exercise focused on hamstring stretching and strengthening, gluteal strengthening, and proprioceptive training. The 3 runners seen in this clinic had resolution of hamstring pain in an average of 13 treatments and were able to continue competing without restriction. Conclusion Runners with high hamstring tendinopathy may respond favorably to conservative chiropractic treatment and active rehabilitation with minimal time off of training. PMID:22014863

  10. How much hamstring graft needs to be in the femoral tunnel? A MOON cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mariscalco, Michael W.; Magnussen, Robert A.; Mitchell, Joshua; Pedroza, Angela D.; Jones, Morgan H.; Andrish, Jack T.; Parker, Richard D.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Flanigan, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence that smaller hamstring graft diameter is associated with increased failure risk following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has increased the popularity of graft configurations that increase graft diameter at the expense of graft length. A key question is how much graft needs to be in contact with the femoral tunnel to ensure that healing occurs. We hypothesize that no difference in two-year patient-reported outcomes or failure risk exists based on the amount of graft in the femoral tunnel. Methods Through the use of prospectively collected cohort data augmented with retrospective chart review, 120 of 181 consecutive patients (66.3 %) undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft were evaluated. Patient and surgical factors along with pre-operative and two-year postoperative knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores and whether each patient underwent revision ACL reconstruction during the two-year follow-up period were recorded. Results No differences in two-year patient-reported outcome scores were noted between patients with graft length in the femoral tunnel less than 25 mm and those with graft length in the femoral tunnel of at least 25 mm. Controlling for age, sex, BMI, and femoral tunnel technique, no correlation was noted between KOOS or IKDC scores and either the length of graft in the femoral tunnel or the contact area between the graft and the tunnel. Conclusions Variation of the length of hamstring autograft in the femoral tunnel between 14 and 35 mm does not predict KOOS or IKDC scores at 2 years postoperative. PMID:25984246

  11. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... key points to know about common sports injuries. Head and Neck Injuries Serious head and neck injuries happen most ... of the head, or a blow to the head. Neck injuries include strains, sprains, fractures, burners , and whiplash, ...

  12. QUICK REFERENCE INJURY CODING GUIDE INJURY TYPE NATURE OF INJURY

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    Environment If RSI or Overuse Injury use Repetitive movement, low muscle loading If due to keyboard or PC use, use Office & Electronic equipment Joint or muscle sprains or strains or injuries resulting from a tripQUICK REFERENCE INJURY CODING GUIDE INJURY TYPE NATURE OF INJURY BODILY LOCATION OF INJURY

  13. The study of the neurophysiology of high strain rate nerve injury 

    E-print Network

    Yang, In Hong

    2004-09-30

    blood that forms in a tissue, organ, or body space as a result of a blood vessel rupture. Contusions are generally associated with the skull fractures. Epidermal hematoma is caused by the deformation of skull bone where dural fiber and vascular... brain injury. A secondary brain injury develops within hours or days after the primary brain injury. Blood vessel rupture, cell lysis, cell apoptosis in response to the release of high levels of excitatory neurotransmitters, and increased...

  14. The management of bilateral high hamstring tendinopathy with ASTYM® treatment and eccentric exercise: a case report

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    High hamstring tendinopathy (HHT) is an overuse injury that occurs most commonly in runners. The management of HHT is often challenging and the research supporting many interventions is limited. Eccentric exercise has been proven effective in the treatment of various tendinopathies but has not been thoroughly studied with HHT. Soft tissue mobilization, including ASTYM, is often utilized in the treatment of tendinopathies, though there is limited evidence supporting this approach. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a patient referred to physical therapy with bilateral HHT. The patient was a 41-year-old recreational runner that had an insidious onset of right buttock pain 12 months prior to initiating therapy and left buttock pain 9 months prior. Her primary complaints included an inability to run, pain with prolonged or brisk walking, and pain with sitting on hard surfaces. The patient was treated in physical therapy two times per week for 16 visits with treatment focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening and ASTYM. By her eighth visit, the patient was able to walk 2·5 miles without pain and by her 12 visit, she was able to jog 1 mile before the onset of pain. After 16 visits, the patient reported that she was approximately 95% improved, was able to run 2·5 miles without pain, and had no pain with sitting on hard surfaces. This case suggests that eccentric exercise combined with ASTYM may be an effective treatment for HHT. PMID:23904753

  15. The Foam Roll as a Tool to Improve Hamstring Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Junker, Daniel H; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Junker, DH and Stöggl, TL. The foam roll as a tool to improve hamstring flexibility. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3480-3485, 2015-Although foam rolling is a common myofascial therapy used to increase range of motion (ROM), research is limited on the effectiveness of foam rolling on soft tissue extensibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 4-week training period of the foam roll method on hamstring flexibility. Furthermore, the study was designed to compare the effectiveness of the foam roll myofascial release with a conventional contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching method and a control group. Forty healthy males (age: 17-47 years) were randomly assigned to a foam roll group (FOAM, n = 13), a contract-relax PNF stretching group (CRPNF, n = 14), or a control group (CG, n = 13). The FOAM group massaged their hamstring muscles with the foam roll 3 times per week for 4 weeks (12 training sessions). The CRPNF group was assigned to 12 sessions of contract-relax PNF stretching. The CG underwent no intervention. Hamstring flexibility (ROM) was measured by a stand-and-reach test before and after the intervention period. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant global time effect (p < 0.001) and an interaction effect for time × treatment (p = 0.004), demonstrating greater improvements in the FOAM and CRPNF compared with the CG, but no difference between the former. Delta changes from baseline to postintervention in ROM were not related to baseline ROM. The foam roll can be seen as an effective tool to increase hamstring flexibility within 4 weeks. The effects are comparable with the scientifically proven contract-relax PNF stretching method. PMID:25992660

  16. Hamstring graft size and anthropometry in south Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Supradeeptha; Satyaprasad, Jonnalagedda

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size in Indian population remains unclear. Till now, no studies have been done on Indian population. Methods We evaluated 41 consecutive patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length, diameter before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm. Correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) analysis was used. Results As per study there is no correlation between graft diameter, age, sex, weight, activity, and body mass index, of patients. Height of patients correlated to graft diameter in both Indian men and women (p < 0.001). Conclusion Anthropometric measurements such as weight, gender, activity level cannot be used as definitive predictors for the hamstring graft diameter during harvest but height of the patients can be taken as good predictor in Indian population. PMID:26403553

  17. Repetitive jumping and sprinting until exhaustion alters hamstring reflex responses and tibial translation in males and females.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Wassermann, Franziska; Plewka, Antje; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries is considerably higher in females than in males and the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Research indicates that the neuromuscular system of females and males might respond differently to the same fatigue protocol due to differences in muscle activation during movement tasks. This study analyzed sex differences in hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation (TT) before and after fatiguing exercise. We measured the isolated movement of the tibia relative to the femur as a consequence of mechanically induced TT in standing subjects as well as muscle activity of the hamstrings before and after repetitive jumping and sprinting until exhaustion. Muscle fatigue delayed reflex onset latencies in females and males. A reduction in reflex responses associated with an increased TT was observed after fatiguing exercise for both sexes. Data indicate that the used fatigue protocol altered the latency and magnitude of reflex responses as well as TT in females and males. Based on the results of previous research and the outcome of this study, it might be that sex-specific effects of fatigue on reflex activity and mechanical stability of the knee depend on the kind of fatiguing exercise. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1687-1692, 2015. PMID:25941064

  18. EFFECT OF AXIAL TIBIAL TORQUE DIRECTION ON ACL RELATIVE STRAIN AND STRAIN RATE IN AN IN VITRO SIMULATED PIVOT LANDING

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3-D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p<0.05 considered significant. The mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4±3.7 % and 3.1±2.8 % under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4±160.1 %/sec and 179.4±109.9 %/sec, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70% and 42% greater under internal than external tibial torque, respectively (p=0.023, p=0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. PMID:22025178

  19. Variation of hamstrings lengths and velocities with walking speed Kiran J. Agarwal-Harding a

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    history: Accepted 18 January 2010 Keywords: Cerebral palsy Gait Walking speed Hamstrings Speed with cerebral palsy, is frequently treated with surgical lengthening of the hamstrings. To assist in surgical as speed-matched controls for comparison to 74 subjects with cerebral palsy who walked in crouch gait. Our

  20. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  1. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg ...

  2. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries A to Z: Sprain, Knee Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Sports Medicine Center Knee Injuries A to Z: Sprain, Wrist Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains Strains and Sprains Are a Pain Going to ...

  3. The Effect of Isolated Hamstrings Fatigue on Landing and Cutting Mechanics.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kristian M; Johnson, Carl; Benson, Lauren C

    2015-08-01

    The function of the hamstrings in protecting the ACL is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how landing knee mechanics were affected by hamstrings fatigue, analyzed with principal components analysis (PCA). Knee joint mechanics were collected during single-leg stride landings that were followed by lateral and vertical jumps. An isokinetic fatigue protocol was employed to reduce hamstrings strength by 75% at the cessation of the exercise protocol. On the landing test day, participants performed the stride landing maneuvers before and after the fatigue protocol. PCA was performed on the landing knee joint angle, moment, and power waveforms, and MANOVAs were conducted on the retained PCs of each waveform (P < .05). On the strength test day, hamstrings strength recovery was assessed with an identical fatigue protocol followed by strength assessment ~75 s after the cessation of exercise. Pre- and postexercise hamstrings strength on this day was assessed with a dependent t test (P < .05). The hamstrings strength remained significantly reduced by ~8% postexercise (75 s). For stride landings followed by vertical jumps, there were significantly reduced knee flexion angles, extensor moments, and energy absorption. This was indicative of a stiffer landing strategy postfatigue, which has been associated with increased ACL loading. PMID:25781073

  4. Ultrastructural and morphological characteristics of human anterior cruciate ligament and hamstring tendons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingxian; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring tendons are a commonly used substitute for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Ligaments and tendons are similar in composition but the ACL is more complex than hamstring tendons in function and gross morphology, which are highly dependent on its structure and ultrastructure. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphology and ultrastructure of normal human ACL and hamstring tendons, including the cell type and arrangement, expression level of proteoglycans, diameter, and density of collagen fibrils. Twenty semitendinosus or gracilis tendons and 20 ACL specimens were harvested from patients with ACL rupture or osteoarthritis undergoing routine total knee arthroplasty. The specimens were examined histologically and the ultrastructure was observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Semitendinosus and gracilis tendons showed a homogeneous arrangement of collagen fibers and cell type. They had lower fibril density and more widely distributed fibril diameters. In the ACL, there was a more complex arrangement of collagen fibers, distribution of proteoglycans and different cell types. Electronic microscopy demonstrated a combination of parallel, helical and nonlinear networks of ACL fibrils, and fibril diameters were smaller and more nonuniform. This study compared the anatomy of normal human ACL and hamstring tendons, which may provide a standard for evaluating hamstring tendons grafts after ACL reconstruction and may facilitate the application of hamstring tendons in clinical applications. PMID:22807249

  5. The Comparison of the Effects of Three Physiotherapy Techniques on Hamstring Flexibility in Children: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Paw?owska, Paulina; K?dra, Agnieszka; Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10–13 years), no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) post-isometric relaxation – PIR (n?=?40), (2) static stretch combined with stabilizing exercises – SS (n?=?40) and (3) stabilizing exercises – SE (n?=?40). Hamstring flexibility was assessed with straight leg raise (SLR), popliteal angle (PA) and finger-to-floor (FTF) tests. The examinations were conducted by blinded observers twice, prior to the program and a week after the last session with the physiotherapist. Twenty-six children who did not participate in all six exercise sessions with physiotherapists were excluded from the analysis. The results obtained by 94 children were analyzed (PIR, n?=?32; SS, n?=?31; SE, n?=?31). In the PIR and SS groups, a significant (P<0.01) increase in SLR, PA, FTF results was observed. In the SE group, a significant (P<0.001) increase was observed in the SLR but not in the PA and FTF (P>0.05). SLR result in the PIR and SS groups was significantly (P<0.001) higher than in the SE group. As far as PA results are concerned, a significant difference was observed only between the SS and SE groups (P?=?0.014). There were no significant (P?=?0.15) differences regarding FTF results between the three groups. Post-isometric muscle relaxation and static stretch with stabilizing exercises led to a similar increase in hamstring flexibility and trunk forward bend in healthy 10–13-year-old children. The exercises limited to straightening gluteus maximus improved the SLR result, but did not change the PA and FTF results. PMID:23951281

  6. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  7. Abnormal reflex activation of hamstring muscles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Graham M; Granger, Nicolas; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J; Jeffery, Nick D

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs are poorly understood. In this study hamstring muscle reflexes in response to cranial tibial translation were analysed to determine whether these active stabilisers of the stifle joint are differently activated in dogs with CCLR compared to control dogs. In a prospective clinical study reflex muscle activity from the lateral and medial hamstring muscles (biceps femoris and semimembranosus) was recorded using surface electrodes in control dogs (n=21) and dogs with CCLR (n=22). These electromyographic recordings were analysed using an algorithm previously validated in humans. The hamstring reflex was reliably and reproducibly recorded in normal dogs. Both a short latency response (SLR, 17.6±2.1ms) and a medium latency response (MLR, 37.7±2.7ms) could be identified. In dogs with unilateral CCLR, the SLR and MLR were not significantly different between the affected and the unaffected limbs, but the MLR latency of both affected and unaffected limbs in CCLR dogs were significantly prolonged compared to controls. In conclusion, the hamstring reflex can be recorded in dogs and the MLR is prolonged in dogs with CCLR. Since both affected and unaffected limbs exhibit prolonged MLR, it is possible that abnormal hamstring reflex activation is a mechanism by which progressive CCL damage may occur. The methodology allows for further investigation of the relationship between neuromuscular imbalance and CCLR or limitations in functional recovery following surgical intervention. PMID:23219226

  8. Joint infection unique to hamstring tendon harvester used during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Tuman, Jeffrey; Diduch, David R; Baumfeld, Joshua A; Rubino, L Joseph; Hart, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    Joint infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a rare but important clinical issue that must be resolved quickly to prevent secondary joint damage and preserve the graft. After careful analysis, we observed 3 infection cases within a 12-month period after ACL reconstruction, which represented an abnormally elevated risk. All reconstructions were performed by the same surgeon and used hamstring tendon allograft. For each surgery, the Target Tendon Harvester (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) was used to harvest hamstring tendons. Through our review, we learned that this instrument was sterilized while assembled. It is our belief that ineffective sterilization of this hamstring graft harvester served as the origin for these infections. We have determined that appropriate sterilization technique involves disassembly of this particular hamstring tendon harvester before sterilization because of the tube-within-a-tube configuration. We have since continued to use the Target Tendon Harvester, disassembling it before sterilization. There have been no infections in the ensuing 12 months during which the surgeon performed over 40 primary ACL reconstructions via hamstring autograft. The information from this report is intended to provide arthroscopists with information about potential sources of infection after ACL reconstruction surgery. PMID:18442698

  9. Occupational injuries in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    Firth, H; Herbison, G P

    1990-06-13

    Attendances for work-related injury at the accident and emergency department, Dunedin Hospital over a 10 week period are described. The number of workers attending from Dunedin city, St Kilda and Green Island boroughs was 655, the overall rate being 15.8/1000 workers. The injury rate varied according to age, sex, ethnicity, occupation and industry. Laceration, strain/sprain and foreign body in the eye were the most common injuries and machinery was the commonest cause of injury. Small factories had significantly higher rates for lost time injuries compared with large factories. Serious under reporting of occupational injury to the Department of Labour was identified. PMID:2356045

  10. MRP-1 expression levels determine strain-specific susceptibility to sodium arsenic-induced renal injury between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Akihiko; Ishida, Yuko; Wada, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kondo, Toshikazu . E-mail: kondot@wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the pathophysiological mechanism underlying acute renal injury caused by acute exposure to arsenic, we subcutaneously injected both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with sodium arsenite (NaAs; 13.5 mg/kg). BALB/c mice exhibited exaggerated elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels, compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, half of BALB/c mice died by 24 h, whereas all C57BL/6 mice survived. Histopathological examination on kidney revealed severe hemorrhages, acute tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, cast formation, and disappearance of PAS-positive brush borders in BALB/c mice, later than 10 h. These pathological changes were remarkably attenuated in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied with lower intrarenal arsenic concentrations, compared with BALB/c mice. Among heavy metal inducible proteins including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR)-1, metallothionein (MT)-1, and arsenite inducible, cysteine- and histidine-rich RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), intrarenal MDR-1, MT-1, and AIRAP gene expression was enhanced to a similar extent in both strains, whereas NaAs challenge augmented intrarenal MRP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. Moreover, the administration of a specific inhibitor of MRP-1, MK-571, significantly exaggerated acute renal injury in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, MRP-1 is crucially involved in arsenic efflux and eventually prevention of acute renal injury upon acute exposure to NaAs.

  11. Strain-dependent dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism in male mice is associated with choline- and folate-deficient diet-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Pogribny, Igor P; Kutanzi, Kristy; Melnyk, Stepan; de Conti, Aline; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Montgomery, Beverly; Pogribna, Marta; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Latendresse, John R; James, S Jill; Beland, Frederick A; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    Dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism-related metabolic processes is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well established that genetic and gender-specific variations in one-carbon metabolism contribute to the vulnerability to NAFLD in humans. To examine the role of one-carbon metabolism dysregulation in the pathogenesis and individual susceptibility to NAFLD, we used a "population-based" mouse model where male mice from 7 inbred were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 wk. Strain-dependent down-regulation of several key one-carbon metabolism genes, including methionine adenosyltransferase 1? (Mat1a), cystathionine-?-synthase (Cbs), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr), adenosyl-homocysteinase (Ahcy), and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (Mthfd1), was observed. These changes were strongly associated with interstrain variability in liver injury (steatosis, necrosis, inflammation, and activation of fibrogenesis) and hyperhomocysteinemia. Mechanistically, the decreased expression of Mat1a, Ahcy, and Mthfd1 was linked to a reduced level and promoter binding of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (CEBP?), which directly regulates their transcription. The strain specificity of diet-induced dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism suggests that interstrain variation in the regulation of one-carbon metabolism may contribute to the differential vulnerability to NFLD and that correcting the imbalance may be considered as preventive and treatment strategies for NAFLD. PMID:23439872

  12. Virulence from vesicles: Novel mechanisms of host cell injury by Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain

    PubMed Central

    Kunsmann, Lisa; Rüter, Christian; Bauwens, Andreas; Greune, Lilo; Glüder, Malte; Kemper, Björn; Fruth, Angelika; Wai, Sun Nyunt; He, Xiaohua; Lloubes, Roland; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge; Bielaszewska, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The highly virulent Escherichia coli O104:H4 that caused the large 2011 outbreak of diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secretes blended virulence factors of enterohaemorrhagic and enteroaggregative E. coli, but their secretion pathways are unknown. We demonstrate that the outbreak strain releases a cocktail of virulence factors via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) shed during growth. The OMVs contain Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a, the major virulence factor of the strain, Shigella enterotoxin 1, H4 flagellin, and O104 lipopolysaccharide. The OMVs bind to and are internalised by human intestinal epithelial cells via dynamin-dependent and Stx2a-independent endocytosis, deliver the OMV-associated virulence factors intracellularly and induce caspase-9-mediated apoptosis and interleukin-8 secretion. Stx2a is the key OMV component responsible for the cytotoxicity, whereas flagellin and lipopolysaccharide are the major interleukin-8 inducers. The OMVs represent novel ways for the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain to deliver pathogenic cargoes and injure host cells. PMID:26283502

  13. Virulence from vesicles: Novel mechanisms of host cell injury by Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain.

    PubMed

    Kunsmann, Lisa; Rüter, Christian; Bauwens, Andreas; Greune, Lilo; Glüder, Malte; Kemper, Björn; Fruth, Angelika; Wai, Sun Nyunt; He, Xiaohua; Lloubes, Roland; Schmidt, M Alexander; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander; Karch, Helge; Bielaszewska, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The highly virulent Escherichia coli O104:H4 that caused the large 2011 outbreak of diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secretes blended virulence factors of enterohaemorrhagic and enteroaggregative E. coli, but their secretion pathways are unknown. We demonstrate that the outbreak strain releases a cocktail of virulence factors via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) shed during growth. The OMVs contain Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a, the major virulence factor of the strain, Shigella enterotoxin 1, H4 flagellin, and O104 lipopolysaccharide. The OMVs bind to and are internalised by human intestinal epithelial cells via dynamin-dependent and Stx2a-independent endocytosis, deliver the OMV-associated virulence factors intracellularly and induce caspase-9-mediated apoptosis and interleukin-8 secretion. Stx2a is the key OMV component responsible for the cytotoxicity, whereas flagellin and lipopolysaccharide are the major interleukin-8 inducers. The OMVs represent novel ways for the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain to deliver pathogenic cargoes and injure host cells. PMID:26283502

  14. Agreement Between Face-to-Face and Free Software Video Analysis for Assessing Hamstring Flexibility in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moral-Muñoz, José A; Esteban-Moreno, Bernabé; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cobo, Manuel J; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement between face-to-face hamstring flexibility measurements and free software video analysis in adolescents. Reduced hamstring flexibility is common in adolescents (75% of boys and 35% of girls aged 10). The length of the hamstring muscle has an important role in both the effectiveness and the efficiency of basic human movements, and reduced hamstring flexibility is related to various musculoskeletal conditions. There are various approaches to measuring hamstring flexibility with high reliability; the most commonly used approaches in the scientific literature are the sit-and-reach test, hip joint angle (HJA), and active knee extension. The assessment of hamstring flexibility using video analysis could help with adolescent flexibility follow-up. Fifty-four adolescents from a local school participated in a descriptive study of repeated measures using a crossover design. Active knee extension and HJA were measured with an inclinometer and were simultaneously recorded with a video camera. Each video was downloaded to a computer and subsequently analyzed using Kinovea 0.8.15, a free software application for movement analysis. All outcome measures showed reliability estimates with ? > 0.90. The lowest reliability was obtained for HJA (? = 0.91). The preliminary findings support the use of a free software tool for assessing hamstring flexibility, offering health professionals a useful tool for adolescent flexibility follow-up. PMID:26313580

  15. Immediate effect of passive and active stretching on hamstrings flexibility: a single-blinded randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yuichi; Aizawa, Junya; Kanemura, Naohiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hosomi, Naohisa; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the efficacy of passive and active stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility. [Subjects] Fifty-four healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups (2 treatment groups and 1 control group). [Methods] Subjects in the passive stretching group had their knees extended by an examiner while lying supine 90° of hip flexion. In the same position, subjects in the active stretching group extended their knees. The groups performed 3 sets of the assigned stretch, with each stretch held for 10 seconds at the point where tightness in the hamstring muscles was felt. Subjects in the control group did not perform stretching. Before and immediately after stretching, hamstring flexibility was assessed by a blinded assessor, using the active knee-extension test. [Results] After stretching, there was a significant improvement in the hamstring flexibilities of the active and passive stretching groups compared with the control group. Furthermore, the passive stretching group showed significantly greater improvement in hamstring flexibility than the active stretching group. [Conclusion] Improvement in hamstring flexibility measured by the active knee-extension test was achieved by both stretching techniques; however, passive stretching was more effective than active stretching at achieving an immediate increase in hamstring flexibility. PMID:26644667

  16. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key Points Overall sit-and-reach tests have a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility, but they have a low mean validity for estimating lumbar extensibility. Among all the sit-and-reach test protocols, the Classic sit-and-reach test seems to be the best option to estimate hamstring extensibility. End scores (e.g., the Classic sit-and-reach test) are a better indicator of hamstring extensibility than the modifications that incorporate fingers-to-box distance (e.g., the Modified sit-and-reach test). When angular tests such as straight leg raise or knee extension tests cannot be used, sit-and-reach tests seem to be a useful field test alternative to estimate hamstring extensibility, but not to estimate lumbar extensibility. PMID:24570599

  17. Alterations of hamstring muscle properties in patients with varying severity of spastic cerebral palsy

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    ]. Additionally, muscle fiber stiffness was significantly increased and the muscle tissue itself containedAlterations of hamstring muscle properties in patients with varying severity of spastic cerebral and movement and most surgical treatments such as muscle lengthenings, address the musculoskeletal system [4

  18. Arthroscopy-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring autografts.

    PubMed

    Doral, M N; Leblebicioglu, G; Atay, O A; Baydar, M L; Tetik, O; Atik, S

    2000-01-01

    Isolated ACL reconstructions were performed in 138 patients between 1994 and 1998. Patellar bone-patellar tendon-bone, and hamstring tendon autografts were used in 88 patients, and allografts were used in 50 patients. Eighty-eight knees of 88 patients with autograft reconstructions (17 female, 71 male) were included in this study and evaluation of the patients with allograft reconstruction reported separately. The mean age at the time of the operation was 32 years. All ACL reconstructions were performed arthroscopically. Twenty-seven bone-patellar tendon-bone, and 61 hamstring tendon autografts were used. The mean follow-up was 29 months. In the postoperative course the Lachman test was negative in 62 patients, 1+ in 22 patients, and 2+ in 4 patients. In 17 patients, anterior drawer sign were 1+ in comparison to the contralateral side. Pivot shift test was moderately positive only in 5 cases in the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon autograft groups postoperatively. There were 3 patients with subjective "giving way" symptoms. Second look arthroscopy revealed rupture of the neo-ligament. Arthroscopic washout and debridement were performed, and no revision ligamentoplasties were performed. Two of these patients improved with accelerated proprioceptive physical therapy, and one had to decrease his previous level of activity. There were no cases of arthrofibrosis, infection, or extension lag. Clinical results of patellar bone-tendon-bone and hamstring groups did not show any significant clinical difference. Avoiding the disturbance of the extensor mechanism of the knee is probably the most significant advantage of the hamstring autograft. PMID:10983256

  19. Plasma microRNAs are sensitive indicators of inter-strain differences in the severity of liver injury induced in mice by a choline- and folate-deficient diet

    SciTech Connect

    Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Latendresse, John R.; Montgomery, Beverly; Ross, Sharon A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Pogribny, Igor P.

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, conserved, tissue-specific regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes and play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between inter-individual differences in susceptibility to NAFLD and altered miRNA expression is largely unknown. In view of this, the goals of the present study were (i) to determine whether or not individual differences in the extent of NAFLD-induced liver injury are associated with altered miRNA expression, and (ii) assess if circulating blood miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the noninvasive evaluation of the severity of NAFLD. A panel of seven genetically diverse strains of inbred male mice (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, 129S/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 weeks. This diet induced liver injury in all mouse strains; however, the extent of NAFLD-associated pathomorphological changes in the livers was strain-specific, with A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ mice being the least sensitive and WSB/EiJ mice being the most sensitive. The morphological changes in the livers were accompanied by differences in the levels of hepatic and plasma miRNAs. The levels of circulating miR-34a, miR-122, miR-181a, miR-192, and miR-200b miRNAs were significantly correlated with a severity of NAFLD-specific liver pathomorphological features, with the strongest correlation occurring with miR-34a. These observations suggest that the plasma levels of miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury and susceptibility to NAFLD. -- Highlights: ? Choline- and folate-deficiency induces a strain-specific fatty liver injury in mice. ? The extent of liver pathology was accompanied by the changes in microRNA expression. ? The levels of circulating microRNAs mirror the magnitude of fatty liver injury. ? Plasma microRNAs may be sensitive noninvasive indicators of the fatty liver injury.

  20. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sprains, Strains & Fractures What is a Foot or Ankle Sprain or Fracture? The feet and ankles work together to provide support and mobility to the body. A foot or ankle sprain is a soft tissue injury. Most often, ...

  1. Effects on hamstring muscle extensibility, muscle activity, and balance of different stretching techniques.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance. PMID:24648633

  2. Effects on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility, Muscle Activity, and Balance of Different Stretching Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance. PMID:24648633

  3. Functional differences in the activity of the hamstring muscles with increasing running speed.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Ayako; Ono, Takashi; Kubota, Jun; Okuwaki, Toru; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we examined hamstring muscle activation at different running speeds to help better understand the functional characteristics of each hamstring muscle. Eight healthy male track and field athletes (20.1 +/- 1.1 years) performed treadmill running at 50%, 75%, 85%, and 95% of their maximum velocity. Lower extremity kinematics of the hip and knee joint were calculated. The surface electromyographic activities of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles were also recorded. Increasing the running speed from 85% to 95% significantly increased the activation of the hamstring muscles during the late swing phase, while lower extremity kinematics did not change significantly. During the middle swing phase, the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was significantly greater than that of the biceps femoris muscle at 75%, 85%, and 95% of running speed. Statistically significant differences in peak activation time were observed between the biceps femoris and semitendinosus during 95%max running (P < 0.05 for stance phase, P < 0.01 for late swing phase). Significant differences in the activation patterns between the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles were observed as running speed was increased, indicating that complex neuromuscular coordination patterns occurred during the running cycle at near maximum sprinting speeds. PMID:20672221

  4. Differences in the electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles during maximal eccentric knee flexion.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Ayako; Ono, Takashi; Kubota, Jun; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the knee joint angle and angular velocity on hamstring muscles' activation patterns during maximum eccentric knee flexion contractions. Ten healthy young males (23.4 +/- 1.3 years) performed eccentric knee flexion at constant velocities of 10, 60, 180, and 300 deg/s in random order. The eccentric knee flexion torque and the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were measured. The results of torque during 10 deg/s were lower than the faster velocities. No significant change was found in eccentric torque output and the EMG amplitude with change in the faster test velocities, although those values showed a decreasing tendency as the knee approached extension. Furthermore, the EMG amplitude of the BF decreased significantly as the knee approached extension, although the EMG activity of the ST and SM remained constant. These results suggest that the neural inhibitory mechanism might be involved in decreasing in maximal voluntary force and hamstring muscles activation toward the knee extension during high-velocity eccentric movement and therefore subjects have difficulties to maintain high eccentric force level throughout the motion. Moreover, the possible mechanism reducing the BF muscle activation as the knee approaches extension was architectural differences in the hamstring muscles, which might reflect each muscle's function. PMID:19816706

  5. Prospective Comparative Study of ACL Reconstruction Between Using Hamstring Autograft and Soft Tissue Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Kyoo; Seon, Jong Keun; Kim, Hasung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Nowadays, two most commonly used grafts in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are hamstring autograft and soft tissue allograft. Although the short-term clinical outcomes between two grafts were similar, only a few studies reported mid-term clinical outcomes. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction between using hamstring autograft and soft tissue allograft after mid-term follow-up. Methods: One-hundred sixty-one patients that underwent ACL reconstruction (78 in the hamstring group and 83 in the fresh frozen soft tissue (tibialis anterior) allograft) were followed up for a minimum of 4 years.We compared clinical outcomes (IKDC scores and Tegner activity scores, and Lachman and pivot shift test findings) For the radiologic evaluation, we determined the degree of osteoarthritis based on Kellgren and Lawrence grade system at the time of final follow-up and compared the number of patient with progression of osteoarthritis more than grade I. The muscle strength and position sense using iso-kinetic dynamometer was compared at the final follow-up. We also compared complication rate including graft failures and infection during the follow-up. Among them, we did the 2nd-look arthroscopies to evaluate the partial rupture and extent of synovial coverage on grafts for 27 patients in each group. Results: Stability results of the Lachman test, pivot-shift test, and knee joint laxity test failed to reveal any significant inter-group differences (P > 0.05). In the pivot-shift result, autograft group showed 7 cases of grade II and allograft group11 cases of grade II (p=0.09). The clinical outcomes, including Lysholm knee and Tegner activity scores, showed no significant differences between the two groups. Concerning osteoarthritis at the final follow-up, seven patients in the autograft group and eight patients in the allograft group progressed osteoarthritis more than one Kellgren-Lawrence grade at final follow-up (P=0.82). Moreover, extension and flexion muscle power deficits and position sense were similar in both groups. However, the complications were more in allograft group (5 failures and 2 infection in the allograft group and 2 failures and no infection in the autograft group) during the follow-up (P = 0.06). We observed the less partial rupture and better synovial coverage of graft in autograft than allograft under 2nd look arthroscopic findings. Conclusion: Although hamstring autograft and soft tissue allograft ACL reconstruction showed similar functional and radiological outcomes after mid-term follow-up, hamstring autograft group showed fewer complications including failure and better arthroscopic findings compared with soft tissue allograft group.

  6. Is the Modified Tardieu Scale in Semi-Standing Position Better Associated with Knee Extension and Hamstring Activity in Terminal Swing than the Supine Tardieu?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Irene R.; Nienhuis, Bart; Rijs, Nique P. A. M.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Duysens, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven children diagnosed with…

  7. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  8. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football.

  9. Strains and Sprains Are a Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Strains and Sprains Are a Pain KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > Strains and Sprains Are a Pain Print A A A ... sports. Let's find out more about them. What Are Strains and Sprains? Muscles contract and relax (almost ...

  10. Effects of quadriceps and hamstrings proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on knee movement sensation.

    PubMed

    Streepey, Jefferson W; Mock, Marla J; Riskowski, Jody L; Vanwye, William R; Vitvitskiy, Boris M; Mikesky, Alan E

    2010-04-01

    Stretching before competition has traditionally been thought to benefit performance; however, recent evidence demonstrating reduced muscle force and power immediately after stretching suggests otherwise. We hypothesized that knee joint position sense would be diminished immediately after proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching to the hamstrings and quadriceps. Eighteen subjects (aged 18-30 years) were seated with their dominant foot attached to a motorized arm with the knee flexed at 135 degrees . To block external cues, the subjects wore a blindfold, earplugs, and headphones providing white noise. The knee was displaced in either the flexion or the extension direction at a velocity of 0.4 degrees .s, and subjects pressed a button when they sensed motion. The knee was returned to 135 degrees , and the test was repeated for a total of 10 trials. The PNF group received PNF stretching to the hamstrings and quadriceps of the dominant leg. The SHAM group had the dominant leg passively moved within each subject's functional range of motion. The ability to detect knee movement was retested in the PNF and SHAM groups. Pre- and posttest latencies between movement onset and subject response were analyzed. Results indicated that the PNF group had significantly increased latencies after stretching (from 2.56 +/- 0.83 to 3.46 +/- 1.90 seconds) compared with the SHAM group (3.93 +/- 2.40 to 3.72 +/- 2.15 seconds). It is concluded that PNF stretching of the hamstrings and quadriceps may acutely diminish sensitivity to knee movement. For coaches and trainers, these findings are consistent with previous reports of loss in muscle force and power immediately after stretching, suggesting that stretching just before competition may diminish performance. PMID:20300021

  11. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups. PMID:25729210

  12. Efficacy of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch on hamstrings length after a single session.

    PubMed

    O'Hora, John; Cartwright, Abigail; Wade, Clive D; Hough, Alan D; Shum, Gary L K

    2011-06-01

    A number of studies have investigated the efficacy of several repetitions of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) and static stretching (SS). However, there is limited research comparing the effects of a single bout of these stretching maneuvers. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a single bout of a therapist-applied 30-second SS vs. a single bout of therapist-applied 6-second hamstring (agonist) contract PNF. Forty-five healthy subjects between the ages of 21 and 35 were randomly allocated to 1 of the 2 stretching groups or a control group, in which no stretching was received. The flexibility of the hamstring was determined by a range of passive knee extension, measured using a universal goniometer, with the subject in the supine position and the hip at 90° flexion, before and after intervention. A significant increase in knee extension was found for both intervention groups after a single stretch (SS group = 7.53°, p < 0.01 and PNF group = 11.80°, p < 0.01). Both interventions resulted in a significantly greater increase in knee extension when compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The PNF group demonstrated significantly greater gains in knee extension compared to the SS group (mean difference 4.27°, p < 0.01). It can be concluded that a therapist applied SS or PNF results in a significant increase in hamstring flexibility. A hamstring (agonist) contract PNF is more effective than an SS in a single stretching session. These findings are important to physiotherapists or trainers working in clinical and sporting environments. Where in the past therapists may have spent time conducting multiple repetitions of a PNF and an SS, a single bout of either technique may be considered just as effective. A key component of the study methodology was the exclusion of a warm-up period before stretching. Therefore, the findings of efficacy of a single PNF are of particular relevance in sporting environments and busy clinical settings where time may be limited. PMID:21386723

  13. Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: a comparison of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching.

    PubMed

    Funk, Daniel C; Swank, Ann M; Mikla, Benjamin M; Fagan, Todd A; Farr, Brian K

    2003-08-01

    Position stands from the American College of Sports Medicine and the Surgeon General site a need for strategies capable of enhancing the effectiveness of stretching on flexibility and joint range of motion. One strategy for enhancing flexibility that has received anecdotal support but lacks substantial experimental evidence is the impact of prior exercise. This study compared 5 minutes of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on hamstring flexibility performed with and without exercise. Forty undergraduate student-athletes participated in a repeated measure, counterbalanced experimental design. Within-group comparisons indicated that PNF resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in flexibility after 60 minutes of exercise when compared with baseline (9.6%) and without exercise (7.8%). No differences were observed with static stretching across time. In addition, no differences were observed between the groups at any time point. Results demonstrated that PNF performed after exercise enhanced acute hamstring flexibility, and implementing a PNF stretching routine following exercise may augment current stretching practices among athletes. PMID:12930174

  14. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Gimenez, Philippe; Edouard, Pascal; Arnal, Pierrick; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024) between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability.

  15. Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Produces Adaptations on the Spine and Hamstring Extensibility.

    PubMed

    Muyor, J M; Zabala, M

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to analyse the influence of training in road cycling or cross-country mountain biking on sagittal spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and trunk inclination in cyclists of both cycling modalities; 2) to evaluate the specific spinal posture and pelvic tilt adopted on the road bicycle and cross-country mountain bike; and 3) to compare the spinal sagittal capacity of flexion and pelvic tilt mobility as well as hamstring muscle extensibility among road cyclists, cross-country mountain bikers and non-cyclists. Thirty matched road cyclists, 30 mountain bikers and 30 non-cyclists participated in this study. The road cyclists showed significantly greater thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination than did the mountain bikers and non-cyclists in a standing posture. On the bicycle, the road bicycling posture was characterised by greater lumbar flexion and more significant anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination compared with the mountain biking posture. The thoracic spine was more flexed in mountain biking than in road cycling. Road cyclists had significantly greater hamstring muscle extensibility in the active knee extension test, and showed greater anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination capacity in the sit-and-reach test, compared with mountain bikers and non-cyclists. PMID:26509372

  16. The Effect of Foam Rolling Duration on Hamstring Range of Motion

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Grace; Karlik, Dustin; Glass, Stephen C; Hatzel, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal health benefits from flexibility training and maintaining a functional, or sport specific, range of motion is important to one’s overall fitness. Commercial foam rollers are commonly used in gyms, therapy clinics and homes, yet data are lacking on the optimal rolling duration and effect on range of motion. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of varied durations of a commercial foam roller treatment on hamstring range of motion. Methods : The knee extension range of motion of 33 college aged men and women (age= 20±1.5y, mass= 72.2±10.8 kg) was assessed after a short (2 sets of 10s) and long (4 sets of 30s) duration of hamstring self-administered myofascial release using a commercial foam roller. A one way ANOVA was performed to compare the mean knee extension angle for each condition to baseline measures. Results : Results indicated that neither the short duration (67.30 ± 10.60 deg) nor long duration (67.41 ± 10.81 deg) rolling condition produced significant increases in knee extension compared to baseline (67.70 ± 9.90 deg). Conclusion : Self-administered foam rolling for a total duration of up to 2 minutes is not adequate to induce improvements in knee joint flexibility. Contributing factors may include the amount of pressure imparted by the commercial roller as well as duration of treatment. PMID:26587061

  17. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  18. Lack of Correlation between Dynamic Balance and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio in Patients with Chronic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Lee, Seok-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps (HQ) ratio, as well as the relationships of these parameters with dynamic balance, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Materials and Methods We compared 25 patients diagnosed with chronic unilateral ACL tears and 25 age-matched healthy volunteers. The maximal torque of the quadriceps and hamstring and dynamic balance were measured. Results Although the isokinetic maximal peak torques were about 50% lower in the quadriceps (57%, p<0.001) and hamstring (56%, p=0.001) muscles in the chronic ACL tear group than in the control group, their HQ ratios were similar (56%±17% vs. 58%±6%, p=0.591). HQ ratio was significantly correlated with anterior-posterior stability index (r=-0.511, p=0.021) and overall stability index (r=-0.476, p=0.034) in control group, but these correlations were not observed in chronic ACL tear group. Conclusions Thigh muscle strength was about 50% lower in the chronic ACL tear group than in the control group, but the HQ ratio was similar. The dynamic balance of the knee was not influenced by thigh muscle strength but was influenced by HQ ratio in healthy young individuals. However, HQ ratio was not correlated with dynamic knee balance in chronic ACL tear patients. PMID:26060609

  19. Crush injury

    MedlinePLUS

    A crush injury occurs when force or pressure is put on a body part. This type of injury most ... squeezed between two heavy objects. Damage related to crush injuries include: Bleeding Bruising Compartment syndrome (increased pressure ...

  20. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  1. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  2. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You may also get tendinitis from overuse of the elbow. Other causes of elbow pain include sprains, strains, fractures, dislocations, bursitis and arthritis. Treatment depends on the ...

  3. A between sex comparison of anterior-posterior knee laxity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstrings autograft: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mark V; Weed, Ashley M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2012-02-01

    Anterior-posterior (AP) knee laxity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may differ between sexes for different graft types. Females may experience an increase in AP knee laxity following an ACL reconstruction with a hamstrings graft, which is not seen in males with a hamstrings graft or in males or females with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft. The hypothesis of this review is sex differences in AP knee laxity and this will be identified in patients who undergo an ACL reconstruction with a hamstrings graft, while no sex differences will be observed in patients who have an ACL reconstruction with a BTB graft. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria were articles published in the English language that studied human subjects who underwent an ACL reconstruction with a BTB or hamstrings autograft, and the presence of a sex comparison on outcome measures including side-to-side difference in AP knee laxity. Methodological quality was assessed using a Modified Coleman Methodology Score. Eleven cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Six investigated sex differences in both hamstrings and BTB grafts. Three only investigated BTB grafts and two only investigated hamstrings grafts. These studies consistently reported increases in AP knee laxity in females after an ACL reconstruction with a hamstrings graft that was not observed in the other cohorts. This systematic review indicates that female patients have greater AP knee laxity following an ACL reconstruction with a hamstrings autograft compared with males with a similar procedure, and both females and males following an ACL reconstruction with a BTB autograft. These results are derived from lower level evidence, as no randomized control trials have attempted to answer this question. Future studies need to rigorously address this clinical question to confirm the results currently in the literature. PMID:22260514

  4. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). Similarly, static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, when the functional H/Q strength ratios were taken into consideration, the pre-intervention values were not significant different between the groups both during the entire and end range of knee extension (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  5. Biomechanical responses to repeated stretches in human hamstring muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, S P; Simonsen, E B; Aagaard, P; Kjaer, M

    1996-01-01

    To examine stiffness, energy, and passive torque in the dynamic and static phases of a stretch maneuver in the human hamstring muscle in vivo we used a test-retest protocol and a repeated stretches protocol. Resistance to stretch was defined as passive torque (in newton-meters) offered by the hamstring muscle group during passive knee extension as measured using an isokinetic dynamometer with a modified thigh pad. In 13 uninjured subjects, the knee was passively extended to a predetermined final position (0.0875 rad/ sec, dynamic phase) where it remained stationary for 90 seconds (static phase). The test-retest protocol included two tests administered 1 hour apart. On a separate occasion, five consecutive static stretches were administered separated by 30 seconds and followed by a sixth stretch 1 hour later. For the test-retest phase, stiffness and energy in the dynamic phase and passive torque in the static phase did not differ and yielded correlations of r = 0.91 to 0.99. During the static phase, passive torque declined in both tests (P < 0.0001). For the repeated stretches, decreases were observed for energy (P < 0.01) and stiffness (P < 0.05) in the dynamic phase and for passive torque (P < 0.0001) in the static phase. However, the decline in the variables returned to baseline within 1 hour. The data show that the method employed is a useful tool for measuring biomechanical variables during a stretch maneuver. This may provide a more detailed method to examine skeletal muscle flexibility. PMID:8883682

  6. Injuries to athletes with disabilities: identifying injury patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, M S; Peterson, C L

    2000-08-01

    Participation in sport activities for people with disabilities continues to gain in popularity. With participation in sports, there is an inherent risk of injury. A review of current sport epidemiological studies was used and we concluded that injury patterns for this population are similar to those for athletes without disabilities. Injury data from Paralympic competitions dating back to 1976 indicate that most elite athletes with disabilities seek medical care for illness and musculo-skeletal injuries. However, there are very limited injury data regarding Winter Paralympic events or skiing injuries. For those athletes who participate in Summer Paralympic events, abrasions, strains, sprains and contusions are more common than fractures and dislocations. However, location of injuries appears to be disability and sport dependent. Lower extremity injuries are more common in ambulatory athletes (visually impaired, amputee, cerebral palsy) and upper extremity injuries are more frequent in athletes who use a wheelchair. While it appears that the majority of the injuries occurring in this population are minor in nature, inconsistencies in the definition of injury in the literature make this conclusion tenuous. When injuries are expressed as time lost in participation, 52% of injuries resulted in 7 days lost or less, 29% in 8 to 21 days lost and 19% in greater than 22 days lost. The only prospective study addressing injury rates of athletes with disabilities in a manner consistent with other sport epidemiological studies found an injury rate of 9.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AE). This injury rate is less than American football (10.1 to 15/1000 AE) and soccer (9.8/1000 AE), and greater than basketball (7.0/1000 AE). It is unclear whether comparative statistics such as these take into consideration the number of illness and injury episodes that resulted from the disability. Further complicating epidemiological studies for athletes with disabilities is the definition of the population and samples of convenience which are frequently used. These samples are often not representative of the multiplicity of disability conditions, levels of competition and range of sport activities available. Prospective studies comparing athletes to sedentary control individuals to measure differences in injury rates, type and frequency between and within disability groups, sports and levels of competition are desperately needed to further the knowledge of injury trends and develop and establish accurate injury prevention programmes. PMID:10966152

  7. Injuries in Competitive Dragon Boating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. Purpose: To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. Results: A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Conclusion: Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport. PMID:26535280

  8. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you do to prevent strains and other sports injuries? Bones meet at joints, such as elbows, knees, or shoulders. That's where your body bends and rotates. Strong, elastic bands of tissue called ligaments hold bones together in the joints. A sprain ...

  9. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold's Tyson de Sousa; Moreira Dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care. PMID:26157261

  10. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold’s Tyson de Sousa; Moreira dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care. PMID:26157261

  11. Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries by Major League Soccer Team Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Joseph; Harris, Joshua D.; Kolstad, Kaare; McCulloch, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The treatment and rehabilitation procedures of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in elite soccer players are controversial. Points of debate include surgical timing, technique, graft choice, rehabilitation, and return-to-sport criteria and timing. Purpose: To identify practice preferences among current Major League Soccer (MLS) team orthopaedic surgeons for ACL injuries. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The survey was administered at the MLS team physician annual meeting in January 2013. At least 1 orthopaedic surgeon representative from each of the 19 clubs (16 from the United States, 3 from Canada) was in attendance. Teams with more than 1 affiliated orthopaedic surgeon were given an additional survey to be completed either at the meeting or returned via e-mail. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney (return-to-play parameters, running, and ball drills), and Fisher exact tests (graft selection, bracing, continuous passive motion) were applied to the various data sets from the survey responses. Results: A 100% survey participation rate was achieved (22 team orthopaedic surgeons representing 19 MLS teams). A single-incision, arthroscopically assisted, single-bundle reconstruction was the most common technique (91%). Surgeons were split regarding femoral tunnel drilling (50% transtibial, 46% accessory medial). Autograft bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) was the most common preferred graft choice (68%). The biggest concerns about BPTB autograft and hamstring autograft were anterior knee pain (76%) and hamstring weakness (46%), respectively. Most surgeons did not recommend postoperative continuous passive motion (64%) or functional bracing (68%). Most surgeons permitted return to sport without restrictions at 6 to 8 months following surgery (82%). Surgeons who routinely used functional bracing after ACL surgery more frequently used hamstring autograft than those who used BPTB autograft (P = .04). Conclusion: This article successfully describes current management of ACL injuries among MLS team orthopaedic surgeons. The preference for single-bundle BPTB autograft is similar to published data in the National Football League and National Basketball Association. PMID:26535286

  12. Relationship between hamstring activation rate and heel contact velocity: Factors influencing age-related slip-induced falls

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Kim, Sukwon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether a decreased hamstring activation rate among the elderly is responsible for a higher horizontal heel contact velocity and increased likelihood of slip-induced falls compared to their younger counterparts. Twenty-eight subjects from two age groups (14 young and 14 old) walked across a linear walking track with embedded force platforms while wearing a fall arresting harness attached to an overhead arresting rig for safety. In order to obtain realistic unexpected slip-induced fall data, a soapy vinyl floor surface was hidden from the subjects and unexpectedly introduced. Synchronized kinematics, kinetic and electromyography (EMG) analyses during the heel contact phase of the gait cycle while walking over slippery and non-slippery floor surfaces were examined in the study. Normalized EMG data were examined in terms of hamstring activation rate and evaluated with heel contact velocity and friction demand characteristic (as measured by peak required coefficient of friction (RCOF)) on the dry vinyl floor surface. Furthermore, slip parameters (i.e. slip distances and slipping velocity) were assessed on the soapy vinyl floor surface. The results indicated that younger adults’ hamstring activation rate was higher than older adults, whereas younger adults’ heel contact velocity was not different from older adults. These results suggested that heel contact velocity in younger adults was sufficiently reduced before the heel contact phase of the gait cycle. This could be due to the outcome of higher hamstring activation rate in younger adults in comparison to older adults. However, lower friction demand (peak RCOF), shorter slip distances, slower peak sliding heel velocity and more falls among older adults suggested that the slip initiation characteristics were not the only factors contributing to slip-induced falls among the elderly. PMID:16112575

  13. Conservative Treatment of Subacute Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy Using Eccentric Exercises Performed With a Treadmill: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    CUSHMAN, DANIEL; RHO, MONICA E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND Proximal hamstring tendinopathy in runners is characterized by pain with passive hip flexion with the knee extended, active hip extension, and pain with sitting. Relatively little literature exists on the condition, and publications on nonsurgical treatment protocols are even more scarce. Surgical intervention, which comprises the majority of literature for treatment of this condition, is an option for cases that fail to respond to nonsurgical treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION The patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy male triathlete with unilateral proximal hamstring tendinopathy diagnosed by ultrasound, who had pain only with running and prolonged sitting. After he failed to respond to 4 weeks of eccentric knee flexion and lumbopelvic musculature strengthening exercises, an eccentric hip extensor strengthening program using a treadmill was initiated. This treadmill exercise was performed on a daily basis, in addition to a lumbopelvic musculature strengthening program. OUTCOMES The patient noted a decrease in pain within 2 weeks of initiating the new exercise, and was able to return to gradual running after 4 weeks and to speed training after 12 weeks. He returned to competition shortly thereafter and had no recurrence for 12 months after the initiation of therapy. His score on the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-proximal hamstring tendons improved from 23 on initial presentation to 83 at 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. DISCUSSION We described the management of a triathlete with subacute proximal hamstring tendinopathy, who responded well to nonsurgical treatment using eccentric hip extension strengthening using a treadmill. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 4. PMID:25996362

  14. Comparison of hamstring muscle behavior for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patient and normal subject during local marching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amineldin@Aminudin, Nurul Izzaty Bt.; Rambely, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the hamstring muscle activity after the surgery by carrying out an electromyography experiment on the hamstring and to compare the behavior of the ACL muscle activity between ACL patient and control subject. Electromyography (EMG) is used to study the behavior of muscles during walking activity. Two hamstring muscles involved which are semitendinosus and bicep femoris. The EMG data for both muscles were recorded while the subject did maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and marching. The study concluded that there were similarities between bicep femoris of the ACL and control subjects. The analysis showed that the biceps femoris muscle of the ACL subject had no abnormality and the pattern is as normal as the control subject. However, ACL patient has poor semitendinosus muscle strength compared to that of control subject because the differences of the forces produced. The force of semitendinosus value for control subject was two times greater than that of the ACL subject as the right semitendinosus muscle of ACL subject was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that was injured.

  15. Injury Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for scientific studies. Amusement Rides March 09, 2015 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with Inflatable Amusements, 2003–2013 July 10, 2009 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with ...

  16. Acute traumatic injuries in automotive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Warner, M; Baker, S P; Li, G; Smith, G S

    1998-10-01

    Motor vehicle manufacturing, with its varied tasks, challenging work environment, and diverse worker populations, presents many hazards to employees. This study examined routinely collected surveillance data from a major motor vehicle manufacturer to identify injury types, high-risk workers, causes of injury, and factors associated with work loss. Injury and personnel data were used to calculate injury rates. Injury data were from the routinely collected medical and safety surveillance system on occupational injuries. The number of persons working in the plants was estimated using year-end personnel reports. Key word searches supplementing the analyses provided insight into the specific circumstances of injury. The most common injuries were sprains/strains (39% of the total), lacerations (22%), and contusions (15%). Forty-nine percent of the injuries resulted in one or more lost or restricted workdays; 25% resulted in 7 or more lost or restricted workdays. The injuries most likely to result in work loss were amputations, hernias and fractures. Sprains/strains accounted for 65% of all lost workdays. Injury rates ranged from 13.8 per 100 person-years at stamping plants to 28.7 at parts depots. Even within similar types of plants, injury rates varied widely, with a twofold difference among the individual assembly plants in overall injury rates. Injury surveillance systems with descriptive data on injury events shed light on the circumstances under which certain types of injuries occur and can provide the basis for preventive interventions. Sources of variation and potential biases are discussed, providing guidance for those interested in designing and using surveillance systems for occupational injuries. PMID:9750941

  17. Autologous Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Failure Using the Anteromedial Portal Technique With Suspensory Femoral Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Galdi, Balazs; Reyes, Allan; Brabston, Eugene W.; Levine, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anteromedial portal technique for drilling of the femoral tunnel during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been advocated by many surgeons as allowing improved access to the anatomical footprint. Furthermore, suspensory fixation of soft tissue grafts has become popularized because of complications associated with cross-pin fixation. Concerns regarding the use of both have recently arisen. Purpose: To raise awareness of the increased risk of graft failure when using the anteromedial portal technique with suspensory femoral fixation during ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From November 1998 to August 2012, a total of 465 primary ACL reconstructions were performed using quadrupled hamstring autograft tendons, with drilling of the femoral tunnel performed via the transtibial portal. Graft fixation on the femur was achieved with cross-pin fixation, while interference screw fixation was used on the tibia. From September 2012 to October 2013, there were 69 reconstructions performed through an anteromedial portal. While there was no change in graft choice, a change was made to using suspensory femoral fixation. No other surgical or postoperative rehabilitation changes were made. Results: During the 14-year period in which ACL reconstructions were performed via the transtibial portal and with cross-pin fixation, 2 graft failures (0.4% failure rate) were reported. After switching to the anteromedial portal with suspensory fixation, 7 graft failures (10.1% failure rate) were reported over a 13-month period. These were 5 male and 2 female patients, with a mean age of 18.8 years—all elite athletes. The same surgical technique was used in all patients, and all patients had at least an 8 mm–diameter graft. Patients were cleared to return to sport at an average of 8.4 months postoperatively, after completing functional performance tests. Of the 7 patients, 6 sustained a rerupture of the graft within 2 weeks of returning to full competition. The final patient sustained a rerupture 10 months after being cleared to play. Conclusion: Compared with the transtibial technique with cross-pin graft fixation, there is an increased risk of graft failure when performing autologous hamstring ACL reconstructions using the anteromedial portal technique with cortical suspensory fixation. PMID:26535370

  18. Cheerleading injuries: epidemiology and recommendations for prevention.

    PubMed

    LaBella, Cynthia R; Mjaanes, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention. PMID:23090348

  19. Feet injuries in rock climbers

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

  20. Differences in activation properties of the hamstring muscles during overground sprinting.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Ayako; Nagano, Yasuharu; Ono, Takashi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify activation of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) during overground sprinting. Lower-extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) of the BF and MH were recorded in 13 male sprinters performing overground sprinting at maximum effort. Mean EMG activity was calculated in the early stance, late stance, mid-swing, and late-swing phases. Activation of the BF was significantly greater during the early stance phase than the late stance phase (p<0.01). Activation of the BF muscle was significantly lower during the first half of the mid-swing phase than the other phases (p<0.05). The MH had significantly greater EMG activation relative to its recorded maximum values compared to that for the BF during the late stance (p<0.05) and mid-swing (p<0.01) phases. These results indicate that the BF shows high activation before and after foot contact, while the MH shows high activation during the late stance and mid-swing phases. We concluded that the activation properties of the BF and MH muscles differ within the sprinting gait cycle. PMID:26213185

  1. Safety Alert Overuse Injuries Number 15-04

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    , wrists and elbows and is also known as repetitive strain injury or RSI. It is caused by repetitive movements or awkward postures. Overuse injuries generally occur from: Repetition - Repeated motionsSafety Alert ­ Overuse Injuries Number 15-04 1 BACKGROUND So far in 2015 five University staff have

  2. Tibial Fixation Properties of a Continuous-Loop ACL Hamstring Graft Construct with Suspensory Fixation in Porcine Bone.

    PubMed

    Smith, Patrick A; DeBerardino, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is to compare tibial fixation strength of suspensory fixation for a quadrupled semitendinosus continuous loop all-inside anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) construct versus a doubled semitendinosus and gracilis graft fixated with an interference screw. Biomechanical testing was conducted using human hamstring allografts and porcine tibias. Constructs were cycled from 50 to 250?N for 500 cycles followed by a pull to failure. The average load to failure of tibial suspensory fixation of the all-inside continuous loop construct (1,012 N) was statistically different compared with the tibial interference screw group (612 N) (p?hamstring graft provided suitable strength for tibial fixation for ACL reconstruction. The continuous loop construct had a significantly higher load to failure compared with the use of an interference screw, and cyclic loading was comparable. Use of hamstring soft tissue grafts is very common for ACL reconstruction. An all-inside ACL reconstruction is based on a continuous loop construct utilizing a single semitendinosus graft that is quadrupled employing suspensory fixation on both the femoral and tibial side. Suspensory fixation on the femoral side been previously reported, but this is the first report of strength of this method of suspensory fixation on the tibia. PMID:25347056

  3. Influence of Hamstring Fatigue on the Estimated Percentage of Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers for the Vastus Lateralis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jacob A; Stock, Matt S; Carrillo, Elias C; Olinghouse, Kendra D; Drusch, Alexander S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-12-01

    Mota, JA, Stock, MS, Carrillo, EC, Olinghouse, KD, Drusch, AS, and Thompson, BJ. Influence of hamstring fatigue on the estimated percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers for the vastus lateralis. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3509-3516, 2015-A previous study has demonstrated the ability to roughly estimate the percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers for the vastus lateralis through the analysis of peak torque values during fatiguing isokinetic testing. We examined whether use of the hamstrings influenced peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses for the quadriceps during fatiguing isokinetic muscle actions. On 2 separate occasions, 21 men (mean age = 23 years) performed 50 repeated, maximal concentric isokinetic muscle actions of the left leg extensors at a velocity of 180°·s. For 1 trial, the subjects maximally flexed the knee joint after each full extension to bring the dynamometer's lever arm back to the starting position. For the other trial, the subjects relaxed after each maximal extension and an investigator assisted in returning the lever arm. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris throughout testing. Dependent variables that assessed the decline in peak torque and EMG mean frequency for the vastus lateralis were examined using dependent samples t-tests, effect size statistics, and the number of subjects who exceeded the minimal difference needed to be considered real. Our results showed small mean differences between the trials (Cohen's d ?0.136). For the estimated percentage of fast-twitch fibers, none of the subjects showed a difference between trials that we considered meaningful. The mean estimated percentages of fast-twitch fibers were 61.6 and 60.1. Collectively, use of the hamstrings during fatiguing isokinetic testing of the quadriceps had little influence on peak torque and EMG. PMID:26219026

  4. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  5. Volleyball injuries.

    PubMed

    Eerkes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the numbers of people playing indoor and beach volleyball since the early 1980s and, consequently, an increase in injuries. Most injuries are related to repetitive jumping and hitting the ball overhead. The ankle is the most commonly injured joint, but the knee, shoulder, low back, and fingers also are vulnerable. The shoulder in particular is subject to extreme torque when hitting and jump serving the ball. Some injuries have a predilection for those playing on sand versus those playing in an indoor court. The clinician caring for volleyball players should be aware of the types of injuries these players sustain and how to help them return to play promptly and appropriately. This article reviews the specific injuries that are most common as a result of participating in the sport of volleyball. PMID:22965348

  6. Fatigue and rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Greco, Camila C; da Silva, Wendell L; Camarda, Sérgio R A; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue induced by an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise on different hamstrings/quadriceps (H:Q) ratios of soccer players. Twenty-two male professional soccer players (23·1 ± 3·4 year) performed maximal eccentric (ecc) and concentric (con) contractions for knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60° s(-1) and 180° s(-1) to assess conventional (H(con) :Q(con)) and functional (H(ecc) :Q(con)) ratios. Additionally, they performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction for KE and KF, from which the maximal muscle strength, rate of force development (RFD) and RFD H:Q strength ratio (RFDH:Q) were extracted. Thereafter, subjects were performed an exhaustive laboratory-based soccer-specific exercise and a posttest similar to the pretest. There was significant reduction in H(con) :Q(con) (0·60 ± 0·06 versus 0·58 ± 0·06, P<0·05) and in H(ecc) :Q(con) (1·29 ± 0·2 versus 1·16 ± 0·2, P<0·01) after the soccer-specific exercise. However, no significant difference between Pre and Post exercise conditions was found for RFDH:Q at 0-50 (0·53 ± 0·23 versus 0·57 ± 0·24, P>0·05) and 0-100 ms (0·53 ± 0·17 versus 0·55 ± 0·17, P>0·05). In conclusion, H:Q strength ratios based on peak force values are more affected by fatigue than RFDH:Q obtained during early contraction phase. Thus, fatigue induced by soccer-specific intermittent protocol seems not reduce the potential for knee joint stabilization during the initial phase of voluntary muscle contraction. PMID:23216761

  7. Muscle Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delos, Demetris; Maak, Travis G.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Muscle injuries are extremely common in athletes and often produce pain, dysfunction, and the inability to return to practice or competition. Appropriate diagnosis and management can optimize recovery and minimize time to return to play. Evidence Acquisition: Contemporary papers, both basic science and clinical medicine, that investigate muscle healing were reviewed. A Medline/PubMed search inclusive of years 1948 to 2012 was performed. Results: Diagnosis can usually be made according to history and physical examination for most injuries. Although data are limited, initial conservative management emphasizing the RICE principles and immobilization of the extremity for several days for higher grade injuries are typically all that is required. Injection of corticosteroids may clinically enhance function after an acute muscle strain. Additional adjunctive treatments (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, platelet-rich plasma, and others) to enhance muscle healing and limit scar formation show promise but need additional data to better define their roles. Conclusion: Conservative treatment recommendations will typically lead to successful outcomes after a muscle injury. There is limited evidence to support most adjunctive treatments. PMID:24459552

  8. Birth Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cesarean delivery may be done in certain circumstances. Did You Know... Serious birth injuries are now quite ... not needed. Resources In This Article Table 1 Did You Know... Table 2 Common Birthmarks and Minor ...

  9. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... devastating types of trauma resulting from exposure to fire and smoke. PREVENT you and your loved ones! ... people die annually in the United States from fire injuries. • Over half of these deaths result from ...

  10. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Training & Events Research Current DVBIC Studies DVBIC Publications Concussion Literature Information Papers Study Manuals DVBIC Locations Service ... who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion recover completely with little or no intervention. After ...

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as a computerized tomography (CT) or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, are needed to find out more ... injuries don't cause permanent damage. What about memory loss? It's common for someone who's had a ...

  12. Corneal injury

    MedlinePLUS

    You will need to have a complete eye test. The health care provider may use eye drops called fluorescein dye to help look for injuries. Tests may include: Standard ophthalmic exam Slit lamp examination

  13. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  14. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  15. Tunnel Enlargement and Coalition After Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Hamstring Tendon Autografts

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Onodera, Jun; Kitamura, Nobuto; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Yagi, Tomonori; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tunnel enlargement and coalition following double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts has not yet been sufficiently studied. Hypothesis: The incidence and the degree of femoral tunnel enlargement will be significantly greater than those for tibial tunnel enlargement after anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendon autografts. There will be no significant correlation between tunnel enlargement and coalition and the postoperative knee laxity. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Thirty-nine patients who underwent anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendon autografts were followed up for 1 year after surgery. The grafts were simultaneously fixed at 10° of knee flexion with EndoButtons and spiked staples. All patients were examined with computed tomography and the standard clinical evaluation methods at 2 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Results: The degree of tunnel enlargement of the femoral anteromedial and posterolateral tunnels averaged 10% to 11% and 7% to 9%, respectively, while that of the tibial anteromedial and posterolateral tunnels averaged 3% to 7% and 1% to 6%. The degree and incidence of the anteromedial and posterolateral tunnel enlargement were significantly greater in the femur than in the tibia (P < .0335 and P < .0405, respectively). On the femoral and tibial intra-articular surface, tunnel outlet coalition was found in 5% and 77% of the knees, respectively, at 1 year after surgery. There was no significant correlation between tunnel enlargement and coalition and the clinical outcome. Conclusion: The incidence and the degree of each tunnel enlargement in the femur were significantly greater than that in the tibia. However, the incidence of tunnel coalition in the femur was significantly less than that in the tibia after double-bundle ACL reconstruction with a transtibial technique. There was no significant correlation between tunnel enlargement and coalition and the clinical outcome. Clinical Relevance: The present study provides orthopaedic surgeons with important information on double-bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons. PMID:26535227

  16. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood vessels in the feet, is observed in shipwreck survivors or in soldiers whose feet have been wet, but not freezing, for long periods. Patients with frostbite frequently present with multisystem injuries (e.g., systemic hypothermia, blunt trauma, substance abuse). The freezing of the corneas has been reported to occur in individuals who keep their eyes open in high wind-chill situations without protective goggles (e.g., snowmobilers, cross-country skiers). PMID:15715518

  17. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  18. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  19. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Repetitive Stress ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Spinal Cord Injury Information Page Condensed from Spinal Cord Injury: ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Spinal Cord Injury? A spinal cord injury usually begins with ...

  1. The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of preseason injuries

    PubMed Central

    Woods, C; Hawkins, R; Hulse, M; Hodson, A; Andersen, T; Bahr, R

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a detailed analysis of preseason football injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons. Methods: Club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs annotated player injuries. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each club's current injury status. Results: 17% (1025) of the total number of injuries over the two seasons were sustained during the preseason, the mean number of days absent per injury was 22.3 days. Younger age groups (17–25 yrs) were more likely to sustain a preseason injury than more experienced players (26–35+) (p<0.01). There were relatively more "slight" and "minor" injuries (as defined in the methodology), overuse, and tendon related injuries sustained during preseason compared to the in season (p<0.01). The thigh (23%), knee (17%), and ankle (17%) were the most common locations for injuries during the preseason, there was a relatively greater number of lower leg injuries (15%) during the preseason (p<0.05). Achilles tendonitis was most prevalent in the preseason, with 33% of all Achilles related injuries sustained during this period (p<0.01). Muscle strains were the most common injury during preseason (37%). Rectus femoris muscle strains were observed twice as frequently during the preseason relative to the in season (p<0.01). Ligament sprains were the second most common injury during preseason (19%). Non-contact mechanisms were the cause of significantly more injuries during the preseason (p<0.01), with relatively more preseason injuries sustained while running or shooting (p<0.01). For 70% of the injuries reported during the preseason, the ground condition was described as dry. Conclusions: Players are at a greater risk of slight and minor injuries, overuse injuries, lower leg injuries (especially the Achilles tendon) and rectus femoris strains during the preseason period. Prevention of preseason injury is important to ensure availability of players for the commencement of the season and to decrease the risk of injury later in the season, we recommend the implementation of a risk management policy for this purpose. Areas requiring further investigation include methods of prevention for the common preseason injuries that have been identified, a detailed analysis of preseason and closed season training programmes, and a smaller study involving exposure data. PMID:12453838

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with CVD susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic CVD will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...

  3. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pain along the shin bone Rotator cuff injuries Fractures Dislocations If you get hurt, stop playing. Continuing to play or exercise can cause more harm. Treatment often begins with the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) method to relieve pain, reduce swelling, ...

  4. Pathophysiology of Acute Exercise-Induced Muscular Injury: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    Acute muscular injury is the most common injury affecting athletes and those participating in exercise. Nearly everyone has experienced soreness after unaccustomed or intense exercise. Clinically, acute strains and delayed-onset muscle soreness are very similar. The purpose of this paper is to review the predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, structural changes, and biochemical changes associated with these injuries. Laboratory and clinical findings are discussed to help athletic trainers differentiate between the two conditions and to provide a background knowledge for evaluation, prevention, and treatment of exercise-induced muscular injury. PMID:16558305

  5. Weight training injuries: part 1: diagnosing and managing acute conditions.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R K; Laskowski, E R; Smith, J

    1998-02-01

    When patients present with acute weight training injuries, familiarity with the demands of the activity can help physicians get the most out of the patient history. Probable risk factors for injury include errors in technique (described in a sidebar), skeletal immaturity, and anabolic steroid abuse. Common acute injuries in weight training include sprains, strains, tendon avulsions, and compartment syndrome. Possible nonmusculoskeletal problems include retinal hemorrhage, radiculopathy, and various cardiovascular complications. Treatment of acute musculoskeletal injuries varies, but usually includes sports medicine mainstays such as prompt RICE. Chronic weight training injuries will be described in part 2 of this series. PMID:20086781

  6. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests as a measure of hamstring extensibility in athletes.

    PubMed

    Muyor, José M; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine and compare the concurrent hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests in different athletes (tennis players, kayakers, canoeists, and cyclists); (b) to determine the criterion-related validity of the pelvic tilt assessed by the Spinal Mouse system as a measure of hamstring flexibility in athletes; and (c) to evaluate the influence of spinal posture, pelvic tilt, and hamstring muscle flexibility in the SR and TT scores. Twenty-four tennis players, 30 canoeists, 43 kayakers, and 44 cyclists were recruited. Passive straight leg raise (PSLR), SR, and TT tests were randomly performed. Spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system when the maximal trunk flexion was achieved in the SR and TT tests. Tennis players and cyclists showed moderate correlations between PSLR with respect to SR (? = 0.78 and ? = 0.76, respectively) and TT (? = 0.77 and ? = 0.74, respectively). Correlations were slightly lower in canoeists (SR, ? = 0.64; TT, ? = 0.75). Kayakers showed the lowest correlation values (SR, ? = 0.53; TT, ? = 0.57). Correlation values between PSLR and pelvic tilt angle in both the SR and TT tests were ? < 0.70 in all the groups of athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed a high variance explained from pelvic tilt and lumbar spine in the SR score. In conclusion, the SR and TT tests can be appropriate measures to determine spine flexibility and pelvic tilt range of motion but not to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in tennis players, canoeists, kayakers, and cyclists. PMID:24476746

  7. Residual Impact of Previous Injury on Musculoskeletal Characteristics in Special Forces Operators

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Jeffrey J.; Clark, Nicholas C.; Abt, John P.; Kresta, Julie Y.; Keenan, Karen A.; Kane, Shawn F.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal injuries are a significant burden to United States Army Special Operations Forces. The advanced tactical skill level and physical training required of Army Special Operators highlights the need to optimize musculoskeletal characteristics to reduce the likelihood of suffering a recurrent injury. Purpose To identify the residual impact of previous injury on musculoskeletal characteristics. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Isokinetic strength of the knee, shoulder, and back and flexibility of the shoulder and hamstrings were assessed as part of a comprehensive human performance protocol, and self-reported musculoskeletal injury history was obtained. Subjects were stratified based on previous history of low back, knee, or shoulder injury, and within-group and between-group comparisons were made for musculoskeletal variables. Results Knee injury analysis showed no significant strength or flexibility differences. Shoulder injury analysis found internal rotation strength of the healthy subjects (H) was significantly higher compared with injured (I) and uninjured (U) limbs of the injured group (H, 60.8 ± 11.5 percent body weight [%BW]; I, 54.5 ± 10.5 %BW; U, 55.5 ± 11.3 %BW) (P = .014 [H vs I] and P = .05 [H vs U]). The external rotation/internal rotation strength ratio was significantly lower in the healthy subjects compared with injured and uninjured limbs of the injured group (H, 0.653 ± 0.122; I, 0.724 ± 0.121; U, 0.724 ± 0.124) (P = .026 [H vs I] and P = .018 [H vs U]). Posterior shoulder tightness was significantly different between the injured and uninjured limb of the injured group (I, 111.6° ± 9.4°; U, 114.4° ± 9.3°; P = .008). The back injury analysis found no significant strength differences between the healthy and injured groups. Conclusion Few physical differences existed between operators with prior knee or back injury. However, operators with a previous history of shoulder injury demonstrated significantly less shoulder strength than uninjured operators as well as decreased shoulder flexibility on the injured side. All operators, regardless of prior injury, must perform the same tasks; therefore, a targeted injury rehabilitation/human performance training specifically focused on internal rotation strength and tightness of the posterior capsule may help reduce the risk for recurrence of injury. Operators presenting with musculoskeletal asymmetries and/or insufficient strength ratios may be predisposed to musculoskeletal injury. Clinical Relevance Specific fitness programs to compensate for deficiencies in strength and flexibility need to be designed that may reduce the risk of injuries in Special Forces Operators.

  8. Isokinetic dynamometer evaluation of the effects of early thigh diameter difference on thigh muscle strength in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft

    PubMed Central

    K?l?nç, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Camur, Savas; Oc, Yunus; Celik, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, which muscle groups are more affected from frequently developing thigh muscle atrophy is a matter of debate. We evaluate the effect of thigh circumference difference between patients’ knees who were administered the ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and intact knees, on torque between the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. Fifty-five patients at least 6 months follow-up period available were included in our study. Power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups in patients’ extremities were done by using isokinetic dynamometer. The maximum torque values at 60°/sec, 240°/sec in frequency, positions of flexion and extension were determined. In accordance with our findings it is still possible to encounter the thigh atrophy in average 28 months after ACL reconstruction surgery even under physical rehabilitation programs and appropriate follow-up. It is inevitable for the clinician to consider these changes in diagnosis and rehabilitation stages. It can’t be ignored that muscle weakness mechanisms developing in the thigh circumference vary according to the thigh muscle group and knee flexors play an important role in thigh atrophy when determining an appropriate rehabilitation program after reconstruction application. PMID:25960982

  9. Neurologic running injuries.

    PubMed

    McKean, Kelly A

    2009-02-01

    Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:19084775

  10. Greater fear of re-injury and increased tibial translation in patients who later sustain an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare fear of re-injury, patient reported function, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength assessed before and 5 weeks after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction between individuals who sustained a subsequent ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL injury within 5 years after the reconstruction, and individuals with no subsequent injury. Nineteen patients were investigated before, and 5 weeks after an ACL reconstruction with a quadruple hamstring tendon graft. At 5 years follow up, 3 patients had sustained an ACL graft rupture and 2 patients had sustained a contralateral ACL rupture. Fear of re-injury, confidence with the knee, patient reported function, activity level, static and dynamic tibial translation and muscle strength were assessed. The re-injured group reported greater fear of re-injury and had greater static tibial translation in both knees before the ACL reconstruction compared to those who did not sustain another ACL injury. There were no other differences between groups. In conclusion, fear of re-injury and static tibial translation before the index ACL reconstruction were greater in patients who later on suffered an ACL graft rupture or a contralateral ACL rupture. These factors may predict a subsequent ACL injury. PMID:25894209

  11. Extravasation injuries.

    PubMed

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended. PMID:8461914

  12. Return to Play After Soleus Muscle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pedret, Carles; Rodas, Gil; Balius, Ramon; Capdevila, Lluis; Bossy, Mireia; Vernooij, Robin W.M.; Alomar, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Soleus muscle injuries are common in different sports disciplines. The time required for recovery is often difficult to predict, and reinjury is common. The length of recovery time might be influenced by different variables, such as the involved part of the muscle. Hypothesis Injuries in the central aponeurosis have a worse prognosis than injuries of the lateral or medial aponeurosis as well as myofascial injuries. Study Design Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A total of 61 high-level or professional athletes from several sports disciplines (soccer, tennis, track and field, basketball, triathlon, and field hockey) were reviewed prospectively to determine the recovery time for soleus muscle injuries. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation was performed on 44 soleus muscle injuries. The association between the different characteristics of the 5 typical muscle sites, including the anterior and posterior myofascial and the lateral, central, and medial aponeurosis disruption, as well as the injury recovery time, were determined. Recovery time was correlated with age, sport, extent of edema, volume, cross-sectional area, and retraction extension or gap. Results Of the 44 patients with muscle injuries who were analyzed, there were 32 (72.7%) strains affecting the myotendinous junction (MT) and 12 (23.7%) strains of the myofascial junction. There were 13 injuries involving the myotendinous medial (MTM), 7 affecting the MT central (MTC), 12 the MT lateral (MTL), 8 the myofascial anterior (MFA), and 4 the myofascial posterior (MFP). The median recovery time (±SD) for all injuries was 29.1 ± 18.8 days. There were no statistically significant differences between the myotendinous and myofascial injuries regarding recovery time. The site with the worst prognosis was the MTC aponeurosis, with a mean recovery time of 44.3 ± 23.0 days. The site with the best prognosis was the MTL, with a mean recovery time of 19.2 ± 13.5 days (P < .05). There was a statistically significant correlation between recovery time and age (P < .001) and between recovery time and the extent of retraction (P < .05). Conclusion Wide variation exists among the different types of soleus injuries and the corresponding recovery time for return to the same level of competitive sports. Injuries in the central aponeurosis have a significantly longer recovery time than do injuries in the lateral and medial aponeurosis and myofascial sites. PMID:26674181

  13. Upper extremity injuries associated with strength training.

    PubMed

    Haupt, H A

    2001-07-01

    Most injuries sustained during strength training are mild strains that resolve with appropriate rest. More severe injuries include traumatic shoulder dislocations, tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major, biceps, and triceps; stress fractures of the distal clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna; traumatic fractures of the distal radius and ulna in adolescent weightlifters; and compressive and stretch neuropathies. These more severe injuries are usually the result of improperly performing a strength training exercise. Educating athletes regarding proper strength-training techniques serves to reverse established injury patterns and to prevent these injuries in the first place. Recognizing the association of anabolic steroid use to several of the injury patterns further reinforces the need for medical specialists to counsel athletes against their use. With the increasing use of supplements such as creatine, the incidence and nature of strength-training injuries may change further. Greater emphasis on the competitive performance of younger athletes undoubtedly will generate enthusiasm for strength training at earlier ages in both sexes. The importance of proper supervision of these young athletes by knowledgeable persons will increase. As the popularity of strength training grows, there will be ample opportunity to continue to catalog the injury patterns associated with this activity. PMID:11494836

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page Clinical Trials Phase 2 Pediatric ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Traumatic Brain Injury? Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a form of ...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  17. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You usually injure your ACL by a sudden twisting motion. ACL and other knee injuries are common sports injuries. Treatment of knee problems depends on the cause. In ...

  18. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is ... stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What ...

  20. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in News and Social Media Heads Up to Concussion Injury Center Topics Saving Lives & Protecting People Home & Recreational Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Communications Press Room ...

  2. Injury & Illness Prevention Program

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    Injury & Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) Manual Henry Samueli School of Engineering & Applied Bioengineering IIPP i April 2015 Injury & Illness Prevention Program Henry Samueli School of Engineering ............................................................5-1 Section 6: Incident, Injury & Illness Reporting and Investigations

  3. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what part of the spinal cord is damaged, as ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ...

  5. The effects of postseason break on knee biomechanics and lower extremity EMG in a stop-jump task: implications for ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Dai, Boyi; Sorensen, Christopher J; Derrick, Timothy R; Gillette, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    The effects of training on biomechanical risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have been investigated, but the effects of detraining have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a one-month postseason break on knee biomechanics and lower extremity electromyography (EMG) during a stop-jump task. A postseason break is the phase between two seasons when no regular training routines are performed. Twelve NCAA female volleyball players participated in two stop-jump tests before and after the postseason break. Knee kinematics, kinetics, quadriceps EMG, and hamstring EMG were assessed. After one month of postseason break, the players demonstrated significantly decreased jump height, decreased initial knee flexion angle, decreased knee flexion angle at peak anterior tibial resultant force, decreased prelanding vastus lateralis EMG, and decreased prelanding biceps femoris EMG as compared with prebreak. No significant differences were observed for frontal plane biomechanics and quadriceps and hamstring landing EMG between prebreak and postbreak. Although it is still unknown whether internal ACL loading changes after a postseason break, the more extended knee movement pattern may present an increased risk factor for ACL injuries. PMID:22695082

  6. Applying Cross-Pin System in Both Femoral and Tibial Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei; Liu, Yujie; Xue, Jing; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Junliang; Qu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Use of the RigidFix Cross Pin System (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) is a popular technique for femoral fixation of grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, tibial fixation is still limited to the use of interference screws and post fixation, and few surgeons apply the femoral RigidFix system in tibial fixation. Meanwhile, tunnel enlargement is still a problem that affects the outcome of ACLR with hamstring grafts. We have used the femoral RigidFix system in femoral and tibial fixation. The rod top of the guide frame should be placed under the level of the subchondral bone at the proximal end of the tibial tunnel to ensure that the pins will not be inserted into the joint. The pins are inserted through the center of the lateral tibia. Using our technique, the fixation points of the femur and tibia are close to the anterior cruciate ligament insertions, and full contact of the graft with the tunnel wall can be accomplished. On the basis of our preliminary observations and investigation, we are optimistic about the prospect of performing ACLR using the RigidFix system in femoral and tibial fixation. PMID:26697293

  7. Football injuries during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Astrid; Dvo?ák, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Background FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of match injuries incurred during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in comparison to previous FIFA World Cups. Methods The chief physicians of the participating teams reported all newly incurred injuries of their players after the match on a standardised report form. 124 (97%) forms were returned. Results A total of 104 injuries were reported, equivalent to an incidence of 1.68 injuries per match (95% CI 1.36 to 2.00). 64 (63.4%) injuries were caused by contact with another player. Thigh (26; 25%) and head (19; 18%) were the most frequently injured body parts. The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (n=18). Five concussions and three fractures to the head were reported. While most thigh strains (15/17; 88.2%) occurred without contact, almost all head injuries (18/19; 94.7%) were caused by contact. 0.97 injuries per match (95% CI 0.72 to 1.22) were expected to result in absence from training or match. Eight injuries were classified as severe. The incidence of match injuries in the 2014 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than the average of the four preceding FIFA World Cups, both for all injuries (2.34; 95% CI 2.15 to 2.53) and time-loss injuries (1.51; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.65). Conclusions The overall incidence of injury during the FIFA World Cups decreased from 2002 to 2014 by 37%. A detailed analysis of the injury mechanism is recommended to further improve prevention strategies. PMID:25878077

  8. Number 15-05 Safety Alert Manual Handling Injuries

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    Number 15-05 Safety Alert ­ Manual Handling Injuries 1 BACKGROUND There have been 25 reports people straining backs and limbs due to incorrect technique, trying to lift heavy items, or overworking from strained muscles and / or ligaments Inability to perform certain tasks Difficulty in maintaining

  9. Injury and Treatment Characteristics of Sport-Specific Injuries Sustained in Interscholastic Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Snyder Valier, Alison R.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of clinical practice factors, beyond epidemiologic data, may help guide medical coverage and care decisions. Hypothesis: Trends in injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained by secondary school athletes will differ based on sport. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of electronic patient records. Level of evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants consisted of 3302 boys and 2293 girls who were diagnosed with a sport-related injury or condition during the study years. Injury (sport, body part, diagnosis via ICD-9 codes) and treatment (type, amount, and duration of care) characteristics were grouped by sport and reported using summary statistics. Results: Most injuries and treatments occurred in football, girls’ soccer, basketball, volleyball, and track and field. Sprain or strain of the ankle, knee, and thigh/hip/groin and concussion were the most commonly documented injuries across sports. The injury pattern for boys’ wrestling differed from other sports and included sprain or strain of the elbow and neck and general medical skin conditions. The most frequently reported service was athletic training evaluation/reevaluation treatment, followed by hot/cold pack, therapeutic exercise, manual therapy techniques, electrical stimulation, and strapping of lower extremity joints. Most sports required 4 to 5 services per injury. With the exception of boys’ soccer and girls’ softball, duration of care ranged from 10 to 14 days. Girls’ soccer and girls’ and boys’ track and field reported the longest durations of care. Conclusion: Injury and treatment characteristics are generally comparable across sports, suggesting that secondary school athletic trainers may diagnose and treat similar injuries regardless of sport. Clinical Relevance: Subtle sport trends, including skin conditions associated with boys’ wrestling and longer duration of care for girls’ soccer, are important to note when discussing appropriate medical coverage and care. PMID:25553215

  10. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training. PMID:24937101

  11. Martial arts injuries. The results of a five year national survey.

    PubMed

    Birrer, R B; Halbrook, S P

    1988-01-01

    A 5 year national survey of martial arts was done using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Seventy-four percent of the injuries involved the extremities and 95% were mild to moderate in nature. Even though most of the injury types were contusions/abrasions (36%). lacerations (14%), and sprains/strains (28%), 15% were dislocations and fractures. Five percent of all injuries were severe, and there were 18 hospitalizations. There were no deaths. Weapon-related injuries were rare and never serious. Overall, the risk of serious injury in the sport was found to be low, especially when compared to other contact sports. PMID:3189668

  12. Ice Hockey Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Franklin H.; Simonet, William T.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the mechanisms, management, and prevention of each type of injury to which hockey players are prone. It surveys the injuries sustained by ice hockey players and discusses treatment of specific injuries, including those injuries to the head, eye, shoulder, hand, thigh, scalp, and face. (JL)

  13. Assessment of injuries sustained in mixed martial arts competition.

    PubMed

    Scoggin, James F; Brusovanik, Georgiy; Pi, Michael; Izuka, Byron; Pang, Pierre; Tokumura, Seren; Scuderi, Gaetano

    2010-05-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) competitions have gained much popularity, and the sport is watched by many millions annually. Despite ongoing controversy, there have been no objective studies of the injuries sustained in MMA based on on-site evaluation. In the study reported in this article, we attempted to delineate injury patterns for MMA participants. We conducted an observational cohort study of MMA competitions held in Hawaii between 1999 and 2006. The study included 116 bouts, involving 232 "exposures" and 179 male participants between ages 18 and 40. All the fighters were examined by 1 of 4 physicians, both before and after each bout. Fighters were referred to an emergency department when necessary, and follow-up was recommended as needed. Among the 232 exposures were 55 injuries: 28 abrasions and lacerations (6 requiring on-site suturing or referral to an emergency department for suturing), 11 concussions (4 with retrograde amnesia), 5 facial injuries (2 nasal fractures, 1 tympanum rupture, 1 temporomandibular joint sprain, 1 Le Fort fracture), and 11 orthopedic injuries (3 metacarpal injuries, with 1 confirmed fracture; 1 acromioclavicular separation; 1 traumatic olecranon bursitis; 1 elbow subluxation; 1 midfoot sprain; 1 aggravation of elbow medial collateral ligament sprain; 1 elbow lateral collateral ligament strain; 1 trapezius strain; 1 Achilles tendon contusion). We describe the injuries sustained in MMA competition to make comparisons with other sports. We discuss distribution and mechanism of injuries as well as injury incidence based on on-site evaluation in MMA. PMID:20567743

  14. Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2007-04-27

    Data collected through a National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work) provide information on persons treated for nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses in U.S. hospital emergency departments (EDs). CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health uses these data to monitor injury trends and aid prevention activities. This report summarizes 2004 NEISS-Work injury and illness surveillance data. In 2004, an estimated 3.4 million nonfatal ED-treated injuries and illnesses occurred among workers of all ages, with a rate of 2.5 cases per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) workers aged > or =15 years. Workers aged <25 years had the highest injury/illness rates. More than three fourths of all nonfatal workplace injuries/illnesses were attributed to contact with objects or equipment (e.g., being struck by a falling tool or caught in machinery), bodily reaction or exertion (e.g., a sprain or strain), and falls. No substantial reduction was observed in the overall number and rate of ED-treated occupational injuries/illnesses during 1996-2004. To reduce occupational injuries/illnesses, interventions should continue to target workers at highest risk and reduce exposure to those workplace hazards with the greatest potential for causing severe injury or death. More emphasis should be placed on prevention-effectiveness studies and dissemination of successful interventions to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses. PMID:17464281

  15. A Possible Role for Integrin Signaling in Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kerscher, Lucas; Franck, Christian; Goss, Josue A.; Alford, Patrick W.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, investigators have attempted to establish the pathophysiological mechanisms by which non-penetrating injuries damage the brain. Several studies have implicated either membrane poration or ion channel dysfunction pursuant to neuronal cell death as the primary mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that traumatic stimulation of integrins may be an important etiological contributor to mild Traumatic Brain Injury. In order to study the effects of forces at the cellular level, we utilized two hierarchical, in vitro systems to mimic traumatic injury to rat cortical neurons: a high velocity stretcher and a magnetic tweezer system. In one system, we controlled focal adhesion formation in neurons cultured on a stretchable substrate loaded with an abrupt, one dimensional strain. With the second system, we used magnetic tweezers to directly simulate the abrupt injury forces endured by a focal adhesion on the neurite. Both systems revealed variations in the rate and nature of neuronal injury as a function of focal adhesion density and direct integrin stimulation without membrane poration. Pharmacological inhibition of calpains did not mitigate the injury yet the inhibition of Rho-kinase immediately after injury reduced axonal injury. These data suggest that integrin-mediated activation of Rho may be a contributor to the diffuse axonal injury reported in mild Traumatic Brain Injury. PMID:21799943

  16. Neuromuscular dysfunction that may predict ACL injury risk: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Natalie; McLean, Scott G; Fox, Aaron S; Otago, Leonie

    2014-06-01

    This case report examined the neuromuscular function of a competitive female netball player six days prior to an incident where she sustained an acute anterior cruciate ligament injury during normal sports activity. Electromyography was used to examine activation onsets of four lower limb muscles (rectus femoris, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings and gluteus medius) relative to initial contact (IC) during netball-specific landings of varying complexity. The results of the injured participant were compared to the remaining participants in the study (n=8), and the injured participant's injured limb was compared to the contralateral limb. The injured participant was the only player to record delayed pre-injury muscle onsets after IC for all muscles tested in the injured limb, while her non-injured limb was comparable to the other participants tested. Furthermore, delayed muscle onset after IC occurred more frequently as landing complexity increased. This case report suggests that delayed muscle activity onset after IC during landing may be an important risk factor for ACL injury. PMID:24529986

  17. Platelet-rich plasma for muscle injuries: game over or time out?

    PubMed

    Mosca, Michael J; Rodeo, Scott A

    2015-06-01

    Muscle injuries are common and may be associated with impaired functional capacity, especially among athletes. The results of healing with conventional therapy including rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) are often inadequate, generating substantial interest in the potential for emerging technologies such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to enhance the process of soft-tissue healing and to decrease time to recovery. In vitro studies and animal research have suggested that PRP may have benefits associated with the increased release of cytokines and growth factors resulting from supraphysiological concentrations of platelets that facilitate muscle repair, regeneration, and remodeling. Despite the promise of basic science, there is a paucity of clinical data to support the theoretical benefits of PRP. The only double-blind controlled clinical trial was recently reported and showed no benefit of PRP in the time to resume sports activity among athletes with hamstring muscle injury. This review examines the current evidence and the theoretical framework for PRP and muscle healing. Scientific gaps and technological barriers are discussed that must be addressed if the potential promise of PRP as a therapeutic modality for muscle injury is to be realized. PMID:25715983

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football: a prospective three-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort study was to describe ACL injury characteristics in teams from the Swedish men's and women's first leagues and from several European men's professional first leagues. Over a varying number of seasons from 2001 to 2009, 57 clubs (2,329 players) were followed prospectively and during this period 78 ACL injuries occurred (five partial). Mean age at ACL injury was lower in women compared to men (20.6 ± 2.2 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5 years, P = 0.0002). Using a Cox regression, the female-to-male hazard ratio (HR) was 2.6 (95% CI 1.4-4.6) in all three cohorts studied and 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3) in the Swedish cohorts; adjusted for age, the HR was reduced to 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.2) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.2), respectively. Match play was associated with a higher ACL injury risk with a match-to-training ratio of 20.8 (95% CI 12.4-34.8) and 45 ACL injuries (58%) occurred due to non-contact mechanisms. Hamstrings grafts were used more often in Sweden than in Europe (67 vs. 34%, P = 0.028), and there were no differences in time to return to play after ACL reconstruction between the cohorts or different grafts. In conclusion, this study showed that the ACL injury incidence in female elite footballers was more than doubled compared to their male counterparts, but also that they were significantly younger at ACL injury than males. These findings suggest that future preventive research primarily should address the young female football player. PMID:20532869

  19. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822

  20. Injury Profile in Women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005)

    PubMed Central

    Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries), type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4%) followed by the lower limb (21%), upper limb (12.9%) and trunk (10.8%). Punches (48. 4%) were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%). The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%), hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%), lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%), concussion (13, 7%), tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%), joint dislocation (3, 1.6%) and fractures (3, 1.6%). In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries. Key points 186 injuries were recorded during women competitions. Incidence rates of 0.163 injury per bout and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes were calculated. The injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck. Muscle strain and contusion, hematoma and epistaxis constitute the majority of injuries. PMID:24198704

  1. Sports injuries survey on university students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, K. M.; Fu, F.; Leung, L.

    1984-01-01

    A sports injuries survey was conducted among 1714 students of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The common sports involved in injuries were Soccer (26%), Basketball (18%), Cycling (11%), Track and field athletics (11%) and Swimming (10%). The lower limb usually took the brunt of the injuries (67%) followed by the upper limb (28%) and spinal injuries were relatively uncommon (3%). The majority of the injuries were mild to moderate and the commonest ones were abrasion (37%), contusion (21%), cramp (20%), sprains (9%), and strains (7%). Of the injuries 80% recovered in less than 10 days and 50% of them were self-treated. However, a significant group of more severe injuries was recorded: fracture, concussion and heat stroke which demanded special medical attention and longer period for recovery. The pattern of treatment was also unique in that traditional Chinese methods of treatment were sought more frequently than special orthopaedic advice. The preventive aspects of sports injuries was not well recognised with only 40% of the students regularly practising warm-up exercises, 18% stretching exercises and 4% using protective aids. More educational programmes and studies were indicated. The set up of a sports injury clinic is recommended with the utilisation of a sports injury reporting system. Images p195-a p195-b p195-c PMID:6487946

  2. Current and future concepts in helmet and sports injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Post, Andrew; Oeur, R Anna; Brien, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Since the introduction of head protection, a decrease in sports-related traumatic brain injuries has been reported. The incidence of concussive injury, however, has remained the same or on the rise. These trends suggest that current helmets and helmet standards are not effective in protecting against concussive injuries. This article presents a literature review that describes the discrepancy between how helmets are designed and tested and how concussions occur. Most helmet standards typically use a linear drop system and measure criterion such as head Injury criteria, Gadd Severity Index, and peak linear acceleration based on research involving severe traumatic brain injuries. Concussions in sports occur in a number of different ways that can be categorized into collision, falls, punches, and projectiles. Concussive injuries are linked to strains induced by rotational acceleration. Because helmet standards use a linear drop system simulating fall-type injury events, the majority of injury mechanisms are neglected. In response to the need for protection against concussion, helmet manufacturers have begun to innovate and design helmets using other injury criteria such as rotational acceleration and brain tissue distortion measures via finite-element analysis. In addition to these initiatives, research has been conducted to develop impact protocols that more closely reflect how concussions occur in sports. Future research involves a better understanding of how sports-related concussions occur and identifying variables that best describe them. These variables can be used to guide helmet innovation and helmet standards to improve the quality of helmet protection for concussive injury. PMID:25232879

  3. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01XE8  Common Strain Name: P190 BCR-ABL  Strain Nomenclature: B6;CBA-Tg(BCR/ABL)623Hkp/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Strain

  4. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury

    MedlinePLUS

    Cruciate ligament injury - posterior; PCL injury; Knee injury - posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); Hyperextended knee ... signs of PCL injury. This includes moving the knee joint in various ways. Your doctor may also ...

  5. The Relationships Among Sagittal-Plane Lower Extremity Moments: Implications for Landing Strategy in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shimokochi, Yohei; Yong Lee, Sae; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Excessive quadriceps contraction with insufficient hamstrings muscle cocontraction has been shown to be a possible contributing factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Assessing the relationships among lower extremity internal moments may provide some insight into avoiding muscle contraction patterns that increase ACL injury risk. Objective: To examine the relationships of knee-extensor moment with ankle plantar-flexor and hip-extensor moments and to examine the relationship between knee moment and center of pressure as a measure of neuromuscular response to center-of-mass position. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy, recreationally active women (age ?=? 22.3 ± 2.8 years, height ?=? 162.5 ± 8.1 cm, mass ?=? 57.8 ± 9.3 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed a single-leg landing from a 45-cm box onto a force plate. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated among the net peak knee-extensor moment (KEMpk), sagittal-plane ankle (AM) and hip (HM) net internal moments, and anterior-posterior center of pressure relative to foot center of mass at KEMpk (COP). Results: Lower KEMpk related to both greater AM (r ?=? ?0.942, P < .001) and HM (r ?=? ?0.657, P ?=? .003). We also found that more anterior displacement of COP was related to greater AM (r ?=? ?0.750, P < .001) and lower KEMpk (r ?=? 0.618, P ?=? .006). Conclusions: Our results suggest that participants who lean the whole body forward during landing may produce more plantar-flexor moment and less knee-extensor moment, possibly increasing hip-extensor moment and decreasing knee-extensor moment production. These results suggest that leaning forward may be a technique to decrease quadriceps contraction demand while increasing hamstrings cocontraction demand during a single-leg landing. PMID:19180216

  6. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 90% of these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed ... body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ...

  7. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  8. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually ...

  9. Injuries in Elite Men’s Lacrosse

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Mark; Davis, Caroline; Westacott, Daniel; Webb, Robin; Price, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on injuries sustained during men’s lacrosse. As the sport gains popularity, practitioners will be more likely to treat lacrosse players. Purpose: To analyze data from the 2010 World Lacrosse Championships. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of injuries reported during the 2010 World Lacrosse Championships. An injury surveillance questionnaire was completed, and data were categorized into body part injured, diagnosis, mechanism, and time of injury. Results: Over 9 days, 667 players from 29 countries competed in 105 games. A total of 150 injuries were sustained by 129 individuals aged 16 to 46 years. Five times more injuries occurred during games than in training (69.3% [n = 104] vs 13.3% [n = 20]; rate ratio [95% CI] = 5.2 [4.9-5.5]), resulting in 39.5 injuries per 1000 hours played. The most frequent mechanism was contact (53.3%; n = 80), including direct impact with another player (30%; n = 45), with a stick (16.7%; n = 25), or with a ball (5.3%; n = 8). Change of direction and/or speed were the most common noncontact mechanisms (27.3%; n = 41). The most frequently reported injuries were contusions (32.0%; n = 48), sprains (22.7%; n = 34), and strains (22.7%; n = 34). The lower limb was the most injured body part (50.7%; n = 76) compared with the upper limb (23.3%; n = 35; rate ratio [95% CI] = 2.2 [2.1-2.3]). The ankle was the most injured joint (14.0%; n = 21), followed by the shoulder (10.0%; n = 15). Conclusion: As participation expands, health professionals may become more responsible for treating lacrosse players. Players are susceptible to a range of injuries. Familiarity with the common injury patterns could help treatment and prevention. Despite differences in rules during international competition, this study corroborates reports from North America. Clinical Relevance: The epidemiology of men’s lacrosse injuries needs to be documented and understood to effectively prevent injuries. The 2014 World Championships are to be held in Denver, Colorado (July 10-19, 2014), and it is important that practitioners treating players are aware of the differences in the international game. Publication of these data will allow for those planning lacrosse tournaments to do so more effectively. PMID:26535349

  10. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sadowsky, Cristina L.; Hammond, Edward R.; Strohl, Adam B.; Commean, Paul K.; Eby, Sarah A.; Damiano, Diane L.; Wingert, Jason R.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; McDonald, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of long-term lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the physical integrity and functional recovery in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Retrospective cohort, mean follow-up 29.1 months, and cross-sectional evaluation. Setting Washington University Spinal Cord Injury Neurorehabilitation Center, referral center. Participants Twenty-five people with chronic SCI who received FES during cycling were matched by age, gender, injury level, and severity, and duration of injury to 20 people with SCI who received range of motion and stretching. Intervention Lower extremity FES during cycling as part of an activity-based restorative treatment regimen. Main outcome measure Change in neurological function: motor, sensory, and combined motor–sensory scores (CMSS) assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment scale. Response was defined as ?1 point improvement. Results FES was associated with an 80% CMSS responder rate compared to 40% in controls. An average 9.6 CMSS point loss among controls was offset by an average 20-point gain among FES subjects. Quadriceps muscle mass was on average 36% higher and intra/inter-muscular fat 44% lower, in the FES group. Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was 30 and 35% greater, respectively, in the FES group. Quality of life and daily function measures were significantly higher in FES group. Conclusion FES during cycling in chronic SCI may provide substantial physical integrity benefits, including enhanced neurological and functional performance, increased muscle size and force-generation potential, reduced spasticity, and improved quality of life. PMID:24094120

  11. STRAIN GAGE TECHNICAL DATA STRAIN GAGE

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    and strain, an initially balanced bridge, and a known VIN. In reality, the VOUT-strain relationship of the strain gage prior to applying stress. Electrical noise and interference may alter your readings. Shielded

  12. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  13. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  14. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  15. INJURY & ILLNESS PREVENTION PLAN

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    INJURY & ILLNESS PREVENTION PLAN (IIPP) University of California Riverside (UCR) Injury & Illness) Title 8, Section 3203. University of California Riverside #12;Injury & Illness Prevention Plan and Illness Prevention Plan (IIPP) this document... Template online at http://ehs.ucr.edu under the Programs

  16. On the Role of a Nonlinear Stress-Strain Relation in Brain Trauma

    E-print Network

    Burtscher, Martin

    On the Role of a Nonlinear Stress-Strain Relation in Brain Trauma Igor Szczyrba School-strain relation (that leads to a stiffening of the brain matter under strain) influences the brain dynamics head using our generalization of the viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt brain injury model that includes

  17. Paintball: dermatologic injuries.

    PubMed

    Ambay, Aparna R; Stratman, Erik J

    2007-07-01

    The popularity of paintball as an extreme sport has gained momentum in recent years. Injuries related to paintball are growing as the number of participants increases. An increasing percentage of paintball-related injuries have occurred in noncommercial settings, such as backyards. We report distinctive follicular stippling and annular scars resulting from paintball injuries in 2 males. Dermatologists may encounter paintball-related injuries during routinely scheduled visits for acne or nevi surveillance. Patients should be verbally reminded to use protective gear to prevent injuries. PMID:17725065

  18. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n?=?257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non?fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n?=?85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non?fatal injury events was 48 per 100?000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student?training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  19. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  20. Epidemiological Review of Injury in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Caine, Dennis; Goodwin, Brett J; Caine, Caroline G; Bergeron, Glen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiological review of the literature concerning ballet injuries affecting pre-professional ballet dancers. The literature search was limited to published peer-reviewed reports and involved an extensive examination of Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used in various combinations: ballet, injury, epidemiology, risk factor, pre-professional, and intervention. Additional citations were located using the ancestry approach. Unlike some other athletic activities that have been the focus of recent intervention research, there is a paucity of intervention and translational research in pre-professional ballet, and sample sizes have often been small and have not accounted for the multivariate nature of ballet injury. Exposure-based injury rates in this population appear similar to those reported for professional ballet dancers and female gymnasts. A preponderance of injuries affect the lower extremity of these dancers, with sprains and strains being the most frequent type of injury reported. The majority of injuries appear to be overuse in nature. Injury risk factors have been tested in multiple studies and indicate a variety of potential injury predictors that may provide useful guidance for future research. PMID:26641701

  1. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    PubMed

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship between CSDM - BrIC and MPS - BrIC respectively. AIS 3+, 4+ and 5+ field risk of anatomic brain injuries was also estimated using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database for crash conditions similar to the frontal NCAP and side impact conditions that the ATDs were tested in. This was done to assess the risk curve ratios derived from HIC risk curves. The results of the study indicated that: (1) the two available human head models - SIMon and GHBMC - were found to be highly correlated when CSDMs and max principal strains were compared; (2) BrIC correlates best to both - CSDM and MPS, and rotational velocity (not rotational acceleration) is the mechanism for brain injuries; and (3) the critical values for angular velocity are directionally dependent, and are independent of the ATD used for measuring them. The newly developed brain injury criterion is a complement to the existing HIC, which is based on translational accelerations. Together, the two criteria may be able to capture most brain injuries and skull fractures occurring in automotive or any other impact environment. One of the main limitations for any brain injury criterion, including BrIC, is the lack of human injury data to validate the criteria against, although some approximation for AIS 2+ injury is given based on the angular velocities calculated at 50% probability of concussion in college football players instrumented with 5 DOF helmet system. Despite the limitations, a new kinematic rotational brain injury criterion - BrIC - may offer a way to capture brain injuries in situations when using translational accelerations based HIC alone may not be sufficient. PMID:24435734

  2. Sonography of Sports Injuries of the Hip

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Aaron R. L.; Seidenberg, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports-related injuries of the hip are a common complaint of both competitive and recreational athletes of all ages. The anatomic and biomechanical complexity of the hip region often cause diagnostic uncertainty for the clinicians evaluating these injuries. Therefore, obtaining additional diagnostic information is often crucial for providing injured athletes with a prompt and accurate diagnosis so they can return to activity as soon as possible. Musculoskeletal ultrasound is becoming increasingly important in evaluating and treating sports-related injuries of the hip. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in May of 2013 for English-language articles pertaining to sonography of sports injuries of the hip using the following keywords in various combinations: musculoskeletal, ultrasound, hip, hip sonography, and sports. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Musculoskeletal ultrasound is currently being used for both diagnosis and treatment in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions affecting the hip, including tendinosis, tendon/muscle strains, ligamentous sprains, enthesopathies, growth plate injuries, fractures, bursitis, effusions, synovitis, labral tears, and snapping hip. Therapeutically, it is used to guide injections, aspirations, and biopsies. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal ultrasound use is expanding and will likely continue to do so as more clinicians realize its capabilities. Characteristics, including accessibility, portability, noninvasiveness, dynamic examination, power Doppler examination, and low cost highlight the potential of ultrasound. PMID:25364486

  3. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. PMID:19774374

  4. Injuries in Irish dance.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

  5. ROLLER?MASSAGER APPLICATION TO THE HAMSTRINGS INCREASES SIT?AND?REACH RANGE OF MOTION WITHIN FIVE TO TEN SECONDS WITHOUT PERFORMANCE IMPAIRMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Silvey, Dustin B.J.; Button, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Foam rollers are used to mimic myofascial release techniques and have been used by therapists, athletes, and the general public alike to increase range of motion (ROM) and alleviate pressure points. The roller?massager was designed to serve a similar purpose but is a more portable device that uses the upper body rather than body mass to provide the rolling force. Objectives/Purpose: A roller massager was used in this study to examine the acute effects on lower extremity ROM and subsequent muscle length performance. Methods: Seven male and ten female volunteers took part in 4 trials of hamstrings roller?massager rolling (1 set – 5 seconds, 1 set – 10 seconds, 2 sets – 5 seconds, and 2 sets – 10 seconds) at a constant pressure (13 kgs) and a constant rate (120 bpm). A group of 9 participants (three male, six female) also performed a control testing session with no rolling intervention. A sit and reach test for ROM, along with a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and muscle activation of the hamstrings were measured before and after each session of rolling. Results: A main effect for testing time (p<0.0001) illustrated that the use of the roller?massager resulted in a 4.3% increase in ROM. There was a trend (p=0.069) for 10s of rolling duration to increase ROM more than 5s rolling duration. There were no significant changes in MVC force or MVC EMG activity after the rolling intervention. Conclusions: The use of the roller?massager had no significant effect on muscle strength, and can provide statistically significant increases in ROM, particularly when used for a longer duration. PMID:23772339

  6. Effects of bicycle saddle height on knee injury risk and cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Bini, Rodrigo; Hume, Patria A; Croft, James L

    2011-06-01

    Incorrect bicycle configuration may predispose athletes to injury and reduce their cycling performance. There is disagreement within scientific and coaching communities regarding optimal configuration of bicycles for athletes. This review summarizes literature on methods for determining bicycle saddle height and the effects of bicycle saddle height on measures of cycling performance and lower limb injury risk. Peer-reviewed journals, books, theses and conference proceedings published since 1960 were searched using MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, EBSCO and Google Scholar databases, resulting in 62 references being reviewed. Keywords searched included 'body positioning', 'saddle', 'posture, 'cycling' and 'injury'. The review revealed that methods for determining optimal saddle height are varied and not well established, and have been based on relationships between saddle height and lower limb length (Hamley and Thomas, trochanteric length, length from ischial tuberosity to floor, LeMond, heel methods) or a reference range of knee joint flexion. There is limited information on the effects of saddle height on lower limb injury risk (lower limb kinematics, knee joint forces and moments and muscle mechanics), but more information on the effects of saddle height on cycling performance (performance time, energy expenditure/oxygen uptake, power output, pedal force application). Increasing saddle height can cause increased shortening of the vastii muscle group, but no change in hamstring length. Length and velocity of contraction in the soleus seems to be more affected by saddle height than that in the gastrocnemius. The majority of evidence suggested that a 5% change in saddle height affected knee joint kinematics by 35% and moments by 16%. Patellofemoral compressive force seems to be inversely related to saddle height but the effects on tibiofemoral forces are uncertain. Changes of less than 4% in trochanteric length do not seem to affect injury risk or performance. The main limitations from the reported studies are that different methods have been employed for determining saddle height, small sample sizes have been used, cyclists with low levels of expertise have mostly been evaluated and different outcome variables have been measured. Given that the occurrence of overuse knee joint pain is 50% in cyclists, future studies may focus on how saddle height can be optimized to improve cycling performance and reduce knee joint forces to reduce lower limb injury risk. On the basis of the conflicting evidence on the effects of saddle height changes on performance and lower limb injury risk in cycling, we suggest the saddle height may be set using the knee flexion angle method (25-30°) to reduce the risk of knee injuries and to minimize oxygen uptake. PMID:21615188

  7. Injury rates of the German Women's American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Ezechieli, Marco; Berger, Stephan; Siebert, Christian-Helge; Miltner, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men's football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE). The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE) than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01)]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE) compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE). Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined. PMID:23066496

  8. Eye injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Drolsum, L

    1999-02-01

    In a retrospective study from 1988 to 1998, eye injuries were found in 553 patients. Seventy-six (13.7%) of these injuries were associated with sport. The mechanism of trauma was for the most part a ball (71.1%) or a club (13.2%). Most eye injuries occurred in soccer (35.5%), which is, by far, the most widespread sport in this region of Norway. A disproportionately high number of the injuries occurred in floorball (17.1%), bandy (13.2%), and squash (10.5%). The rules in these sports may, in theory, be strict enough to prevent eye injuries in most cases. However, these rules are often neglected in informal activities. Strategies for educating the general public about the potentially serious effect of eye injuries in sports exposed to such risk are of great importance. PMID:9974198

  9. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  10. The Effects of Injury Preventive Warm-Up Programs on Knee Strength Ratio in Young Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Rahnama, Nader; Yusof, Ashril

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+) and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR), dynamic control ratio (DCR) and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR) in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. Methods Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n?=?12 per group). These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions). The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. Results After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s?1, 180°.s?1 and 300°.s?1, respectively). The CSR (60°.s?1) increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s?1) in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p?=?0.02). As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p?=?0.04). For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. Conclusions It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR). Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players. PMID:23226553

  11. Midfoot and Forefoot Injuries.

    PubMed

    Gorbachova, Tetyana

    2015-08-01

    Sports injuries of the midfoot and forefoot encompass a spectrum of osseous and soft tissue trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as a primary or important supplementary diagnostic modality in evaluation of various injuries, most important of which include Lisfranc complex injury, stress fractures, and injury to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, aka "turf toe." Current technical advances in magnetic resonance and improved knowledge of regional anatomy enable thorough evaluation of the complex anatomic structures of the foot and facilitate accurate diagnosis in the setting of trauma. PMID:26244619

  12. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2008-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:18295084

  13. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2009-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:19084763

  14. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems. PMID:21563037

  15. Management of avulsion injuries.

    PubMed

    Boettcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Schiestl, Clemens

    2013-10-01

    The optimal management sequence to treat avulsion injuries in children is particularly difficult because of the following problems: (1) Assessment of these rare but frequently massive injuries can be very difficult and treacherous, as the extent of the injury is often underestimated and treatment therefore considered inappropriate; (2) Avulsion injuries have a high risk of infection: lesions are always contaminated due to the mechanism of injury (mostly vehicle accidents) and subsequent long-term hospitalization adds an additional risk for nosocomial infections; (3) Children with avulsion injuries have an increased risk to develop functional deficits: although the body grows, scars and reconstructed tissues may not adapt sufficiently and this may lead to serious constraints. Because of these problems, avulsion injuries may lead to a high morbidity and even mortality, especially if the injury is mismanaged. Reviewing the most recent data regarding the management of avulsion injuries yields the following key points: (1) A scoring system may help to assess the primary dimension of the defect; (2) Innovative techniques such as the use of a Vacuum Assisted Closure system may lower the risk of infection; (3) Choosing a comprehensive, reconstructive approach taking the growth of the child into consideration, may reduce the development of serious functional deficits and improve cosmetic outcome. PMID:23982820

  16. Ocular paintball injuries.

    PubMed

    Fineman, M S

    2001-06-01

    Paintball sport-related ocular injuries represent an increasing problem as the popularity of the sport increases and the number of participants grows. Although eye protective devices designed specifically for paintball sports are extremely effective in preventing such injuries, the failure to properly wear these devices has resulted in an alarming number of severe ocular injuries. Recent trends have indicated that an increasing percentage of paintball sport-related ocular injuries have occurred in unsupervised, noncommercial settings (i.e., backyard games) where the use of eye protective devices is not required. Paintball industry standards for eye protection have recently been developed and should be implemented for all participants. PMID:11389344

  17. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  18. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XBL  Common Strain Name: Myf6-ires-cre knock-in  Strain Nomenclature: B6;129-Myf6tm2(cre)Mrc/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Animal

  19. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  20. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Cryoarchived Strains   Strain Number: 01X67  Common Strain Name: CAG-LSL-EGFR-WT  Strain Nomenclature: STOCK Col1a1tm1(CAG-EGFR)Char/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 , D Sample MTA for this

  1. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XJA  Common Strain Name: PML (conventional k/o) - C57BL/6  Strain Nomenclature: B6.129S7-Pmltm1Ppp>/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 , C1 Sample MTA for this strain Animal

  2. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XBU  Common Strain Name: p16INKa4a L   Strain Nomenclature: B6.129(Cg)-Cdkn2atm2.1Nesh/Nci/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B3 Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health

  3. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01X62  Common Strain Name: Arf floxed  Strain Nomenclature: B6.129-Cdkn2atm4Cjs/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health Report in

  4. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XD8  Common Strain Name: Fabp1-Cre  Strain Nomenclature: FVB/N-Tg(Fabp1-Cre)1Jig/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): B1 , D Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health Report

  5. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Available Strain Details Order Form for Live Mice   Strain Number: 01XB2  Common Strain Name: Ink4a/Arf null (FVB)  Strain Nomenclature: FVB.129-Cdkn2atm1Rdp/Nci  Release Category (Required for MTA form): C3 Sample MTA for this strain Animal Health

  6. A retrospective survey on injuries in Croatian football/soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Injury among soccer referees is rarely studied, especially with regard to differences in the quality level of the refereeing. Additionally, we have found no study that has reported injury occurrence during official physical fitness testing for soccer referees. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, type and consequences of match-related and fitness-testing related injuries among soccer referees of different competitive levels. Methods We studied 342 soccer referees (all males; mean age 32.9?±?5.02?years). The study was retrospective, and a self-administered questionnaire was used. In the first phase of the study, the questionnaire was tested for its reliability and applicability. The questionnaire included morphological/anthropometric data, refereeing variables, and musculoskeletal disorders together with the consequences. Results The sample comprised 157 main referees (MR; mean age 31.4?±?4.9?years) and 185 assistant referees (AR; mean age 34.1?±?5.1?years) divided into: international level (Union of European Football Associations-UEFA) referees (N?=?18; 6 MRs; 12 ARs) ; 1st (N?=?78; 31 MRs; 47 ARs), 2nd (N?=?91; 45 MRs; 46 ARs); or 3rd national level referees (N?=?155; 75 MRs; 80 ARs). In total, 29% (95%CI: 0.23–0.37) of the MRs and 30% (95%CI: 0.22–0.36) of the ARs had experienced an injury during the previous year, while 13% (95%CI: 0.05–0.14) of the MRs, and 19% (95%CI: 0.14–0.25) of the ARs suffered from an injury that occurred during fitness testing. There was an obvious increase in injury severity as the refereeing advanced at the national level, but the UEFA referees were the least injured of all referees. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of injuries to the upper leg (i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings) during physical fitness testing for all but the UEFA referees. During game refereeing, the ankles and lower legs were the most commonly injured regions. The MRs primarily injured their ankles. The ARs experienced lower leg and lower back disorders. However, the overall injury rate was equal for both groups, with 5.29 (95%CI: 2.23–8.30) and 4.58 (95%CI: 2.63–6.54) injuries per 1000?hours of refereeing for MRs and ARs, respectively. Conclusion In addition to the reported risk of injury during soccer games, physical fitness testing should be classified as a risk for injury among soccer referees. Special attention should be given to (I) lower leg injuries during games and (II) upper leg injuries during physical fitness tests. A higher physical fitness level and a qualitative approach to training are recognized as protective factors against injury. Subsequent studies should investigate the specific predictors of injuries among referees. PMID:23497316

  7. Brain Injury Association of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is ... Management/Less Care: What the Future Holds for Brain Injury Rehabilitation On Nov. 18, BIAA presented a ...

  8. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size Print Bookmark Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  9. Living with Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... techniques that may prevent injury and disease. A spinal cord injury (SCI) can result from trauma, such as ... with daily living skills. What can persons with spinal cord injuries and their friends and families do? ? Get ...

  10. Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury

    MedlinePLUS

    LCL injury; Knee injury - lateral collateral ligament (LCL) ... ligament helps keep the outer side of the knee joint stable. ... by pressure or an injury that pushes the knee joint from the inside, which results in stress ...

  11. Computational Models Predict Larger Muscle Tissue Strains at Faster Sprinting Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Rehorn, Michael R; Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Thelen, Darryl G; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal biceps femoris musculotendon strain injury has been well established as a common injury among athletes participating in sports that require sprinting near or at maximum speed; however, little is known about the mechanisms that make this muscle tissue more susceptible to injury at faster speeds. Purpose: Quantify localized tissue strain during sprinting at a range of speeds. Methods: Biceps femoris long head (BFlh) musculotendon dimensions of 14 athletes were measured on magnetic resonance (MR) images and used to generate a finite element computational model. The model was first validated through comparison with previous dynamic MR experiments. After validation, muscle activation and muscle-tendon unit length change were derived from forward dynamic simulations of sprinting at 70%, 85% and 100% maximum speed and used as input to the computational model simulations. Simulations ran from mid-swing to foot contact. Results: The model predictions of local muscle tissue strain magnitude compared favorably with in vivo tissue strain measurements determined from dynamic MR experiments of the BFlh. For simulations of sprinting, local fiber strain was non-uniform at all speeds, with the highest muscle tissue strain where injury is often observed (proximal myotendinous junction). At faster sprinting speeds, increases were observed in fiber strain non-uniformity and peak local fiber strain (0.56, 0.67 and 0.72, for sprinting at 70%, 85% and 100% maximum speed). A histogram of local fiber strains showed that more of the BFlh reached larger local fiber strains at faster speeds. Conclusions: At faster sprinting speeds, peak local fiber strain, fiber strain non-uniformity and the amount of muscle undergoing larger strains are predicted to increase, likely contributing to the BFlh muscle’s higher injury susceptibility at faster speeds. PMID:24145724

  12. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  13. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  14. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  15. FIREARM INJURY SURVEILLANCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established an interagency agreement with CPSC to begin collecting data on nonfatal firearm-related injuries to monitor the incidence and characteristics of perso...

  16. [Chest Wall Injury].

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Masayuki; Niwa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    The thoracic wall protects the heart, great vessels, lungs, trachea, and bronchus, which are organs important for maintaining respiration/circulation, against external forces. Therefore, injury of the thoracic wall may necessitate emergency treatment. Such injury primarily consists of rib and sternal fractures. In particular, fractures of 2 or more consecutive ribs with each rib being fractured at 2 or more sites and serial rib fracture with sternal fracture lead to reverse thoracic movement involving contraction on inhalation and expansion on expiration. Such thoracic injury is termed flail chest. Injury of the thoracic wall, such as flail chest, markedly influences the prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to promptly evaluate the general condition, involving respiratory/circulatory kinetics, confirm the presence or absence of concomitant injury, such as bruises of the lungs/heart, and accurately select therapeutic strategies, including artificial respiration and surgical intervention. PMID:26197917

  17. Injuries among amateur runners?

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Mariana Korbage; Baeza, Ricardo Maletta; Zalada, Sandro Ricardo Benites; Alves, Pedro Benzam Rodrigues; de Mattos, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency and severity of injuries that affect amateur runners. Methods This study was conducted by means of a questionnaire applied to 204 amateur runners. Individuals who were under the age of 18 years and those who were unpracticed runners were excluded. The data gathered comprised the number, type, site and degree of severity of the injuries and the individuals’ age and sex. Results It was observed that male athletes predominated. The mean age was 32.6 ± 9.3 years with a range from 18 to 68 years, and the injuries were classified as mild, keeping the athlete away from practicing running for fewer than eight days. Sprains, blisters and abrasions were the most frequent injuries, located most often on the lower limbs and predominantly on the feet. Conclusion In practicing running, sprains, blisters and abrasions occur frequently, but are mild injuries. They mostly affect the lower limbs. PMID:26535199

  18. Injuries from fireworks.

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Kalishman, S; Rivara, F P

    1985-05-01

    In 1983, there were more than 8,200 victims of fireworks-related injuries treated in US emergency rooms. Half of those injured were children less than 15 years of age, and 11% of the injuries resulted in hospitalization. The eyes are the body part most often injured, followed by hands and fingers. Burns account for the majority of injuries. Every type of fireworks legally available has resulted in serious injury or death. Firecrackers, bottle rockets, and sparklers contribute to the most hospitalizations. States that allow a wide variety of fireworks to be sold for personal use have a rate of fireworks-related fires 50 times greater than states that strictly limit the availability of fireworks. The rate of fireworks-related injuries is more than seven times greater in the less restrictive states. PMID:3991275

  19. Sports related ocular injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision. PMID:24532883

  20. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

  1. Biophysical mechanisms of traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Young, Lee Ann; Rule, Gregory T; Bocchieri, Robert T; Burns, Jennie M

    2015-02-01

    Despite years of effort to prevent traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), the occurrence of TBI in the United States alone has reached epidemic proportions. When an external force is applied to the head, it is converted into stresses that must be absorbed into the brain or redirected by a helmet or other protective equipment. Complex interactions of the head, neck, and jaw kinematics result in strains in the brain. Even relatively mild mechanical trauma to these tissues can initiate a neurochemical cascade that leads to TBI. Civilians and warfighters can experience head injuries in both combat and noncombat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic and blunt impact, acceleration, and blast. It is critical to understand the physics created by these threats to develop meaningful improvements to clinical care, injury prevention, and mitigation. Here the authors review the current state of understanding of the complex loading conditions that lead to TBI and characterize how these loads are transmitted through soft tissue, the skull and into the brain, resulting in TBI. In addition, gaps in knowledge and injury thresholds are reviewed, as these must be addressed to better design strategies that reduce TBI incidence and severity. PMID:25714862

  2. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

  3. Sport injuries in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID:22355484

  4. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. PMID:26048614

  5. Labrum and rotator cuff injuries in the throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Menge, Travis J; Byram, Ian R; Boykin, Robert E; Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-02-01

    Abstract The large amount of force imparted across the shoulder during the act of throwing makes the glenohumeral joint highly susceptible to injury in the athlete performing overhead throwing motions. The bony incongruity of the shoulder enables greater range of motion than any other joint in the body, but it also results in significant strain on the surrounding soft tissues during the throwing motion. Throwers can present with acute injuries, but more commonly they suffer from chronic overuse conditions resulting from repetitive overload. Proper management requires early recognition with treatment directed toward the athlete's safe return to sports. Failure to institute an appropriate management strategy may result in significant complications, including prolonged disability, progression of symptoms, and further injury. We discuss the functional anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of common injuries of the glenoid labrum and rotator cuff in the overhead throwing athlete. PMID:25599876

  6. Strains at the myotendinous junction predicted by a micromechanical model

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Bahar; Ames, Elizabeth G.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to create a finite element micromechanical model of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) to examine how the structure and mechanics of the MTJ affect the local micro-scale strains experienced by muscle fibers. We validated the model through comparisons with histological longitudinal sections of muscles fixed in slack and stretched positions. The model predicted deformations of the A-bands within the fiber near the MTJ that were similar to those measured from the histological sections. We then used the model to predict the dependence of local fiber strains on activation and the mechanical properties of the endomysium. The model predicted that peak micro-scale strains increase with activation and as the compliance of the endomysium decreases. Analysis of the models revealed that, in passive stretch, local fiber strains are governed by the difference of the mechanical properties between the fibers and the endomysium. In active stretch, strain distributions are governed by the difference in cross-sectional area along the length of the tapered region of the fiber near the MTJ. The endomysium provides passive resistance that balances the active forces and prevents the tapered region of the fiber from undergoing excessive strain. These model predictions lead to the following hypotheses: (i) the increased likelihood of injury during active lengthening of muscle fibers may be due to the increase in peak strain with activation and (ii) endomysium may play a role in protecting fibers from injury by reducing the strains within the fiber at the MTJ. PMID:21945569

  7. DARPA challenge: developing new technologies for brain and spinal injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.

  8. Epidemiology of paediatric injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, A J

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of young lives are lost every year as a result of accidents, and trauma remains the number one cause of paediatric death. There is a pattern and regularity to children's injury: boys are more often victims than the girls, most injuries occur during the summer months, the pedestrian child has usually been the victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and, in 75% of these cases, has suffered head injury. The research into paediatric trauma is still very young. For instance, socio-economic and ethnic factors play a significant role in the statistics of accidental death. In order to take effective preventative measures more factors must be determined. PMID:7921561

  9. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  10. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes. PMID:16272269

  11. Tendon injuries of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265

  12. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Smith, Darryl L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  13. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  14. Bridging spinal cord injuries

    E-print Network

    2008-10-15

    Abstract One strategy for spinal cord injury repair is to make cellular bridges that support axon regeneration. However, the bridging cells often fail to integrate with host tissue and may lead to increased pain sensitivity. Recent work has tested...

  15. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... appear to be more serious than it is. Did You Know... Because the scalp has many blood ... these symptoms occur, prompt medical attention is essential. Did You Know... The degree of external head injury ...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... external force that affects the functioning of the brain. It can be caused by a bump or ...

  17. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Toe joint sprains and dislocations Fractured toe bones Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might include shoe inserts or special shoes, padding, taping, medicines, rest, and in severe cases, surgery.

  18. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Peroneal Tendon Injuries Text Size Print Bookmark ... foot run side-by-side behind the outer ankle bone. One peroneal tendon attaches to the outer ...

  19. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is vomiting, to prevent choking, roll the person's head, neck, and body as one unit onto his or ... The person stops breathing. You suspect a serious head or neck injury , or the person develops any signs or ...

  20. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  1. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... TOPIC Your Child's Vision Eye Injuries First Aid: Pinkeye Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Corneal Abrasions A to Z: Blepharitis A to ... Foreign Body, Eye Styes Eyes A to Z: Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye) Activity: Eyes QuizSource: Eyes Answers: Eyes Styes ...

  2. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations Osteoarthritis - wear-and-tear arthritis, which can also cause deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  3. Finger joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Prucz, Roni B; Friedrich, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Finger joint dislocations and collateral ligament tears are common athletic hand injuries. Treatment of the athlete requires a focus on safe return to play and maximizing function. Certain dislocations, such as proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal volar dislocations, may be associated with tendon injuries and must be treated accordingly. Treatment of other dislocations is ultimately determined by postreduction stability, with many dislocations amenable to nonoperative treatment (ie, immobilization followed by rehabilitation). Protective splinting does not necessarily preclude athletic participation. Minor bone involvement typically does not affect the treatment plan, but significant articular surface involvement may necessitate surgical repair or stabilization. Percutaneous and internal fixation are the mainstays of surgical treatment. Treatment options that do not minimize recovery or allow the patient to return to protected play, such as external fixation, are generally avoided during the season of play. Undertreated joint injuries and unrecognized ligament injuries can result in long term disability. PMID:25455398

  4. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  5. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports ... foods can that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or ...

  6. What Are Sports Injuries?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can result from poor training practices or improper gear. Some people get injured when they are not ... reduce your risk of “overuse” injuries. Use safety gear. Know your body’s limits. Build up your exercise ...

  7. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injuries Buy and use helmets or protective head gear approved by the American Society for Testing and ... bear a sticker stating this. Helmets and head gear come in many sizes and styles for many ...

  8. Head injury criterion

    E-print Network

    Wampler, Charles Wilson

    In the design of robotic systems that safely interact with people, it is useful to have validated criteria for measuring injury risks. To this end, some researchers have advocated the use of metrics developed for assessing ...

  9. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  10. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... time it doesn't involve a loss of consciousness. A person who has a concussion may feel ... a mild traumatic brain injury include: Loss of consciousness Headache Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Blurry vision ...

  12. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  13. Catastrophic spine injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Prior, Chris

    2005-02-01

    Catastrophic spine injuries in sports are rare but tragic events. The sports with the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing and snowboarding, rugby, cheerleading, and baseball. A common mechanism of injury for all at-risk sports is an axial compression force to the top of the head with the neck slightly flexed. We review common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for spine injuries in the at-risk sports. PMID:15659279

  14. In vivo cartilage contact strains in patients with lateral ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Johanna E.; Spritzer, Charles E.; Caputo, Adam M.; Easley, Mark E.; DeOrio, James K.; Nunley, James A.; DeFrate, Louis E.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and cacaneofibular ligament (CFL) during ankle sprain may be linked to the development of osteoarthritis. Altered tibiotalar kinematics have been demonstrated in these patients, but the effects of lateral ankle instability (LAI) on in vivo cartilage strains have not been described. We hypothesized that peak cartilage strains increase, and the location is shifted in patients with ATFL injuries. We used 3-D MRI models and biplanar fluoroscopy to evaluate in vivo cartilage contact strains in seven patients with unilateral LAI. Subjects had chronic unilateral ATFL injury or combined ATFL and CFL injury, and were evaluated with increasing load while stepping onto a force plate. Peak cartilage strain and the location of the peak strain were measured using the contralateral normal ankle as a control. Ankles with LAI demonstrated significantly increased peak strain when compared with ATFL-intact controls. For example, at 100% body weight, peak strain was 29±8% on the injured side compared to 21±5% on the intact side. The position of peak strain on the injured ankle also showed significant anterior translation and medial translation. At 100% body weight, the location of peak strain in the injured ankle translated anteriorly by 15.5±7.1mm and medially by 12.9±4.3mm relative to the intact ankle. These changes correspond to the region of clinically-observed osteoarthritis. Chronic LAI, therefore, may contribute to the development of tibiotalar cartilage degeneration due to altered cartilage strains. PMID:20605154

  15. [American football injuries in the German Federal League: risk of injuries and pattern of injuries].

    PubMed

    Baltzer, A W; Ghadamgahi, P D

    1998-04-01

    This prospective study investigated the incidence of injuries in German Bundesliga football based on an evaluation of 2 American football teams in the season and pre-season 1995 to 1997. Certified team physicians and team physiotherapists were the initial medical professionals providing on-site diagnosis, injury documentation and first treatment of all injuries. An injury was defined as minor injury (group I) causing a missing of practice or game up to 1 week, as severe injury (group II) causing a missing of practice or game for more than 1 week or hospitalisation and as fatal injury (group III) if the incident lead to treatment in an intensive care unit or remaining neurological or orthopaedical disability or death. Data were collected so that it was possible to calculate the risk of injury per time of exposition per athlete. The function of the athlete, influences of the weather and the mechanisms of the injuries were registered. Overall 713 injuries were documented. The rate of injury was calculated as 15.7 per 1000 hours of practice and game per athlete. Severe injuries with a loss of practice participation of more than 1 week were found in 94 cases. Fatal injuries were not seen in the period of the study. The knee was found to be the most common site of injury, the ankle ranked second. Our study showed that the risk of injury in American football in German Bundesliga is comparable with soccer or handball. PMID:9606852

  16. Group-wise evaluation and comparison of white matter fiber strain and maximum principal strain in sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Ji, Songbai; Zhao, Wei; Ford, James C; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Bolander, Richard P; Greenwald, Richard M; Flashman, Laura A; Paulsen, Keith D; McAllister, Thomas W

    2015-04-01

    Sports-related concussion is a major public health problem in the United States and yet its biomechanical mechanisms remain unclear. In vitro studies demonstrate axonal elongation as a potential injury mechanism; however, current response-based injury predictors (e.g., maximum principal strain, ?(ep)) typically do not incorporate axonal orientations. We investigated the significance of white matter (WM) fiber orientation in strain estimation and compared fiber strain (?(n)) with ?(ep) for 11 athletes with a clinical diagnosis of concussion. Geometrically accurate subject-specific head models with high mesh quality were created based on the Dartmouth Head Injury Model (DHIM), which was successfully validated (performance categorized as "good" to "excellent"). For WM regions estimated to be exposed to high strains using a range of injury thresholds (0.09-0.28), substantial differences existed between ?(n) and ?(ep) in both distribution (Dice coefficient of 0.13-0.33) and extent (? 5-10-fold differences), especially at higher threshold levels and higher rotational acceleration magnitudes. For example, an average of 3.2% vs. 29.8% of WM was predicted above an optimal threshold of 0.18 established from an in vivo animal study using ?(n) and ?(ep), respectively, with an average Dice coefficient of 0.14. The distribution of WM regions with high ?(n) was consistent with typical heterogeneous patterns of WM disruptions in diffuse axonal injury, and the group-wise extent at the optimal threshold matched well with the percentage of WM voxels experiencing significant longitudinal changes of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (3.2% and 3.44%, respectively) found from a separate independent study. These results suggest the significance of incorporating WM microstructural anisotropy in future brain injury studies. PMID:24735430

  17. Pediatric elbow injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Jegede, Kola A; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Elbow injuries in pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can range from medial tension injuries to posterior shear injuries. Elbow injuries in this population continue to rise in parallel with the increase in youth participation in sports both throughout the calendar year and across multiple sports. Many of these injuries are noncontact and are attributed to overuse. Evaluation and management of youth and adolescent athletic elbow injuries requires knowledge of developmental anatomy, injury pathophysiology, and established treatment algorithms. Furthermore, risk factors contributing to elbow injuries must be recognized, with education and recommendations for safe play continually advocated. This education--of parents, athletes, and coaches--is paramount in reducing the climbing incidence of elbow injuries in our youth athletes. PMID:25077752

  18. Treatment of Type 3 Arthrofibrosis Following Arthroscopic Reconstruction of ACL and Posterolateral Corner Injury with Tibia Plateau Fracture in a Professional Dancer

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Neslihan; Abay, Burak; Soydan, Ramazan; Atansay, Vefa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Arthrofibrosis is a serious complication following the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral corner (PLC) injury. Loss of motion caused by arthrofibrosis can be disabling in young and active patients. We report the clinical results of the treatment of arthrofibrosis following arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL with ipsilateral hamstring tendon graft and surgically repairing PLC with 2 suture anchors in a 30 year-old professional dancer, treated with surgical lysis and manipulation under general anesthesia followed by aggressive physical therapy. Methods: A 30 year-old male professional dancer presented with pain, effusion and severe instability in his left knee after falling in a dance event. The pain was evaluated on Visual analog scale (VAS) as 6 to 8. At the physical examination, anterior drawer test was evaluated as grade 3, pivot shift test, varus test, dial test and posterolateral drawer test were found positive. The Tegner Lysholm score was evaluated as 22 (poor). Under general anesthesia, left knee had tendency to external rotation and recurvatum when leg was suspended by toes. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed the presence of a total ACL rupture, PLC injury and a fracture of lateral tibia plateau. The patient was treated with arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL with ipsilateral hamstring tendon graft fixed with endobutton through femoral tunnel and bio interference screw through tibial tunnel and PLC injury was treated with 2 suture anchors. Postoperatively first day, quadriceps musculature and active and passive ROM exercises was trained. During postoperatively third week, the patient was allowed to mobilize nonweight bearing with the use of two crutches without functional knee brace. At the sixth week, arthroscopic lysis was performed due to type 3 arthrofibrosis. At the tenth week, manipulation was performed to the left knee under general anesthesia. Results: At the 3 month- follow-up, the patient achieved full symmetric restoration of motion and he had returned to full daily activities. The Tegner Lysholm score was evaluated as 94 (excellent) postoperatively. Functional examination of the left knee reveled 155 of flexion, and full knee extension. The complaint of instability was disappeared. At 9 month-follow-up, clinical findings were unremarkable, with no sign of re-rupture and arthrofibrosis and he returned to his professional dance career. Conclusion: In the literature there is not any consensus regarding the management and rehabilitation intervention for arthrofibrosis in young athletes or professional dancers. The best treatment method is preventing the arthrofibrosis once it has occurred with surgical lysis and aggressive physical therapy. The combined surgical treatment and physiotherapy described in this case report may assist clinicians in the treatment of arthrofibrosis after arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL and PLC injury.

  19. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  20. Injuries in youth amateur soccer and rugby players—comparison of incidence and characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Junge, A; Cheung, K; Edwards, T; Dvorak, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised an initial baseline examination to ascertain the characteristics of the players and their level of performance, and a one season observation period during which a physician visited the team weekly and documented all occurring injuries. Twelve soccer and 10 rugby school teams with male amateur players aged 14–18 years were selected for the study. 145 soccer and 123 rugby players could be followed up over one season. Results: Comparison of the incidence of soccer and rugby injuries indicated that rugby union football was associated with a significantly higher rate of injury than soccer. The differences were pronounced for contact injuries, injuries of the head, neck, shoulder, and upper extremity, as well as for concussion, fractures, dislocations, and strains. Rugby players incurred 1.5 times more overuse and training injuries in relation to exposure time, and 2.7 times more match injuries than soccer players. Three rugby players but no soccer players had to stop their participation in sport because of severe injury. Conclusion: The incidence of injury in New Zealand school teams playing soccer or rugby union is high, probably in part because of the low ratio of hours spent in training relative to hours spent playing matches. The development and implementation of preventive interventions to reduce the rate and severity of injury is recommended. PMID:15039253

  1. Determining the Prevalence and Assessing the Severity of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mixed martial arts (MMA) is currently the fastest growing sport in the United States and has recently surpassed boxing as the most popular full contact sport. Due to the physical nature of the sport, MMA is associated with various types of injuries. Objective The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying prevalence and assessing the severity, location, and type of injuries in MMA athletes sustained during MMA related activities in the twelve month period prior to the survey. Methods A total of fifty-five subjects between the ages of 18 to 39 participated in the study. Participants were given a two-part questionnaire to collect demographic and injury data. Results Two hundred seven injuries were reported in the study. Low belt ranks had significantly more injuries more than any other belt rank, resulting in more than two times higher injury rate. Professional fighters had significantly more injuries than amateur fighters, resulting in three times higher injury rate. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (38.2%), followed by the lower extremities (30.4%), upper extremities (22.7%), torso (8.2%), and groin (0.5%). Injuries to the nose (6.3%), shoulder (6.3%), and toe (6.3%) were the most common. The most common type of injury was contusions (29.4%), followed by strains (16.2%), sprains (14.9%), and abrasions (10.1%). Conclusion Injury prevention efforts should consider the prevalence and distribution of injuries and focus on reducing or preventing injuries to the head/neck/face in MMA related activities. Preventative measures should focus on improving protective equipment during training, and possible competition rule modifications to further minimize participant injury. PMID:21509103

  2. High Deviatoric Strain Engineering/

    E-print Network

    Li, Wenbin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    The structure of a material can be tuned reversibly or irreversibly by imposing elastic or inelastic strain, leading to change of properties. This defines the concept of strain engineering, which includes both elastic ...

  3. Emergency department-reported injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Janessa M; Iyer, Krithika R; Willis, Margaret M; Ebel, Beth E; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to generate national estimates of injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment, and to describe these injuries across all ages. Emergency department (ED)-treated injuries associated with mechanical home exercise equipment were identified from 2007 to 2011 from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Text narratives provided exercise equipment type (treadmill, elliptical, stationary bicycle, unspecified/other exercise machine). Approximately 70 302 (95% CI 59 086 to 81 519) mechanical exercise equipment-related injuries presented to US EDs nationally during 2007–2011, of which 66% were attributed to treadmills. Most injuries among children (?4 years) were lacerations (34%) or soft tissue injuries (48%); among adults (?25 years) injuries were often sprains/strains (30%). Injured older adults (?65 years) had greater odds of being admitted, held for observation, or transferred to another hospital, compared with younger ages (OR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.45 to 4.60). Mechanical exercise equipment is a common cause of injury across ages. Injury awareness and prevention are important complements to active lifestyles. PMID:24061163

  4. Managing ACL Injuries in Children: Are Kids' Injuries Different?

    PubMed

    Lastihenos, M; Nicholas, S J

    1996-04-01

    ACL injuries in children result in adultlike chronic instability problems. Physical tests and radiographs guide the diagnosis. Treatment depends on whether the ACL injury is an intrasubstance tear or, what is more common, an avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence. A case report of an 11-year-old boy describes a typical avulsion injury. Treatment of avulsion injuries consists of cast immobilization and open reduction and fixation for a displaced fragment. PMID:20086984

  5. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

  6. [Roller skating injuries].

    PubMed

    Houshian, S; Herold, N; Røck, N D

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and types of accidents which occur in connection with roller-skates, and also to find out in which anatomical area the most injuries occurred. During the period 01.02.1995 to 31.08.1996, 389 patients sustained injuries in connection with roller-skates. Fifty-nine percent of all accidents happened on a public road. Out of 389 injuries, 174 sustained a fracture: 68% were forearm or distal radius/ulna fractures; 89% were upper extremity fractures. Thirty-three patients were admitted: four for observation due to concussion; 15 for reduction of fractures and application of plaster; and ten for osteosynthesis. Roller-skating accidents are extremely common. Possible prophylaxis includes protective equipment and restricted rinks for roller-skate enthusiast. PMID:9206856

  7. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  8. Blunt carotid injury.

    PubMed

    Baker, William E; Servais, Elliot L; Burke, Peter A; Agarwal, Suresh K

    2006-04-01

    Blunt carotid injury (BCI) is an uncommon disorder, occurring in trauma patients as a result of cervical hyperextension, hyperflexion, or direct blow. BCI is commonly present in initially asymptomatic patients who subsequently develop devastating thromboembolic complications of their injury. Although clinical predictors of injury have been developed, they are of limited accuracy. Nevertheless, employment of clinical screening criteria is of value in identifying at-risk patients in need of diagnostic testing. Liberalized screening of these trauma patients with angiography or the latest generation (64-multidetector) CT angiography facilitates early diagnosis and provides opportunity for timely intervention in asymptomatic victims. Anticoagulation and/or antithrombotic therapy in specific categories of these patients reduces neurologic morbidity and mortality. Endovascular stenting shows promise as a treatment modality for specific subsets of individuals with BCI. Surgery remains a therapeutic option for some surgically accessible lesions. PMID:16533491

  9. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a conditional mutation of Brca1 on a mixed genetic background. Specifically, exon 11 is flanked with loxP sites. Mating this strain with any Cre transgenic strain will result in the inactivation of Brca1 wherever Cre is expressed.

  10. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Home Sweet ... injuries and how to prevent them. About Repetitive Stress Injuries Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are conditions caused ...

  11. Maximum Principal Strain and Strain Rate Associated with Concussion Diagnosis Correlates with Changes in Corpus Callosum White Matter Indices

    PubMed Central

    MCALLISTER, THOMAS W.; FORD, JAMES C.; JI, SONGBAI; BECKWITH, JONATHAN G.; FLASHMAN, LAURA A.; PAULSEN, KEITH; GREENWALD, RICHARD M.

    2014-01-01

    On-field monitoring of head impacts, combined with finite element (FE) biomechanical simulation, allow for predictions of regional strain associated with a diagnosed concussion. However, attempts to correlate these predictions with in vivo measures of brain injury have not been published. This article reports an approach to and preliminary results from the correlation of subject-specific FE model-predicted regions of high strain associated with diagnosed concussion and diffusion tensor imaging to assess changes in white matter integrity in the corpus callosum (CC). Ten football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets to record head impacts sustained during play completed high field magnetic resonance imaging preseason and within 10 days of a diagnosed concussion. The Dartmouth Subject-Specific FE Head model was used to generate regional predictions of strain and strain rate following each impact associated with concussion. Maps of change in fractional anisotropy (FA) and median diffusivity (MD) were generated for the CC of each athlete to correlate strain with change in FA and MD. Mean and maximum strain rate correlated with change in FA (Spearman ? = 0.77, p = 0.01; 0.70, p = 0.031), and there was a similar trend for mean and maximum strain (0.56, p = 0.10; 0.6, p = 0.07), as well as for maximum strain with change in MD (?0.63, p = 0.07). Change in MD correlated with injury-to-imaging interval (? = ?0.80, p = 0.006) but change in FA did not (? = 0.18, p = 0.62). These results provide preliminary confirmation that model-predicted strain and strain rate in the CC correlate with changes in indices of white matter integrity. PMID:21994062

  12. Injury Risk Estimation Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Petushek, Erich J.; Ward, Paul; Cokely, Edward T.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Simple observational assessment of movement is a potentially low-cost method for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury screening and prevention. Although many individuals utilize some form of observational assessment of movement, there are currently no substantial data on group skill differences in observational screening of ACL injury risk. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare various groups’ abilities to visually assess ACL injury risk as well as the associated strategies and ACL knowledge levels. The hypothesis was that sports medicine professionals would perform better than coaches and exercise science academics/students and that these subgroups would all perform better than parents and other general population members. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 428 individuals, including physicians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, strength and conditioning coaches, exercise science researchers/students, athletes, parents, and members of the general public participated in the study. Participants completed the ACL Injury Risk Estimation Quiz (ACL-IQ) and answered questions related to assessment strategy and ACL knowledge. Results: Strength and conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists, and exercise science students exhibited consistently superior ACL injury risk estimation ability (+2 SD) as compared with sport coaches, parents of athletes, and members of the general public. The performance of a substantial number of individuals in the exercise sciences/sports medicines (approximately 40%) was similar to or exceeded clinical instrument-based biomechanical assessment methods (eg, ACL nomogram). Parents, sport coaches, and the general public had lower ACL-IQ, likely due to their lower ACL knowledge and to rating the importance of knee/thigh motion lower and weight and jump height higher. Conclusion: Substantial cross-professional/group differences in visual ACL injury risk estimation exist. The relatively profound differences in injury risk estimation accuracy and their potential implications for risk screening suggest the need for additional training and outreach (see http://www.ACL-IQ.org). Clinical Relevance: Parents and sport coaches would likely benefit from training or use of decision support tools such as the ACL nomogram to assess ACL injury risk. In addition, physicians and other sports medicine professionals may also benefit from improving risk estimation performance to reach clinical biomechanical standards.

  13. [Elbow injuries in childhood].

    PubMed

    Weise, K; Schwab, E; Scheufele, T M

    1997-04-01

    Fractures and dislocations of the elbow are some of the most common injuries in childhood and adolescence. The majority occur in sport and play activities, e.g., a fall from gymnastics apparatus or a bike, or from popular sports items, such as skateboards or in-line skates. The injuries can be divided into pure dislocations of the joint and fractures of the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna, or combinations of both. In addition, extra- and intraarticular fracture types are defined, with the latter as partial or complete joint lesions. Dislocations of the elbow joint or the radial head can occur as single injuries or in combination with a fracture. Supracondylar fractures and avulsion fractures of the medial epicondyle are the most frequent extraarticular lesions of the distal humerus. Fractures of the lateral condyle prevail is incomplete intraarticular lesions. In the forearm, radial head and neck fractures are predominant while typical and atypical Monteggia injuries have a special status. The complex joint construction and the age-dependent appearance of the epiphyseal ossification centers sometimes make a correct radiological diagnosis difficult. The trauma history and an exact, clinical examination help to verify the injury, as do comparative X-ray studies of the uninjured side when necessary (but not routinely). Unlike other anatomical areas, most elbow injuries-even in the growing skeleton-are treated operatively. Hereby, the growth plates have to be respected using minimal amounts of small implants. Additional immobilization in a cast for 2-4 weeks is necessary in most cases but does not lead to a functional deficit-in contrast to adults. The implants should be removed as early as possible. Despite all therapeutic efforts, a significant number of late sequelae, such as malunions and functional impairment, can be seen. The rate of long-term complications increases in cases of untreated displacement of fragments or joint instability. Corrective measures are performed only in selected cases and after the growth plates are closed. Our own treatment regime is demonstrated using exemplary clinical cases of the different injuries and the results of a long-term follow-up study on sports injuries of the elbow in children. Errors in diagnosis and therapy, as well as possible complications, are pointed out. PMID:9229775

  14. Recreation-Related Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Leisure-Related Head Injuries by Product Product Category Estimated Injuries 1. Toys (all toy categories combined) 17, ... 378-0600 ? www.AANS.org In 2009, an estimated 124,550 people were treated at U.S. hospital ...

  15. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Self-Injury In Adolescents Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... to have become more popular lately, especially in adolescents. The causes and severity of self-injury can ...

  16. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Traumatic Brain Injury National Data Center (TBINDC) at Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research and Education Center is the coordinating center for the research and dissemination efforts of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program funded by the National Instit...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... NeurosurgeryToday.org Every year, an estimated 11,000 spinal cord injury (SCI) accidents occur in the United States. ...

  18. A comparison of the epidemiology of ice hockey injuries between male and female youth in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Forward, Karen E; Seabrook, Jamie A; Lynch, Tim; Lim, Rodrick; Poonai, Naveen; Sangha, Gurinder S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hockey is played by youth across Canada, and its popularity has increased dramatically among females in the past decade. Despite this, there has been little epidemiological research comparing the injury patterns of young female and male hockey players. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare injuries sustained by female and male youth hockey players using the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database. METHODS: In the present cross-sectional, retrospective comparison study, the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database was used to identify all hockey-related injuries sustained by children seven to 17.5 years of age over a 15-year period (January 1995 to December 2009). Exclusion criteria included paid professional players and children with injuries sustained while playing road hockey. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met by 33,233 children (2637 [7.9%] females and 30,596 [92.1%] males). Compared with males, females reported proportionately more soft tissue injuries (39.8% versus 32.6%; P<0.01) and sprains/strains (21.1% versus 17.6%; P<0.01). Males experienced more fractures (27.1% versus 18.2%; P<0.01) and were most often injured through body checking (42.8% versus 25.7%; P<0.01). Females showed a trend toward increased concussion with age, and were most often injured through collisions (28.6% versus 24.6%; P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with males, female hockey players sustained proportionately more soft tissue injures and sprains/strains, and showed a trend toward concussions in late adolecence. Males experienced more fractures, shoulder injuries and injuries due to body checking. Further research is required to identify risk factors for injury in female youth hockey players and to target injury prevention. PMID:25382998

  19. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  20. Acute forefoot and midfoot injuries.

    PubMed

    Laird, R Clinton

    2015-04-01

    Forefoot and midfoot injuries in the athlete are common. Injuries of the digits include subungual hematomas and fractures. Metatarsal fractures occur frequently in sports, and their treatments range greatly. Hyperflexion and extension injuries about the first metatarsophalangeal joint can be very debilitating. Midfoot sprains and fractures require a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. PMID:25804712

  1. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  2. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  3. Preventing Injuries, Promoting Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneously promoting a safe learning environment that encourages students to express their creative voices while exploring the rudiments of dance technique can be difficult. This article discusses how the author has learned to do it effectively by employing a few simple classroom strategies. To prevent injuries during class, the author offers…

  4. [Traumatic rectal injuries].

    PubMed

    Steinman, E; Cunha, J C; Branco, P D; Bevilacqua, R G; Birolini, D

    1990-01-01

    The authors review the cases of traumatic rectal injuries admitted to the Emergency Service of the "Hospital das Clínicas", University of São Paulo Medical School, during the period of July 1981 to July 1988. Forty-five patients (62.5%) had their injuries due to gunshot, 14 (19.4%) due to foreign bodies on the rectum, 10 (13.8%) due to blunt trauma and 3 (4.1%) due to stab wounds. The intraperitoneal rectum was injured in 32 patients (44.4%) and extraperitoneal portion of the rectum in 40 patients (55.5%). On the intraperitoneal injuries the management adopted were simple suture (14 patients), associated with a colostomy (17 patients) and in one patient the Hartmann procedure was adopted. On the extraperitoneal wounds the management adopted were rectal repair (when feasible), colostomy, distal washout and drainage. The complications rate was 27.8%, and from them, the majority (70%) were related to infectious nature. Seven patients died (9.7%), four of them as a consequence of sepsis. The morbidity and mortality of the rectal injuries were closed related to infectious complications as a consequence of late diagnosis. For this reason, the authors consider that all efforts should be employed to establish the prompt diagnosis. PMID:2099139

  5. Distal Biceps Injuries.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, John; Athwal, George S; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-11-01

    A review of distal biceps tendon injuries is presented. Notable and recent studies on the incidence, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment are outlined. The benefits and risks of 1- and 2-incision techniques for repair are discussed, and classic studies are reviewed. PMID:26498551

  6. Hypermobility and Knee Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research on the effect of hypermobility on knee injury indicates that greater than normal joint flexibility may be necessary for some athletic endeavors and that it may be possible to change one's underlying flexibility through training. However, for most athletes, inherited flexibility probably plays only a small role, if any, in…

  7. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  8. Pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to Emergency Departments, United States 1990-2003.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Knox, Christy L; Smith, Gary A; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-08-01

    Although an estimated 6.5 million United States (US) children aged 6-17 practiced a martial art in 2004, there have been no nationally representative studies comparing pediatric injuries among the three most popular disciplines, karate, taekwondo, and judo. Describe pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to a representative sample of US Emergency Departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2003. We reviewed all martial arts injuries captured by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC), National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). An estimated 128,400 children injuries from 1990 to 2003. Injured tended to be male (73.0%) and had a mean age of 12.1 years. Most injuries were attributed to karate (79.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was being kicked (25.6%), followed by falling (20.6%) and kicking (18.0%). The majority of injuries occurred to the lower leg/foot/ankle (30.1%) and hand/wrist (24.5%). The most common injury diagnoses were sprains/strains (29.3%), contusions/abrasions (27.8%), and fractures (24.6%). Participants in judo sustained significantly higher proportions of shoulder/upper arm injuries than karate (IPR=4.31, 95% CI: 2.84-6.55) or taekwondo (IPR=9.75, 95% CI: 3.53-26.91) participants. There were also higher proportions of neck injuries sustained by judo participants compared to karate (IPR=4.73, 95% CI: 1.91-11.70) or taekwondo (IPR=4.17, 95% CI: 1.02-17.06) participants. Pediatric martial arts injuries differ by discipline. Understanding these injury patterns can assist with the development of discipline-specific preventive interventions. PMID:16914371

  9. Elevated depressive symptoms and adolescent injury: examining associations by injury frequency, injury type, and gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key risk factors for adolescent injury have been well documented, and include structural, behavioural, and psychosocial indicators. While psychiatric distress has been associated with suicidal behaviour and related self-harm, very little research has examined the role of depression in shaping adolescent injury. This study examines the association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury, including total number of injuries and injury type. Gender differences are also considered. Methods Data were drawn in 2010–11 from a representative sample of 2,989 high school students (14 to18 years of age) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Self-reported injury outcomes were examined using the 17-item Adolescent Injury Checklist, which captures past six-month injuries. Elevated depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Associations of elevated depressive symptoms with total number of injuries were estimated with negative binomial regression, while associations with specific injury types were estimated with logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms experienced a 40% increase in the total number of injury events occurring in the past six months. The association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury was consistent across injury type; violence-related (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.03), transport-related (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13), and unintentional injuries (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.27). Gender differences were also observed. Conclusion Elevated depressive symptoms play a role in shaping adolescent injury. Interventions aimed at reducing adolescent injury should look to minimize psychosocial antecedents, such as poor mental health, that put adolescents at an elevated risk. PMID:24555802

  10. Neck Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the neck, is also called neck sprain or strain. Treatment depends on the cause, but may include applying ice, taking pain relievers, getting physical therapy or wearing a cervical collar. You rarely need surgery.

  11. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P < .0001), especially in the most technically demanding discipline of classical ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet.

  12. A Modified Controlled Cortical Impact Technique to Model Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Mechanics in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YungChia; Mao, Haojie; Yang, King H.; Abel, Ted; Meaney, David F.

    2014-01-01

    For the past 25?years, controlled cortical impact (CCI) has been a useful tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, creating injury patterns that includes primary contusion, neuronal loss, and traumatic axonal damage. However, when CCI was first developed, very little was known on the underlying biomechanics of mild TBI. This paper uses information generated from recent computational models of mild TBI in humans to alter CCI and better reflect the biomechanical conditions of mild TBI. Using a finite element model of CCI in the mouse, we adjusted three primary features of CCI: the speed of the impact to achieve strain rates within the range associated with mild TBI, the shape, and material of the impounder to minimize strain concentrations in the brain, and the impact depth to control the peak deformation that occurred in the cortex and hippocampus. For these modified cortical impact conditions, we observed peak strains and strain rates throughout the brain were significantly reduced and consistent with estimated strains and strain rates observed in human mild TBI. We saw breakdown of the blood–brain barrier but no primary hemorrhage. Moreover, neuronal degeneration, axonal injury, and both astrocytic and microglia reactivity were observed up to 8?days after injury. Significant deficits in rotarod performance appeared early after injury, but we observed no impairment in spatial object recognition or contextual fear conditioning response 5 and 8?days after injury, respectively. Together, these data show that simulating the biomechanical conditions of mild TBI with a modified cortical impact technique produces regions of cellular reactivity and neuronal loss that coincide with only a transient behavioral impairment. PMID:24994996

  13. Aortic and other arterial injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J D; Raju, S; Neely, W A; Berry, D W

    1975-01-01

    Three hundred sixty arterial injuries in 353 patients are reviewed. They covered a wide spectrum of injuries and included 36 aortic injuries and 19 cases of carotid truama. The mortality rate of 12% was in large part due to aortic injuries. Shock was the predominant cause of death. Infection was the most frequent non-fatal complication. Pulmonary complications were surprisingly uncommon. With methods and techniques discussed in the paper, 90% satisfactory end results were achieved. The amputation rate was 6% where extremity injuries were involved. Images Fig. 11. Fig. 13. PMID:1130881

  14. Study of cervical muscle response and injury of driver during a frontal vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenhai; Li, Chuzhao; Hu, Hongyu; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chaoyang; Yu, Huili

    2015-08-17

    Frontal vehicle collisions can cause injury to a driver's cervical muscles resulting from intense changes in muscle strain and muscle load. This study investigated the influence of collision forces in a sled test environment using a modified Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy equipped with simulated spring-type muscles. Cervical muscle responses including strain and load of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), splenius capitis (SPL), and trapezius (TRP) were analyzed, and muscle injury was assessed. The SCM, SPL, and TRP suffered average peak muscle strains of 21%, 40%, and 23%, respectively, exceeding the injury threshold. The average peak muscle loads of the SCM, SPL and TRP were 11 N, 25 N, and 25 N, respectively, lower than the ultimate failure load. The SPL endured the largest injury, while the injuries to the SCM and TRP were relatively small. This is a preliminary study to assess the cervical muscle of driver during a frontal vehicle collision. This study provides a foundation for investigating the muscle response and injury in sled test environments, which can lead to the improvement of occupant protections. PMID:26406056

  15. Naval flight deck injuries: a review of Naval Safety Center data, 1977-91.

    PubMed

    Shappell, S A

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive review of injuries sustained by personnel working on naval flight decks between January 1977 and December 1991 was conducted using database records maintained at the U.S. Naval Safety Center, Norfolk, VA. Data included all fatalities, permanent total disabilities, permanent partial disabilities, and major injuries resulting in 5 or more lost work days. Injuries were coded using ICD-9-CM codes for analysis. A total of 918 flight deck personnel were reported injured during this 15-yr period, including 43 fatalities, 5 permanent total disabilities, 42 permanent partial disabilities, and 828 major injuries. Of the non-fatalities, a plethora of fractures, traumatic amputations, major lacerations, dislocations, contusions, concussions, burns, crushing injuries, sprains, and strains were reported. Nearly all naval platforms with a flight deck reported an injury. While an average of 51 injuries per 100,000 aircraft recoveries were reported annually on aircraft carriers from 1977-86, a marked reduction to a rate of roughly 30 injuries was observed annually from 1987-90. What makes injuries sustained on the flight deck particularly disconcerting is that over 90% can be attributed to human causal factors. PMID:7646412

  16. Work-Related Knee Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Chakrabarty, Sangita; Levine, Robert S.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Ding, Tan; Jackson, Larry L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize work-related knee injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs). Methods We characterized work-related knee injuries treated in EDs in 2007 and examined trends from 1998 to 2007 by using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—occupational supplement (NEISS-Work). Results In 2007, 184,300 (± 54,000, 95% confidence interval) occupational knee injuries were treated in U.S. EDs, accounting for 5% of the 3.4 (± 0.9) million ED-treated occupational injuries. The ED-treated knee injury rate was 13 (± 4) injuries per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers. Younger workers and older female workers had high rates. Strains/sprains and contusions/abrasions were common—frequently resulting from falls and bodily reaction/overexertion events. Knee injury rates declined from 1998 through 2007. Conclusions Knee injury prevention should emphasize reducing falls and bodily reaction/overexertion events, particularly among all youth and older women. PMID:23969507

  17. Nonfatal Occupational Injury Rates and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Housekeeping Employees of a Hospital in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kirtigandha; Kumar, Shrawan; Hood, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in hospital cleaners. Methods. Injury data on all hospital employees were extracted from occupational health records and compared. Additionally an interview-based modified Nordic Questionnaire (response rate 98.14%) was conducted. Results. The mean total injury rate for cleaners was 35.9?per 100?full-time equivalent (FTE), while that for other employees was 13.64 per 100?FTE. Slips/trips/falls and MMH contributed 4.39 and 2.37 per 100?FTE among cleaners and rest of the hospital employees, respectively. The most common type of injury was strain while the most common cause of injury was a striking object. Conclusion. The cleaners have higher injury rates and morbidity as compared to other employees of the hospital. The lower back was most commonly affected. PMID:21776437

  18. Management of Extensor Tendon Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are very common injuries, which inappropriately treated can cause severe lasting impairment for the patient. Assessment and management of flexor tendon injuries has been widely reviewed, unlike extensor injuries. It is clear from the literature that extensor tendon repair should be undertaken immediately but the exact approach depends on the extensor zone. Zone I injuries otherwise known as mallet injuries are often closed and treated with immobilisaton and conservative management where possible. Zone II injuries are again conservatively managed with splinting. Closed Zone III or ‘boutonniere’ injuries are managed conservatively unless there is evidence of displaced avulsion fractures at the base of the middle phalanx, axial and lateral instability of the PIPJ associated with loss of active or passive extension of the joint or failed non-operative treatment. Open zone III injuries are often treated surgically unless splinting enable the tendons to come together. Zone V injuries, are human bites until proven otherwise requires primary tendon repair after irrigation. Zone VI injuries are close to the thin paratendon and thin subcutaneous tissue which strong core type sutures and then splinting should be placed in extension for 4-6 weeks. Complete lacerations to zone IV and VII involve surgical primary repair followed by 6 weeks of splinting in extension. Zone VIII require multiple figure of eight sutures to repair the muscle bellies and static immobilisation of the wrist in 45 degrees of extension. To date there is little literature documenting the quality of repairing extensor tendon injuries however loss of flexion due to extensor tendon shortening, loss of flexion and extension resulting from adhesions and weakened grip can occur after surgery. This review aims to provide a systematic examination method for assessing extensor injuries, presentation and management of all type of extensor tendon injuries as well as guidance on mobilisation pre and post surgery. PMID:22431949

  19. Diffraction tomography of strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionheart, W. R. B.; Withers, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    We consider whether it is possible to recover the three dimensional strain field tomographically from neutron and x-ray diffraction data for polycrystalline materials. We show that the distribution of strain transverse to a ray cannot be deduced from one diffraction pattern accumulated along that path, but that a certain moment of that data corresponds to the transverse ray transform of the strain tensor and so may be recovered by inverting that transform given sufficient data. We show that the whole strain tensor can be reconstructed from diffraction data measured using rotations about six directions that do not lie on a projective conic. In addition we give an inversion formula for complete data for the transverse ray transform. We also show that Bragg edge transmission data, which has been suggested for strain tomography with polychromatic data, cannot provide the strain distribution within the material but only the average along the ray path.

  20. Trends in sports injuries, 1982-1988: an in-depth study on four types of sport.

    PubMed

    Tenvergert, E M; Ten Duis, H J; Klasen, H J

    1992-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the records of both inpatients and outpatients which were treated for acute sports injuries in the Trauma Department of the University of Groningen (The Netherlands) during the years 1982 to 1988. We examined whether there was a trend in sports injuries in this time period. The study comprised four types of sports, i.e., soccer, volleyball, gymnastics, and martial arts. The absolutely highest rates of injuries across the seven years were found in soccer, followed by gymnastics, volleyball, and martial arts. Injuries sustained at participating in soccer, volleyball, and gymnastics involved for the major part the lower extremities, followed by injuries of the upper extremities, whereas the reverse pattern was observed for patients who participated in martial arts. For all four types of sport, the ankle and foot were the most frequently site of injury of the lower extremities. Sprains and strains were the major types of injury. Most injuries were seen at ages between 10 and 30 years. The ratio of male to female patients within age groups did not differ significantly across the seven years. We concluded that, except for martial arts, the increased participation in sports in the last decade was not accompanied with a change in the patterns of sports injuries by the patients' age, sex, and number and nature of the injury. This consistency in results can be used to guide the development of prevention programs aimed at a reduction of injuries in specific sports. PMID:1434593

  1. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the goals of the HOST Program is the development of electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures equal to or greater than 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a reproducible or predictable response to temperature, time and strain. It is the objective of this research to investigate criteria for the selection of materials for such applications through electrical properties studies. The results of the investigation of two groups of materials, refractory compounds and binary alloy solid solutions are presented.

  2. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making the same is disclosed. A beryllium copper ring having four strain gages is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to the output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of a ring which provides an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A photographic pattern of a one half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium copper for chem-mill etch formation is illustrated.

  3. Meniscal injury: II. Management.

    PubMed

    Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Bardana, Davide D; Burks, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    Meniscal repair is a viable alternative to resection in many clinical situations. Repair techniques traditionally have utilized a variety of suture methods, including inside-out and outside-in techniques. Bioabsorbable implants permit all-inside arthroscopic repairs. The success of meniscal repair depends on appropriate meniscal bed preparation and surgical technique and is also influenced by biologic factors such as tear rim width and associated ligamentous injury. Successful repair in >80% of cases has been reported in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Success rates are lower for isolated repairs. Complications related to repair include neurologic injury, postoperative loss of motion, recurrence of the tear, and infection. Meniscal allograft transplantation may provide a treatment option when meniscus salvage is not possible or when a previous total meniscectomy has been done. PMID:12041939

  4. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  5. Vascular Injuries: Trends in Management

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Wani, Nasir-ud-din

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent loss of life or limb. Sometimes serious vascular injury presents with only subtle or occult signs or symptoms. The patient may present weeks or months after initial injury with symptoms of vascular insufficiency, embolization, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula etc. Although the majority of vascular injuries are caused by penetrating trauma from gunshot wounds, stabbing or blast injury, the possibility of vascular injury needs to be considered in patients presenting with displaced long bone fractures, crush injury, prolonged immobilization in a fixed position by tight casts or bandages and various invasive procedures. iatrogenic vascular injuries constitute about 10% of cases in most series; however the incidence is an increasing trend because more endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and cardiac catheterization are being performed routinely. Civilian trauma is more frequently seen in young males. However, it can occur at any age due to road accidents, firearms, bomb blasts and diagnostic procedures. Most of the time, civilian trauma causes less tissue damage. There is an epidemic of vascular injuries in Kashmir valley because of problems in law and order in the past two decades. This review deals with the topic in detail. PMID:24350103

  6. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Richard J.; Linakis, Seth W.; Mello, Michael J.; Linakis, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7–17 treated in United States (U.S.) emergency departments (ED) from 2000–2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers. Methods A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000–2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for male patients ages 7–17 years old (subdivided into 7–11 years old [youth group] and 12–17 years old [scholastic group]). Results During the study period, there were an estimated 167,606 ED visits for wrestling injuries in 7–17 years old U.S. males, with 152,710 (91.1%) occurring in the older (12–17 years old) group. The annual injury incidence was 6.49 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the youth group and 29.57 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the scholastic group. The distribution of diagnoses was similar in both age groups, with sprain/strain as the most common diagnosis, followed by fracture and contusion/abrasion. Distributions of injury by location were significantly different between groups (p=0.02), although both groups exhibited approximately 75% of all injuries from the waist up. Overexertion and struck by/against were the most common precipitating and direct mechanisms in both groups, respectively. Over 97% of all injured wrestlers were treated and released. Conclusion The types of injury in youth (7–11 years old) wrestlers are similar to those of scholastic (12–17 years old) wrestlers, although the distribution of body parts injured differs between the age groups. The majority of injuries occurs above the waist and may be a target for prevention strategies. PMID:21293763

  7. Nature and pattern of cricket injuries: the Asian Cricket Council Under-19, Elite Cup, 2013.

    PubMed

    Das, Nabangshu S; Usman, Juliana; Choudhury, Dipankar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Cricket has over the years gained much popularity in Asia, thus the number of cricket players has also grown in tandem. However, cricket players are not as fortunate as other athletes as they do not always have a standard cricket infrastructure to practice; therefore, the injury prevalence is expected to be high. Unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the nature and pattern of cricket injuries prevalent to cricketers in this region. Therefore, a prospective cohort injury surveillance study was conducted during the Asian Cricket Council (ACC) Under-19 Elite Cup held in June 2013 in order to gather more data on the type of injuries sustained by cricket players. Overall, 31 injuries occurred to 28 players throughout the tournament, of which 7 injuries happened during practice sessions. The overall injury incidence rate (IIR) was 292.0 per 10,000 player hours (95% CI 176.9-407.1) and 10.4 per 10,000 balls faced and 2.6 per 1000 overs bowled delivered during batting and bowling, respectively. Injuries to the lower limb (IIR: 146; 95% CI 1.8-98.2) were the most frequent, followed by injuries to the upper limb (97.3;95% CI 30.2-164.5) and to the trunk and back (IIR: 36.5;95% CI 0.0-77.7). Sprain/strains (IIR 109.5;95% CI 38.4-180.7) to muscle/tendon and joint/ligament were the most commonly reported nature of injury. This is the first study investigating injury incidence among the players of the ACC. It provides an overview of injuries sustained by elite players' under-19 years of age from 10 Asian countries. The overall IIR is similar to earlier studies conducted in well-established cricket playing nations. PMID:24927127

  8. Nature and Pattern of Cricket Injuries: The Asian Cricket Council Under-19, Elite Cup, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nabangshu S.; Usman, Juliana; Choudhury, Dipankar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Cricket has over the years gained much popularity in Asia, thus the number of cricket players has also grown in tandem. However, cricket players are not as fortunate as other athletes as they do not always have a standard cricket infrastructure to practice; therefore, the injury prevalence is expected to be high. Unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the nature and pattern of cricket injuries prevalent to cricketers in this region. Therefore, a prospective cohort injury surveillance study was conducted during the Asian Cricket Council (ACC) Under-19 Elite Cup held in June 2013 in order to gather more data on the type of injuries sustained by cricket players. Overall, 31 injuries occurred to 28 players throughout the tournament, of which 7 injuries happened during practice sessions. The overall injury incidence rate (IIR) was 292.0 per 10,000 player hours (95% CI 176.9–407.1) and 10.4 per 10,000 balls faced and 2.6 per 1000 overs bowled delivered during batting and bowling, respectively. Injuries to the lower limb (IIR: 146; 95% CI 1.8–98.2) were the most frequent, followed by injuries to the upper limb (97.3;95% CI 30.2–164.5) and to the trunk and back (IIR: 36.5;95% CI 0.0–77.7). Sprain/strains (IIR 109.5;95% CI 38.4–180.7) to muscle/tendon and joint/ligament were the most commonly reported nature of injury. This is the first study investigating injury incidence among the players of the ACC. It provides an overview of injuries sustained by elite players' under-19 years of age from10 Asian countries. The overall IIR is similar to earlier studies conducted in well-established cricket playing nations. PMID:24927127

  9. Treatment of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Sadanori

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Radiation exposure as a result of radiation treatment, accident, or terrorism may cause serious problems such as deficiency due to necrosis or loss of function, fibrosis, or intractable ulcers in the tissues and organs. When the skin, bone, oral mucous membrane, guts, or salivary glands are damaged by ionizing radiation, the management and treatment are very lengthy and difficult. Critical Issues: In severe and irreversible injuries, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Several surgical procedures, such as debridement, skin grafting, and local and free-vascularized flaps, are widely used. Recent Advances: In specific cases of major morbidity or in high-risk patients, a newly developed therapy using a patient's own stem cells is safe and effective. Adipose tissue, normally a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, which are similar to those from the bone marrow, can be harvested, since the procedure is easy, and abundant tissue can be obtained with minimal invasiveness. Future Directions: Based on the molecular basis of radiation injuries, several prospective treatments are under development. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms focus on an individual's sensitivity to radiation in radiogenomics, and the pathology of radiation fibrosis or the effect of radiation on wound healing is being studied and will lead to new insight into the treatment of radiation injuries. Protectors and mitigators are being actively investigated in terms of the timing of administration or dose. PMID:24761339

  10. Orthopaedic Injuries in Equestrian Sports

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jason David; Gelbs, Jared Craig; Zhu, David Shiyu; Gallacher, Stacey Elisa; Sutton, Karen Michelle; Blaine, Theodore Alton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the common nature of orthopaedic injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published review to specifically characterize orthopaedic injuries in equestrian athletes. Purpose: To characterize orthopaedic injury patterns in equine sports–related injuries and their treatment. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This review was performed through a PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus query (from 1978 to June 2014) in the English literature using search terms “(equine-related OR equestrian-related OR horse-related OR equestrian OR equestrians) AND (injury OR injuries).” Only full-text studies reporting on orthopaedic injury patterns pertinent to equestrian sports in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) were included. Orthopaedic injuries were defined as those resulting in a fracture or dislocation. In all, 182 studies were excluded, leaving a total of 27 studies for evaluation. The studies included were analyzed for demographic and epidemiological data for orthopaedic injuries, including fractures and dislocations. Cranial and facial injuries were excluded from analysis. Results: The majority of those injured in the US were female (64.5%). The leading cause of injury in the US was falling from a horse. The use of protective equipment seemed to vary widely, with helmet use ranging from less than 6% up to 66.7%. In the UK, fractures were found to account for 17.4% of reported injures, compared with 33.6% of injuries in the US. The majority of fractures in US riders occurred in the upper extremities (50.7%). Conclusion: This review helps characterize the epidemiology of equestrian injuries based on currently available data. PMID:26535400

  11. Geodetic Strain Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Sharon; Baxter, Sean C.; Parker, Jay W.; Webb, Frank H.; Owen, Susan E.; Sibthorpe, Anthony J.; Dong, Danan

    2011-01-01

    A geodetic software analysis tool enables the user to analyze 2D crustal strain from geodetic ground motion, and create models of crustal deformation using a graphical interface. Users can use any geodetic measurements of ground motion and derive the 2D crustal strain interactively. This software also provides a forward-modeling tool that calculates a geodetic velocity and strain field for a given fault model, and lets the user compare the modeled strain field with the strain field obtained from the user s data. Users may change parameters on-the-fly and obtain a real-time recalculation of the resulting strain field. Four data products are computed: maximum shear, dilatation, shear angle, and principal components. The current view and data dependencies are processed first. The remaining data products and views are then computed in a round-robin fashion to anticipate view changes. When an analysis or display parameter is changed, the affected data products and views are invalidated and progressively re-displayed as available. This software is designed to facilitate the derivation of the strain fields from the GPS and strain meter data that sample it to facilitate the understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the strain field derivation from continuous GPS (CGPS) and other geodetic data from a variety of tectonic settings, to converge on the "best practices" strain derivation strategy for the Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES) project given the CGPS station distribution in the western U.S., and to provide SESES users with a scientific and educational tool to explore the strain field on their own with user-defined parameters.

  12. Bone Tunnel Diameter Measured with CT after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Double-Bundle Auto-Hamstring Tendons: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soo Jeong; Bae, So Young; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between bone tunnel diameter after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction measured by computed tomography (CT) using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and stability or clinical scores. Materials and Methods Forty-seven patients (41 men and 6 women, mean age: 34 years) who had undergone ACL reconstruction with the double bundle technique using auto-hamstring graft and had subsequently received CT scans immediately after the surgery (T1: range, 1-4 days, mean, 2.5 days) and at a later time (T2: range, 297-644 days, mean, 410.4 days) were enrolled in this study. The diameter of each tunnel (two femoral and two tibial) at both T1 and T2 were independently measured using MPR technique by two radiologists. Stability and clinical scores were evaluated with a KT-2000 arthrometer, International Knee Documentation Committee objective scores, and the Lysholm score. Statistical analysis of the correlation between the diameter at T2 or the interval diameter change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and clinical scores or stability was investigated. Results The tibial bone tunnels for the anteromedial bundles were significantly widened at T2 compared with T1 (observer 1, 0.578 mm to 0.698 mm, p value of < 0.001; observer 2, 0.581 mm to 0.707 mm, p value of < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the diameter at T2 and stability or clinical scores and between the interval change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and stability or clinical scores (corrected p values for all were 1.0). Intraobserver agreement for measurements was excellent (> 0.8) for both observers. Interobserver agreement for measurement was excellent (> 0.8) except for the most distal portion of the femoral bone tunnel for anterior medial bundle in immediate postoperative CT, which showed moderate agreement (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.6311). Conclusion Neither the diameter nor its change ratio during interval follow-up is correlated with stability or clinical scores. PMID:26576121

  13. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a conditional allele of mdm2 that functions as a wild type allele prior to excision by the Cre recombinase. Cre-mediated deletion of exons 7-9 in vivo has been shown. This strain is useful for studying functions of Mdm2, an essential inhibitor of p53.

  14. Light intensity strain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process is described for the analysis of the strain field of structures subjected to large deformations involving a low modulus substrate having a high modulus, relatively thin coating. The optical properties of transmittance and reflectance are measured for the coated substrate while stressed and unstressed to indicate the strain field for the coated substrate.

  15. ACL injury risk in elite female youth soccer: Changes in neuromuscular control of the knee following soccer-specific fatigue.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, M B A; Priestley, A M; Lloyd, R S; Oliver, J L

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is known to influence dynamic knee joint stability from a neuromuscular perspective, and electromechanical delay (EMD) plays an important role as the feedback activation mechanism that stabilizes the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on EMD in U13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. Thirty-six youth soccer players performed eccentric actions of the hamstrings in a prone position at 60, 120, and 180°/s before and after a soccer-specific fatigue trial. Surface electromyography was used to determine EMD from the semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius. A time?×?age?×?muscle?×?velocity repeated measures analysis of variance was used to explore the influence of fatigue on EMD. A significant main effect for time (P?=?0.001) indicated that EMD was significantly longer post- compared with pre-fatigue (58.4% increase). A significant time?×?group interaction effect (P?=?0.046) indicated EMD was significantly longer in the U13 age group compared with the U15 (P?=?0.011) and U17 (P?=?0.021) groups and greater post-fatigue. Soccer-specific fatigue compromised neuromuscular feedback mechanisms and the age-related effects may represent a more compliant muscle-tendon system in younger compared with older girls, increasing risk of injury. PMID:25556396

  16. Epidemiologic Approaches to Injury and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    This volume of Epidemiologic Reviews features 13 articles covering a variety of injury problems and research topics. In this commentary, the authors highlight the remarkable achievements in injury control and the important role the Haddon Matrix has played in understanding injury causation and developing preventive strategies; comment on the individual articles included in this volume in the broad categories of research methods, childhood injury, motor-vehicle-related injury, alcohol-related injury, intentional injury, and occupational injury; and outline research gaps and future directions in injury epidemiology and prevention. PMID:22180470

  17. Metallothionein-induced zinc partitioning exacerbates hyperoxic acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Min; McLaughlin, Joseph N.; Frederick, Daniel R.; Zhu, Lin; Thambiayya, Kalidasan; Wasserloos, Karla J.; Kaminski, Iris; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim; Li, Jin; Latoche, Joseph D.; Peck Palmer, Octavia M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Alcorn, John F.; Oury, Tim D.; Angus, Derek C.; Pitt, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypozincemia, with hepatic zinc accumulation at the expense of other organs, occurs in infection, inflammation, and aseptic lung injury. Mechanisms underlying zinc partitioning or its impact on extrahepatic organs are unclear. Here we show that the major zinc-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), is critical for zinc transmigration from lung to liver during hyperoxia and preservation of intrapulmonary zinc during hyperoxia is associated with an injury-resistant phenotype in MT-null mice. Particularly, lung-to-liver zinc ratios decreased in wild-type (WT) and increased significantly in MT-null mice breathing 95% oxygen for 72 h. Compared with female adult WT mice, MT-null mice were significantly protected against hyperoxic lung injury indicated by reduced inflammation and interstitial edema, fewer necrotic changes to distal airway epithelium, and sustained lung function at 72 h hyperoxia. Lungs of MT-null mice showed decreased levels of immunoreactive LC3, an autophagy marker, compared with WT mice. Analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the lungs revealed similar levels of manganese-SOD activity between strains under normoxia and hyperoxia. Lung extracellular SOD activity decreased significantly in both strains at 72 h of hyperoxia, although there was no difference between strains. Copper-zinc-SOD activity was ?4× higher under normoxic conditions in MT-null compared with WT mice but was not affected in either group by hyperoxia. Collectively the data suggest that genetic deletion of MT-I/II in mice is associated with compensatory increase in copper-zinc-SOD activity, prevention of hyperoxia-induced zinc transmigration from lung to liver, and hyperoxia-resistant phenotype strongly associated with differences in zinc homeostasis during hyperoxic acute lung injury. PMID:23275622

  18. Travel Aches and Strains Can Be a Pain in Your Back

    MedlinePLUS

    ... family, long hours in a car or an airplane can leave you stressed, tired, stiff and sore. “ ... stretch your hamstring and calf muscles. IN AN AIRPLANE • Stand up straight and feel the normal “S” curve ...

  19. Ocular injuries from automobile batteries.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, T L

    1977-01-01

    The incidence of eye injuries related to automobile batteries has sharply increased, currently comprising nearly 1% of all unscheduled eye visits to one medical center. A series of 93 cases obtained over 81/2 years was reviewed and follow-up information obtained. While two thirds of the injuries were relatively minor, 10% (9) of the patients sustained permanent ocular damage or required hospitalization. All of the severe injuries and the majority of the other injuries were caused by battery explosions. Not only should the inherent danger of the lead-acid storage battery be reduced, but the public must be alerted to the hazard. PMID:929798

  20. School Environment and School Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Simo; Kurenniemi, Marja; Råback, Mirka; Markkula, Jaana; Lounamaa, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7%) of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to, or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusion: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard. PMID:24455667

  1. Skateboarding injuries: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Shuman, Kristin M; Meyers, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    This in-depth literature review shows that skateboarding has experienced intermittent periods of popularity, with an estimated 6-15 million skateboarders in the US currently involved at all levels of recreational play and competition. Head trauma accounts for ? 3.5-13.1% of all skateboarding injuries. Injury occurs most often to the upper extremity (55-63%), whereas thoracoabdominal and spine injuries account for 1.5-2.9% of all trauma and lower extremity injuries occur 17-26% of the time. Few fatal injuries (1.1%) have been reported, oftentimes resulting from traumatic head injuries incurred from collisions with motor vehicles. Although skateparks may be perceived as a safer alternative to street skateboarding, injuries still occur when the skateboarder collides with an object or falls from the board. Factors leading to trauma include fatigue and overuse, age and skill level, inadequate medical care, environmental conditions, equipment concerns, lack of fitness and training, and the detrimental behavior of the competitor. Although not all skateboarding injuries are avoidable, numerous opportunities exist to instill safety involving education, instruction, and supervision and the proper use of protective gear to reduce predisposition to trauma. Future research recommendations include a more standardized data collection system, as well as an increased focus on kinetic analysis of the sport. Legislation involving helmet laws and the increased investment in a safer environment for the skateboarder may also assist in reducing injury in this sport. PMID:26018674

  2. [Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury].

    PubMed

    Kannus, P; Paavola, M; Paakkala, T; Parkkari, J; Järvinen, T; Järvinen, M

    2002-10-01

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports. The etiology as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance. At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage. The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment. Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information. PMID:12402104

  3. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  4. Six Degree-of-Freedom Measurements of Human Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Fidel; Wu, Lyndia C; Yip, Michael C; Laksari, Kaveh; Hoffman, Andrew R; Lopez, Jaime R; Grant, Gerald A; Kleiven, Svein; Camarillo, David B

    2015-08-01

    This preliminary study investigated whether direct measurement of head rotation improves prediction of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Although many studies have implicated rotation as a primary cause of mTBI, regulatory safety standards use 3 degree-of-freedom (3DOF) translation-only kinematic criteria to predict injury. Direct 6DOF measurements of human head rotation (3DOF) and translation (3DOF) have not been previously available to examine whether additional DOFs improve injury prediction. We measured head impacts in American football, boxing, and mixed martial arts using 6DOF instrumented mouthguards, and predicted clinician-diagnosed injury using 12 existing kinematic criteria and 6 existing brain finite element (FE) criteria. Among 513 measured impacts were the first two 6DOF measurements of clinically diagnosed mTBI. For this dataset, 6DOF criteria were the most predictive of injury, more than 3DOF translation-only and 3DOF rotation-only criteria. Peak principal strain in the corpus callosum, a 6DOF FE criteria, was the strongest predictor, followed by two criteria that included rotation measurements, peak rotational acceleration magnitude and Head Impact Power (HIP). These results suggest head rotation measurements may improve injury prediction. However, more 6DOF data is needed to confirm this evaluation of existing injury criteria, and to develop new criteria that considers directional sensitivity to injury. PMID:25533767

  5. Occupational injury fatalities--1994.

    PubMed

    Toscano, G; Jack, T

    1996-01-01

    Factory workers caught in machinery and construction workers falling or struck by huge beams are images that typically come to mind when considering serious hazards in the workplace. But these types of events account for only a small portion of job-related fatalities each year. Transportation-related fatalities, along with assaults and violent acts during work, made up almost two-thirds of the 6,588 fatal work injuries recorded in 1994. The majority of job-related fatal work events occurred on the streets and highways and in public buildings and in areas such as grocery stores and parking lots. Today the most deadly jobs are found in outdoor occupations such as fishing and timber cutting. In fact, in all 10 jobs studied that have high fatality rates, most workers are affected by severe weather conditions while driving on highways, performing farm chores and working at construction sites. Highway crashes are the primary cause of trucker fatalities; falls are the leading cause of death for roofers, construction laborers and structural metal workers, while tractor rollovers account for a third of farm worker fatalities. Another deadly contributing factor for some workers is homicide, which accounted for 16 percent of job-related fatalities in 1994. Workers most at risk are those who work alone, work late at night and handle varying sums of money. Taxicab drivers are the most susceptible and have a work injury fatality rate nine times higher than the national rate of 5 deaths per 100,000 workers. Others at high risk of homicide include gas station cashiers, grocery store employees and workers in retail eating and drinking establishments. Although the risk of a fatal injury at work varies greatly by occupation and industry, no one is immune. For prevention, workers and employers need to know what jobs are risky, what equipment is dangerous and what activities are hazardous. They also should understand that a fatal incident can happen to anyone. PMID:8718711

  6. Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kallet, Richard H; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged breathing of very high FIO2 (FIO2 ? 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of FIO2, is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to PO2 (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an FIO2 of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O2 species that overwhelms natural antioxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when FIO2exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when FIO2 exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of FIO2, the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over FIO2, as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies. PMID:23271823

  7. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Mats; Westman, Anton; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22–44 years) were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting. PMID:26464887

  8. Flood injury in horses.

    PubMed

    McConnico, Rebecca S

    2007-05-01

    There is no way to prepare for every situation that arises in a disaster. By working closely with other producers and agricultural leaders, however, horse owners can lessen the impact of a disaster on their operation. Preparation and detailed planning are the most important aspects of flood-related injury prevention. Encouraging animal owners and caretakers to have an evacuation plan and dispersing knowledge about local and regional disaster authorities are critical for a successful disaster response. Educational programs on future disaster response empower communities to care for their people and animals responsibly. PMID:17379106

  9. [Pelvic ring injury].

    PubMed

    Pavelka, T; Dzupa, V; Rysavý, M; Grill, R; Báca, V; Skála-Rosenbaum, J; Chmelová, J; Otcenásek, M

    2006-12-01

    The authors compare their experience with the treatment of pelvic ring injuries with the literature data concerning the etiology, diagnosis and classification of this trauma, co-existing pathologies, primary therapeutic procedures, timing of the definitive treatment, surgical approaches, osteosynthesis of the posterior and anterior segments, complications and lasting sequelae. The authors regard the issue of surgical treatment as an independent discipline in the field of musculoskeletal system traumatology. They see the reason for it in the variability and complexity of primary therapeutic procedures and the necessity of following up and attending to the patients in whom treatment of complications and lasting sequelae requires multi-disciplinary co-operation. PMID:17266844

  10. [Scintigraphy in spleen injuries].

    PubMed

    Quandalle, P; Marchandise, X; Chambon, J P; Venel, R; Steinlig, M; Ribet, M

    1982-11-13

    Scintiscans of the spleen were performed in 62 hospital patients under observation for abdominal contusion. No abnormality was detected in 82% of the cases, and the course of events showed that the spleen was intact. Lesional images were found in the remaining 18%. Injury to the spleen was excluded by other investigations in 10% (false positive results) but confirmed in 8% who underwent laparotomy. This fast and non aggressive method can be recommended outside emergencies to exclude rupture or haematoma of the spleen. PMID:7155833

  11. [Recent advances in the study on the mechanism of brain injury].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Yanagida, Y; Nishimura, A; Ueno, Y; Adachi, J; Tatsuno, Y; Mizoi, Y

    1993-10-01

    A cerebral contusion and DAI (diffuse axonal injury) are practically very important in a medico-legal case of the closed head injury. In this paper, we will report the epitome of the recent advances in the study on the mechanism of them. Coup contusion can be mainly attributed to the skull inbending and/or the skull fracture which develop in the impact region. As to the mechanism of the contrecoup contusion, several theories are reported. During rotational movement of the head, intracerebral shear strains would be produced because of brain lag (Holbourn's rotation theory). Anatomical features of the skull plays an important role (Gurdjian). Relative movement between a brain and a skull induces intracranial cavitation due to pressure gradient (Gross's cavitation theory). Brain is injured by deformation pressure induced by skull deformation and acceleration one done by a movement of the head (Lindenberg). The last one is Courville's transmitted waves of force theory. As to DAI, there is Gennarelli's theory. During a rotational movement of a brain caused by high rate of angular acceleration operating for a long period, intracerebral shear strains occur and injure a brain. As to the brain injuries which include a cerebral contusion and DAI, two theories are reported. Centripetal progression of strains to the core of a brain injuries the brain (Ommaya). Natural frequency of impact determines the nature of resulting injury to the brain (Willinger). PMID:8258903

  12. Microfluidic culture platform for studying neuronal response to mild to very mild axonal stretch injury.

    PubMed

    Yap, Yiing C; Dickson, Tracey C; King, Anna E; Breadmore, Michael C; Guijt, Rosanne M

    2014-07-01

    A new model for studying localised axonal stretch injury is presented, using a microfluidic device to selectively culture axons on a thin, flexible poly (dimethylsiloxane) membrane which can be deflected upward to stretch the axons. A very mild (0.5% strain) or mild stretch injury (5% strain) was applied to primary cortical neurons after 7 days growth in vitro. The extent of distal degeneration was quantified using the degenerative index (DI, the ratio of fragmented axon area to total axon area) of axons fixed at 24 h and 72 h post injury (PI), and immunolabelled for the axon specific, microtubule associated protein-tau. At 24 h PI following very mild injuries (0.5%), the majority of the axons remained intact and healthy with no significant difference in DI when compared to the control, but at 72 h PI, the DI increased significantly (DI?=?0.11?±?0.03). Remarkably, dendritic beading in the somal compartment was observed at 24 h PI, indicative of dying back degeneration. When the injury level was increased (5% stretch, mild injury), microtubule fragmentation along the injured axons was observed, with a significant increase in DI at 24 h PI (DI?=?0.17?±?0.02) and 72 h PI (DI?=?0.18?±?0.01), relative to uninjured axons. The responses observed for both mild and very mild injuries are similar to those observed in the in vivo models of traumatic brain injury, suggesting that this model can be used to study neuronal trauma and will provide new insights into the cellular and molecular alterations characterizing the neuronal response to discrete axonal injury. PMID:25379095

  13. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Injury Deaths, United States – 2012 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2013 [ ...

  14. Stem cell therapies for traumatic brain injury.

    E-print Network

    Koliatsos, VE; Xu, L; Cummings, BJ

    2015-01-01

    human neural stem cells in models of spinal cord injury andstem cell engraftment, proliferation and migration after spinal cord injury.stem cell therapies for models of DAI, although the field can borrow from spinal cord injury

  15. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Calendar 2016 ThinkFirst Conference on Injury Prevention (View) Invisible Home Injury is the leading cause of death ... Proud Member of the Combined Federal Campaign #35749 Invisible About Us Injury Prevention Programs Facts & Publications Chapters ...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2127 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2127 Injury. Injury means any...than slightly detracts from the appearance of the individual almond. The following shall be considered as injury: (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2127 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2127 Injury. Injury means any...than slightly detracts from the appearance of the individual almond. The following shall be considered as injury: (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2127 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2127 Injury. Injury means any...than slightly detracts from the appearance of the individual almond. The following shall be considered as injury: (a)...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2127 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2127 Injury. Injury means any...than slightly detracts from the appearance of the individual almond. The following shall be considered as injury: (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2127 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2127 Injury. Injury means any...than slightly detracts from the appearance of the individual almond. The following shall be considered as injury: (a)...

  1. Epidemiology of injuries in hurling: a prospective study 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Catherine; O'Malley, Edwenia; Gissane, Conor; Murphy, John C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hurling is a stick handling game which, although native to Ireland, has international reach and presence. The aim of this study was to report incidence and type of injuries incurred by elite male hurling players over five consecutive playing seasons. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Male intercounty elite sports teams participating in the National GAA Injury Database, 2007–2011. Participants A total of 856 players in 25 county teams were enrolled. Primary and secondary outcomes Incidence, nature and mechanism of injury were recorded by team physicians or physiotherapists to a secure online data collection portal. Time-loss injury rates per 1000 training and match play hours were calculated and injury proportions were expressed. Results In total 1030 injuries were registered, giving a rate of 1.2 injuries per player. These were sustained by 71% (n=608) of players. Injury incidence rate was 2.99 (95% CI 2.68 to 3.30) per 1000 training hours and 61.75 (56.75 to 66.75) per 1000 match hours. Direct player-to-player contact was recorded in 38.6% injuries, with sprinting (24.5%) and landing (13.7%) the next most commonly reported injury mechanisms. Median duration of time absent from training or games, where the player was able to return in the same season, was 12?days (range 2–127?days). The majority (68.3%) of injuries occurred in the lower limbs, with 18.6% in the upper limbs. The trunk and head/neck regions accounted for 8.6% and 4.1% injuries, respectively. The distribution of injury type was significantly different (p<0.001) between upper and lower extremities: fractures (upper 36.1%, lower 1.5%), muscle strain (upper 5.2%, lower 45.8%). Conclusions These data provide stable, multiannual data on injury patterns in hurling, identifying the most common injury problems. This is the first step in applying a systematic, theory-driven injury prevention model in the sport. PMID:24948748

  2. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, Lisa Marie (Swissvale, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

  3. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  4. Home-Related Head Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home-Related Head Injuries by Product Product Category Estimated Injuries 1. Floors or Flooring Materials 379,049 ... 378-0600 ? www.aans.org In 2009, an estimated 1.5 million people were treated at U.S. ...

  5. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts ... an eye injury does occur, have an ophthalmologist or other medical doctor examine the eye as soon as possible, ...

  6. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; ?ah, Volkan; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  7. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  8. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; ?ah, Volkan; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

    2015-01-18

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients' family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  9. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and…

  10. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A.; Birner, S.

    2014-04-21

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ?5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  11. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Homozygous breeder pairs are provided. Average litter size is approximately 6. Strain is maintained as homozygous and cannot be readily genotyped by PCR. It can, however, be genotyped by FISH analysis.

  12. The strained state cosmology

    E-print Network

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behaviour of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativ- ity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time repro- duces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theor...

  13. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  14. Acute kidney injury: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Devasmita

    2010-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases morbidity and mortality, particularly for the critically ill. Recent definitions standardizing AKI to reflect graded changes in serum creatinine and urine output (per the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal failure [RIFLE] and Acute Kidney Injury Network [AKIN] criteria) with severity of renal injury and developments in AKI pathobiology are being utilized to identify biomarkers of early kidney injury. These developments may be useful in the early intervention of preventing AKI. Although there has been progress in the management of AKI, therapeutic challenges include appropriate prophylaxis prior to contrast administration, use of diuretics, vasopressors, and the type and dose of renal replacement therapy. Future use of bioartificial dialyzers, plasma therapies, and the possibility of stem cell regeneration of injured kidney tissue are being actively investigated to provide alternative treatment options for AKI. This review aims to provide an overview of current practices, available therapies, and continued research in AKI therapy. PMID:21084779

  15. Injury in professional Irish dancers.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2013-12-01

    Despite the evolution of Irish dance to professional status in recent decades, only scant investigation of musculoskeletal pain and injury among professional Irish dancers (PIDs) has been undertaken. This study investigated the rate of injury and associated factors among 178 PIDs, using an online questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-seven PIDs (76.7%) reported a previous injury, with the foot (67.9%) and ankle (60.6%) most commonly affected. A mean career rate of 2.25 injuries per dancer was computed. The majority of injuries were minor in nature, and almost half occurred midway through a tour. Sixty subjects (33.7%) reported that they often or always danced in pain. The main contributory factors to injury were accidents, fatigue or overwork, repetitive movements, and unsafe stages. Warm-up (98.8%) and cool-down (84.3%) were almost universally practised, with cross-training engaged in by 124 PIDs (74.7%). Popular treatments used to prevent and manage injuries were massage (N = 137, or 83.0% of PIDs), stretching (N = 117, or 70.1%) and physiotherapy (N = 105, or 62.9%). There was a moderate level of psychological distress among the participants, with "interpersonal difficulties" and "tension with people" the main problems cited. PIDs who were older (p = 0.008) and more experienced (p = 0.002) reported missing a greater number of performances due to injury. There were no other significant relationships between injury and factors, including gender, frequency of dancing in pain, use of warm-up, cool-down, or cross-training. Further prospective studies of PIDs should consider both physical and biopsychosocial elements to generate an appropriate screening process to predict those at risk of injury. PMID:24565330

  16. Review of musculoskeletal injuries and prevention in the endoscopy practitioner.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940

  17. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  18. Reappraisal of timing for exploration of civilian peripheral nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Kline, D G; Hackett, E R

    1975-07-01

    Operative as well as electrophysiologic experience with 213 major nerve injuries over the last 8 years and primate experiments form the basis of this reappraisal. Those lesions in continuity resected (58 of 172) usually had no response to stimulation or nerve action potential (NAP) at 8 weeks or longer after injury but were not necessarily complete lesions on clinical examination or electromyography. Axonal organization and maturity were of such poor quality that functional regeneration would not have resulted. Despite preoperative evidence of an incomplete lesion, operative studies confirmed a complete lesion in 21 instances. In 103 lesions NAP's could be recorded and, where neurolysis was done, recovery was acceptable in 91 percent. Many of these lesions had appeared complete on preoperative evaluation. Nerves transected by glass and repaired primarily had superior electrical and functional recovery to those repaired secondarily, although variations in clinical settings prevented statistical analysis. Experimental work in 20 primates with glass-wounded nerves favored primary repair, for NAP, evoked muscle action potential, and strain gauge studies of muscle power were superior in 14. Lesions in continuity should have exploration delayed until 8 weeks so that physiologic decisions regarding need for resection and repair can be made. Transecting injuries should be explored primarily, those without contusinve element repaired immediately, and those with contusion repaired 3 weeks after injury. PMID:1138400

  19. Cheerleading-Related Injuries in the United States: A Prospective Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Brenda J.; Smith, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cheerleading injuries are on the rise and are a significant source of injury to females. No published studies have described the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries by type of cheerleading team and event. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and to calculate injury rates by type of cheerleading team and event. Design: Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting: Participant exposure and injury data were collected from US cheerleading teams via the Cheerleading RIO (Reporting Information Online) online surveillance tool. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes from enrolled cheerleading teams who participated in official, organized cheerleading practices, pep rallies, athletic events, or cheerleading competitions. Main Outcome Measure(s): The numbers and rates of cheerleading injuries during a 1-year period (2006–2007) are reported by team type and event type. Results: A cohort of 9022 cheerleaders on 412 US cheerleading teams participated in the study. During the 1-year period, 567 cheerleading injuries were reported; 83% (467/565) occurred during practice, 52% (296/565) occurred while the cheerleader was attempting a stunt, and 24% (132/563) occurred while the cheerleader was basing or spotting 1 or more cheerleaders. Lower extremity injuries (30%, 168/565) and strains and sprains (53%, 302/565) were most common. Collegiate cheerleaders were more likely to sustain a concussion (P ?=? .01, rate ratio [RR] ?=? 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?=? 1.34, 6.59), and All Star cheerleaders were more likely to sustain a fracture or dislocation (P ?=? .01, RR ?=? 1.76, 95% CI ?=? 1.16, 2.66) than were cheerleaders on other types of teams. Overall injury rates for practices, pep rallies, athletic events, and cheerleading competitions were 1.0, 0.6, 0.6, and 1.4 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, respectively. Conclusions: We are the first to report cheerleading injury rates based on actual exposure data by type of team and event. These injury rates are lower than those reported for other high school and collegiate sports; however, many cheerleading injuries are preventable. PMID:19911082

  20. Arthrodesis after workplace injuries.

    PubMed

    Galey, Stephanie; Sferra, James J

    2002-06-01

    Many foot and ankle injuries are incurred in the workplace. Despite steel-toed shoes, metatarsal bars, and ankle-high boots, fractures which require arthrodesis procedures can occur. The area of the foot and ankle involved, any pre-existing conditions, and the patient's occupational requirements must be taken into account. When an employer is flexible, the patient can often return to a sit down job during the postoperative recovery, if intermittent elevation of the extremity is permitted and hours are gradually increased. Alternatively, manual laborers who operate heavy machinery or work on ladders or elevated surfaces will require a prolonged recovery period before being able to return to the workplace. Algorithms with return to work dates may be helpful, but because so many factors exist, a functional capacity evaluation is often necessary to determine what, if any, permanent restrictions will be required. PMID:12462116

  1. Acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Connell, Alistair; Laing, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) - an abrupt deterioration in renal function - causes a rise in serum creatinine (SCr) or fall in urine output. It is common, occurring in up to 20% of hospital admissions. Importantly, even small rises in SCr are associated with increased risk of death and longer hospital stays. A 2009 National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death report found that a proportion of AKI in secondary care was avoidable. In addition, management of established AKI was 'good' less than half the time. In practice, AKI represents a heterogeneous group of conditions, encompassing impairments in both kidney structure and function. Delivering disease-specific treatment early in the course of AKI may improve outcomes. The provision of best-practice care for all will rely on a better understanding of risk, and frameworks of care that can be applied across a diverse patient group. PMID:26621953

  2. Running on empty: families, time, and workplace injuries.

    PubMed

    Boden, Leslie I

    2005-11-01

    Over the past 5 decades, more women have entered the labor force, and more households have been headed by single parents. Both trends have substantially reduced parents' free time, creating added strain in the event of family health problems, including work-related injuries and illnesses. This commentary presents evidence about the impact of occupational injuries on today's families. In addition to losing considerable income, injured parents are less able to do household work, and other family members are often called on to care for them. Family members cut back on their paid, school, and household work to fill in for the injured parent. This suggests the importance of policies to help today's time-strapped families cope with major family health events. PMID:16195511

  3. Running on Empty: Families, Time, and Workplace Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Leslie I.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 5 decades, more women have entered the labor force, and more households have been headed by single parents. Both trends have substantially reduced parents’ free time, creating added strain in the event of family health problems, including work-related injuries and illnesses. This commentary presents evidence about the impact of occupational injuries on today’s families. In addition to losing considerable income, injured parents are less able to do household work, and other family members are often called on to care for them. Family members cut back on their paid, school, and household work to fill in for the injured parent. This suggests the importance of policies to help today’s time-strapped families cope with major family health events. PMID:16195511

  4. Fractures and dislocations of the midfoot: Lisfranc and Chopart injuries.

    PubMed

    Benirschke, Stephen K; Meinberg, Eric G; Anderson, Sarah A; Jones, Clifford B; Cole, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The midfoot is a complex association of five bones and many articulations between the forefoot metatarsals and the talus and calcaneus, which make up the hindfoot. These anatomic relationships are connected and restrained by an even more complex network of ligaments, capsules, and fascia, which must function as a unit to provide normal and painless locomotion. The common eponyms of Lisfranc and Chopart refer to the distal and proximal joint relationships of the midfoot, respectively. Midfoot injuries range from single ligament strains to complicated fracture-dislocations involving multiple bones and joints. To provide best outcomes for patients, it is important to understand the anatomy and the mechanical function of the midfoot; to review the epidemiology, mechanism, and classification of injuries encountered in an orthopaedic clinical practice; and to review the principles, indications, and surgical techniques for managing midfoot fractures and dislocations. PMID:23395016

  5. Hunting injuries in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Forks, Thomas P

    2002-11-01

    It is clear from the data that hunting injuries in Mississippi mirror those which occur nationwide. The vast majority of these injuries are easily preventable by following common sense hunting safety rules. As with firearm injuries, tree stand injuries are clearly preventable by following common sense rules (Table 1). Most falls are due to poorly constructed or old wooden tree stands that come apart or become detached from the tree thereby causing the hunter to fall. All bolts and fasteners should be inspected and replaced if found to be defective prior to use of the stand. Old, broken or rotten lumber should be replaced. Tree stands should only be placed in healthy, mature trees with strong healthy limbs. Unfortunately, tree stand hunters seldom wear safety harnesses when hunting. These devices, when used properly (worm around the chest under both arms), can greatly decrease morbidity and mortality associated with falls. To minimize trauma, tree stands should be constructed no greater than 20 feet above ground level. Hunters should be cautioned to wear non-slip boots [table| see text] and to apply a non-slip covering to the floor of their tree stands prior to use of the stands. Other safety tips include the removal of all logs, stones or other obstructions from around the base of the tree. As with all hunters, tree stand hunters are advised to carry a compass, whistle, flashlight and cellular phone with them during their hunt. Hunting equipment, including bows and arrows and all firearms should never be carried up to the stand. This equipment should only be lifted or lowered to or from the stand with the use of a haul line. Hunters must remember the 10 commandments of gun safety (Table 2). Every firearm should be treated as if it were loaded. Firearms should not be pointed at anything other than the intended target and the muzzle must be controlled at all times. The action and barrel should be inspected prior to loading ammunition to ensure that they are clear of obstructions. The target must be clearly identified before discharging the firearm. All firearms must be kept separate from their ammunition and unloaded when not in use. Alcohol and any mind-altering substances (antihistamines, etc) must be strictly avoided when hunting. Hunters should avoid shooting at hard, flat surfaces in an attempt to prevent ricochets, should never pull a loaded gun toward themselves, and should never climb over a fence or other obstacle with a loaded firearm. Additional common sense safety precautions include the use of the "gun safety." The safety should be "on" at all times and switched off only when the rifle is sighted in, on the game just before discharge. This simple precaution may well prevent many of the accidental shootings that occur when firearms are dropped. When firearms are dropped, the hunter must carefully pick up the gun butt first while leaving the muzzle pointed toward the ground. Rifles should be left unloaded until game is sighted and should be loaded only in the immediate anticipation of discharging the firearm at game. Hunters are also advised to hunt in-groups and should notify family members or friends of the approximate time they anticipate entering and leaving the hunting area. Bright orange hunting vests have been shown to greatly increase the hunter's visibility and should always be worn when in the field during hunting season. Hunters are also advised to layer their clothing to prevent cold injuries. A backpack containing a flashlight, compass, prescription medications, first aid kit, cellular phone and high calorie foods should be taken into the field with the hunter. Bow hunters can drastically reduce injuries and death by following a few common sense rules (Table 3). All arrows should remain sheathed until prey is sighted at which time the arrow may be nocked to the bowstring. Bows should never be drawn until the hunter is ready to fire at the target. At all times, the bow and nocked arrow should be pointed in a safe direction. Reminding hunters of the major causes of accidents as wel

  6. The origins of strain stiffening in fibrin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawerth, Louise; Muenster, Stefan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Fibrin networks form the structural scaffold of blood clots; their non-linear mechanical properties are crucial to stem the flow of blood at a site of vascular injury. A hallmark of these networks is strain stiffening: a stiffness that increases non-linearly as a network is strained. Deformations of the fibers and the network combine to control the mechanical properties of the bulk and must lead to the strain stiffening behavior of the networks; however, the details of this process are unknown. Here, we study fibrin networks undergoing shear on a confocal microscope and compare this to bulk rheological measurements. We track individual fiber branchpoints as function of system strain. We characterize the non-affinity of the motion and show that the low strain, linear regime corresponds to highly non-affine motion while the high strain, nonlinear regime corresponds to affine motion. Moreover, we show that the non-linear bulk response can be well approximated by considering the fibers to be linear elastic elements with soft compressive behavior and, therefore, is a result of the topology of the network itself rather than nonlinearity of its constituents.

  7. Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tarney, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

  8. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys. PMID:15520121

  9. Comparison of injury incidences between football teams playing in different climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John W; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Orchard, Jessica J; Chivers, Ian; Seward, Hugh; Ekstrand, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Australian Football League (AFL) teams in northern (warmer) areas generally have higher rates of injury than those in southern (cooler) areas. Conversely, in soccer (football) in Europe, teams in northern (cooler) areas have higher rates of injury than those in southern (warmer) areas, with an exception being knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, which are more common in the southern (warmer) parts of Europe. This study examined relative injury incidence in the AFL comparing 9,477 injuries over 229,827 player-weeks from 1999-2012. There was a slightly higher injury incidence for teams from warmer parts of Australia (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.10) with quadriceps strains (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.58), knee cartilage injuries (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74), and ankle sprains (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.37) all being more likely in warmer region teams. Achilles injuries followed a reverse pattern, tending to be more common in cooler region teams (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47-1.03). In conclusion, common findings from the AFL and European soccer are that ankle sprains and ACL injuries are generally more likely in teams playing in warmer climate zones, whereas Achilles tendinopathy may be more likely in teams playing in cooler zones. These injuries may have climate or surface risk factors (possibly related to types and structure of grass and shoe-surface traction) that are universal across different football codes. PMID:24379731

  10. Epidemiology of High-Heel Shoe Injuries in U.S. Women: 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Lambert, Brice; Jenkins, Gabrielle P; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of high-heel-related injuries among a nationally representative population of women in the United States and to analyze the demographic differences within this group. The data used in the present study were collected from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A total of 3294 injuries, representing an estimated 123,355 high-heel-related injuries, were treated in emergency departments within the United States from 2002 to 2012. The overall rate of high-heel-related injuries for the study was 7.32 per 100,000 females (95% confidence interval 7.08 to 7.56). The injury rate was greatest for young adult females, with the greatest rates observed for those aged 20 to 29 years (18.38 per 100,000 females) and those aged 30 to 39 years (11.07 per 100,000 females). The results from the present study suggest that high-heel-related injuries have nearly doubled during the 11-year period from 2002 to 2012. Injuries from high heels are differential by body region, with most injuries occurring as sprains and strains to the foot and ankle. Although high heels might be stylish, from a health standpoint, it could be worthwhile for females and those interested in wearing high heels to understand the risks of wearing high-heeled shoes and the potential harm that precarious activities in high-heeled shoes can cause. The results of the present study can be used in the development of a prospective cohort study to investigate the risk of injury from high-heeled shoes, accounting for the exposure time and studying differences in demographics (e.g., age and race). PMID:25977152

  11. Terminology and classification of muscle injuries in sport: The Munich consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Haensel, Lutz; Mithoefer, Kai; Ekstrand, Jan; English, Bryan; McNally, Steven; Orchard, John; van Dijk, C Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M; Schamasch, Patrick; Blottner, Dieter; Swaerd, Leif; Goedhart, Edwin; Ueblacker, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. Methods Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional sports teams were asked to complete a questionnaire on muscle injuries to evaluate the currently used terminology of athletic muscle injury. In addition, a consensus meeting of international sports medicine experts was established to develop practical and scientific definitions of muscle injuries as well as a new and comprehensive classification system. Results The response rate of the survey was 63%. The responses confirmed the marked variability in the use of the terminology relating to muscle injury, with the most obvious inconsistencies for the term strain. In the consensus meeting, practical and systematic terms were defined and established. In addition, a new comprehensive classification system was developed, which differentiates between four types: functional muscle disorders (type 1: overexertion-related and type 2: neuromuscular muscle disorders) describing disorders without macroscopic evidence of fibre tear and structural muscle injuries (type 3: partial tears and type 4: (sub)total tears/tendinous avulsions) with macroscopic evidence of fibre tear, that is, structural damage. Subclassifications are presented for each type. Conclusions A consistent English terminology as well as a comprehensive classification system for athletic muscle injuries which is proven in the daily practice are presented. This will help to improve clarity of communication for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and can serve as the basis for future comparative studies to address the continued lack of systematic information on muscle injuries in the literature. What are the new things Consensus definitions of the terminology which is used in the field of muscle injuries as well as a new comprehensive classification system which clearly defines types of athletic muscle injuries. Level of evidence Expert opinion, Level V. PMID:23080315

  12. Shoulder injuries in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Martinelli, Nicolò; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Even though soccer is the most popular sport of the world, no review is available at present to resume the available data on shoulder injuries in soccer. The aim of this review is to report the available epidemiological data on shoulder specific injuries in soccer players and to describe the common mechanisms of shoulder injuries in soccer. Studies published through September 15, 2011, were identified by using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pre-CINAHL, Pub-Med, Web of Science, and the full Cochrane Library. Reference lists of included studies were searched by hand. Studies were included if they reported on shoulder injuries in soccer players. Limits were not placed on year of publication, status of publication, or language. The journal, authors, and author affiliations of included studies were masked from 2 reviewers. We planned to perform a study on the epidemiology, mechanisms and management of shoulder injuries in elite soccer players. We also planned to use Review Manager (RevMan. Version 5 for Windows) to calculate the magnitude of treatment effect. No studies on clinical outcome of shoulder injuries in elite soccer athletes were found. No studies on the mechanism of shoulder injury in elite soccer players were found. The results of the available studies on epidemiology are reported. Despite soccer is the world’s game, few studies focused on shoulder injuries in soccer players, and therefore no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Further research is warranted to clarify the epidemiology, mechanisms and management of shoulder injuries in elite soccer players. PMID:23289025

  13. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted...and (2)(i) An injured natural resource has been exposed to the...

  14. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted...and (2)(i) An injured natural resource has been exposed to the...

  15. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted...and (2)(i) An injured natural resource has been exposed to the...

  16. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted...and (2)(i) An injured natural resource has been exposed to the...

  17. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted...and (2)(i) An injured natural resource has been exposed to the...

  18. Traumatic Penile Injury: From Circumcision Injury to Penile Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Young; Song, Yun Seob

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of external genitalia trauma is diverse according to the nature of trauma and injured anatomic site. The classification of trauma is important to establish a strategy of treatment; however, to date there has been less effort to make a classification for trauma of external genitalia. The classification of external trauma in male could be established by the nature of injury mechanism or anatomic site: accidental versus self-mutilation injury and penis versus penis plus scrotum or perineum. Accidental injury covers large portion of external genitalia trauma because of high prevalence and severity of this disease. The aim of this study is to summarize the mechanism and treatment of the traumatic injury of penis. This study is the first review describing the issue. PMID:25250318

  19. Acute Injury Phase Clinical Trials in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    E-print Network

    VandeVord, Pamela

    by motor vehicle crashes, sports injuries, or simple falls on the playground, at work or in the home, or 150,000 and 300,000 service members have some level of TBI. 30% of soldiers admitted to Walter Reed

  20. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  1. Multiligamentous injuries and knee dislocations.

    PubMed

    Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Rowan, Andrew; Hardy, Jolene C; Melville, David M; Taljanovic, Mihra S

    2015-11-01

    Complex capsular ligamentous structures contribute to stability of the knee joint. Simultaneous injury of two or more knee ligaments, aside from concurrent tears involving the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments, is considered to be associated with femorotibial knee dislocations. Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocations are not always easily recognized and may be overlooked or missed. Patellofemoral dislocations can be transient with MR imaging sometimes required to reach the diagnosis. In this article, the authors describe the mechanism of injury, ligamentous disruptions, imaging, and treatment options of various types of knee dislocations including injuries of the femorotibial, proximal tibiofibular, and patellofemoral joints. PMID:26002747

  2. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  3. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  4. Aging Workers and Trade-Related Injuries in the US Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang D.

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to identify any trends of injury type as it relates to the age and trade of construction workers. The participants for this study included any individual who, while working on a heavy and highway construction project in the Midwestern United States, sustained an injury during the specified time frame of when the data were collected. During this period, 143 injury reports were collected. The four trade/occupation groups with the highest injury rates were laborers, carpenters, iron workers, and operators. Data pertaining to injuries sustained by body part in each age group showed that younger workers generally suffered from finger/hand/wrist injuries due to cuts/lacerations and contusion, whereas older workers had increased sprains/strains injuries to the ankle/foot/toes, knees/lower legs, and multiple body parts caused by falls from a higher level or overexertion. Understanding these trade-related tasks can help present a more accurate depiction of the incident and identify trends and intervention methods to meet the needs of the aging workforce in the industry. PMID:26106517

  5. Occupational Injuries on Thoroughbred Horse Farms: A Description of Latino and Non-Latino Workers’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Clouser, Jessica M.; Westneat, Susan C.; Marsh, Mary W.; Reed, Deborah B.

    2013-01-01

    Animal production is a dangerous industry and increasingly reliant on a Latino workforce. Within animal production, little is known about the risks or the occupational hazards of working on farms involved in various aspects of thoroughbred horse breeding. Extant research suggests that horse workers are at risk of musculoskeletal and respiratory symptoms, kicks, and other injuries. However, limited known research has examined the experiences of the industry’s workers, including immigrant workers, despite their prominence and increased vulnerability. Using data collected from thoroughbred farm representatives via a phone-administered survey, a 2-hour face-to-face semi-structured interview, and farm injury logs, this article identifies and describes types of injuries experienced by workers (N = 284) and their surrounding circumstances. Results indicate that general injuries and musculoskeletal strains, sprains, and tears account for a majority of injuries among workers on thoroughbred farms. Upper limbs and extremities are most frequently injured, while direct contact with the horse accounted for over half of all injuries. No differences in the diagnoses or distribution of injury were found by ethnicity; however, Latinos were more often struck by or trampled by a horse while non-Latinos were more often injured by an insect or plant. Implications and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24351785

  6. Aging Workers and Trade-Related Injuries in the US Construction Industry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang D

    2015-06-01

    The study was designed to identify any trends of injury type as it relates to the age and trade of construction workers. The participants for this study included any individual who, while working on a heavy and highway construction project in the Midwestern United States, sustained an injury during the specified time frame of when the data were collected. During this period, 143 injury reports were collected. The four trade/occupation groups with the highest injury rates were laborers, carpenters, iron workers, and operators. Data pertaining to injuries sustained by body part in each age group showed that younger workers generally suffered from finger/hand/wrist injuries due to cuts/lacerations and contusion, whereas older workers had increased sprains/strains injuries to the ankle/foot/toes, knees/lower legs, and multiple body parts caused by falls from a higher level or overexertion. Understanding these trade-related tasks can help present a more accurate depiction of the incident and identify trends and intervention methods to meet the needs of the aging workforce in the industry. PMID:26106517

  7. Analysis of combat sports players’ injuries according to playing style for sports physiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the characteristics of injuries in strike and non-strike combat sports, and the results are intended for use in the area of sports physiotherapy research. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted on 159 athletes involved in a variety of combat sports. The participants included elite college players of the following sports: judo (47), ssireum (19), wrestling (13), kendo (30), boxing (16), and taekwondo (34). Of the participants, 133 were male and 26 were female. In the case of ssireum and boxing, all of the athletes were male. [Results] In the case of the combat sports, the types of injury and injured regions differed according to playing style. Dislocation and injuries to the neck, shoulders, and elbows were more frequent in the non-strike sports, while injuries to the wrists and hands were more frequent in the strike sports. There was a high incidence of sprains, strains, bruises, and injuries to the lower limbs in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the characteristics of injuries in combat sports differ according to playing style, and our study will therefore provide physical therapists and researchers with information that can be used to prevent injury. PMID:26357420

  8. Analysis of combat sports players' injuries according to playing style for sports physiotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the characteristics of injuries in strike and non-strike combat sports, and the results are intended for use in the area of sports physiotherapy research. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted on 159 athletes involved in a variety of combat sports. The participants included elite college players of the following sports: judo (47), ssireum (19), wrestling (13), kendo (30), boxing (16), and taekwondo (34). Of the participants, 133 were male and 26 were female. In the case of ssireum and boxing, all of the athletes were male. [Results] In the case of the combat sports, the types of injury and injured regions differed according to playing style. Dislocation and injuries to the neck, shoulders, and elbows were more frequent in the non-strike sports, while injuries to the wrists and hands were more frequent in the strike sports. There was a high incidence of sprains, strains, bruises, and injuries to the lower limbs in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the characteristics of injuries in combat sports differ according to playing style, and our study will therefore provide physical therapists and researchers with information that can be used to prevent injury. PMID:26357420

  9. Assessing Legal Strains and Risk of Suicide Using Archived Court Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas Bradley; Davis, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about legal entanglements and suicide risk. This matched case-control study estimated the risk of suicide associated with legal strains using online court archives, a novel source of exposure data. Court records linked to suicide deaths (N = 315), controls (N = 630), and unintentional injury and poisoning deaths (N =…

  10. Legal Liability: The Consequences of School Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Jones, Sherry Everett; Gallagher, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 10-25% of child and adolescent injuries occur at school. Little is known about school-related injuries to teachers and other adults or about the direct cost of injuries to schools. This study examined the characteristics of cases involving injuries resulting in lawsuits against schools, compared cases in which schools…

  11. 7 CFR 51.2127 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injury. 51.2127 Section 51.2127 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2127 Injury. Injury means any defect which more... as injury: (a) Chipped and scratched kernels when the affected area on an individual...

  12. Developing a Playground Injury Prevention Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather M.; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Playgrounds are a major source of unintentional injuries in the school environment. In fact, 80% of all injuries on public playground equipment happen at school. Thus, the need for developing a playground injury prevention plan is critical to provide safe educational outdoor environments for children. The S.A.F.E.[TM] framework for injury

  13. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Fang, Marong; Chen, Haohao; Gou, Fangming; Ding, Mingxing

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies. PMID:25598784

  14. Attitudes Towards Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda

    2010-01-01

    This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…

  15. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  16. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, L.M.

    1998-06-16

    A tool and a method are disclosed for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool. 6 figs.

  17. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  18. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics. PMID:26344404

  19. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Traumatic Spine Injury.

    PubMed

    Stein, Deborah M; Pineda, Jose A; Roddy, Vincent; Knight, William A

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic spine injuries (TSIs) carry significantly high risks of morbidity, mortality, and exorbitant health care costs from associated medical needs following injury. For these reasons, TSI was chosen as an ENLS protocol. This article offers a comprehensive review on the management of spinal column injuries using the best available evidence. Alhough the review focuses primarily on cervical spinal column injuries, thoracolumbar injuries are briefly discussed as well. The initial emergency department clinical evaluation of possible spinal fractures and cord injuries, along with the definitive early management of confirmed injuries, is also covered. PMID:26438460

  20. A four year prospective study of injuries in elite Ontario youth provincial and national soccer players during training and matchplay

    PubMed Central

    Mohib, Milad; Moser, Nicholas; Kim, Richard; Thillai, Maathavan; Gringmuth, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: With over 200 million amateur players worldwide, soccer is one of the most popular and internationally recognized sports today. By understanding how and why soccer injuries occur we hope to reduce prevalent injuries amongst elite soccer athletes. Methods: Via a prospective cohort, we examined both male and female soccer players eligible to train with the Ontario Soccer Association provincial program between the ages of 13 to 17 during the period of October 10, 2008 and April 20, 2012. Data collection occurred during all player exposures to potential injury. Exposures occurred at the Soccer Centre, Ontario Training grounds and various other venues on multiple playing surfaces. Results: A total number of 733 injuries were recorded. Muscle strain, pull or tightness was responsible for 45.6% of all injuries and ranked as the most prevalent injury. Discussion: As anticipated, the highest injury reported was muscular strain, which warrants more suitable preventive programs aimed at strengthening and properly warming up the players’ muscles. PMID:25550661

  1. Brachial plexus injury in newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure on the baby's raised arms during a breech (feet-first) delivery There are different forms of ... factors increase the risk of brachial plexus injury: Breech delivery Larger-than-average newborn (such as an ...

  2. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to adjusting to spinal cord injury is personal motivation . Individuals who are newly injured are often motivated ... to find purpose in your life and the motivation to achieve your goals. It may help to ...

  3. Dance Dynamics: Avoiding Dance Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Sandra, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This series features nine articles and an introduction by the editor. Topics covered include biomechanics of foot, ankle, knee, hip, and back; corrective exercises; preventative approaches to dance instruction; and aerobic dance injuries. (MT)

  4. Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SHEETS OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, APRIL 2014 WORKPLACE HOMICIDES, 2012 FIREFIGHTERS WORKPLACE SHOOTINGS, 2010 FATAL OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES ... slips, trips (all sectors): 793(p) in 2014 Homicides (all sectors): 403(p) in 2014 Historical Data ...

  5. Roller skating accidents and injuries.

    PubMed

    Sedlin, E D; Zitner, D T; McGinniss, G

    1984-02-01

    A consecutive series of 65 fractures, dislocations, and ligament tears produced by roller skating accidents treated by the Orthopaedic Department of the Mt. Sinai Services at City Hospital Center of Elmhurst, New York, is reviewed. It was learned that the injuries resulting from collisions occurring in a skating rink were more serious than those resulting from street accidents. Data indicated that lack of expertise is a prominent factor in the production of serious injury. However, the sport has inherent risk which is not eliminated by expertise. It was concluded that roller skating can and does produce disabling injuries. In order to reduce the number of injuries it will be required to reduce crowding in rinks, designate separate beginners' areas, use training wheels or clampon-type of skates when learning, encourage lessons, and separate beginners in the rinks. PMID:6694238

  6. The maxillofacial injuries: A study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vibha; Malkunje, Laxman; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Nimisha; Dhasmana, Satish; Das, Sanjib Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and etiology of maxillofacial fractures and also to evaluate different treatment modalities. Study design: The sample consisted of 1,038 patients, with maxillofacial injuries treated at our center from June 2006 to June 2011. Cause, type, site of injury, gender, age and treatment given to them, all these parameter are evaluated. Conclusion: The results of this study exhibit that road traffic accidents is the main reason for maxilla facial injuries followed by fall from height. Maxillofacial injuries are more frequent in male than in female. The mandible was most frequently involved facial bone. The miniplate osteosynthesis was the most widespread of the fixation technique but conservative management of the fractured bone also has a significance importance in treatment modalities. PMID:23833492

  7. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. University of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center ... Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 1959 ...

  8. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to have become more popular lately, especially in adolescents. The causes and severity of self-injury can ... banging bruising hitting tattooing excessive body piercing Some adolescents may self-mutilate to take risks, rebel, reject ...

  9. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the following: ? Immobilization (a cast or splint) ? Manipulation or surgery (depending on where and how serious ... growth plate injuries. For example, they are: ? Studying gene therapy and finding other ways to help bones ...

  10. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... with SCI is the lowest point on the spinal cord below which sensory feeling and motor movement diminish ...

  11. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... search IRSA's site Unique Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all ... accurate treatment is still with one session radiosurgery. RADIATION THERAPY: Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) may target ...

  12. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. Methods A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Results Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and ‘inconclusive’, respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all ‘D’. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded ‘C’ recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was ‘D’. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation ‘D’. Conclusions The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. PMID:25576530

  13. Injuries to the Biceps Pulley.

    PubMed

    Martetschläger, Frank; Tauber, Mark; Habermeyer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The biceps reflection pulley is a soft tissue sling that stabilizes the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB) before it enters the bicipital groove. Injuries to the biceps pulley and related instability of the LHB are common diagnoses in patients with anterior shoulder pain. This article summarizes the current concepts for treatment of injuries to the biceps pulley. Clinical and radiological presentation, arthroscopic assessment, and current treatment options are outlined. PMID:26614466

  14. [Reconstructive surgery for hand injuries].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    Injuries to the hand requiring emergency treatment concern 1.4 million people a year in France. The creation of the European Federation of Emergency Services for the Hand (FESUM) has brought about an improvement in the quality of care. The aim of reconstructive surgery is to preserve the hand's ability to grasp, its mobility and agility, depending on the seriousness of the injuries. PMID:22730886

  15. Injuries to law enforcement officers: the backface signature injury.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Marianne; Bir, Cynthia

    2008-01-15

    In today's law enforcement community, one of the most vital tools an officer can possess is personal body armor. However, a recent Department of Justice investigation has raised important questions regarding the protection actually afforded officers through the use of personal body armor, and the current test methods used to assess the armor. Test results show that most Zylon-containing vests showed deformations in excess of the 0101.04 Standard's 44 mm backface signature limit. Such increased deformation can lead to serious injuries, including backface signature injuries, which have occurred in the field. Although the vest is successful in containing the round, it is not effectively dissipating the energy enough to prevent large amounts of vest deformation at the area of impact. Therefore, open, penetrating wounds occur even though the bullet did not penetrate the vest. The objective of the current study was to further define the backface signature injury through the use of case studies and laboratory experiments. Following the case study investigation, backface signature testing was conducted using a clay medium based on the NIJ 0101.04 Standard. The final component of this research involved the use of post-mortem human specimens (PMHS) for further investigation of the backface signature injury. Although the underlying cause of backface signature injuries is unknown, energy density is likely to play a role in the mechanism. Energy density (E/a) is defined as the energy per unit area and has been previously used in less lethal skin penetration research. Further research into the underlying causes of backface signature injuries is necessary. In addition to armor testing, the study of law enforcement personnel who have been shot while wearing soft body armor is also a valuable tool for determining the effectiveness of certification standards. Finally, it is important for medical personnel to recognize the backface signature injury and document this as a type of injury separate from blunt trauma or penetrating trauma behind armor injuries. Detailed knowledge of the injury, including the depth of the wound, would be beneficial to the scientific community. PMID:17434273

  16. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  17. Feasibility Assessment of an EVA Glove Sensing Platform to Evaluate Potential Hand Injury Risk Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals that 58% of total astronaut hand and arm injuries from NBL training between 1993 and 2010 occurred either to the fingernail, MCP, or fingertip. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using small sensors to measure force acting on the fingers and hand within pressurized gloves and other variables such as blood perfusion, skin temperature, humidity, fingernail strain, skin moisture, among others. Tasks were performed gloved and ungloved in a pressurizable glove box. The test demonstrated that fingernails saw greater transverse strain levels for tension or compression than for longitudinal strain, even during axial fingertip loading. Blood perfusion peaked and dropped as the finger deformed during finger presses, indicating an initial dispersion and decrease of blood perfusion levels. Force sensitive resistors to force plate comparisons showed similar force curve patterns as fingers were depressed, indicating suitable functionality for future testing. Strategies for proper placement and protection of these sensors for ideal data collection and longevity through the test session were developed and will be implemented going forward for future testing.

  18. SHOULDER PAIN AND DYSFUNCTION SECONDARY TO NEURAL INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Resident's Case Study Background/Introduction: The reports of spinal accessory nerve injury in the literature primarily focus on injury following surgical dissection or traumatic stretch injury. There is limited literature describing the presentation and diagnosis of this injury with an unknown cause. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical decision-making process that guided the diagnosis and treatment of a complex patient with spinal accessory nerve palsy (SANP) whose clinical presentation and response to therapy were inconsistent with the results of multiple diagnostic tests. Case Description: The patient was a 27-year-old female triathlete with a five month history of right-sided neck, anterior shoulder, and chest pain. Outcome: Based on the physical exam, magnetic resonance imaging, radiographs, electrodiagnostic and nerve conduction testing, the patient was diagnosed by her physician with right sterno-clavicular joint strain and scapular dyskinesis and was referred to physical therapy. Care was initiated based on this initial diagnosis. Upon further examination and perusal of the literature, the physical therapist proposed a diagnosis of spinal accessory nerve injury. Intervention included manual release of soft tissue tightness, neuromuscular facilitation and sport-specific strengthening, resulting in full return to functional and sport activities. These interventions focused on neurological re-education and muscular facilitation to address SANP as opposed to a joint sprain and dysfunction, as initially diagnosed. Discussion: Proper diagnosis is imperative to effective treatment in all patients. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough examination and consideration of multiple diagnostic findings, particularly when EMG/NCV tests were negative, the cause was not apparent, and symptoms were less severe than other cases documented in the literature. Level of Evidence: Diagnosis, level 4 PMID:21904699

  19. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of sprains and strains: Avoid exercising or playing sports when tired or in pain. Maintain a healthy, ... Warm up and stretch before participating in any sport or exercise. Wear protective equipment when playing. Run on even surfaces. Information on research is ...

  20. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a conditional mutation in the endogenous Rb1 gene. LoxP sites were inserted into introns surrounding exon 19 in the Rb1 locus. Removal of the region flanked by the LoxP sites results in mice with the same tumor spectrum as mice with a conventional Rb1-null mutation.

  1. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a null mutation in N-ras, one of three highly homologous and widely expressed members of the ras family. Mice homozygous for this mutation develop normally (Umanoff et al., 1995). When combined with K-ras heterozygosity, mice exhibit abnormal hematopoietic development and die between days 10 and 12 of embryogenesis (Johnson et al., 1997).

  2. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This is a conditional allele in which exon 2 of the TGF-beta type II receptor (Tgfbr2) gene was flanked by a LoxP site (Chytil et al., 2002). Homozygous mice are fertile and phenotypically normal. This strain has been used to inactivate the Tgfbr2 gene in various tissues and cell types.

  3. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a targeted latent 'hit-and-run' K-ras allele that can be activated by an in vivo spontaneous recombination event ('run'). One half of the in vivo recombination events result in a normal K-ras allele and one half in an activated allele (K-rasG12D).

  4. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a targeted latent 'hit-and-run' K-ras allele that can be activated by an in vivo spontaneous recombination event ('run'). The in vivo recombination event results in an activated allele (K-rasG12D).

  5. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    These mice carry a floxed allele of Nf1 with LoxP sites in introns 30 and 32. The animals are phenotypically normal; homozygous mice are viable. This is a useful strain for the study of neurofibromatosis and other cancers associated with loss of Nf1 function.

  6. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a chain-termination mutation in amino acid 1638 (exon 15) of the Apc gene. Mice homozygous for this mutation are embryonic lethal. Heterozygous mice develop multiple colonic polyps, gastrointestinal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Liver metastases has been observed.

  7. The strained state cosmology

    E-print Network

    Angelo Tartaglia

    2015-10-03

    Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behaviour of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativ- ity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time repro- duces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theories. The possible role of structure topological defects is also mentioned. The conclusion is that SSC is at least as good as the LCDM standard cosmology, giving a more intuitive interpretation of the physical nature of the phenomena.

  8. Strain gage barometric transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viton, P.

    1977-01-01

    A strain gage barometric transmitter for measuring the atmospheric pressure in severe environmental conditions is described. This equipment specifications are presented and its performance assessed. It is shown that this barometric sensor can measure the atmospheric pressure with a precision of 0.5 mb during a 6 month period.

  9. Acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Gerhard Anton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Acute kidney injury is a frequent and serious complication in hospitalized patients. Mortality rates have not substantially been decreased during the last 20 years. In most patients AKI results from transient renal hypoperfusion or ischemia. The consequences include tubular cell dysfunction/damage, inflammation of the organ, and post-ischemic microvasculopathy. The two latter events perpetuate kidney damage in AKI. Clinical manifestations result from diminished excretion of water, electrolytes, and endogenous / exogenous waste products. Patients are endangered by cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmia. In addition, the whole organism may be affected by systemic toxification (uremia). The diagnostic approach in AKI involves several steps with renal biopsy inevitable in some patients. The current therapy focuses on preventing further kidney damage and on treatment of complications. Different pharmacological strategies have failed to significantly improve prognosis in AKI. If dialysis treatment becomes mandatory, intermittent and continuous renal replacement therapies are equally effective. Thus, new therapies are urgently needed in order to reduce short- and long-term outcome in AKI. In this respect, stem cell-based regimens may offer promising perspectives. PMID:25618438

  10. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, R. M.; Mardirosian, A.

    1977-01-01

    Over an 8-year period 31 children in the Winnipeg area were admitted to hospital with lawnmower injuries. The accidents were always preventable and were caused by patient or parent carelessness. The wounds were severe, often resulting in amputation of a portion of an extremity. Infection was common; prophylaxis with a broad-spectrum antibiotic and human antitetanus globulin is recommended. Radiography, débridement of the wound with thorough exploration under general anesthesia, and defatting and reapplication of degloved skin should be done initially, then the wound should be reinspected and redressed at 2 to 3 days, and finally closed or skin grafted at 6 to 8 days. Children must be educated about the dangers of lawnmowers and prevented from riding on tractor mowers. The grass catcher should be used and the path cleared of missiles. Hand controls should be mounted on the mower's handle and the blade should be kept sharp so that the machine's speed can be reduced. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:16692

  11. 76 FR 8965 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...SERVICES 42 CFR Part 100 RIN 0907-AA National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table AGENCY: Health Resources and...Rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program:...

  12. Biophysics of rotary mower and snowblower injuries of the hand: high vs. low velocity "missile" injury.

    PubMed

    Barry, T P; Linton, P C

    1977-03-01

    We have shown a basic biophysical difference between clinically similar hand injuries and suggest that some rotary lawn mower injuries more closely resemble high-velocity missile injuries. A treatment protocol is suggested. PMID:850274

  13. Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4 and 5 Mediate Epidermal Injury Through Disruption of Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Bankova, Lora G.; Lezcano, Cecilia; Pejler, Gunnar; Stevens, Richard L.; Murphy, George F.; Austen, K. Frank; Gurish, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We previously established a mast cell (MC)-dependent thermal injury model in mice with ulceration and scar formation that depended on non-redundant functions of mouse MC protease 4 (mMCP4) and mMCP5. We hypothesized that MC activation is an early event and now find by histology that exocytosis of granule contents occurred by 2 min after thermal injury in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and in the mMCP4- or mMCP5-deficient mice. The degranulation was equivalent for MCs in the dermis and hypodermis of all three strains, but only the WT mice showed an appreciable increase in epidermal thickness. There was no loss of total MCs, partially degranulated plus intact, over the 4 h of observation. By electron microscopy, MCs in all strains showed early zonal degranulation at 30 s with marked progression in magnitude by 120 s and no mitochondrial injury or cellular necrosis. Concomitantly there was an increase in intercellular spaces indicative of tight junction (TJ) disruption in WT mice but not in the mMCP4- or mMCP5-deficient strains. The desmosomes were intact in all strains. Immunodetection of the TJ protein claudin 4 in WT and mMCP5-deficient mice indicated a significant reduction after scald injury while mMCP4?/? mice showed no significant changes. Taken together, these findings reveal that a second degree burn injury can initiate an immediate novel zonal degranulation of MCs throughout all skin layers and a disruption of the epidermal TJs dependent on the non-redundant presence of mMCP4 and mMCP5. PMID:24523504

  14. Student injuries in the dissecting room.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Davies, Tilman M; Lees, David

    2013-01-01

    Cadaver dissection is the first opportunity for many students to practice handling human tissue and is their first exposure to the occupational hazards involved with this task. Few studies examine dissection room injuries to ascertain the dangers associated with dissecting. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of dissection room injuries from four student cohorts over an eleven-year period (2001-2011), including second-year medical students, third-year medical students, second-year dental students, and third-year science students. Injury data included activity causing injury, object responsible, and injury site. A total of 163 injuries during 70,039 hours of dissection were recorded, with 66 in third-year medical students, 42 in second-year medical students, 36 in third-year science students, and 16 in second-year dental students. The overall rate was 2.87 injuries per 1,000 dissection hours, with second-year medical students most frequently injured (5.5 injuries per 1,000 hours); third-year medical students were least frequently injured (1.3 injuries per 1,000 hours). A significant difference in injury rates between student groups indicated a higher than expected injury rate to second-year medical students and lower than expected rates to third-year medical students. Injury rates increased for most groups between 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. Most injuries (79%) were from scalpel cuts to the finger or thumb. This study provides injury rates for dissection room injuries to students, indicating differences in injury frequency between cohorts and an increase in injury rate over time. As scalpel cuts were the most likely injury mechanism, targeting scalpel handling with preventative strategies may reduce future injury risk. PMID:23536433

  15. The Biomechanical Determinants of Concussion: Finite Element Simulations to Investigate Tissue-Level Predictors of Injury During Sporting Impacts to the Unprotected Head.

    PubMed

    Patton, Declan A; McIntosh, Andrew S; Kleiven, Svein

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical studies of concussions have progressed from qualitative observations of head impacts to physical and numerical reconstructions, direct impact measurements, and finite element analyses. Supplementary to a previous study, which investigated maximum principal strain, the current study used a detailed finite element head model to simulate unhelmeted concussion and no-injury head impacts and evaluate the effectiveness of various tissue-level brain injury predictors: strain rate, product of strain and strain rate, cumulative strain damage measure, von Mises stress, and intracranial pressure. Von Mises stress was found to be the most effective predictor of concussion. It was also found that the thalamus and corpus callosum were brain regions with strong associations with concussion. Tentative tolerance limits for tissue-level predictors were proposed in an attempt to broaden the understanding of unhelmeted concussions. For the thalamus, tolerance limits were proposed for a 50% likelihood of concussion: 2.24 kPa, 24.0 s-1, and 2.49 s-1 for von Mises stress, strain rate, and the product of strain and strain rate, respectively. For the corpus callosum, tolerance limits were proposed for a 50% likelihood of concussion: 3.51 kPa, 25.1 s-1, and 2.76 s-1 for von Mises stress, strain rate, and the product of strain and strain rate, respectively. PMID:25781376

  16. Extremity War Injuries VIII: sequelae of combat injuries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Romney C; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Ficke, James R

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Extremity War Injury symposium focused on the sequelae of combat-related injuries, including posttraumatic osteoarthritis, amputations, and infections. Much remains to be learned about posttraumatic arthritis, and there are few circumstances in which a definitive arthroplasty should be performed in an acutely injured and open joint. Although the last decade has seen tremendous advances in the treatment of combat upper extremity injuries, many questions remain unanswered, and continued research focusing on improving reconstruction of large segmental defects remains critical. Discussion of infection centered on the need for novel methods to reduce the bacterial load following the initial débridement procedures. Novel methods of delivering antimicrobial therapy and anti-inflammatory medications directly to the wound were discussed as well as the need for near real-time assessment of bacterial and fungal burden and further means of prevention and treatment of biofilm formation and the importance of animal models to test therapies discussed. Moderators and lecturers of focus groups noted the continuing need for improved prehospital care in the management of junctional injuries, identified optimal strategies for both surgical repair and/or reconstruction of the ligaments in multiligamentous injuries, and noted the need to mitigate bone mineral density loss following amputation and/or limb salvage as well as the necessity of developing better methods of anticipating and managing heterotopic ossification. PMID:24382880

  17. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  18. Pathology of blast-related brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Jeffery D; Tessler, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Blasts are responsible for about two-thirds of the combat injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, which include at least 1,200 traumatic brain injuries. Blasts inflict damage to the brain directly and by causing injuries to other organs, resulting in air emboli, hypoxia, and shock. Direct injuries to the brain result from rapid shifts in air pressure (primary blast injury), from impacts with munitions fragments and other objects propelled by the explosion (secondary blast injury), and from collisions with objects and rapid acceleration of individuals propelled by the explosion (tertiary blast injury). Tertiary injury can occur from a building or other structure collapsing and from an individual being thrown by the blast wind. The pathological consequences of secondary and tertiary blast injuries are very likely to be similar to those of other types of mechanical trauma seen in civilian life. The damage attributable to the specific effects of a blast, however, has received little study, although it has been assumed to include the focal and diffuse lesions characteristic of closed head injuries. Available clinical studies of blast injuries show focal damage similar to that found in other types of closed head injuries but have not determined whether diffuse axonal injury also occurs. In this article, we will try to reach a better understanding of the specific pathology of blast-related brain injury by reviewing the available experimental studies and the autopsy reports of victims of terrorist attacks and military casualties dating back to World War I. PMID:20104396

  19. Review of Sport-Induced Groin Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghati, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Shirzad, Elham; Ardjmand, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Context Groin injuries are among the most common injuries co-existing with sports. The aim of this review was to outline the epidemiology and identify risk factors, as well as examine preventative and interventional measures for reducing the occurrence of this form of injury among athletes. Evidence Acquisition An electronic, systematic search for relevant keywords, either separately or in combination was sought in the academic scientific databases. Results Groin injuries, acute or chronic, consist of a high percentage of injuries that manifest with pain. Despite the specific tendency for injury among some sports, such injuries make up 2-5% of sport-induced injuries. There are few available reports on lower limb injuries, especially groin injuries, in Iran. Numerous factors predispose to groin injuries. A lengthy list of preventive/ treatment measures, from preliminary to sophisticated, have been proposed. Conclusions Although using a programmed strategy designed to decrease the risk of groin injuries by taking a strategic approach to exercise may alleviate complications, in some cases the chronic nature of the injury may threaten the professional life of the athlete. More research is required to plan suitable programs for reducing the risk of this type of injury in athletes. PMID:24350166

  20. Management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Bedi, Asheesh; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are among the most common shoulder girdle injuries in athletes and most commonly result from a direct force to the acromion with the arm in an adducted position. Acromioclavicular joint injuries often present with associated injuries to the glenohumeral joint, including an increased incidence of superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears that may warrant further evaluation and treatment. Anteroposterior stability of the acromioclavicular joint is conferred by the capsule and acromioclavicular ligaments, of which the posterior and superior ligaments are the strongest. Superior-inferior stability is maintained by the coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid) ligaments. Type-I or type-II acromioclavicular joint injuries have been treated with sling immobilization, early shoulder motion, and physical therapy, with favorable outcomes. Return to activity can occur when normal shoulder motion and strength are obtained and the shoulder is asymptomatic as compared with the contralateral normal extremity. The management of type-III injuries remains controversial and is individualized. While a return to the previous level of functional activity with nonsurgical treatment has been documented in a number of case series, surgical reduction and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction has been associated with a favorable outcome and can be considered in patients who place high functional demands on their shoulders or in athletes who participate in overhead sports. Surgical management is indicated for high-grade (?type IV) acromioclavicular joint injuries to achieve anatomic reduction of the acromioclavicular joint, reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and repair of the deltotrapezial fascia. Outcomes after surgical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments have been satisfactory with regard to achieving pain relief and return to functional activities, but further improvements in the biomechanical strength of these constructs are necessary to avoid loss of reduction and creep with cyclic loading. PMID:24382728

  1. Occupational Injury Patterns of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aim Each year, a significant number of people die or become handicapped due to preventable occupational accidents or occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic features, mechanism, causes, injury area, and sectoral features of occupational accidents in patients presented to our department. Materials and methods The study was carried out retrospectively after local ethics committee approval. Age and sex of the patients, mechanism of injury, type and exact location of injuries were all evaluated. The groups were compared using Chi-Square test, Student’s T test and Kruskall-Wallis test. p value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results Totally 654 patients were included in the study. 93.4% of patients were male, and mean age was 32.96?±?5.97 (18–73) years. Sectoral distribution of accidents was statistically significant and mostly occurred in industrial and construction workers (p?injuries (36.4%), the least was due to multiple traumas (0.5%). Distribution of occupational accidents according to injury type was statistically significant (p?Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 9.79?±?8.1. The mean cost of occupational injury was $1729.57?±?8178.3. There was statistically significant difference between the sectors with respect to cost. Seventy-one patients (10.9%) recovered with permanent sequel and two (0.3%) died in hospital. Conclusion Occupational accidents are most commonly seen in young males, especially in primary school graduated workers, and during daytime period. PMID:24373156

  2. Protecting Against Cerebrovascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guang; Arai, Ken; Murata, Yoshihiro; Wang, Sophia; Stins, Monique F.; Lo, Eng H.; van Leyen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose The concept of the neurovascular unit suggests that effects on brain vasculature must be considered if neuroprotection is to be achieved in stroke. We previously reported that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is upregulated in the peri-infarct area after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice, and 12/15-LOX contributes to brain damage after ischemia–reperfusion. The current study was designed to investigate 12/15-LOX involvement in vascular injury in the ischemic brain. Methods In cell culture, a human brain microvascular endothelial cell line was subjected to either hypoxia or H2O2-induced oxidative stress with or without lipoxygenase inhibitors. For in vivo studies, mice were subjected to 90 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the effects of either 12/15-LOX gene knockout or treatment with lipoxygenase inhibitors were compared. Expression of 12/15-LOX and claudin-5 as well as extravasation of immunoglobulin G were detected by immunohistochemistry. Edema was measured as water content of brain hemispheres according to the wet–dry weight method. Results Brain endothelial cells were protected against hypoxia and H2O2 by the lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein. After focal ischemia, 12/15-LOX was increased in neurons and endothelial cells. The vascular tight junction protein claudin-5 underwent extensive degradation in the peri-infarct area, which was partially prevented by the lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein. Leakage of immunoglobulin G into the brain parenchyma was significantly reduced in 12/15-LOX knockout mice as well as wild-type mice treated with baicalein. Likewise, brain edema was significantly ameliorated. Conclusion 12/15-LOX may contribute to ischemic brain damage not just by causing neuronal cell death, but also by detrimental effects on the brain microvasculature. 12/15-LOX inhibitors may thus be effective as both neuroprotectants and vasculoprotectants. PMID:18635843

  3. Complex posterior urethral injury

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay B.; Joshi, Pankaj M.; Hunter, Craig; Surana, Sandesh; Shahrour, Walid; Alhajeri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess treatment strategies for seven different scenarios for treating complex pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), categorised as repeat surgery for PFUI, ischaemic bulbar urethral necrosis (BUN), repair in boys and girls aged ?12 years, in patients with a recto-urethral fistula, or bladder neck incontinence, or with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and bladder neck/prostate region. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the success rates and surgical procedures of these seven complex scenarios in the repair of PFUI at our institution from 2000 to 2013. Results In all, >550 PFUI procedures were performed at our centre, and 308 of these patients were classified as having a complex PFUI, with 225 patients available for follow-up. The overall success rates were 81% and 77% for primary and repeat procedures respectively. The overall success rate of those with BUN was 76%, using various methods of novel surgical techniques. Boys aged ?12 years with PFUI required a transpubic/abdominal approach 31% of the time, compared to 9% in adults. Young girls with PFUI also required a transpubic/abdominal urethroplasty, with a success rate of 66%. In patients with a recto-urethral fistula the success rate was 90% with attention to proper surgical principles, including a three-stage procedure and appropriate interposition. The treatment of bladder neck incontinence associated with the tear-drop deformity gave a continence rate of 66%. Children with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and at the bladder neck-prostate junction were all continent after a one-stage transpubic/abdominal procedure. Conclusion An understanding of complex pelvic fractures and their appropriate management can provide successful outcomes. PMID:26019978

  4. Perioperative acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Goren, O; Matot, I

    2015-12-01

    Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not uncommon and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Recently, several definition systems for AKI were proposed, incorporating both small changes of serum creatinine and urinary output reduction as diagnostic criteria. Novel biomarkers are under investigation as fast and accurate predictors of AKI. Several special considerations regarding the risk of AKI are of note in the surgical patient. Co-morbidities are important risk factors for AKI. The surgery in itself, especially emergency and major surgery in the critically ill, is associated with a high incidence of AKI. Certain types of surgeries, such as cardiac and transplantation surgeries, require special attention because they carry higher risk of AKI. Nephrotoxic drugs, contrast dye, and diuretics are commonly used in the perioperative period and are responsible for a significant amount of in-hospital AKI. Before surgery, the anaesthetist is required to identify patients at risk of AKI, optimize anaemia, and treat hypovolaemia. During surgery, normovolaemia is of utmost importance. Additionally, the surgical and anaesthesia team is advised to use measures to reduce blood loss and avoid unnecessary blood transfusion. Hypotension should be avoided because even short periods of mean arterial pressure <55-60 mm Hg carry a risk of postoperative AKI. Higher blood pressures are probably required for hypertensive patients. Urine output can be reduced significantly during surgery and is unrelated to perioperative renal function. Thus, fluids should not be given in excess for the sole purpose of avoiding or treating oliguria. Use of hydroxyethyl starch needs to be reconsidered. Recent evidence indicates a beneficial effect of administering low-chloride solutions. PMID:26658199

  5. Cheerleading injuries: patterns, prevention, case reports.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R

    1997-09-01

    Compared with other sports, cheerleading carries a relatively low risk of injury, but the injuries that do occur tend to be relatively severe in terms of time lost. The most common injury site is the ankle, with head and neck injuries less common but more severe. Two case reports illustrate overuse and acute injuries typical of the sport. Cheerleading injuries have been attributed to lack of experience, inadequate conditioning, insufficient supervision, difficult stunts, and inappropriate surfaces and equipment. Prevention recommendations are included. PMID:20086936

  6. Pressure and Friction Injuries in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shawn; Seiverling, Elizabeth; Silvis, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Pressure and friction injuries are common throughout the lifespan. A detailed history of the onset and progression of friction and pressure injuries is key to aiding clinicians in determining the underlying mechanism behind the development of the injury. Modifying or removing the forces that are creating pressure or friction is the key to both prevention and healing of these injuries. Proper care of pressure and friction injuries to the skin is important to prevent the development of infection. Patient education on positioning and ergonomics can help to prevent recurrence of pressure and friction injuries. PMID:26612376

  7. Foot and Ankle Injuries in Runners.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Yin, Amy; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Foot and ankle injuries account for nearly one-third of running injuries. Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciopathy, and ankle sprains are 3 of the most common types of injuries sustained during training. Other common injuries include other tendinopathies of the foot and ankle, bone stress injuries, nerve conditions including neuromas, and joint disease including osteoarthritis. This review provides an evidence-based framework for the evaluation and optimal management of these conditions to ensure safe return to running participation and reduce risk for future injury. PMID:26616180

  8. Managing injuries to the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    McTigue, Dennis J

    2009-10-01

    This article overviews the diagnosis and management of traumatic injuries to primary teeth. The child's age, ability to cooperate for treatment, and the potential for collateral damage to developing permanent teeth can complicate the management of these injuries. The etiology of these injuries is reviewed including the disturbing role of child abuse. Serious medical complications including head injury, cervical spine injury, and tetanus are discussed. Diagnostic methods and the rationale for treatment of luxation injuries, crown, and crown/root fractures are included. Treatment priorities should include adequate pain control, safe management of the child's behavior, and protection of the developing permanent teeth. PMID:19958902

  9. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management of penetrating neck injuries include airway management and hemodynamic instability according to advanced trauma life support protocol. PMID:25937743

  10. High temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A ceramic strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films is used to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thick ITO sensors reveals a partially sintered microstructure comprising a contiguous network of submicron ITO particles with well defined necks and isolated nanoporosity. Densification of the ITO particles was retarded during high temperature exposure with nitrogen thus stabilizing the nanoporosity. ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures to incorporate more nitrogen into the films. Under these conditions, sintering and densification of the ITO particles containing these nitrogen rich grain boundaries was retarded and a contiguous network of nano-sized ITO particles was established.

  11. Novel strained superjunction VDMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naugarhiya, Alok; Dubey, Shashank; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed novel strained superjunction (s-SJ) vertical double diffused MOS (VDMOS). Through channel engineering, we have introduced strain effects in s-SJ device using thin separate p-type silicon-germanium (p-SiGe) layer over silicon p-pillar. Further, we have designed process flow for the possible fabrication of s-SJ VDMOS. The proposed s-SJ devices fitted with less input capacitance (Cin) and 1.2?3 times higher output current density than conventional SJ VDMOS. Therefore, 40% less gate charge (Qg) is required to turn-on the s-SJ VDMOS and Ron A is optimized in between 12% and 46%.

  12. Late mortality after head injury

    PubMed Central

    Pentland, B; Hutton, L; Jones, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate mortality trends in a cohort of people admitted to a regional head injury unit with all severities of injury in the calendar year 1981. Methods: A computerised database with details of 1919 admissions was compared with deaths registered by the NHS Central Register, Scotland for the years 1981 to mid-2002. Death certificate information for matches was analysed. Results: The 1919 admissions referred to 1871 individuals, comprising 93 severe, 205 moderate, and 1573 minor injuries according to Glasgow coma scale criteria. There were 57 deaths (42 severe head injuries, eight moderate, seven minor) during the initial admission, and 340 (six severe, 33 moderate, 301 minor) in the subsequent years. Substance abuse, principally alcohol, was a factor in 37 deaths, suicide accounted for 20, and accidents for 25. The great majority of these latter deaths were in people under the age of 70 years. Conclusion: Premature deaths after predominantly minor head injury are commonly alcohol related or the result of suicide or accidents. PMID:15716535

  13. Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Basile, David P.; Anderson, Melissa D.; Sutton, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the leading cause of nephrology consultation and is associated with high mortality rates. The primary causes of AKI include ischemia, hypoxia or nephrotoxicity. An underlying feature is a rapid decline in GFR usually associated with decreases in renal blood flow. Inflammation represents an important additional component of AKI leading to the extension phase of injury, which may be associated with insensitivity to vasodilator therapy. It is suggested that targeting the extension phase represents an area potential of treatment with the greatest possible impact. The underlying basis of renal injury appears to be impaired energetics of the highly metabolically active nephron segments (i.e., proximal tubules and thick ascending limb) in the renal outer medulla, which can trigger conversion from transient hypoxia to intrinsic renal failure. Injury to kidney cells can be lethal or sublethal. Sublethal injury represents an important component in AKI, as it may profoundly influence GFR and renal blood flow. The nature of the recovery response is mediated by the degree to which sublethal cells can restore normal function and promote regeneration. The successful recovery from AKI depends on the degree to which these repair processes ensue and these may be compromised in elderly or CKD patients. Recent data suggest that AKI represents a potential link to CKD in surviving patients. Finally, earlier diagnosis of AKI represents an important area in treating patients with AKI that has spawned increased awareness of the potential that biomarkers of AKI may play in the future. PMID:23798302

  14. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries 15 copies of the K14-HPV16 E6 transgene. Hemizygous animals develop epithelial hyperplasia (wrinkled skin visible at 12 days of age), skin tumors, and cervical tumors (when crossed to K14E7 mice treated with estrogen). Skin tumors arise late in 14% of the mice (at 15 months of age, first onset at 6 months). Lesions are malignant, grade I-III epidermoid carcinomas. Cataracts are also apparent by weaning.

  15. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a null mutation in the DNA mismatch repair gene Msh3. Cells from mice homozygous for this mutation have only a partial mismatch repair defect. Mice homozygous for this mutation have only a slightly elevated tumor incidence over wild type mice. When combined with Msh6 null mutation, the mice show cancer susceptibility that is similar to that seen in Mlh1 and Msh2 nulls.

  16. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a conditional mutation in the endogenous p53 gene (Trp53). LoxP sites were inserted into intron 1 and intron 10 of the p53 locus. Homozygous mice were monitored for one year with no increased tumor incidence over wild type controls. Crosses to mice expressing Cre in the germline show the same tumor spectrum as do conventional p53-null mice.

  17. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain expresses Cre recombinase under the control of the human K14 promoter. Expression was found in the skin, salivary gland and mammary-gland epithelium. In mammary gland activity was found in 5-35% of both luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells. In addition, expression was in epithelial cells of several additional tissues, including tongue, esophagus, fore-stomach and thymus. No activity was found in ovaries.

  18. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Pdx-1-Cre mice exhibit a stochastic pattern of high-level Cre expression in the pancreas (Hingorani et al., 2003). When combined with Tyler Jacks' latent activatable K-ras allele, LSL-KrasG12D (Kras2, NCI Mouse Repository strain code 01XJ6), Pdx-1-Cre causes ductal lesions that recapitulate the full spectrum of human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs). Some of these lesions progress to invasive and metastatic adenocarcinomas.

  19. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    Increased mitotic recombination occurs in cells from Blm-deficient mice, leading to increased rates of LOH (loss of heterozygosity). Meiotic recombination is normal. A variety of malignant and benign tumors develop in Blm-deficient mice, usually after one year of age. The tumor spectrum includes lymphomas, sarcomas and carcinomas. This strain provides a model for Bloom syndrome in humans as well as a model to study genomic instability.

  20. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    This strain carries a germline targeted mutant allele of Apc in which exon14 has been removed by cre-mediated recombination, leading to expression of a truncated Apc protein of 605 amino acid residues (aa), of which the first 580 aa correspond to the normal protein. Heterozygous mice develop multiple intestinal neoplasias and die within 5 months of age. Homozygotes are embryonic lethal. Heterozygous females show nursing deficiency.