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Sample records for hancza ne poland

  1. Using the geodetic and hydroacoustic measurements to investigate the bathymetric and morphometric parameters of Lake Hancza (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popielarczyk, Dariusz; Templin, Tomasz; Łopata, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Most of the inland lakes do not have up-to-date bathymetry. However, a significant progress in surveying technologies creates a possibility to quickly and accurately describe the underwater environment. Modern geodetic and global positioning techniques integrated with hydroacoustic systems provide a great opportunity to study the bottom shape with high resolution. Our study presents a reliable methodology for investigation of bathymetry and morphometric parameters with the use of GNSS positioning techniques and single beam echosounder. The research was implemented on the deepest, glacial reservoir in the central part of European Depression - Lake Hancza. Direct hydroacoustic and geodetic measurements completed by sediment study were conducted by the authors in 2010-2013. After performing a field survey the Digital Elevation Model was constructed and the new bathymetric map and morphometric card were elaborated. The maximum depth was confirmed to be 105.55 m. The final conclusions show that the available bathymetric data and morphometric parameters of lakes are highly dependent on the research methodology used, the precision and accuracy of measurement techniques, proper water level determination, digital elevation model and bathymetric map elaboration processes.

  2. Sedimentary record of a Pleistocene ice-sheet interlobate zone (NE Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszka, Beata; Morawski, Wojciech; Zieliński, Tomasz

    2012-08-01

    Well developed NE-SW trending corridors of outwash in NE Poland are associated with a series of lakes with a similar direction of elongation. The glaciofluvial corridor under study consists of parallel ridges with associated channels and kames. The deposits are flanked by till and hummocky terrain. The gravel ridges are composed of sand and gravel deposits that are cross-stratified, massive or graded, and that contain cut-and-fill structures and large intra-clasts of sand and gravel. Locally the deposits show normal faults. The succession of one of the ridges is interpreted to reflect the infilling of a braided channel in a crevasse. Sedimentation took place in some phases when the ice-sheet regime changed from active to stagnant. Sandy-gravel ridges occur within this complex perpendicular to the Weichselian ice-sheet margin. The corridor is interpreted as an interlobate area in the zone between the Warmia and Mazury ice lobes. The braided-channel deposits are not comparable to typical Polish sandurs. The lithofacies characteristics show higher energy conditions, and the channels are deeper than those typical of Pleistocene lowland sandurs. The sand and gravel ridges are interpreted as interlobate eskers.

  3. Holocene tephrostratigraphy of varved sediment records from Lakes Tiefer See (NE Germany) and Czechowskie (N Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Sabine; Dräger, Nadine; Ott, Florian; Serb, Johanna; Appelt, Oona; Guðmundsdóttir, Esther; van den Bogaard, Christel; Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2016-01-01

    A detailed Holocene tephrostratigraphic framework has been developed for two predominately varved lake sediment sequences from NE Germany (Lake Tiefer See) and central N Poland (Lake Czechowskie). A total of thirteen tephras and cryptotephras of Icelandic provenance were detected and chemically fingerprinted in order to define correlatives and to integrate known tephra ages into the sediment chronologies. Out of these, three cryptotephras (Askja-AD1875, Askja-S and Hässeldalen) were identified in both records, thus allowing a detailed synchronization of developing high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data. The early Holocene Saksunarvatn Ash layer and the middle Holocene Lairg-B and Hekla-4 cryptotephras in Lake Tiefer See are further important anchor points for the comparison with other high-resolution palaeoclimate records in Central and Northern Europe. Tentative correlations of cryptotephras have been made with a historical basaltic Grimsvötn eruption (˜AD890 - AD856) and three late Holocene rhyolitic eruptions, including the 2.1 ka Glen Garry and two unknown high-silicic cryptotephras of probably Icelandic provenance (˜1.9 cal ka BP).

  4. Stable isotopic perturbation at the Ordovician-Silurian transition in NE Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.; Gruszczynski, M.; Malkowski, K. . Paleobiology Inst.); Satir, M. ); Halas, S. . Physics Inst.)

    1992-01-01

    An interpretation of the time series of stable isotopic proportions of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur in rock samples from subsurface Ordovician-Silurian transition in north-eastern Poland demonstrates a clearcut perturbation that must imply some global scale controlling factors. This perturbation is particularly emphasized by its comparison to the sustained secular Paleozoic trend in isotopic characteristics of the oceanic system. On the other hand, this isotopic perturbation contrasts with unidirectional local changes in geochemical elemental proportions in the same rock samples. The perturbation is most parsimoniously explained as linked to the onset of a major glaciation. Its relationship to the second largest mass extinction in the history of the biosphere still remains to be elucidated.

  5. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in helminth infracommunities of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Harris, Philip D; Price, Stephen J; Brown, Gabrielle S; Osborne, Sarah-Jane; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-12-01

    Parasites are considered to be an important selective force in host evolution but ecological studies of host-parasite systems are usually short-term providing only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We have conducted four surveys of helminths of bank voles at three ecologically similar woodland sites in NE Poland, spaced over a period of 11 years, to assess the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. Some measures of infracommunity structure maintained relative stability: the rank order of prevalence and abundance of Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli and Mastophorus muris changed little between the four surveys. Other measures changed markedly: dynamic changes were evident in Syphacia petrusewiczi which declined to local extinction, while the capillariid Aonchotheca annulosa first appeared in 2002 and then increased in prevalence and abundance over the remaining three surveys. Some species are therefore dynamic and both introductions and extinctions can be expected in ecological time. At higher taxonomic levels and for derived measures, year and host-age effects and their interactions with site are important. Our surveys emphasize that the site of capture is the major determinant of the species contributing to helminth community structure, providing some predictability in these systems. PMID:26442655

  6. Clay minerals from Weichselian glaciolimnic sediments of the Sępopolska Plain (NE Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosz, Jacek; Orzechowski, Miroslaw; Kobierski, Miroslaw; Smolczynski, Slawomir; Zamorski, Ryszard

    2009-06-01

    Glaciolimnic deposits sampled from three sedimentation reservoirs located on the Sępopolska Plain (northeastern Poland) were investigated. The material under study was deposited in the recession phase of the Pomeranian phase of Vistula (Weichselian) glaciation. The clay fraction was separated by centrifugation after preparation according to Jackson. Mineralogical investigations were done by X-ray diffraction. The analysed deposits had a similar complex composition of clay minerals. The main components were illites mixed with the illite/smectite mineral with percentages < 10 % S. Another part were minerals of the illite/smectite type which had differentiated content of smectite layers (mainly 80-90 % S). There were also chlorite minerals, probably as mixed layer minerals of the chlorite/vermiculite type or HIV with a negligible amount of chlorite layers. The results indicated that all the deposits were of the same age as well as similar deposited material and the samples are different from typical Pomeranian till and typical limnic material of the same age. Small differences observed among the deposits of specific sedimentation reservoirs were probably the result of later processes.

  7. Heavy Metal Enrichment History in annually laminated Lake Tiefer See (NE-Germany) and Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Dräger, Nadine; Kienel, Ulrike; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Within the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses (ICLEA) high-resolution geo-archives (e.g. lakes as natural data loggers) of the northeastern german and northern polish lowlands are investigated to identify influences of land-use on the landscape evolution. For two annually laminated lake sediment records, situated in rural environments in NE-Germany (Lake Tiefer See) and N-Poland (Czechowskie Lake), we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals. Both lakes show a similar pattern of relatively low heavy metal concentrations if compared to the so-called index of geoaccumulation (Müller 1979), which is based on the average global metal content in shales (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961). Only Pb, Zn and Cd show a clear parallel pattern of enrichment in both lakes starting around 1850 according to mainly atmospheric input due to increasing industrialization within the framework of the Industrial Revolution. Highest input for Cd, Zn, and Pb occur around 1960 to 1980 and thereafter a clear pattern of declining anthropogenic input is registered. On the base of heavy-metal analysis of pre-industrial sediments and different sediment types (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) the local and specific geogenic background values for various metals are determined. These results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic heavy metal accumulations and enrichment factors as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact. Müller, G. (1979): Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins - Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79: 778-783. Turekian, K. and Wedepohl, K. (1961): Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth's crust. Bull.Geol.Soc.Am. 72: 175-192.

  8. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in the haemoparasite community of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2014-08-01

    Long-term field studies on parasite communities are rare but provide a powerful insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes shaping host-parasite interactions. The aim of our study was to identify the principal factors regulating long-term trends in the haemoparasite communities of bank voles, and to this end, we sampled three semi-isolated populations of bank voles (n = 880) in 1999, 2002, 2006 and 2010 in the Mazury lake district region of NE Poland. Overall, 90.8 % of the bank voles harboured at least one of the species of haemoparasites studied. Whilst overall prevalence (all species combined) did not vary significantly between the surveys, different temporal changes were detected among voles in each of the three sites. In voles from Urwitałt, prevalence increased consistently with successive surveys, whereas in Tałty, the peak years were 2002 and 2006, and in Pilchy, prevalence oscillated without a clear pattern. Across the study, bank voles harboured a mean of 1.75 ± 0.034 haemoparasite species, and species richness remained stable with no significant between-year fluctuations or trends. However, each of the five constituent species/genera showed a different pattern of spatio-temporal changes. The overall prevalence of Babesia microti was 4.9 %, but this varied significantly between years peaking in 2006 and declining again by 2010. For Bartonella spp., overall prevalence was 38.7 %, and this varied with year of study, but the temporal pattern of changes differed among the three sites. The overall prevalence of Haemobartonella (Mycoplasma) was 68.3 % with an increase in prevalence with year of study in all three sites. Hepatozoon erhardovae had an overall prevalence of 46.8 % but showed a marked reduction with each successive year of the study, and this was consistent in all three sites. The overall prevalence of Trypanosoma evotomys was 15.4 % varying significantly between sites, but showing temporal stability. While overall prevalence

  9. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for June, July, August (JJA) months but in some cases the correlation coefficient was stronger when also May was taken into account. For the whole 120-yrs series the correlation between δ18O and average JJA temperature is 0.007, average JJA precipitation is 0.16 and average JJA SPEI is 0.20. Analyzing the results for 1897-2008 we can distinguish period 1960-2008 with relevantly stronger correlations: R(temperature) = 0.19, R(precipitation) = 0.20 and R(SPEI) = 0.45. This period is connected with cessation of human activity close to Lake Zabinskie. Reconstruction of climate variables for the last millennium was made using transfer function obtained for calibration period (1897-2008). Reconstructions showed that known climate extremes like Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age with Sporer (1420-1570), Maunder (1645-1715) and Dalton (1790-1820) Minimum was recorded in sediment from Lake Zabinskie. The presented study is a part of the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)", funded within Polish-Swiss Research Programme. http://www.climpol.ug.edu.pl

  10. Paleoenvironmental changes during the last 8,500 years recorded in annually laminated sediments from Lake Szurpiły, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinder, Małgorzata; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bubak, Iwona; Enters, Dirk; Kupryjanowicz, Mirosława; Mayr, Christoph; Ohlendorf, Christian; Piotrowska, Natalia; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments provide a precise time scale for high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstructions of climatic change and human impact. We reconstructed the environmental changes from Lake Szurpiły (NE Poland) using varve chronology and multi-proxy interdisciplinary approach. Our reconstruction is one of the few for NE Poland and extends the geographical network of laminated lacustrine sediments. This research was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grants (N N306 275635, N N306 009337, N N306 291639). It is a contribution to the bilateral scientific program "Northern Polish Lake Research" (NORPOLAR). Parallel overlapping sediment cores with total length of 12.38 m and extending back to the Late Glacial were retrieved in 2007. The geochemical (X-ray Fluorescence, CNS, stable isotopes), microscopic (varve thickness and structure), biological (diatoms, pollen) and statistical analyses were applied and combined in an annual scale based on the varve chronology, which was verified by independent radiometric dating (Pb-210, Cs-137 and AMS radiocarbon dating). Due to the large slump, this study focuses on the almost continuously varved uppermost 7.58-m long section of the profile, covering the last 8,500 years. The climate fluctuations were the main cause of the environmental changes during the first 6,000 years. The geochemical record is mainly driven by the lake productivity, oxic conditions and minerogenic input. Although the first evidence of the anthropogenic impact is documented in pollen record at 8,000 BP, the environmental conditions were relatively stable until 2,500 BP, when the human activity increased significantly. Since that time the climatic and human influence are combined and more difficult to disentangle. Three settlement phases separated by natural regeneration of the environment occurred between 2,500-400 BP. The variation of geochemical and pollen data at 400-100 BP reflects climate

  11. A chrysophyte-based quantitative reconstruction of winter severity from varved lake sediments in NE Poland during the past millennium and its relationship to natural climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Almeida, I.; Grosjean, M.; Przybylak, R.; Tylmann, W.

    2015-08-01

    Chrysophyte cysts are recognized as powerful proxies of cold-season temperatures. In this paper we use the relationship between chrysophyte assemblages and the number of days below 4 °C (DB4 °C) in the epilimnion of a lake in northern Poland to develop a transfer function and to reconstruct winter severity in Poland for the last millennium. DB4 °C is a climate variable related to the length of the winter. Multivariate ordination techniques were used to study the distribution of chrysophytes from sediment traps of 37 low-land lakes distributed along a variety of environmental and climatic gradients in northern Poland. Of all the environmental variables measured, stepwise variable selection and individual Redundancy analyses (RDA) identified DB4 °C as the most important variable for chrysophytes, explaining a portion of variance independent of variables related to water chemistry (conductivity, chlorides, K, sulfates), which were also important. A quantitative transfer function was created to estimate DB4 °C from sedimentary assemblages using partial least square regression (PLS). The two-component model (PLS-2) had a coefficient of determination of Rcross2  = 0.58, with root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP, based on leave-one-out) of 3.41 days. The resulting transfer function was applied to an annually-varved sediment core from Lake Żabińskie, providing a new sub-decadal quantitative reconstruction of DB4 °C with high chronological accuracy for the period AD 1000-2010. During Medieval Times (AD 1180-1440) winters were generally shorter (warmer) except for a decade with very long and severe winters around AD 1260-1270 (following the AD 1258 volcanic eruption). The 16th and 17th centuries and the beginning of the 19th century experienced very long severe winters. Comparison with other European cold-season reconstructions and atmospheric indices for this region indicates that large parts of the winter variability (reconstructed DB4 °C) is due

  12. Extrinsic- and intrinsic-dependent variation in component communities and patterns of aggregations in helminth parasites of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) from N.E. Poland.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effect extrinsic (habitat and season) and intrinsic (host's age and sex) factors on the richness, diversity, and structure of parasite component communities and aggregation patterns in the helminth fauna of the great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo from northeastern Poland. The helminth fauna of cormorants from the brackish water habitat was far richer (30 species) than in those from freshwater lakes (18 species) and strongly depend on season and age of the host. The values of diversity index strongly varied in relation to habitat and host age with clear seasonal differences in the value of diversity index, i.e., its value increased over time in adults from the brackish water habitat and decreased in those from the freshwater lakes. The number of helminths in adult and immature birds varied, depending on the season and habitat: in the brackish water habitat, the overall percentage of helminths was higher in spring than in summer, while in the freshwater habitat a higher proportion of helminths was recorded in summer. During spring, in the brackish water habitat, we observed a higher level of aggregation (for all groups of helminths) than in autumn. The opposite pattern was found in the freshwater habitat. However, this regularity was typical of adult birds only. In immature hosts, the level of aggregation was not predictable and varied among the higher taxa. Our study clearly showed that processes determinate diversity, structure, richness, and patterns of aggregation in helminth assemblages of avian hosts are multi-origin and highly complex. PMID:24297694

  13. Spring-temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Tylmann, Wojciech; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution, well-calibrated records of lake sediments are fundamental for assessments of climatic and environmental changes. Varved lake sediments are particularly robust archives in this context, providing quantitative insights into climate-state variables at annual resolution. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems, the key issue is to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, particularly during the 20th century. Here we present a multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and geochemical data from Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, North-East Poland) with the aim to detect and differentiate climate-driven changes from other environmental controls. The lake is dimictic, 44-meter deep and ice-covered from January to early March. It exhibits biogeochemical varves with a high content of organic matter (terrestrial and aquatic, macrophytes, algae and bacteria), a simple inorganic composition (predominantly summer-precipitated endogenous calcite) and high sedimentation rates (5 - 8 mm/yr). We analyzed a 51-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 100 years. Pigments were extracted at 1-cm resolution using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We also measured pigments with Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-RS; 380 - 730 nm) to assess whether the down-core resolution could be increased with this rapid non-destructive technique. We show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven change for the period 1907-2008 AD. The eutrophication signal is evidenced by a recent change in the algal community from green algae (rich in chlorophyll a) to more competitive blue-green algae (rich in ß-carotene), which leads to an environment with light-limiting conditions for chlorophyte growth. This provides a basis for the preservation of the climate signal in the sediments. Using

  14. Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous polyphase metamorphic evolution of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (NE Bohemian Massif, Poland): evidence from Th-U-total Pb monazite dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Jastrzębski, Mirosław; Stawikowski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    The Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, located in the NE part of the Bohemian Massif, mainly consists of Cambro-Ordovician orthogneisses and the metavolcano-sedimentary Młynowiec and Stronie Formations. This study constrains electron microprobe Th-U-total Pb ages of monazite in (1) orthogneisses, (2) paragneisses of the Młynowiec Formation (MF), (3) mica schists of the Stronie Formation (SF) and (4) light quartzites. The latter light quartzites form a continuous 'horizon' between two metavolcano-sedimentary formations, however, they are traditionally treated as the lowest member of the Stronie Formation (SF). Our field and structural studies conducted along the transects crossing the boundaries between the above-mentioned rocks indicate that there is a stratigraphic and structural continuity between the Młynowiec and Stronie Formations. Samples for the monazite dating were collected at different distances from the contact between orthogneisses and metasediments. The aim of this study was to provide a new data to verify a hypothesis of Cambro-Ordovician contact or regional metamorphism of the Młynowiec-Stronie Group and to constrain age of the Variscan metamorphic events in the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Monazite from medium-grained orthogneiss yield dates ranging from 546 to 322 Ma, while three age domains of ca. 481 Ma, ca. 421 Ma and ca. 370 Ma are defined in fine-grained orthogneiss. Monazite in two porphyroblastic paragneisses (MF) yields two age domains of 369-361 Ma and 340-336 Ma. It should be noted that the older ages are recorded by inclusions of monazite in staurolite and plagioclase, as well as by matrix monazite. Monazite in leucosome of the migmatized paragneiss (MF) yields ca. 337 Ma age, while matrix monazite in melanosome yields ages of ca. 331 Ma age and a faint record of ca. 355 Ma. In two K-feldspar bearing light quartzites (SF), older spectrum of ages within 524-463 Ma, as well as younger ages of ca. 358 Ma and 347 Ma are obtained. On the other hand, only

  15. Rural Sociology in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeski, Boguslaw, Ed.

    Included in this book on rural sociology in Poland are: (1) "Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article detailing the reflections and studies of rural life and agriculture before the discipline of rural sociology was acknowledged); (2) "Half A Century of Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article describing the "golden age" of Polish sociology in the…

  16. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. PMID:26315315

  17. Astronomy in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M.; Stępień, K.

    2015-09-01

    Polish post-war astronomy was built virtually from nothing. Currently, about 250 astronomers are employed in seven academic institutes and a few smaller units across Poland. Broad areas of astrophysics are covered and the level of astronomical research in Poland is higher than the world average. Joining ESO has created an atmosphere that is conducive to further improvements in the quality of Polish research, and it marks an important step towards the full integration of Polish astronomers into the international scientific community.

  18. Poland: Children's Fiction in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povsic, Frances F.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  19. Pharmaceutical Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Borke, Mitchell L.

    1978-01-01

    The content and organization of Poland's system of pharmaceutical education is described. Tables are presented of the subjects of the basic studies curriculum and the following areas of specialization: applied pharmacy, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical analysis, drug technology, herbal pharmacy, and bioanalysis and environmental studies. (SW)

  20. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  1. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair. PMID:12643435

  2. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  3. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  4. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. PMID:27140431

  5. Poland health system review.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  6. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  7. Air protection strategy in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  8. (U Th) / Ne chronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautheron, C. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Farley, K. A.

    2006-03-01

    Production of 21Ne from the reaction 18O( α, n) 21Ne in U and Th rich minerals such as apatite, zircon, monazite and titanite can potentially be used for chronometry. Based on a review of the available cross section data we reevaluated the production of 21Ne from this reaction using a thin target approach and compared the results against thick target situations. The ( 21Ne / 4He) production ratio in these minerals is about 4 × 10 - 8 , but varies with oxygen content and Th / U ratio. 21Ne has a stopping range of about 1 μm compared to about 20 μm for α particles; thus the ( 21Ne / 4He) production ratio also depends on crystal size when the crystals are small enough that α ejection is important. Using a Monte Carlo model we computed the effects of ejection on the ( 21Ne / 4He) ratio for various geometries and grain sizes. We also present measurements of the ( 21Ne / 4He) ratio on few mg aliquots of well-dated volcanic apatites and zircons for which the duration of retention of 21Ne and 4He is the same. Values of (4.4 ± 1.1) × 10 - 8 and (3.5 ± 1.2) × 10 - 8 for apatite and zircon, respectively, are in agreement with the theoretical values of (4.16 ± 0.14) × 10 - 8 ; (3.54 ± 0.13) × 10 - 8 . Based on our production rate estimates the Durango apatite and Fish Canyon Tuff zircon give Ne ages of 34.2 ± 8.6 and 28 ± 12 Ma, respectively, which are in agreement with independently known ages. Our results demonstrate that the 21Ne production is well understood and can be used to measure the neon retention time for slowly cooled minerals. The 4He and 21Ne content of zircons from the deeply exhumed crustal section in Gold Butte, Nevada (crystallization age of 1.4 Ga) imply (U-Th) / Ne ages of 963 ± 164 and 777 ± 122 Ma, far older than their He ages of 16.7 ± 1.3 and 19.1 ± 1.5 Ma, respectively. To explain the age difference, a neon closure temperature for zircon between the values given by the thermochronometers U-Pb on apatite and Ar-Ar on muscovite is

  9. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. ); Balandynowicz, H.W. . Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  10. New moldavites from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Four newly discovered moldavites from the East and West Gozdnica pits, SW Poland, are characterized. All specimens, including other four, reported earlier, are from Upper Miocene fluvial sediments of the Gozdnica Formation. Their weight varies between 0.529 and 1.196 g. The moldavites are bottle green in colour and have bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite. Low degree of corrosion suggests short river transport, apparently eastward from Lusatia.

  11. The greatest fireballs over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żołądek, Przemysław; Wiśniewski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    A brief description of some most interesting fireballs observed by the Polish Fireball Network is given. All these meteors appeared over Poland in the years 2010-2012. The presented fireballs include a great Perseid fireball over Poznań photographed during the 2010 Perseids maximum, the "Ciechanów" fireball, and the "Myszyniec" Orionid fireball which is exceptional due to its extreme beginning height.

  12. NARSTO NE MODEL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    ... Station Instrument:  Chemiluminescence UV Ozone Detector Location:  Northeastern United States ... Files:  NE Model Readme Hourly Surface Air Quality Ozone & Nitrogen Measurement Sites Related Data:  ...

  13. MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, Ray; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    To begin, we examine the relationship between MiniBooNE and the neutrino beam geometry at Fermilab. In Figure 1, a schematic representation is shown of the plan view of the location of MiniBooNE relative to SciBooNE and the NuMI target, where it can be seen that SciBooNE and MiniBooNE share the same beamline and neutrino flux, and therefore share some of the same systematic effects -- A combined analysis between the two experimental groups could yield a superior result compared to segregated individual analysis. MiniBooNE makes an angle of 6.3 degrees with the NuMI beamline, an off-axis measurement if you will, that provides a relatively high yield of electron neutrinos from kaon decay. Furthermore, the proton beam incident on the MiniBooNE target possesses a 53 MHz structure that will be important in timing studies related to the low energy excess. Let's review of the results of the MiniBooNE: As is well known, MiniBooNE, a test of the LSND effect [1], adds experimental inspiration to the possible existence of new phenomena; although two neutrino-family oscillations were shown to be an unlikely candidate to explain the LSND effect, a low energy excess of 3.0 sigma in the neutrino sector at energies between 200 to 475 MeV [2] - an effect that appears to have no counterpart in the antineutrino sector [3], combined with the 3.8 sigma LSND result - at roughly 50 MeV - strains phenomenology for insight. Miniboones continues to run and collect antineutrino data; will combine disappearance analysis with SciBooNE; take data from the NuMI target, an unusual source with a potentially new look at the low energy anomaly; and use beam timing techniques to further constrain phenomenological models. In this paper we will review current topics related to MiniBooNE and other associated experiments and phenomenology.

  14. MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna Mcconnel; /Columbia U.

    2007-03-01

    MiniBooNE is a short baseline neutrino experiment designed to confirm or refute the LSND observed excess of electron anti neutrinos in a muon anti neutrino beam. The experimental setup, data samples, and oscillation fit method are discussed. Although the result was not public at the time of the talk, MiniBooNE has since published results, which are discussed briefly as well.

  15. New international automatic telegraphic communications of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-10-01

    Direct telegraphic communications have started between Poland and Canada via the CANTAT-2 undersea transatlantic cable. This cable connects Great Britain (Widemouth) and Canada (Beaver Harbour). Twenty-two telegraph lines were established between Canada and Poland for telex and telegram communication.

  16. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  17. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  18. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed. PMID:21913479

  19. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis. PMID:19799261

  20. Comparison of the triple-point temperatures of 20Ne, 22Ne and normal Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Tamura, O.; Nagao, K.

    2013-09-01

    At the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), the triple points of 20Ne and 22Ne were realized using modular sealed cells, Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22, made by the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM) in Italy. The difference of the triple-point temperatures of 20Ne and 22Ne was estimated by using the sub-range of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) calibrated by NMIJ on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The melting curves obtained with the Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells show narrow widths (0.1 mK) over a wide range of the inverse of the melted fraction (1/F) from 1/F=1 to 1/F=10. The liquidus point Ttp estimated by the melting curves from F˜0.5 to F˜0.85 using the Ec8Ne22 is 0.146 29 (4) K higher than that using the Ec3Ne20 cell, which is in good agreement with that observed by INRiM using the same cells. After correction of the effect of impurities and other isotopes for Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells, the difference of Ttp between pure 20Ne and pure 22Ne is estimated to be 0.146 61 (4) K, which is consistent with the recent results reported elsewhere. The sub-ranges of SPRTs computed by using the triple point of 20Ne or 22Ne realized by the Ec3Ne20 cell or the Ec8Ne22 cell in place of the triple point of Ne for the defining fixed point of the ITS-90 are in good agreement with those realized on the basis of the ITS-90 at NMIJ within 0.03 mK, which is much smaller than the non-uniqueness and the sub-range inconsistency of SPRTs.

  1. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  2. Context view from NE ridge of Daybreak Canyon running NE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view from NE ridge of Daybreak Canyon running NE from lookout tower shows fire line on right and NE side of lookout tower in the far distance. Tree in foreground is Pondaross Pine that survived fires of 1991 and 1994. Camera is pointed SW with wide-angle lens. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  3. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases. PMID:20731236

  4. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died. PMID:18807482

  5. Trees Outside Forest In Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajączkowski, Jacek; Zajączkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Increasing environmental threats to agricultural production and the stability of ecosystems have been observed on the Polish lowlands since the 1970s. Several hundred million trees and shrubs have been planted on farmland, mostly along roads and with the involvement of public agencies, with a view to timber being produced, and soil erosion and the water deficit mitigated. On the basis of over 50 years of practical observations and scientific experiments, recommendations have been drawn up as regards the structural and spatial features of new tree planting outside forests that maximize environmental, production-related and social benefits. This paper gives a brief description of the history of the active establishment of woody vegetation across agricultural landscapes in Poland, along with best practices elaborated for this at several scientific centres.

  6. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Jozef; Piotrowski, Adam

    2005-09-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapor phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapor phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. Actually, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  7. Poland: facing the hidden costs of development

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Polish People's Republic is the eleventh-ranked industrial nation in the world. The by-product of this achievement is some of the worst water, air, and soil pollution in the world. Poland has miles of river water that is unfit for any use and the air pollution in most of the major cities far exceeds any permissible limits. This paper discussed Poland's major ecological problems and its government's desire to deal with these problems.

  8. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  9. Health care reforms in Poland.

    PubMed

    Baginska, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the shape of the recently reformed health care system in Poland. Until December 31,1998 everyone had access to free health care and the medical institutions were financed by the State. Since January 1, 1999, under the provisions of the Universal Health Insurance Act, hospitals became independent from the State budget and gained more financial resources for their activities. 17 regional health insurance funds contract for medical services with hospitals and individual practices. Most services provided to the insured are paid by the funds that receive premiums, but some are still financed from the State budget. The revised legislation on Medical Care Establishments intended to create a better management of health care institutions and administrative control over the quality of care. The system has been severely criticised: it is too bureaucratic, there are too many insurance funds, patients have experienced problems with access to health care, particularly to special treatment or to treatment available outside the area of the health insurance fund to which the patient belongs. The new Minister for Health suggested that the 17 funds should be replaced by 5 "health funds" that would finance health care and be closely connected to the local government answerable for their activities. This paper will deal with the scope of health care packages, the conditions of provision of health services, obligations of health care providers, patient rights, and the quality of health care. PMID:15685913

  10. The Geographical Distribution Of The Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L.) In Poland And Its Role On Non-Forest Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojda, Tomasz; Klisz, Marcin; Jastrzębowski, Szymon; Mionskowski, Marcin; Szyp-Borowska, Iwona; Szczygieł, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) has been present in Poland for more than 200 years now, its range coming to encompass the entire country, albeit with a particular concentration of occurrence in the west. Overall, it is present in 3.4% of the stands making up Poland's "State Forests National Forest Holding" (Państwowe Gospodarstwo Leśne Lasy Państwowe), and is the dominant species in 0.1% of stands. Thanks to its producing durable wood of favourable energetic properties, this species is used in medium-rotation (≤ 40-year) plantations as well as in biomass energy plantations (where there is a 5-7-year rotation). In terms of its nectar production, the black locust is second only to lime as the Polish tree best serving the production of honey. While the species shows marked expansiveness in Poland, it has not thus far been placed on the list of aliens capable of threatening native species or natural habitats. Breeding of the species has been engaged in - if to only a limited extent - in Poland for some 20 years now, and 2 selected seed stands have been registered, as well as 34 plus trees and 2 seed orchards.

  11. Joseph F. Poland (1908-1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    On June 4, 1991, AGU Fellow Joseph Fairfield Poland died in a Sacramento, Calif., hospital at the age of 83 after a long fight with Parkinson's Disease. A recognized expert on land subsidence and a retiree from the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division, his death occurred only 2 weeks after the end of the 4th International Symposium on Land Subsidence, held in Houston, Tex. Frequently known as “Mr. Land Subsidence,” it was appropriate that the proceedings of that symposium had been dedicated to him.Born in Boston, Poland earned a bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard University in 1929. He was resident geologist for Tropical Oil Company in Colombia from 1929 to 1931. After returning to the United States, Poland earned his master's degree in geology from Stanford University in 1935, taught groundwater hydrology, and consulted on groundwater and geophysical problems in the West and Southwest.

  12. Registration of 'NE01643' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NE01643 is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2007 by the developing institutions and the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. NE01643 will be marketed under the na...

  13. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  14. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  15. Education in Poland. Bulletin, 1922, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Teresa

    1923-01-01

    Poland, reconstituted as a result of the war, comprises the territory formerly divided among the great powers of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Prussia. Its area extends over 149,140 square miles and its population, according to the census of September 30, 1921, is estimated at 27,160,163, of which two-thirds are Poles. The remainder comprises…

  16. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  17. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  18. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign languages other…

  19. Transformation of Doctoral Training in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasniewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the developments in doctoral training in Poland. The reasons for a rapid growth in the number of PhD students (by a factor of twelve from 1990 to 2005) are explained and the associated problems and challenges are presented. The author will then demonstrate how these challenges have been dealt with in the Faculty of…

  20. Monographs on the Rural Community in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierzbicki, Zbigniew T.

    Documenting the development of monographs on the rural community in Poland, this paper discusses: (1) development of monographic community studies from the beginning of the 19th century to the contemporary period (ethnographic, socioeconomic, socio-historical, economic, historical-sociological, and sociological monographs); (2) the present state…

  1. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  2. Building Civic Education for Democracy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C., Ed.; Strzemieczny, Jacek, Ed.

    This book provides a reflective analysis of the effort since 1991 of a group of Polish and U.S. educators to develop civic education programs for schools and teachers in Poland. The book contains 13 chapters and three appendices. Chapters include: (1) "Principles of Democracy for the Education of Citizens in Former Communist Countries of Central…

  3. Attitudes to Environmental Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobierska, Hanna; Tarabula-Fiertak, Marta; Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses attitudes to the natural environment of Polish secondary school pupils from four selected regions of Poland. These were defined as knowledge regarding the environment and actions for the benefit of the natural environment as these result from the fundamentals of the environmental education curriculum track. Other results of the…

  4. Poland. A Selection of Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom House, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document is a collection of supplemental classroom materials on Poland to be photocopied for use in secondary schools in conjunction with the Education for Democracy's Classroom-To-Classroom project. The materials offer an historical framework for considering current events, as well as some insight into the events, ideas, issues, and…

  5. Employment Opportunities in Poland's Changing Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialecki, Ireneusz; Domanski, Henryk

    1995-01-01

    Dramatic changes in Poland's economy since adoption of a free market and parliamentary democracy in 1989 are chronicled, and resulting changes in the occupation structure, vocational and higher education, earnings, and unemployment are examined. The experiences of other Western countries suggest that a strategy of flexibility and adaptation in…

  6. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  7. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratization and educational development. Suggests that its development has been haphazard, reflecting the uncertainties of a society in transition. Urges the need for evaluation and dissemination of private-sector initiatives to serve as…

  8. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  9. (U-Th)/Ne Chronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautheron, C. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Farley, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear production of 21Ne, like 4He, in U and Th rich minerals such as apatite, zircon, monazite and titanite can potentially be used for chronometry. Due to the absence of 24Mg from the accessory minerals of interest, the production of 21Ne through neutron-induced reactions can be neglected and this production only occurs through the reaction 18O(α,n)21Ne. As the closure temperature is higher for neon than for helium, this gives a possible insight to the thermal history of minerals. To test the possibility of this new chronometer, a review of the available cross section data has been done, permitting a reevaluation of the 21Ne production from this reaction, using a thin target approach and testing the validity of the results against thick target situations. The important factors of the simulation are the cross section and the stopping distance values for a mineral characterized by its chemical composition and density. The (21Ne/4He) production ratio in these minerals is about 4× 10-8, but varies with oxygen content and Th/U ratio. Although the 21Ne has a stopping range of about 1 μm compared to about 20 μm for α particles, preferential α ejection compared to 21Ne lowers (21Ne/4He) at grain edges. For a bulk crystal the (21Ne/4He) production ratio depends on crystal size when the crystals are small. Using a Monte Carlo model we computed the effects of ejection on the (21Ne/4He) ratio for various geometries and grain sizes. The simulation can be run by any user through a graphical interface accessible from the Web at the address: http://h0.web.u-psud.fr/UThHeNe_MonteCarloSimulation/. We also present measurements of the (21Ne/4He) ratio on few mg aliquots of well-dated volcanic apatites and zircons. Values of (4.43± 1.1)× 10-8 and (3.46± 1.2)× 10-8 for apatite and zircon respectively are in agreement with the theoretical values of (4.16± 0.14)× 10-8; (3.54± 0.13)× 10-8. Based on our production rate estimates the Durango apatite and Fish Canyon Tuff

  10. Poland, Albania place acreage on auction block

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    Poland and Albania, respectively the first and last European countries to emerge from Communist rule, have unveiled bidding rounds for oil and gas projects. This paper reports that the goal is to encourage foreign investment in exploration and development. Poland's ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry, Warsaw, announced the schedule for its first bidding round for coalbed methane exploration licenses. Site is the Upper Silesian coal basin. Oil and gas companies were invited to submit proposals by Oct. 1 to develop what the ministry says is one of the world's most commercially viable coalbed methane resource. Five data packages are available covering 11 blocks. Packages cost $20,000 each or in combinations as much as $70,000 for all five. They include geological data, maps, gas transmission infrastructure details, drilling data, and results of coalbed methane studies. A bid is eligible only if the bidder has bought the relevant data package.

  11. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. PMID:25116946

  12. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. PMID:27378393

  13. [Social aspect of clinical research in Poland].

    PubMed

    Masełbas, Wojciech; Czarkowski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    Each year more than 400 new clinical studies are registered in Poland. They gather above 50.000 of study participants. Social opinion on clinical trials is an important factor. The paper presents the review of actual opinions on clinical research in Poland. It provides the description of standards of protection of study participants, benefits and risks related to the participation in clinical research and the role of media in creating and influencing of the social perception of clinical trials. Results of conducted questionnaire studies imply that Poles correctly identify and assess the risk of participation in clinical experiments. The primary reason for the participation seams to be the possibility to help other patients, contribution to the progress of science and standards of medical care and potential benefits for other sufferers. The need of testing the safety and efficacy of the new medication in man is generally well recognized. At the same time a substantial part of the society is concerned with the possible corruption of investigators and unethical behaviour of sponsors. The social perception of clinical research in Poland is in majority of analyzed parameters not substantially different from opinions in other member states of EU. However, the medical society should be more active in influencing and changing some negative impressions. PMID:18432135

  14. Vaccination against hepatitis viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, J

    2001-03-21

    At present, two etiologic varieties of viral hepatitis (VH) can be directly vaccine-preventable: VH type A and VH type B. In addition, VH type D can be prevented indirectly through vaccination against VH-B. The first commercially available vaccine against VH-B appeared in 1981 and was human plasma-derived. After several years, it has generally been replaced by a recombinant type of vaccines. The obvious benefits of vaccination against VH-B prompted its introduction into the national immunization program in Poland in 1989. At that time, vaccination was offered free of charge to high-risk groups: newborns of HBsAg-carrier mothers, health-care workers, students: at medical schools, nursing schools, medical technology schools, and caretakers at institutions for mentally retarded persons. However, similarly to the experiences of other countries, observations in Poland indicated that such a targeted strategy fails to induce major epidemiological changes. In 1989 and in 1993, the incidence of VH-B per 100000 was 40.3 and 34.6, respectively. In addition, during these years, the incidence of V-B per 100000 children aged 0-4 years was 20.0 and 38.4, respectively. It has been decided that vaccination against VH-B will be obligatory for all newborns beginning from 1993. Due to financial constraints, it has been introduced in three phases, and since 1996, all newborns in Poland have been vaccinated. Already in 1993, three additional risk groups have been offered vaccination: patients with chronic diseases, patients awaiting planned surgery, and persons coming into close contact with acute VH-B or chronically HBV-infected individuals. In 1999, the incidence of VH-B per 100000 was 9.1/100000, and it may be assumed that vaccination helped to decrease the incidence of VH-B in Poland. The country experience with vaccination against VH-A is still limited. At present, it is recommended for children and adolescents and people dealing with food distribution, as well as for several other

  15. Creativity and School Grades: A Case from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralewski, Jacek; Karwowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the creative abilities and the school grades of high school students in Poland. Almost six hundred (N = 589) students from 34 high schools from all over Poland participated in the study. Their creative abilities were measured by using the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production…

  16. Legislative Aspects of Rehabilitation Services for the Disabled in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulek, A., Ed.

    The main task of rehabilitation in Poland is the maximum integration of the disabled into ordinary life. Developmental trends in recent years have focused on rehabilitation services for the chronically ill. The document provides information on the organization of rehabilitation services in Poland and discusses specific problems of rehabilitation…

  17. Care and Education of Orphaned Children in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna

    2004-01-01

    Poland is going through tremendous changes in its educational and health-care systems. These changes may bring reforms in the care of orphaned children, because the new politics and economy are forcing educators to look for new solutions and forms of care. There are many problems with the care of orphan children in Poland in both Children's Homes…

  18. Educational Research in Poland after the Second World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupisiewicz, Czeslaw

    The development of an effective educational system in Poland in the postwar years was based solidly on educational research. This study identifies the major research agencies operating in Poland and spells out their basic missions, then explains how educational research is organized systematically through government planning. The impact of this…

  19. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  20. "Normal Planetary" Ne-Q in Chelyabinsk and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.; Haba, M. K.; Mikouchi, T.; Kusakabe, M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Herzog, G. F.

    2015-07-01

    Chelyabinsk contains “Q”-noble gases. Martian shergottite Dhofar 378 contains trapped 20Ne/22Ne = 7.3±0.3, derivable from Q-Ne with 20Ne/22Ne = 10.67 via fractionation by solar wind induced sputtering. Martian juvenile Ne is suggested to be Q-Ne.

  1. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. PMID:21531026

  2. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia in calves in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, J M; Polak, M P; Marszałek, A; Nowak, K; Frackowiak, H; Olechnowicz, J

    2012-01-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a newly emerged syndrome of discussed etiology in calves, has been diagnosed since 2006. Here we describe first cases of BNP in Poland. Between September 2008 and April 2011, 62 cases of BNP were diagnosed in dairy calves. Bleeding skin lesions were mostly pronounced in summer and early autumn. Severe thrombocytopenia was observed in all sick animals. All calves came from herds vaccinated against BVDV infection with PregSure BVD vaccine (Pfizer). Substitution of colostrum from dams of BNP positive calves with colostrum from dams from herds free of BNP was the only effective measure to avoid new cases in affected herds. PMID:23214380

  3. Signing of ESO-Poland Accession Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    An agreement was signed by Professor Lena Kolarska-Bobińska, the Polish Minister of Science and Higher Education, and the ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw in Warsaw on 28 October 2014 that will lead to the country joining ESO. The signing of the agreement followed its unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 8 October 2014. Poland will be welcomed as a new Member State, following subsequent ratification of the accession agreement by the Polish Parliament. Tim de Zeeuw’s speech at this ceremony is reproduced below.

  4. 210Po bioaccumulation by mushrooms from Poland.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, B; Jakusik, A

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents results on 210Po activity concentration measured in mushroom samples collected in northern Poland (Białogard and Elblag areas). Among 20 species of wild mushrooms, King Bolete (Boletus edulis), accumulated 210Po in the highest degree. Therefore this species of higher mushrooms is an excellent bioindicator for 210Po radioactivity in the land environment. Finally, the effective dose of polonium emission was calculated for a consumer of King Bolete. Wild mushroom consumption contributed up to 37 microSv to the effective dose in an individual consuming about 5 kg (fresh weight) of heavily contaminated Boletus edulis species per year. PMID:14587851

  5. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-05-05

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.

  6. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. )

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  7. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  8. [Does Poland need a population policy?].

    PubMed

    Holzer, J Z

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to present some important issues relative to population policy, and to prove the need for such a policy in Poland. A population policy is defined as a combination of direct and indirect actions by the state to influence the growth of the population, as well as its distribution and structure. As in most European countries, an average Polish household has 2 children, a smallpercentage of families have 3 children, and many households have no children, or only 1 child. Therefore, a probirth policy is recommended to maintain the birth rate at 2.10-2.20. However, within such a policy, a family should be free to make its own plans for reproduction. Contraceptives must be available and abortion should be permitted. Given the unsaturated market and permanent shortage of essential goods, a Polish population policy can only be considered from the perspective of a general socioeconomic policy. To pursue the goals of an efficient population policy, an acceptable standard of living should be achieved. Strategically, population policy in Poland should be aimed at creating an optimal structure that would correspond to the stable and, at some point, stationary population model. An evolutionary transition to a stable (or stationary) model should take place over 2 or 3 generations. Such structural changes should go hand-in-hand with permanent improvements in the health, welfare, and cultural life of the population. PMID:12314830

  9. Comparison of the triple-point temperatures of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 22}Ne and normal Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, T.; Tamura, O.; Nagao, K.

    2013-09-11

    At the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), the triple points of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne were realized using modular sealed cells, Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22, made by the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM) in Italy. The difference of the triple-point temperatures of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne was estimated by using the sub-range of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) calibrated by NMIJ on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The melting curves obtained with the Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells show narrow widths (0.1 mK) over a wide range of the inverse of the melted fraction (1/F) from 1/F=1 to 1/F=10. The liquidus point T{sub tp} estimated by the melting curves from F∼0.5 to F∼0.85 using the Ec8Ne22 is 0.146 29 (4) K higher than that using the Ec3Ne20 cell, which is in good agreement with that observed by INRiM using the same cells. After correction of the effect of impurities and other isotopes for Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells, the difference of T{sub tp} between pure {sup 20}Ne and pure {sup 22}Ne is estimated to be 0.146 61 (4) K, which is consistent with the recent results reported elsewhere. The sub-ranges of SPRTs computed by using the triple point of {sup 20}Ne or {sup 22}Ne realized by the Ec3Ne20 cell or the Ec8Ne22 cell in place of the triple point of Ne for the defining fixed point of the ITS-90 are in good agreement with those realized on the basis of the ITS-90 at NMIJ within 0.03 mK, which is much smaller than the non-uniqueness and the sub-range inconsistency of SPRTs.

  10. Application of intravenous helium-neon (He-Ne) laser therapy to patients with respiratory insufficiency: introductory report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisula, K.; Gaszynski, W.; Piotrowski, D.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper the authors present an unconventional method of intravenous laser therapy applied to nine patients treated in ICU for acute respiratory insufficiency. The laser therapy treatment was applied twice in 24 hours by introducing a quartz light pipe into a peripheral vein of the forearm connected to the He-Ne laser produced by Amber, Poland. In order to irradiate the whole circulating blood the procedure lasted twenty minutes. The initial observation showed the improvement of the respiratory parameters and the decrease of leucocytosis. During the intravenous laser therapy the ARDS was not observed in the patients, despite the existence of risk factors.

  11. Date-rape drugs scene in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginnings of twenty-first century in Poland increasing number of reports about the drug-facilitated sexual assaults have been observed. Many drugs have been identified as so-called "date-rape drugs", because of their pharmacological properties, especially inducing amnesia. These drugs are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and than raping them. In a typical scenario, the perpetrator surreptitiously adds "date-rape drug" to the alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person, who is subsequently sexually assaulted while under the influence of this substance. Many victims do not report the incident until several days after the event or even do not report it at all. They report the incident so late after the events because they often have problems with remember the course of incident. It causes that victim is not reliable witness for justice. Detection of "date-rape drugs" in biological fluids is unequivocal evidence of perpetration. Analysis of biological fluids collected from victims of rapes for presence of drugs was rare in Poland up to now. The aim of this study is to show the use of "date-rape drugs" in Poland. Materials for this study were from the routine casework elaborated at the Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków. APCI-LC-MS methods were applied for screening of biological fluids (blood and/or urine) for amphetamine and its 6 analogues, for 12 substances from benzodiazepine group and for quantification of the detected drugs. HPLC-DAD was used as a screening method for wide range of medicinal drugs, and NCI-GC-MS methods for determination of ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinols (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 9THC) and its metabolite (11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THCCOOH). In 2000-2004, the biological fluids taken from 33 persons, both sexually assaulted or perpetrators were analysed. In 2000 and 2002 not any case of this type was registered, in 2001 only two cases were recorded. After 2003

  12. MicroBooNE Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleko, David

    2013-04-01

    MicroBooNE is a neutrino experiment under construction at Fermi National Lab. It employs a 10mx2.6mx(2.5m drift length) 86 ton liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) active volume to record ionization signals from particles produced in neutrino interactions, and uses scintillation light detected by a PMT array to provide precise interaction timing information. The MicroBooNE readout electronics system includes both TPC and PMT readout electronics which digitize neutrino interaction signals at 2MHz and 64MHz, respectively. The TPC electronics readout system processes ionization signals from the three wire planes to two readout streams: one for triggered neutrino events, and a second one for continuous readout. The PMT readout system generates the trigger. This talk will describe the MicroBooNE readout system, its physics requirements, and specifications. Various tests which have been performed to exercise the data flow and integration with DAQ system, including data volume and integrity tests, will be described.

  13. Geochronometry and thermochronometry using nucleogenic 21Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, K. A.; Flowers, R. M.; Vasconcelos, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nucleogenic 21Ne is produced by the interaction of α particles with 18O. While the cross section for this reaction is small (about 1 α in 25 million participates), 21Ne excesses can be measured in a variety of minerals, forming the basis of (U-Th)/Ne chronometry. Previous work focused on thermochronometry of U, Th rich trace minerals. For example, Gautheron et al. (2005) studied nucleogenic Ne in zircon and inferred a closure temperature of ~400 C. Our preliminary Ne diffusion data on Durango apatite suggests Tc ~280 C. The method can also be applied to phases with much lower U and Th contents in which the 21Ne is measurable on old and/or large specimens. We have obtained (U-Th)/Ne ages on ~50 mg samples of iron oxides with ppm-level U and Th and Ne ages of 50-500 Ma. For example, hematites from the Neoproterozoic (?) Urucum BIF yield a 21Ne age of 470 ± 15 Ma and post-depositional hydrothermal hematite in the Redwall Limestone in the Grand Canyon yields an age of 251 ± 11 Ma. In both cases (U-Th)/He ages are more than 100 Myr younger. Outstanding issues with this method are 1) the diffusivity of Ne - are we measuring cooling ages or formation ages?, 2) how well known is the production rate?, and 3) in what minerals is the air component sufficiently small to permit precision measurements of 21Ne excesses?

  14. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-06-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19(th) century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  15. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19th century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  16. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  17. The church's heavy hand in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Following the defeat of communism, Poland has witnessed an erosion in the separation between state and church, as the Roman Catholic church has begun using its immense political power to press for social legislation -- one that includes a ban on abortion and contraception. The Catholic church has already succeeded in obtaining government support of religious education (in fact, it has become the only instruction available), and in tightening divorce laws. Most of the church initiatives affect women disproportionately. As a solution for the country's unemployment, bishops suggested taking jobs from women and giving them to men. Moreover, the church's most vehement campaign has centered on family planning and abortion. Bishops have begun a campaign designed to eventually ban contraception and abortion. Despite the fact that 60% of all Poles approve of the law permitting abortion, the church successfully lobbied the Ministry of Health to impose measures requiring a woman seeking an abortion to obtain the approval of 2 gynecologists, her family doctor, and a church approved psychologist. At least 3 women have already died from self-induced abortions following the enactment of the regulations. The church has also succeeded in getting the government to stop subsidizing birth control pills. with consent from Pope John Paul II, Catholic pharmacists in Poland have refused to sell contraceptives. These measures ignore the well-known fact that contraception is the best, least coercive way to reduce the number of abortions. It appears, however, that the bishops' heavy hand has led to a decline in public support for the church. PMID:12178848

  18. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  19. Dilemma of Democracy and Adult Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratman-Liwerska, Izabela

    1993-01-01

    Political changes in Poland are affecting the educational sector. There is a need for regulation in adult education, and the polycentric model is shifting government responsibility for education from financial support to political and moral oversight. (SK)

  20. Isotopic Fractionation of 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne in a Simulated Thermal Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, B.; Dominguez, G.

    2014-12-01

    Computer simulations allow for the analysis of the thermodynamic properties of systems which are difficult or impossible to do experimentally. Isotopic fractionation in thermal gradients is an example of a system which is not fully understood but could provide background for understanding variations in fractionations like those observed for noble gases in terrestrial and extraterrestrial material. Using a recently developed molecular dynamics simulation focused on the accuracy of the simulated physics, the isotopic fractionation of Neon in a thermal gradient was analyzed in order to provide a correlation between the fractionation and the experimental system's properties. Various ratios of isotopes 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne were simulated in a thermal gradient ranging from 218 K to 233 K for a variety of time scales. Data was collected for various configurations including box sizes on the order of 1 nm to 100 μm. The simulated thermal conductivity was determined and compared with known values. The analysis indicates that the dimensions of the box heavily influence the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation in the thermal gradient.

  1. Genetic background of clinical homogeneity of phenylketonuria in Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Jaruzelska, J; Matuszak, R; Lyonnet, S; Rey, F; Rey, J; Filipowicz, J; Borski, K; Munnich, A

    1993-01-01

    In order to elucidate the clinical homogeneity and severity of the hyperphenylalaninaemias in Poland, a total of 71 children with typical phenylketonuria (PKU) originating from western and northern Poland were screened for 13 mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Eighty percent of all PKU alleles tested were found to carry an identified mutation. One mutation, namely the R408W mutation, accounted for more than 63% of mutant PAH alleles in Poland, the other 27% being accounted for by six mutations: IVS12nt1 (5%), IVSnt546 (5%), Y414C (4%), R252W (1.5%), R261Q (< 1%), and G272ter (< 1%). The predominance of the R408W mutation resulted in a high rate of homozygotes (35.2%) and compound heterozygotes for this mutation in children from western and northern Poland. The frequency and deleterious nature of this mutation probably accounts for the clinical homogeneity and severity of the hyperphenylalaninaemias in Poland. In addition, the high rate of the R408W mutation and its association with mutant haplotype 2 at the PAH locus in Poland give additional support to the Balto-Slavic origin of this mutant gene. PMID:8097262

  2. Climate reconstructions from tree-ring widths for the last 850 years in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Ingo; Knorr, Antje; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Slowinski, Michal; Helle, Gerhard; Simard, Sonia; Scharnweber, Tobias; Buras, Allan; Beck, Wolfgang; Wilmking, Martin; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    temperature r = 0,61 and N-Poland pine-tracheid-lumen-area-chronology with mean Feb-to-June temperature r = -0,66). By using only raw values, low-frequency signals could be sustained in the chronologies. Liang, W.; Heinrich, I.; Helle, G.; Dorado Liñán, I.; Heinken, T. (2013a): Applying CLSM to increment core surfaces for histometric analyses: A novel advance in quantitative wood anatomy. Dendrochronologia 31, 140-145. Liang, W.; Heinrich, I.; Simard, S.; Helle, G.; Dorado Liñán, I.; Heinken, T. (2013b): Climate signals derived from cell anatomy of Scots pine in NE Germany. Tree Physiology 33, 833-844.

  3. [Promotion program for breast feeding in Poland. II. Analysis of the breast feeding situation in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mikiel-Kostyra, K

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of breast-feeding situation in Poland was based on three kinds of nation-wide surveys conducted in 1988: newborn feeding and breast feeding routines in maternity wards epidemiology of breast-feeding and other feeding methods in first six months of infant life KAP study among MCH professionals The major findings of the surveys were: conflicting with lactation maternity wards routines especially: very initiation of breast-feeding, administration of liquids and formulas, rigid feeding schedule, separation of newborns from the mothers too early supplantation of breast-feeding lack of current breast-feeding knowledge among MCH professionals. PMID:8359714

  4. Poland action plan for water and wastewater: Bielsko-biala and Warsaw, Poland. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Goczalkowice Reservoir in the Katowice voivodeship in the Upper Silesia area of Poland. It serves as a major source of water for the population of the Upper Selesia region. In 1987 a major shift took place in the ecology of the reservoir. The shift resulted in major algae blooms which caused problems at the water treatment plant. The primary purpose of the study was to more specifically define the water quality problem of the Goczalkowice Reservoir, to determine it causes and to develop a set of recommendations leading to a solution. The report would then become the basis for proposals for financing of one or more projects needed to implement its recommendations.

  5. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  6. Photoionization of the neon–rare gas dimers NeAr, NeKr, and NeXe

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Stephen T.; Dehmer, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross sections for the heteronuclear neon--rare gas dimers NeAr, NeKr, and NeXe were measured at a wavelength resolution of 0.15 Â for NeAr and 0.28 Â for NeKr and NeXe in the energy region between the molecular ionization threshold and the atomic ²P⁰1/2 ionization limit of the heavier rare gas atom. The dimer ionization potentials are 15.685±0.004 eV for NeAr, 13.950±0.003 eV for NeKr, and 12.094±0.004 eV for NeXe. Combining these values with the known values of the atomic ionization potentials and the neutral ground state dissociation energies yields values of the A ²Σ⁺1/2 ionic ground state dissociation energies of 0.079±0.004 eV for NeAr, 0.055±0.003 eV for NeKr, and 0.041±0.004 eV for NeXe. Molecular Rydberg structure, which shows strong similarities to the atomic structure in the region of the autoionizing Beutler--Fano resonances, has been partially analyzed in terms of Rydberg series converging to the B ²Π1/2 state of the dimer ion. Vertical binding energies for the individual Rydberg states were determined based on the assumption that the Rydberg states dissociate to a neon atom in the ¹S0 ground state plus a rare gas atom in an ns'[1/2]⁰1 or nd'[3/2]⁰1 excited state. Values of the vertical binding energies of the B ²Π1/2 ionic state were determined from the series limits and are 0.022±0.002 eV for NeAr, 0.018±0.004 eV for NeKr, and 0.014±0.002 eV for NeXe.

  7. [Acrylamide content in potato crisps in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Szponar, Lucjan; Chajewska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The main source of acrylamide in the diet are thermally processed carbohydrate-rich products, mainly those obtained from potatoes. Acrylamide is a substance with neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified it as a potential human carcinogen in 1994. The purpose of this study was to assess acrylamide content in 24 samples of crisps randomly collected in Poland in 2004. Acrylamide was determined in the form of brominated derivatives by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The average acrylamide content in the crisp samples examined was 998 mg/kg of the product, ranging from 352 to 3647 microg/kg, depending on the type of the crisps. The factor determining the differences in acrylamide content in the product was also the manufacturer. The average content of acrylamide in the crisps produced by three different manufacturers (manufacturers 1-3) was ca. 600-900 microg/kg, and in the crisps produced by manufacturer 4 was ca. 3 times higher. Moreover, substantial differences were found between the same types of crisps produced by the same manufacturers but originating from different manufacturing batches. The results obtained suggest the effects of various technological processes and raw material types on the level of acrylamide in crisps. PMID:17193744

  8. [Thoughts on demographic optimization in contemporary Poland].

    PubMed

    Oledzki, M

    1980-01-01

    This article presents the viewpoint of the Polish school of social policy of the Institute of Social Economy concerning the problem of optimization of demographic structures and processes in contemporary Poland. This school was created under the leadership of the outstanding sociologist Ludwik Krzywicki (1859-1941). The reasoning concerns, first of all, the scientific premises of the choice of criteria of demographic optimization examined and then there is a critical assessment of modern simplified approaches to the definition of optimum population. It also shows actual possibilities of demographic optimization and the complexity of analytical categories of socioeconomic processes which determine the development of the population in specific time and space. In conclusion, the theory of demographic optimization is regarded as a task too ambitious and perhaps even utopian in view of the assumptions needed for its satisfactory realization. This conclusion confirms the thesis contained in the handbook of demography by J.Z. Holzer published in 1970. The author considers, however, that the search for a theory of demographic optimization is still a task which mobilizes social sciences to an integration centered on demography and social policy. (author's) PMID:12338379

  9. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers. PMID:24244044

  10. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glodek, Anna; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  11. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007. PMID:18541070

  12. Timing of the Late Vistulian (Weichselian) glacial phases in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Leszek

    2012-06-01

    The Lower Vistula Region in northern Poland is a stratotype area for the Vistulian (Weichselian) glaciation and during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the southernmost extension of the Scandinavian ice sheet occurred in western Poland and in eastern Germany. Reinterpretation of the available geochronological data (radiocarbon, 36Cl and 10Be ages), supplied with new field geological evidence, mostly for the Late Vistulian ice sheet limits and movement directions, was focused in three key regions in Poland. During the late Middle Vistulian there was one or two ice sheet advances in the Lower Vistula region. The Late Vistulian maximum ice sheet limit in Poland was time-transgressive and occurred at 24-19 kyrs BP (generally, the younger to the east). Ice sheet limits during the Leszno Phase occurred at 24 cal/10Be/36Cl kyrs, the Poznań Phase ice sheet limit was dated to 19 10Be/36Cl kyrs and the Pomeranian Phase ice sheet limit about 16-17 10Be/36Cl kyrs. Every Late Vistulian glacial phase in Poland was preceded by an ice sheet retreat.

  13. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir; /Columbia U.

    2009-07-01

    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} results, describe the first {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector.

  14. Production of Ne Auger electrons by Ne/+/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of experiments which provide evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy. The experiments involved the bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces with Ne(+) ions. A LEED-Auger system equipped with an ion gun and a four-grid retarding potential analyzer operated in the usual dN(E)/dE mode was used.

  15. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    PubMed

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle. PMID:26054214

  16. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest. PMID:23453291

  17. Very large hail occurrence in Poland from 2007 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilorz, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Very large hail is known as a presence of a hailstone greater or equal to 5 cm in diameter. This phenomenon is rare but its significant consequences, not only to agriculture but also to automobiles, households and people outdoor makes it essential thing to examine. Hail appearance is strictly connected with storms frequency and its kind. The most hail-endangered kind of storm is supercell storm. Geographical distribution of hailstorms was compared with geographical distribution of storms in Poland. Similarities were found. The area of the largest number of storms is southeastern Poland. Analyzed European Severe Weather Database (ESWD) data showed that most of very large hail reports occurred in this part of Poland. The probable reason for this situation is the longest period of lasting tropical airmasses in southeastern Poland. Spatial distribution analysis shows also more hail incidents over Upper Silesia, Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia and Świętokrzyskie regions. The information source about hail occurrence was ESWD - open database, where everyone can add report and find reports which meet given search criteria. 69 hailstorms in the period of 2007 - 2015 were examined. They caused 121 very large hail reports. It was found that there is large disproportion in number of hailstorms and hail reports between individual years. Very large hail season in Poland begins in May and ends in September with cumulation in July. Most of hail occurs between 12:00 and 17:00 UTC, but there were some cases of very large (one extremely large) hail at night and early morning hours. However very large hail is a spectacular phenomenon, its local character determines potentially high information loss rate and it is the most significant problem in hail research.

  18. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans. PMID:25638969

  19. First detection of bluetongue virus serotype 14 in Poland.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Anna; Trębas, Paweł; Smreczak, Marcin; Marzec, Anna; Żmudziński, Jan F

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present the first detected cases of bluetongue virus (BTV) in native cattle from Poland. The virus was found in animals located near the Polish-Belarusian and Polish-Lithuanian borders. The positive animals were detected through an official epidemiological surveillance program. A combination of type-specific real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic tests revealed the presence of BTV serotype 14 (BTV-14). This serotype is highly homologous to the vaccine strain and BTV-14 present in Russia, Lithuania, and Spain (from an animal imported from Lithuania). The most probable route of virus introduction to Poland was transmission through midges. All of the cases were subclinical. PMID:27068167

  20. Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Cofala, J.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Like other Central European countries, Poland faces the twin challenges of improving environmental quality while also promoting economic development. The study examines the cost of achieving alternative emission standards and the savings in abatement cost that might be achieved with policies that rely on economic incentives rather than with rigid command and control measures. A central element of the analysis is a dynamic model of least-cost energy supply in Poland that allows examination at a national level of the effects of different pollution standards and policies.

  1. Poland's migration problems: a post-communist legacy.

    PubMed

    Carter, F W

    1995-01-01

    "Poland's geographical location and the fall of communism has turned the country into a significant area for would-be migrants. This has changed the once predominant character of Poland as a ¿sending' migrant country into a ¿sending' and 'receiving' one. The extra burden of additional temporary or permanent migrants from neighboring East and Central European states is, together with the expanding number of asylum seekers, placing further strains on the country's economy. It also has changed the demographic structure of the nation-state as well as the social and economic (trade) structure and traffic patterns." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293076

  2. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  3. Englacial kames near Jeziorany (Warmia — western Masurian Lakeland, Poland): Morphology, internal structure and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Groups of hills on a regional Vistulian (Weichselian) deglaciation plateau (Warmia, NE Poland) are covered by till of up to a dozen metres thick. It is the same till of the main stadial of the Vistulian glaciation that outcrops in the upland. The internal parts of the hills consist of fine-grained sands. These glacial landforms are referred to as englacial kames; they result from infilling of englacial caverns with sand. The orientation of the kame fields and the form pattern within these fields coincide with the system of primary crevasses in the ice, as it was reconstructed on the basis of the orientation of postglacial crevasse forms. The origin of the englacial caverns at crossing points of crevasse surfaces in the glacier is discussed. Structural analysis (relationship with a circular lineament, local differentiation of the complete profile of the Pleistocene deposits, possibility of occurrence of faults — festoon glacitectonics) suggests that the origin of these landforms is related to movements in the substratum.

  4. Clasts petrography of post-glacial deposits in the Lubusz Elevation, western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Ewelina

    2010-05-01

    Clasts petrography of post-glacial deposits in the Lubusz Elevation, western Poland Ewelina Lipka Department of Geomorphology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland This study presents petrographic composition of post-glacial deposits in the Lubusz Elevation. Also parent areas and possible general ice-flow directions of those deposits were determined on the basis of clasts petrography. This contribution concerns the Lubusz Elevation, located in western Poland. This area is situated within the range of the Poznan Phase, which is the second stage of the Weichselian Ice Sheet in Poland. The author aimed at revealing a spatial tendency in petrographic composition of post-glacial deposits that comprise the Poznan Phase marginal zone. This petrographic composition became also a basis to determine parent areas and possible general ice-flow directions of the analysed deposits. The data set was collected from post-glacial deposits of varied lithology (superficial glacial till and glaciofluvial deposits) across the Poznan Phase marginal zone (end moraine, hinterland and foreland). Gravels of 4-10 and 20-60 mm fractions of both glacial till and glaciofluvial deposits were petrographically analysed. Also indicator and statistical erratics were recognised within the 20-60 mm fraction. All analysed deposits, disregarding either place of their occurance (end moraine, hinterland or foreland) or lithology (glacial till or glaciofluvial deposits) were found to consist mainly of crystalline rocks. Among end moraine and hinterland deposits (apart from crystalline rocks) Palaeosoic limestones, Palaeosoic sandstones and flints are present in significant amounts. Foreland deposits consist mainly (beside crystalline rocks) of Palaeosoic sandstones and flints. More Palaeosoic sandstones and flints and less quartz grains were observed among 20-60 mm fraction gravels comparing to those of 4-10 mm fraction. Significant percentage of flints in all analysed samples was found remarkable. It

  5. Coulomb Energies in ^18Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherr, R.; Fortune, H. T.

    1998-10-01

    Coulomb energies of the ^18Ne mirrors of the levels of ^18O vary considerably from state to state, an effect understood as arising from their different configurations. All the low-lying positive-parity states in these nuclei can be described in terms of two nucleons coupled to an ^16O core plus a collective component (most probably four-particle two-hole (4p-2h)). We have computed Coulomb energies using one such formulation(Lawson, Serduke and Fortune, Phys. Rev. C 14), 1245 (1976).. Two-particle energies arise from coupling a neutron to single-particle states of ^17O, and a proton to the mirror states of ^17F. For the 4p-2h component, we use the ^14O-^14C mass difference, plus a ph Coulomb term(Sherr and Bertsch, Phys. Rev. C 12), 1671 (1975).. Agreement is perhaps slightly better than another such attempt(Nero, Adelberger and Dietrich, Phys. Rev. C 24), 1864 (1981). using wave functions from Benson and Flowers.

  6. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  7. Photon beam quality correction factors for the NE2571A and NE2581A thimble ionization chambers using PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Erazo, Fabián; Lallena, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    The beam quality correction factor kQ,Q0 and the perturbation factor pQ for photon beams were calculated for the NE2571A and NE2581A ionization chambers, using the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE. Results are compared to those quoted for the NE2571 and NE2581 chambers in previous works. Both kQ,Q0 and pQ obtained for NE2571A and NE2581A chambers agree with those of their predecessors NE2571 and NE2581 ones. PMID:26602965

  8. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  9. On Nations and Children: Rousseau, Poland and European Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The paper is an interpretation of J.-J. Rousseau's book on the government of Poland. The central part of the paper is devoted to complex relations between the notions of nature, nation, childhood, and civic education. Methodologically, the analysis involves interpretation of historical contexts and positions significant in the writing of the book,…

  10. Support and Education of Gifted Students in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limont, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the support and education of gifted students in Poland. The author presents a definition of ability. Rudimentary documents and acts of the Polish Ministry of National Education regarding the education of gifted students are introduced. The systems of general and special education are discussed--including artistic and sports…

  11. EVALUATION OF THE HOBOKEN CONVERTER AT GLOGOW, POLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1975, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded a contract to the Ministry of Smelting Poland for research to minimize emissions of fugitive pollutants from copper smelters and to assist in the control of smelter pollutants. The project objectives were to develop proced...

  12. Educational Responses to Reforms in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D.

    1992-01-01

    In the former East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, striking educational changes have occurred, including elimination of communist-oriented curricula, textbooks, and instruction; reintroduction of religious studies, resurgence of private and alternative schools, elimination of Russian as a mandatory second language, decentralization of…

  13. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  14. Vocational Education and Training against Social Exclusion: Poland. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The problem of social exclusion in Poland was examined along with possible strategies for combating social exclusion through vocational education and training (VET). The examination began with an analysis of the special needs of individuals who have reduced opportunities within the labor market and/or are members of national and ethnic minorities.…

  15. Descendant of daughter Brazilian BCG Moreau substrain in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Brzezińska, Sylwia; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Polak, Maciej; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Lutyńska, Anna

    2012-08-10

    In this study we assessed the genomic stability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau seed lots used in Poland for BCG vaccine production since 1955 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). BCG vaccine lots were more closely related the original lot -M. bovis BCG Rio de Janeiro Moreau compared with seeds used before 1980, which is consistent with seed lot distribution recorded in the archives. We confirmed the presence of RD8, RD2, senX3-regX3, RD14, DU2-I, whiB3, trcR, the second copy of IS6110 inserted in the promoter region of phoP, mutation D322G in phoR, ΔRD1, and ΔfadD26-ppsA in M. bovis BCG Moreau used for BCG production in Poland. However, unlike the Rio de Janeiro parent BCG, the BCG Moreau substrain used in Poland does not harbour a deletion in Rv3887c, a region that is involved in the membrane transport protein that is part of the ESX-2 type VII secretion system. Differences in the distribution of BCG Moreau for its subsequent use for manufacturing influenced the microevolution of BCG Moreau used in Brazil and Poland. PMID:22749596

  16. Application of ICT by Students at Selected Universities in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorencowicz, Edmund; Kocira, Slawomir; Uziak, Jacek; Tarasinska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate access and use of computers and internet by students during their studies. The results are based on a survey conducted in 2009-2012 on groups of 320 to 405 students (each year) from two universities in eastern Poland. It was concluded that during the period under study access of students to computers and…

  17. Adult Education in Poland before and after "Solidarity."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron-Wojciechowska, Agnieszka

    1982-01-01

    The author provides a historical approach to understanding the political, economic, and cultural motives that shaped adult education's philosophy in Poland. Analysis of the pre and post "Solidarity" movement is provided to demonstrate the role of adult education in an ongoing process of learning democratic principles. (SSH)

  18. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  19. Teacher Training and the Educational System in Poland. Some Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Hakan, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers on teacher training in Poland. Many reflect a special collaborative relationship between the Departments of Education at universities in Gdansk and Linkoping. The papers are: "Teacher Training-Between Atomism and Holism" (Joanna Rutkowiak); "Following-Applying-Seeking Inspiration as Possible Varieties of Dialogue…

  20. Gender Relations, Education and Social Change in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the following issues in Poland: formal gender equality during state Socialism; public provision of child care; the domestic division of labor; women's educational careers; women's labor market position; gender inequalities in social consciousness; separation between public and private domains; and transition from a society to civil…

  1. Dry spells and droughts in Poland, 1951-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, J.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the presentation is to analyze if there are any changes in frequency and/or intensity of dry spells in Poland. In recent years precipitation some changes in seasonality of precipitation in Poland were observed, expressing in higher totals in winter and early spring and lower in summer. Together with shorter period with snow cover resulting in smaller water supply at the beginning of vegetation period from snow cover melting and higher temperatures it can cause a serious water deficit. It can exert significant impact on crops. According to 4th IPCC Report more frequent dry spells are probable to increase even in those place where the overall amount of precipitation is not projected to change significantly. Daily precipitation totals from more than 20 stations in Poland were used to distinguish the dry spells and a few indices of dryness were calculated. The spatial and temporal variability of these indices on the area of Poland was analyzed and synoptic scale drivers for prolonged drought events were identified.

  2. Reinventing a Nation: The Rhetoric of Political Transformation in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.

    In the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of its satellite regimes, Poland, among other nations, has been engaged in a process of wholesale national reinvention. An analysis of this reinvention is instructive for scholars of language because it is largely a rhetorical process. It is aimed at supplying a new set of collectively…

  3. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  4. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. PMID:27417333

  5. POLCRUST - a deep reflection seismic profile across the Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Malinowski, M.; Maksym, A.; Probulski, J.; Majdański, M.; Narkiewicz, M.; Czuba, W.; Gaczyński, E.; Grad, M.; Janik, T.; Jankowski, L.; Środa, P.

    2012-04-01

    A 240-km long deep reflection seismic profile (called POLCRUST) has been recently acquired in SE Poland. It is the first regional reflection profile ever acquired in the country. It traverses major tectonic units of SE Poland: East European Craton (EEC) with the Lublin Basin, Paleozoic terranes forming the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) (e.g. the Malopolska Block) with the Carpathian Foredeep and finally the young Alpine orogen, i.e. the Carpathians. The data were acquired with state-of-the art parameters (30 m receiver spacing, 60 m shot spacing) and high CDP fold (175). Most of the sources were Vibroseis (4 trucks) with very high source effort (45 s long sweeps). Correlated record length was 30 s. During the reflection data acquisition we also deployed refraction-type recorders (single channel RefTek-125) every 1.2 km along the line in order to record Vibroseis shots and produce common-receiver gather with extended offset range. This piggy-back experiment resulted in seismic sections with offset up to 25-30 km, which is significantly above the nominal offset range of the reflection spread (10 km). Using the refraction measurements we build a first-break tomography model that was used in further seismic imaging. Reflection seismic data were processed commercially. Some post-stack in-house processing was implemented to enhance the deeper part of the data. Signal penetration limit was estimated to range from 20 s in the NE part (EEC) to ca. 15 s in the SW part (Carpathians). For the interpretation of the deep crustal structure we used data from the nearby refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles from the CELEBRATION 2000 experiment (profiles CEL05 and CEL11). Velocity models were used for in-house post-stack migration and depth-conversion of reflection data. The POLCRUST-01 profile portraits the whole sedimentary cover with an unprecedented resolution. For the first time, the full structural setting of the Lublin Basin can be traced. We imaged the extended crust

  6. The NeXus data format

    PubMed Central

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data. PMID:26089752

  7. UCB-NE-107 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-107 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-107 effectively. UCB-NE-107 is a computer code for calculating the fractional rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. However, for readily soluble species such as /sup 135/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 129/I, it has been observed that their dissolution rates are rapid. UCB-NE-107 is a code for calculating the release rate at the waste/rock interface, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  8. The NeXus data format

    SciTech Connect

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  9. The NeXus data format

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; et al

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitionsmore » for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.« less

  10. MicroBooNE Detector Move

    SciTech Connect

    Flemming, Bonnie; Rameika, Gina

    2014-06-25

    On Monday, June 23, 2014 the MicroBooNE detector -- a 30-ton vessel that will be used to study ghostly particles called neutrinos -- was transported three miles across the Fermilab site and gently lowered into the laboratory's Liquid-Argon Test Facility. This video documents that move, some taken with time-lapse camerad, and shows the process of getting the MicroBooNE detector to its new home.

  11. MicroBooNE Detector Move

    ScienceCinema

    Flemming, Bonnie; Rameika, Gina

    2014-07-15

    On Monday, June 23, 2014 the MicroBooNE detector -- a 30-ton vessel that will be used to study ghostly particles called neutrinos -- was transported three miles across the Fermilab site and gently lowered into the laboratory's Liquid-Argon Test Facility. This video documents that move, some taken with time-lapse camerad, and shows the process of getting the MicroBooNE detector to its new home.

  12. The sequence and origin of mineralization in the tectonic zones in the Suwalki Anorthosite Massif, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiszniewska, J.; Cymerman, Z.; Gaweda, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Suwalki Anorthosite Massif (SAM) is emplaced within the Mesoproterozoic rapakivi-type Mazury Complex (ca. 1.56 Ga) of the AMCG affinity. This massif has been subjected by several tectono-hydrothermal events resulted in extensive mineralization. A comprehensive structural study of the SAM requires investigation of numerous (99) boreholes because each well displays several structural components and the combination of these data can be used to summarize SAM evolution. The style of deformation in the SAM area ranges from localised ductile flow, producing shear zones (from a few cm to tens of metre wide) with a mylonitic foliation and a stretching lineation, to brittle fracturing and accompanying brecciation. The SAM features alternating zones of high- and low-strain, both in ductile and brittle conditions. Dip-parallel stretching lineations are inferred to be remnants of the Gothian shortening and ductile thrusting. Almost all shear sense indicators indicate reverse sense of movements. Younger planar fabrics in the fault zones include a well-developed pressure-solution cleavage and or fracture cleavage. Locally, the cleavage become parallel to the fault direction, suggesting rotation of a passive marker during shearing and shortening. The fault zones commonly exhibit newly formed subhorizontal stretching lineations that overprint the former dip-parallel stretching lineations. The kaolinization was the first brittle process, restricted to the close vicinity of the mylonitic structures. The syntectonic C_1 carbonate (calcite or Fe-dolomite) precipitated on the C planes of the S-C composite fabric. C_1 (calcite) carbonate is accompanied by the Fe-Mg chlorite. The further faulting process was accompanied by the crushing, brecciation and pseudotachylite formation. The cracks and fissures are filed by fine grained quartz and C_2 calcite, forming the cement of the tectonic breccias. The following relaxation event caused the opening of the earlier formed cracks and the crystallization of the teeth-like idiomorphic C_3 carbonate accompanied by the trioctahedral smectite and locally interrupted by the precipitation of fine-grained quartz, due to the changes of fluid composition / the concentration of silica. The crystallization of C_3 calcite continued in the open fissures and was followed by idiomorphic to hipidiomorphic barite precipitation. The last mineral in the crystallization sequence was anhydrite, sometimes accompanied by quartz, forming both the late-stage, post-deformational filling of the composite mineral veins as well as the irregular impregnations in the deformed and kaolinitized host rocks. The composite mineralization is supposed to be originated from the mixed hydrothermal to hypergenic fluids with admixture of marine-type sulphate waters in the last stage of mineralization.

  13. The trophic status of Suwałki Landscape Park lakes based on selected parameters (NE Poland).

    PubMed

    Jekatierynczuk-Rudczyk, Elżbieta; Zieliński, Piotr; Grabowska, Magdalena; Ejsmont-Karabin, Jolanta; Karpowicz, Maciej; Więcko, Adam

    2014-08-01

    This study describes changes in the trophic status of 12 lakes within Suwałki Landscape Park (SLP). All of the trophic classifications of the lakes were based on the trophic continuum division. Trophic status was determined by means of multiparameter indices using several diverse criteria. In this study, the assessment of the trophic status of lakes included water quality; abundance and biomass of bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, and zooplankton; and primary production of phytoplankton. The Carlson trophic state index (TSI) describes the level of water fertility and indicated the dominance of moderately eutrophic waters. Lakes Perty, Jeglówek, and Hańcza have a trophic status that indicates mesotrophy (TSI <50). The trophic status of the studied lakes was determined based on the bacterial abundance and clearly showed a lack of oligotrophic lakes in SLP. Based on the number of bacteria, only Lake Szurpiły can be classified as β-mesotrophic, whereas Lake Linówek can be characterized as hypertrophic with some features typical for humic waters. The greatest value of gross primary production was observed in Lake Linówek (126.4 mg C/m(3)/h). The phytoplankton trophy index varied from 1.59 to 2.28, and its highest value, which indicated eutrophy, was determined for Lake Udziejek. In the case of Lakes Hańcza, Szurpiły, Perty, Jeglówek, and Kojle, the index ranged from 1.25 to 1.74, which indicated mesotrophy. The majority of the lakes were classified as mesoeutrophic (1.75-2.24). The highest trophic status was assessed for lakes with a marked dominance of cyanobacteria (Lake Przechodnie, Lake Krajwelek, Lake Udziejek, and Lake Pogorzałek), which is commonly recognized as an indicator of high trophic status. Considering all of the indices of trophic status, the analysis of rotifer community structure indicates that the studied group of lakes is mesoeutrophic or eutrophic. The values of crustacean zooplankton indices indicated that the trophic status of the studied lakes was close to that determined using a TSI. The parameters of zooplankton abundance and species structure allowed for the observance of changes in the tropic levels of lakes, which are difficult to detect by a chemical assay alone. PMID:24788838

  14. Hungary and Poland: The Transformation from a Command to a Market Economy, 1989-1998. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1998 (Hungary/Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael

    This paper examines the economic changes that have taken place in recent years in two central European countries, Hungary and Poland. Findings in the paper are based on materials gathered during the summer of 1998 on a Fulbright-Hays seminar visit to Hungary and Poland and from talks with officials and professors in those countries. Observations…

  15. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

  16. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-05-15

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  17. Far-Ultraviolet Emission Cross Sections of Ne 2 and Ne 3 Excited by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Geoffrey K.; Kanik, Isik; Ajello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of neon in the wavelength range 120-270 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.43 nm (FWHM). The strongest lines observed in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of neon are assigned to terms of the doublet system of Ne 2 (2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 4)nl and the triplet system of Ne 3 (2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3)3l). Our FUV spectral data, obtained at 300 eV electron-impact energy, provide absolute emission cross sections of these Ne 2 and Ne 3 lines, and are compared to previous measurements where available. In addition, the excitation function of the strongest Ne II line observed at 191.6 nm was measured from threshold to 1000 eV electron-impact energy.

  18. Interatomic Coulombic decay following Ne 1s Auger decay in NeAr

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, T.; Sakai, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Ueda, K.; Higuchi, I.; Tamenori, Y.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Chiang, Y.-C.; Stoychev, S. D.; Kuleff, A. I.; Mazza, T.; Schoeffler, M.; Nagaya, K.; Yao, M.; Saito, N.

    2011-05-15

    Using momentum-resolved electron-ion multicoincidence spectroscopy, we have investigated interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) in the heteronuclear NeAr dimer following Ne 1s Auger decay. The measured intensity ratio for the three ICD transitions Ne{sup 2+}(2s{sup -1}2p{sup -1} {sup 1}P)Ar to Ne{sup 2+}(2p{sup -2} {sup 1}S)-Ar{sup +}(3p{sup -1}), Ne{sup 2+}(2s{sup -1}2p{sup -1} {sup 1}P)Ar to Ne{sup 2+}(2p{sup -2} {sup 1}D)-Ar{sup +}(3p{sup -1}), and Ne{sup 2+}(2s{sup -1}2p{sup -1} {sup 3}P)Ar to Ne{sup 2+}(2p{sup -2} {sup 3}P)-Ar{sup +}(3p{sup -1}) reasonably agree with predictions. The kinetic energy release distribution for the fragmentation to Ne{sup 2+}(2p{sup -2} {sup 1}D)-Ar{sup +}(3p{sup -1}) after the ICD transition from singlet Ne{sup 2+}(2s{sup -1}2p{sup -1} {sup 1}P)Ar state, which is a mirror image of the kinetic energy distribution of the emitted ICD electrons, suggests that the corresponding ICD rate is roughly two times lower than predicted by ab initio calculations.

  19. Pelagic crinoids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea) discovered in the Neogene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Ferré, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Until recently, it has been assumed that pelagic crinoids, the roveacrinids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea), became extinct during the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary event. Recent finds of well-preserved roveacrinidal remains (brachials and radials) in the Danian (Early Paleogene) of Poland showed that they survived into the earliest Cenozoic. This group was thus characterized as a "dead clade walking". Here, we present fossil evidence that these pelagic crinoids survived in Poland until at least the Middle Miocene (Badenian, ca. 14 Myr ago)—more than 50 Myr after their supposed extinction. These Miocene roveacrinids constitute the first documented evidence of Roveacrinida in strata of Neogene age, thus prolonging the stratigraphic range of pelagic crinoids. This find characterizes the order as a "Lazarus taxon" rather than a "dead clade walking" group.

  20. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  1. The new approach to science and technology in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Karczewski, W.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, the entire field of science and technology in Poland was divided into three sectors: the Academy of Sciences, the universities and other academic institutions, and the research and development institutes. The level of collaboration among these sectors was low, and the system of financing science and technology was centralized, bureaucratic, and inefficient. The present Science Bill,' which came into force in January, 1991, has three important new features: autonomy, scientific merit, and openness. The coordination of government policy in this field has been entrusted to the KBN (State Committee for Scientific Research). Members of the Committee and its two commissions - one each for basic and applied research - are elected by the scientific community in direct two-stage elections. This new approach to the management of scientific research organization and financing should result in better utilization of budgetary resources allocated for science in Poland.

  2. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-07-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  3. The Beginnings of Modern Research on Propolis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kłósek, Małgorzata; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis studies in Poland were initiated by Professor Stan Scheller in the 1960s. It was a team of Polish researchers who developed a method of introducing hydrophobic ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) into aqueous solutions, which enabled the study of their biological properties. The studies performed in Poland showed that EEP possesses antioxidant, radioprotective, and immunostimulating properties. It was possible to demonstrate antibacterial activity of propolis on Gram-positive bacteria, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and protozoa as well as stimulating activity of aqueous extracts of propolis on proliferation of cells in vitro. Polish investigators showed that propolis stimulates regeneration of tissue, acts as antioxidant and radioprotector, has strong immunostimulative properties, affects animals' life span by extending it, and improves intellectual and life functions of the elderly. PMID:23864903

  4. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusinski, J.

    2010-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  5. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  6. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  7. Porosphaera globularis (Phillips, 1829) (Porifera, Calcarea) in the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of extra-Carpathian Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkowska, Agata; Świerczewska-Gładysz, Ewa; Dubicka, Zofia; Olszewska-Nejbert, Danuta

    2015-03-01

    The stratigraphical distribution of Porosphaera globularis, a common calcareous sponge in the Upper Cretaceous (mostly Campanian and Maastrichtian) of Poland was studied. The presented material, both new and from museum collections, comes from the Campanian of the Miechow Synclinorium, in southern Poland, and from the Lower Campanian of Mielnik in the south-eastern part of the Mazury-Podlasie Homocline, in eastern Poland. The significance of the species in extra-regional correlation, its palaeobiogeography and stratigraphical potential is critically reviewed.

  8. Is there a potential danger of "swimmer's itch in Poland?

    PubMed

    Bikowska, Elzbieta

    2003-01-01

    Tests with cercariae of Trichobilharzia szidati (Neuhaus, 1952) and Bilharziella polonica (Kowalewski, 1895) from naturally parasitised host snails from lake Jeziorak in north Poland were carried out on human volunteers under laboratory conditions. Only T. szidati was capable of causing the symptoms of "swimmer's itch". In the experiment with B. polonica no symptoms of dermatitis were observed either after the first or second exposure. PMID:12474045

  9. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared. PMID:22546006

  10. Radiocarbon chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadachowski, Adam; Lipecki, Grzegorz; Wojtal, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    Many fossil mammoth remains from more than 300 localities have been discovered over last 170 years in Poland. First radiocarbon dates of woolly mammoth from Poland were published in the 1960s and the 1970s. These dates must be regarded with caution due to absence of details of the used methods. Recently, about 40 fossil mammoth remains were radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method in the Poznań Radiocarbon Laboratory. Dates are given as an uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (BP) and as calendar dates (cal. BP). The dates range from ca. 52 ka BP to ca. 13,2 ka BP (> 50,0 - ca. 16,1 cal. ka BP) and can be correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 3 and OIS 2. A new radiocarbon evidence fits into the well known colonization pattern of Mammuthus primigenius in Central Europe and confirms a continuous distribution in the Grudziądz Interstadial (middle Weichselian, OIS 3) and the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). On the other hand, the severe climatic circumstances lasting in conventional radiocarbon dates from ca. 22 ka BP to ca. 17 ka BP probably reduced the number of animals or even cased the withdrawal of woolly mammoth from the area north from the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains for 4-5 millennia. Only one date ca. 20,3 ka BP (ca. 24,2 cal, ka BP) is available from this time-span. Mammuthus primigenius reappeared in southern Poland ca. 14,6 ka BP (ca. 17,9 cal. BP) but soon had disappeared from this region because of marked reduction in open habitats at the beginning of Late Glacial Interglacial warming (Greenland Interstadial I or Bølling and Allerød) The latest available record from Poland is from Dzierżysław: 13,180±60 BP (ca. 15,600±400 cal. BP).

  11. Living conditions of young families in Poland (1991-1992).

    PubMed

    Lisowska, E

    1993-01-01

    "The article presents the results of a survey carried out by [Poland's] Institute of Social Economy in the last quarter of 1991. It included 1,716 women and their families.... The research gathered much information about the functioning of young Polish families at the end of 1991 and at the beginning of 1992; about their material situation as well as their living problems and needs." PMID:12345057

  12. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  13. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  14. Are they fellow countrymen or not? The migration of ethnic Poles from Kazakhstan to Poland.

    PubMed

    Iglicka, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article presents the process of migration of Kazakhs of Polish ancestry from Kazakhstan to Poland which has been taking place since the early 1990s. Poles deported in the past to Kazakhstan were mostly inhabitants of territories which did not belong to Poland; neither were they citizens of Poland. Therefore, the process of adaptation and integration was rather painful. The article points to factors that may simplify and those that may impede integration. The other problem...concerns the piecemeal policy towards Kazakhstan Poles, adopted by the Polish government, which seems risky if not dangerous. The author explains why it may cause a huge wave of illegal immigration to Poland." PMID:12294305

  15. Evaluation of patient exposure in computerised tomogram in Poland.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, M A

    2002-01-01

    The increasing number of computerised tomography (CT) procedures performed in Poland in recent years has resulted in a growing contribution of these examinations to the whole exposure of the population to ionising radiation from medical sources. (The number of CT examinations in Poland was 170,000 in 1995 and 460,000 in 1999.) An evaluation is presented of doses to patients in CT examinations performed with different types of CT unit. To evaluate the exposure to patients dose linear product (DLP) was measured using a NOMEX dosemeter with a pencil chamber (PTW, Frieburg) and the cylindrical PMMA phantoms 'head' and 'body'. CTDI values were evaluated according to current methodology as described in European Guidelines (EUR 16262). The measurements were performed for seven types of CT unit made by different companies. The CTDI values were also compared to reference levels recommended by IAEA. In conclusion it was found that the value of collective effective dose (2200 man.Sv), has increased in Poland nearly 4 times in comparison to 1995, whereas the number of CT examinations increased nearly 3 times in this period. For most of the 'controlled' CT scanners the values of CTDI in head procedures are near to or higher than the IAEA Reference Level (50 mGy); this can result from the protocols, which are chosen without a dose analysis. PMID:12120672

  16. [HIV and AIDS epidemic in Poland and Europe].

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Karwat, Irena Dorota

    2003-01-01

    The epidemics of HIV infection spreads wider and wider. It is estimated that in 2002 about 5 million new cases were registered in the world. In the paper there were analysed information concerning cases of HIV infection and AIDS cases reported in Poland in the years 1985-2002. The epidemic situation of HIV infection and AIDS was compared with the data on the epidemics of the disease in other European countries given in the reports of the World Health Organisation. The number of newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection equaled 7880 in the studied period in Poland. Until the end of the year 2001 there were diagnosed 1153 cases of AIDS and 570 patients died of it. In comparison with other European countries the prevalence of HIV carrier state is low in the Polish population. The main group of HIV infection risk in our country are i.v. drug abusers, and among newly detected carriers the majority are men aged 20-29. Dynamic increase of HIV infected patients in the countries being neighbours of Poland that is Russia, Belarus and Ukraine as well as the rise in importance of the of heterosexual intercourses as a means of spreading of the virus may become a threat to health of the Polish population. PMID:15106468

  17. Síndrome de Poland. Presentacíon de un caso. [Poland's syndrome. A case report].

    PubMed

    Fernández González, A L; García Redondo, A; García Castro, A

    1990-01-01

    A case of Poland's syndrome in a 19-year-old male is briefly described. This syndrome is characterized by congenital absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles as well as homolateral brachysyndactyly. The etiology is unknown. Surgical repair is aimed at constructing a functional hand. Chest deformities usually does not require surgery except in cases of lung herniation or breast hypoplasia. PMID:2096446

  18. The disappearance of a "classical" ice marginal position in NE-Germany: the Frankfurt phase puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böse, Margot; Lüthgens, Christopher; Nitzsche, Carolin; Hardt, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The Frankfurt phase of the Weichselian glaciation is a classical ice marginal position in the North European plain according to all geological and geomorphological maps since the end of the 19th century. Its detection is based on the connection of prominent, but rather isolated landscape features to a supposed ice margin. As in NE-Germany no till layer is connected to the proposed ice marginal position, it is usually considered to represent an active ice margin which formed during a stability phase of the downwasting from the maximum Weichselian ice extent, the Brandenburg phase, which is located about 60 km further south. This is in contrast to the supposed equivalent of the Frankfurt ice marginal position in Poland, the Poznan phase, which is documented by a more prominent landform record and an associated till. New investigations and a reinterpretation of the topography, a reevaluation of sediments in sand pits, as well as geochronological data of glaciofluvial sediments give new insights into the glacial processes as well as in the timing. The landscape was widely formed by glaciofluvial processes forming a complex pattern of intercalated outwash sediments of the advancing, as well as of the downwasting glacier of the Brandenburg phase. A detailed study of the topography by LIDAR data gives evidence of a successive ice retreat pattern south of the so called Frankfurt ice marginal area, documented in the form of a differentiated pattern of glaciofluvial sediments and till on top. An outwash plain, the Müncheberger Sandur, on which several eskers have been mapped, was classically interpreted as a proglacial feature of the Frankfurt ice marginal position. Nevertheless, a series of OSL-ages shows Weichselian ages which are not in accordance with the supposed timing as an outwash plain related to the Frankfurt ice marginal position. The ages, as well as sedimentological evidence suggest that the sandy glaciofluvial sediments belong to the proglacial sediment cycle

  19. 78 FR 73581 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00055

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.../26/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  20. MiniBooNE oscillation searches

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The range of oscillation analyses being pursued by the MiniBooNE collaboration is described. Focus is given to the various searches for electron neutrino appearance, but the disappearance of muon neutrinos and the appearance search for electron anti-neutrinos are covered as well.

  1. EC Detector at SciBooNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Camillo

    2009-04-01

    SciBooNE is an experiment to measure neutrino and anti-neutrino cross-sections on the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. The EC is an extruded lead sheets and scintillating fibers "spaghetti calorimeter" to provide longitudinal containment and energy measurement for electrons and photons.

  2. Data ingestion into NeQuick 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2011-12-01

    NeQuick 2 is the latest version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications that has been conceived to reproduce the median behavior of the ionosphere. To provide 3-D specification of the ionosphere electron density for current conditions, different ionosphere electron density retrieval techniques based on the NeQuick adaptation to GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) data and ionosonde measured peak parameters values have been developed. In the present paper the technique based on the ingestion of global vertical TEC map into NeQuick 2 will be validated and an assessment of the capability of the model to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day variability will also be performed. For this purpose hourly GPS-derived global vertical TEC maps and hourly foF2 values from about 20 ionosondes corresponding to one month in high solar activity and one month in low solar activity period will be used. Furthermore, the first results concerning the ingestion of space-based GPS-derived TEC data will be presented.

  3. The (20)Ne interaction in extended matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.

    1984-01-01

    Although heavy ion transport theory is developed to a relatively advanced stage, the present limitation in biomedical and electronic applications is the uncertainty in nuclear fragmentation parameters. The present status on Ne-20 beams is discussed and useful formulae are presented for future use in analysis of beam transport experiments.

  4. 76 FR 53018 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Nebraska (FEMA- 4014-DR), dated 08/12/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes,...

  5. 75 FR 67162 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 09/13/2010 through 09/14/2010. DATES: Effective Date:...

  6. Electron impact excitation of the Ne II and Ne III fine structure levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.; Cumbee, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Electron impact excitation cross sections and rate coefficients of the low lying levels of the Ne II and Ne III ions are of great interest in cool molecular environments including young stellar objects, photodissociation regions, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray dominated regions. We have carried out details computations for cross sections and rate coefficients using the Dirac R-matrix codes (DARC), the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes (BP) and the Intermediate Coupling Frame Transformation (ICFT) codes, for both Ne II and Ne III. We also compare our results with previous calculations. We are primarily interested in rate coefficients in the temperature range below 1000 K, and the focus is on obtaining the most accurate rate coefficients for those temperatures. We present both a recommended set of effective collision strengths and an indication of the uncertainties on these values. Work at Auburn University and UGA partly supported by NASA Grant NNX15AE47G.

  7. NeXO Web: the NeXO ontology database and visualization platform

    PubMed Central

    Dutkowski, Janusz; Ono, Keiichiro; Kramer, Michael; Yu, Michael; Pratt, Dexter; Demchak, Barry; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    The Network-extracted Ontology (NeXO) is a gene ontology inferred directly from large-scale molecular networks. While most ontologies are constructed through manual expert curation, NeXO uses a principled computational approach which integrates evidence from hundreds of thousands of individual gene and protein interactions to construct a global hierarchy of cellular components and processes. Here, we describe the development of the NeXO Web platform (http://www.nexontology.org)—an online database and graphical user interface for visualizing, browsing and performing term enrichment analysis using NeXO and the gene ontology. The platform applies state-of-the-art web technology and visualization techniques to provide an intuitive framework for investigating biological machinery captured by both data-driven and manually curated ontologies. PMID:24271398

  8. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  9. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting...

  10. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  11. Representations of Linguistic and Ethnocultural Diversity in Poland's Education Policy, National School Curricula and Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    With its recent entry into the European Union (EU) and the adoption of multiethnic democracy as a national policy, a key challenge for Poland is to transform its education policy and practice in ways that are consistent with multicultural and pluralist values. This paper examines Poland's efforts to address these issues by exploring changes in the…

  12. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international…

  13. Life in a Democratic Society: A Primary School Civics Course for Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzakalik, Krystayna; And Others

    This document summarizes a civics course for primary schools in Poland, grades 6-8. The curriculum was developed as part of the Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland Project, a cooperative effort of the Polish Ministry of National Education and the Mershon Center, The Ohio State University (United States). The project aims to help schools…

  14. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  15. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) - a new species for Poland.

    PubMed

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Lukasz; Lukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode. PMID:24039522

  16. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) – a new species for Poland

    PubMed Central

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Łukasz; Łukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode. PMID:24039522

  17. Analysis of new position and height transformation models in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrasik, Ewa; Ryczywolski, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    In January 2014 Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography, Polish authority for geodesy and cartography, has released transformation models for position and height. The appearance of the models is related to changes in legal acts concerning the introduction of new reference system and frames used in Poland. The transformation models link old reference frames PL-ETRF89-GRS80h (also called EUREF-89) and PL-KRON86-NH with new realizations PL-ETRF2000- GRS80h and PL-EVRS2007-NH. The reference frame for position is expressed in the same reference system ETRS89. In case of height system Poland is currently switching form Kronstadt normal height system to EVRS - European height system referred to the Normaal Amsterdams Peil. The transformation models are based on grids covering territory of Poland with node spacing of 0.01 of degree. Model for transformation between previous and current ETRS89 realizations is based on the results of GNSS calibration campaign conducted between 2008 and 2011, covering over 500 points (permanent reference stations and 1st order ground control points) regularly distributed over interest area. Above transformation model has been analyzed in the context of differences to previous frames realizations and to the approach based on parameter transformation. In the context of implementation of EVRF2007 the new local quasi-geoid model PL-geoid-2011 has been compared to the latest geopotential model, European quasi-geoid models EGG and local quasi-geoid models used so far. In addition the new model has been confronted with undulations based on the existing satellite levelling data, including the results of the fourth leveling campaign.

  18. [Occurrence of tissue Filarioidea in ruminants in Poland].

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, A W

    1989-01-01

    In the years 1985-1988 in the Białowieza Forest and in the woods in the vicinity of Olsztyn, 130 deer, 136 roe-deer, 52 bisons and 40 cattle were subject to parasitological section. Seven species of tissue nematoda of the superfamily Filarioidea were detected. Onchocerca jakutensis, O. garmsi and Cutifilaria wenki in deer, Dipetalonema rugosicauda in roe-deer, and Onchocerca lienalis and O. gutturosa in bison and cattle are first records of these species in Poland. The bison is a new host for O. lienalis and O. gutturosa, the roe-deer--for O. flexuosa. PMID:2815759

  19. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof R.; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  20. Helminths in migrating and wintering birds recorded in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from wintering grounds, or from foreign populations wintering with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds. PMID:24930242

  1. [Selenium in selected species of mushrooms from Poland].

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    The selenium was quantified in the caps, stalks or a whole fruiting bodies of king bolete (Boletus edulis), brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and poison pax (Paxillus involutus) collected at the various regions of Poland in 1998-2001. King bolete, parasol mushroom and fly agaric were a much more abundant in selenium than brown birch scaber stalk or poison pax. Some differences were observed between the selenium content of the particular species collected at different sites as well as depending on anatomical part of the fruiting body. PMID:14755851

  2. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  3. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  4. Drug use and policy in Poland in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Watson, M

    1989-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the recent changes in patterns of drug use in Poland in the light of available data. A much higher incidence of use has been seen in the 1980s, and there are indications that this can be accounted for by increased use among young people from the manual working class. Social deprivation may play a part in the etiology of the 1980s "epidemic," and evidence is put forward in support of this view. Both patterns of use and the policies that have been introduced to deal with them are viewed in terms of the political, economic, and social context of post-Solidarity perestroika. PMID:2787787

  5. The DAΦNE-Light Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Monti, Francesca; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino

    2004-05-01

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DAΦNE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Daφne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  6. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  7. Retrieval of water quality algorithms from airborne HySpex camera for oxbow lakes in north-eastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slapinska, Malgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Frąk, Magdalena; Chormański, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to retrieve empirical formulas for water quality of oxbow lakes in Lower Biebrza Basin (river located in NE Poland) using HySpex airborne imaging spectrometer. Biebrza River is one of the biggest wetland in Europe. It is characterised by low contamination level and small human influence. Because of those characteristics Biebrza River can be treated as a reference area for other floodplains and fen ecosystem in Europe. Oxbow lakes are important part of Lower Biebrza Basin due to their retention and habitat function. Hyperspectral remote sensing data were acquired by the HySpex sensor (which covers the range of 400-2500 nm) on 01-02.08.2015 with the ground measurements campaign conducted 03-04.08.2015. The ground measurements consisted of two parts. First part included spectral reflectance sampling with spectroradiometer ASD FieldSpec 3, which covered the wavelength range of 350-2500 nm at 1 nm intervals. In situ data were collected both for water and for specific objects within the area. Second part of the campaign included water parameters such as Secchi disc depth (SDD), electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature and phytoplankton. Measured reflectance enabled empirical line atmospheric correction which was conducted for the HySpex data. Our results indicated that proper atmospheric correction was very important for further data analysis. The empirical formulas for our water parameters were retrieved based on reflecatance data. This study confirmed applicability of HySpex camera to retrieve water quality.

  8. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  9. CLIPS on the NeXT computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnock, Elizabeth; Eng, Norman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the integration of CLIPS into a hybrid expert system neural network AI tool for the NeXT computer. The main discussion is devoted to the joining of these two AI paradigms in a mutually beneficial relationship. We conclude that expert systems and neural networks should not be considered as competing AI implementation methods, but rather as complimentary components of a whole.

  10. UCB-NE-101 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-101 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-101 effectively. UCB-NE-101 calculates the concentration of solubility-limited species as a function of space and time and its mass flux rates from a waste sphere buried in a nuclear waste repository in water-saturated rock. The waste is surrounded by one type of rock, and some distance away, there is another type of rock. The inner layer of rock can be a backfill around a nuclear waste package and the outer layer the natural rock. The mass flux calculated is at the interface of the two layers. The species concentration calculated is in the inner layer. A constant concentration of the species, usually the solubility, is specified at the waste sphere/inner layer interface. Dissolution and transport is governed by the solubility of the species, and diffusion in the porous media. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  11. Model-Based Selection of Areas for the Restoration of Acrocephalus paludicola Habitats in NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Annett; Tanneberger, Franziska; Bellebaum, Jochen

    2014-04-01

    The global Aquatic Warbler ( Acrocephalus paludicola, Vieillot, 1817) population has suffered a major decline due to the large-scale destruction of its natural habitat (fen mires). The species is at risk of extinction, especially in NE Germany/NW Poland. In this study, we developed habitat suitability models based on satellite and environmental data to identify potential areas for habitat restoration on which further surveys and planning should be focused. To create a reliable model, we used all Aquatic Warbler presences in the study area since 1990 as well as additional potentially suitable habitats identified in the field. We combined the presence/absence regression tree algorithm Cubist with the presence-only algorithm Maxent since both commonly outperform other algorithms. To integrate the separate model results, we present a new way to create a metamodel using the initial model results as variables. Additionally, a histogram approach was applied to further reduce the final search area to the most promising sites. Accuracy increased when using both remote sensing and environmental data. It was highest for the integrated metamodel (Cohen's Kappa of 0.4, P < 0.001). The final result of this study supports the selection of the most promising sites for Aquatic Warbler habitat restoration.

  12. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Ignarra, Christina M.

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  13. Modeling of the atomic Ne laser in He/Ne/Ar gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, W.; Kushner, S.; Kushner, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    The high pressure atomic Ne laser operates on 4 visible transitions between the 3p and 3s manifolds. There has been renewed interest in this laser due to demonstrated high efficiency lasing at 585 nm in e-beam and fission fragment excited plasmas. A comprehensive computer model for the Ne laser in He/Ne/Ar mixtures has been developed to examine excitation mechanisms. The authors found that direct excitation of the 3p manifold by dissociative recombination of Ne{sub 2}{sup +} is the likely pumping mechanism, while state-selective Penning reactions dominantly relax the lower levels. Comparisons to experiments performed on a short pulsed e-beam excited laser showed that the electron temperature in the afterglow is determined by a slow relaxation of excited states in Ar. Oscillation does not occur until these manifolds are depleted, and the electron temperature falls. Scaling laws for the Ne laser at low pump powers, as obtained using fission fragment excitation, will be discussed.

  14. [Is the parasite fauna of Poland well recognized?].

    PubMed

    Pojmańska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    The studies of parasite fauna have in Poland a long tradition. Generally the helmint fauna of all groups of vertebrates was more or less examined and as much as over 100 species of Monogenea, almost 400 Digenea, over 250 Cestoda, about 500 Nematoda and 32 Acanthocephala have been recorded. The best recognized are the helminths of fish (especially those of Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Percidae and Salmonidae), frogs examined in various regions of Poland, some birds (especially connected with water environment: Anseriformes, Ciconiformes, Podicipediformes), most of insectivores (although examined only in few localities), European bisons, deers, foxes and wild boars (all under permanent monitoring), as well as domestic animals (cattle, horses, sheeps) and pets. Such groups like some amphibians, reptiles, bats, carniwores, some birds (especially Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, falcons and eagles) need further exploration, as some host species were not the subject of parasitological investigation. In some cases it will be rather difficult goal, as most of these animals are under strict preservation, and only dead (naturally or accidentally) specimens can be autopsied. PMID:16888930

  15. Spatial interpolation of biologically effective UV radiation over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walawender, J.; Ustrnul, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The ultraviolet(UV) radiation plays an important role in the Earth-Atmosphere System. It has a positive influence on both human health and natural environment but it may also be very harmful if UV exposure exceeds "safe" limits. For that reason knowledge about spatial distribution of biologically effective UV doses seems to be crucial in minimization or complete elimination of the negative UV effects. The main purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate interpolation method in order to create reliable maps of the biologically effective UV radiation over Poland. As the broadband UV measurement network in Poland is very sparse, erythemaly weighted UV radiation data reconstructed from homogeneous global solar radiation records were used. UV reconstruction model was developed in Centre of Aerology (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management) within COST Action 726 - ‘Long term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe'. The model made it possible to reconstruct daily erythemal UV doses for 21 solar radiation measurement stations in the period 1985 - 2008. Mapping methodology included the following processing steps: exploratory spatial data analysis, verification of additional variables, selection and parameterization of interpolation model, accuracy assessment and cartographic visualization. Several different stochastic and deterministic interpolation methods along with various empirical semivariogram models were tested. Multiple regression analysis was performed in order to examine statistical relationship between UV radiation and additional environmental variables such as: elevation, latitude, stratospheric ozone content and cloud cover. The data were integrated, processed and visualized within GIS environment.

  16. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  17. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  18. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds.

  20. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds

  1. Epidemiology and prevention of arterial hypertension in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan; Szczech, Radosław; Wierucki, Lukasz; Naruszewicz, Marek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena

    2005-12-01

    The authors review the present situation in epidemiology and prevention of arterial hypertension in Poland. In 2002, the NATPOL PLUS survey on representative sample of adults (n=3051, age range 18-93) was conducted. Prevalence of hypertension, diagnosed on basis of three separate visits, was 29%, awareness 67% and efficacy of treatment 12.5%. Thus, in Poland, one-third of 8.6 million hypertensives are unaware of their disease. A comparison with data from other countries should be careful due to the different methods (age range, number of readings and visits) used in the studies. The data, in concert with a decrease in awareness of one's own blood pressure (from 71% in 1994 to 59% in 2002), called for urgent preventive measures. Two large interventions were implemented under the National Programme POLKARD in 2003: the Polish 400 Cities Project aimed to increase detection and knowledge of hypertension and other risk factors among small-town and village communities, and the educational project, A Chance for the Young Heart targeted at children aged 11-14 years and using traditional teaching methods and an interactive Internet website. Also, an educational and marketing programme targeted at public opinion leaders and decision makers (trade unions, local governments, healthcare financing authorities, print media and radio, the Polish Parliament) started in 1999 and is still in process. PMID:16429636

  2. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    PubMed

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus. PMID:24655475

  3. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  4. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  5. Mortality pattern in men with pneumoconiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Z; Marek, K; Kujawska, A; Szymczak, W

    1995-01-01

    Mortality study was carried out on the cohort of 11,224 men with coal workers' pneumoconiosis or silicosis diagnosed during the period 1970-1985. The cohort was selected from the register of occupational diseases and was traced up to the end of 1991. The general male population of Poland was a reference group. The study showed small but significant excess of total mortality (SMR = 115; p < 0.01). The analysis of death causes revealed an elevated mortality from infectious diseases, among which tuberculosis was most prevalent (SMR = 212; p < 0.01) and from pneumoconioses predominant in diseases of the respiratory system, (SMR = 426; p < 0.01) and lung cancer (SMR = 116; p < 0.01). The comparison of the prevalence of smoking in the population under study with that in the reference general male population of Poland indicated that this habit is mostly responsible for the excess of lung cancer deaths. This finding contradicts the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between exposure to dusts containing crystalline silica, pneumoconiosis and lung cancer. PMID:8581329

  6. Masses and Charge Radii of {sup 17-22}Ne and the Two-Proton-Halo Candidate {sup 17}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Keim, M.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S.; Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.; Herfurth, F.; Yazidjian, C.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Blaum, K.; George, S.; Delahaye, P.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kowalska, M.; Herlert, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lievens, P.

    2008-12-19

    High-precision mass and charge radius measurements on {sup 17-22}Ne, including the proton-halo candidate {sup 17}Ne, have been performed with Penning trap mass spectrometry and collinear laser spectroscopy. The {sup 17}Ne mass uncertainty is improved by factor 50, and the charge radii of {sup 17-19}Ne are determined for the first time. The fermionic molecular dynamics model explains the pronounced changes in the ground-state structure. It attributes the large charge radius of {sup 17}Ne to an extended proton configuration with an s{sup 2} component of about 40%. In {sup 18}Ne the smaller radius is due to a significantly smaller s{sup 2} component. The radii increase again for {sup 19-22}Ne due to cluster admixtures.

  7. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The Cenozoic basanite from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) belongs to numerous lavas occurring in the NE part of the Central European Volcanic Province. Basanite contains clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 3 cm in size. The clinopyroxene has the composition of aluminian-sodian diopside (mg# 0.61-0.70, 0.08-0.12 atoms Na pfu and 0.88-0.93 atoms Ca pfu). Cr is absent. The REE contents are above the primitive mantle reaching up to 18 x PM at Nd. Primitive-mantle normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=3.81-5.01). The REE patterns of all the megacrysts show deflection in La-Nd. The trace element patterns are characterized by positive Zr, Hf and in some cases also Ta anomalies, and negative U, La, Sr, Ti and Pb ones. In some samples strong depletion (down to 0.01 x PM) in Rb and Ba is observed.The Ostrzyca megacrysts formed cumulate, which crystallized from magma similar to the host basanite, but more fractionated and enriched in REE, particularly in LREE (Lipa et al., 2014). This happened at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km) and the new pulse of basanitic magma entrained the crystals forming the non-solidified cumulate and brought them to the surface (Lipa et al., 2014). Clinopyroxene megacrysts contain large, transparent, euhedral apatite crystals up to 7 mm. The major element composition indicates the fluor-apatite with F content ranging from 0.87 to 1.93 wt.%. Chlorine content is strongly variable between grains (0.05-1.75 wt.%). Apatite is strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=60.39-62.23, about 1000 x PM for LREE and about 10 x PM for HREE). The REE patterns are nearly linear, with slight positive Nd and Gd anomalies. The trace element patterns are characterized by very strong negative anomalies of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti) and Pb, and weaker negative Sr anomaly. Concentration of Yb and Lu is on the level 10 x PM, whereas Rb, Hf and Ti are depleted relative to PM. Apatite preceded clinopyroxene

  8. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Krodkiewska, M.

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  9. The vaccine origin of the 1968 epidemic of type 3 poliomyelitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Ferguson, G L; Wood, D J; Minor, P D

    2000-12-01

    A clear association was demonstrated between the use of USOL-D-bac type 3 poliovirus live-attenuated vaccine and the 1968 poliomyelitis epidemic in Poland. The epidemic followed small-scale trials with Sabin and USOL-D-bac type 3 vaccine strains carried out in seven countries including Poland. Factors that might have contributed to the genesis and development of the epidemic were the pattern of virus excretion from vaccinees, mutations found in viruses from the epidemic, and the particular vaccination policies in Poland during the previous years. These findings may provide essential insights into the strategies for stopping polio immunisation once wild poliovirus has been eradicated. PMID:11112479

  10. Application Bayesian Model Averaging method for ensemble system for Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzikowski, Jakub; Czerwinska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate methods for generating numerical ensemble weather prediction using a meteorological data from The Weather Research & Forecasting Model and calibrating this data by means of Bayesian Model Averaging (WRF BMA) approach. We are constructing height resolution short range ensemble forecasts using meteorological data (temperature) generated by nine WRF's models. WRF models have 35 vertical levels and 2.5 km x 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The main emphasis is that the used ensemble members has a different parameterization of the physical phenomena occurring in the boundary layer. To calibrate an ensemble forecast we use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach. The BMA predictive Probability Density Function (PDF) is a weighted average of predictive PDFs associated with each individual ensemble member, with weights that reflect the member's relative skill. For test we chose a case with heat wave and convective weather conditions in Poland area from 23th July to 1st August 2013. From 23th July to 29th July 2013 temperature oscillated below or above 30 Celsius degree in many meteorology stations and new temperature records were added. During this time the growth of the hospitalized patients with cardiovascular system problems was registered. On 29th July 2013 an advection of moist tropical air masses was recorded in the area of Poland causes strong convection event with mesoscale convection system (MCS). MCS caused local flooding, damage to the transport infrastructure, destroyed buildings, trees and injuries and direct threat of life. Comparison of the meteorological data from ensemble system with the data recorded on 74 weather stations localized in Poland is made. We prepare a set of the model - observations pairs. Then, the obtained data from single ensemble members and median from WRF BMA system are evaluated on the basis of the deterministic statistical error Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE). To evaluation

  11. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  12. The MiniBooNE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have been observed in three sectors : solar ({nu}{sub e} disappearance) [1], atmospheric ({nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance) [2], and accelerator ({bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e}) [3]. The probability for two-neutrino oscillation is a function of four variables : two are determined by the conditions of the experiment, and two are the quantities fit for when performing an oscillation search (sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}). {Delta}m{sup 2} is the difference in squares of the mass states of the neutrinos ({Delta}m{sub 12}{sup 2} = m{sub 2}{sup 2}-m{sub 1}{sup 2}). If the observed oscillations only occur between neutrinos in the Standard Model a summation law of the {Delta}m{sup 2} is valid ({Delta}m{sub 13}{sup 2} = {Delta}m{sub 12}{sup 2} + {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}). The observed oscillations do not follow this summation law. This implies one of the results is incorrect or there exists physics beyond the Standard Model. While the solar and atmospheric results have been confirmed by several different experiments, the accelerator based result, from the Los Alamos LSND experiment [3], has yet to be fully vetted. The MiniBooNE experiment [4], located at Fermi National Laboratory, is designed to fully explore the LSND result. MiniBooNE is in the final stages of performing a blind oscillation search ({nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e}) using neutrino data collected through November, 2005. A blind analysis is one in which you may analyze some of the information in all of the data, all of the information in some of the data, but not all of the information in all of the data. As MiniBooNE hasn't yet opened the box, this discussion will focus on the different components of MiniBooNE relevant for the oscillation analysis.

  13. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  14. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Poland

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Poland. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  17. Ivane Tarkhnishvili (Ivan Tarchanoff) and His Links With Poland.

    PubMed

    Widacki, Jan

    2016-01-01

    According to some sources, Professor Ivan Tarchanoff (Ivane Tarkhanishvili) died in Saint Petersburg in 1908. In fact, he died in Poland in his house in Nawojowa Góra, a suburb of Krzeszowice, not far from Kraków. A student and later assistant of Tarchanoff in Saint Petersburg, Napoleon Cybulski, was then professor of physiology at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and its rector and deputy rector. It is hardly known that Tarchanoff spent the last three years of his life mainly in Galicia, at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. There, near Kraków, he built himself a house and it was in Galicia (in Kraków and Lemberg [Polish Lwów, today Lviv]) that he worked on some of his last papers. The strong link between Tarchanoff and Polish physiology is not sufficiently well known and deserves to be recognized. PMID:26472225

  18. Silver content of wild-grown mushrooms from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Bona, H; Danisiewicz, D

    1994-09-01

    Wild-grown and mostly edible species of higher mushrooms collected in 1989-1992 from the districts of Gdańsk, Elblag and Piła (northern part of Poland) have been investigated with regard to their silver content. In total, 527 samples including 25 mushroom species of six families (Agaricaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Coprinaceae and Russulaceae) were examined. Among the fungi examined only Agaricus campestris and A. augustus were heavy bioaccumulating species and showed the highest concentrations of 35 mg Ag/kg dry weight (1.1-150) and 2.0-6.9 mg/kg, respectively. Silver concentrations exceeding 1.0 mg/kg dry weight were noted in Boletus aestivalis, Lepista nuda, L. personata, and in some specimens of B. edulis, Leccinum scrabum, L. vulpinum, Cantharellus cibarius and Coprinus comatus. PMID:7975911

  19. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  20. The negative health consequences of unemployment: the case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    In the 1990s Poland began to make a transition to a free-market economy: a transition accompanied by a variety of negative socio-economic developments, most notably a rise in unemployment. The aim of this study is to shed light on the relationship between occupational status (including unemployment) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), by examining the experience of 542 men and 572 women between the ages of 40 and 50 of the town of Wroclaw in 2006. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which uses certain health and life-style parameters to predict the risk of major coronary problems over a 10-year period, was calculated, and the effect of occupational status on the FRS was assessed. The results showed that the FRS varied according to sex and to occupational status, with the highest FRS rating among unemployed men. Thus governmental policies to counter the adverse effects of unemployment should be developed to remedy the problem. PMID:20627735

  1. Statistical analysis of NWP rainfall data from Poland..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    A goal of this work is to summarize the latest results of precipitation verification in Poland. In IMGW, COSMO_PL version 4.0 has been running. The model configuration is: 14 km horizontal grid spacing, initial time at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, the forecast range 72 h. The fields from the model had been verified with Polish SYNOP stations. The verification was performed using a new verification tool. For the accumulated precipitation indices FBI, POD, FAR, ETS from contingency table are calculated. In this paper the comparison of monthly and seasonal verification of 6h, 12h, 24h accumulated precipitation in 2009 is presented. Since February 2010 the model with 7 km grid spacing will be running in IMGW. The results of precipitation verification for two different models' resolution will be shown.

  2. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding. PMID:21128045

  3. [Incidence of various types of viral hepatitis in Poland 1988].

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, B; Małolepsza, E; Magdzik, W; Naruszewicz-Lesiuk, D; Nowosławski, A

    1990-01-01

    109 sera from patients in the early phase of acute hepatitis non-B were tested by immunoenzymatic methods for presence of serologic markers of infections with HBV, HAV and CMV. The analysis of the results showed that 14 patients were infected with HBV, 20 with HAV and 2 with CMV. The remaining 73 cases could apparently be attributed to the infection with HCV. It has been estimated that in 1988, 69.5% of hepatitis cases in Poland could have resulted from the infection with HBV, 24%--from the infection with NANB viruses and only, and only 6.5%--from the infection with HAV. These data even if representing a slight overestimate of the incidence of hepatitis due to the parenteral spread of infections agents support the postulate that measures to prevent these infections should be strengthened. PMID:1966117

  4. Overt and covert narcissism in Poland and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zondag, Hessel J; Van Halen, Cor; Wojtkowiak, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    This article reports a study of the relation between narcissism as a personality characteristic and the cultural dimension of individualism/collectivism. Participants from a more collectivistic society (Poland; n = 167) were compared with participants from a more individualistic society (The Netherlands; n = 156). Two dimensions of narcissism were distinguished: overt and covert. The cultural tendency for narcissism was measured by comparing average scores on both types of narcissism in both countries, as well as by the meaning that overt and covert narcissism seems to have for psychological well-being. More specifically, the correlations were compared among both types of narcissism and depression and meaning of life. In the Polish sample, the average score on covert narcissism was higher. In the Dutch sample, on the other hand, depression and meaning of life were significantly related to covert narcissism. PMID:19708410

  5. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  6. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cat - first detection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Jędryczko, Roman; Cencek, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite of cattle reproductive system, has been recently discovered as a cause of disease in cats in many countries. T. foetus infects and colonizes cat's ileum, caecum, colon and can lead to enteritis. This paper presents the first clinical case of cat intestinal trichomonosis caused by T. foetus in Poland. The material for this study was a smear collected from a 6-month-old male British Shorthair cat. The presence of parasitic protozoan was determined via microscopic examination and confirmed by amplification of T. foetus rDNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the first PCR reaction, a DNA of Trichomonadidae was identified and in the second PCR, T. foetus was detected. The T. foetus positive products from the second PCR reaction were sequenced. Interpretation of the sequencing results of obtained amplicons by comparing them with the GenBank database proved that the causative agent, in this case, was T. foetus. PMID:26408578

  7. Motherhood after the age of 35 in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rybińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Postponing motherhood is a widespread phenomenon across developed countries, however only few studies look into very late motherhood in post-socialist countries using individual level data. In this study, I look at the context of the first childbirth in Poland in the midst of the political transformation of 1989. Employing sequence analysis I reconstructed life trajectories of women who experienced the transition to adulthood during the late 1980's and the early 1990's and have just completed their fertility histories. Individual data from the 2011 GGS-PL and the 2011 FAMWELL Survey were used. Comparing paths of mothers’ lives, I searched for differences in educational, professional and conjugal careers between women who gave birth before the age of 30 and after the age of 35. The results show how various life careers crisscross over the life course leading women to late motherhood. PMID:25641993

  8. 18Ne Excited States Two-Proton Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Napoli, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Raciti, G.; Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Giacoppo, F.; Sfienti, C.

    2008-04-01

    Two-proton radioactivity studies have been performed on excited states of 18Ne produced by 20Ne fragmentation at the FRS of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and excited via Coulomb excitation on a 209Pb target. The 18Ne levels decay has been studied by complete kinematical reconstruction. In spite of the low statistic, the energy and angular correlations of the emitted proton pairs indicate the presence of 2He emission toghether with the democratic decay.

  9. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  10. A Decade of Invasive Meningococcal Disease Surveillance in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Waśko, Izabela; Kuch, Alicja; Kadłubowski, Marcin; Gołębiewska, Agnieszka; Foryś, Małgorzata; Markowska, Marlena; Ronkiewicz, Patrycja; Wasiak, Katarzyna; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Matynia, Bożena; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2013-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases. Methods The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials. Results In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011). The general case fatality rate in the years 2010–2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009–2011) revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC) ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC. Conclusions The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics. PMID:23977184

  11. Invasive enterococcal infections in Poland: the current epidemiological situation.

    PubMed

    Gawryszewska, I; Żabicka, D; Bojarska, K; Malinowska, K; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate human invasive isolates of enterococci, obtained through prospective surveillance in Poland. The consecutive enterococcal isolates were collected in 30 hospitals between May 2010 and June 2011, and studied by species identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and, for Enterococcus faecium by detection of markers specific for the hospital meroclone, multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Additionally, the genomic difference regions (GDRs) characteristic for lineage 78 were searched by PCR. Among 259 isolates, a nearly equal number of Enterococcus faecalis (n = 140; 54.1 %) and E. faecium (n = 112; 43.2 %) was found. The observed 14-day mortality rate of infected patients reached 18.1 %. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin. High-level aminoglycoside resistance occurred in over 50 % of isolates. Vancomycin resistance mediated by vanA or vanB was detected in 7.1 % of E. faecium; 71.4 % of isolates were multidrug resistant. E. faecium isolates ubiquitously carried molecular markers of hospital-associated meroclone (IS16, esp Efm , intA of ICEEfm1) and multilocus sequence typing showed the domination of representatives of lineages 78 and 17/18 (52.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively). Isolates of lineage 78 were significantly enriched in all the GDRs studied. The recent spread of E. faecium from this lineage contributed to the observed increase of E. faecium in enterococcal invasive infections in hospitals in Poland. PMID:26946510

  12. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  13. Public Perception of Cancer Care in Poland and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background. We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. Methods. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients’ family members, were surveyed. Results. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. Conclusion. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations’ perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. PMID:25520325

  14. Bibliography of English-Polish Contrastive Studies in Poland (as of August 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieszek, Aleksandra

    This bibliography lists books, articles, papers, theses and dissertations describing English-Polish contrastive studies conducted in Poland. There are 403 works listed in both languages, divided into two groups: General Works and English-Polish Contrastive Studies. (CHK)

  15. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  16. Ethical Reasoning in a Time of Revolution: A Study of Local Officials in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra W; Sprinthall, Norman; Siemienska, Renata

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 485 local officials in Poland showed that both elected and appointed officials strongly preferred principled reasoning for ethical decision making. Gender and attitude toward the change from Communism made a difference in preferred modes of ethical reasoning. (SK)

  17. 13. WEST END, LOOKING NE, PHILADELPHIA ZOO LION SCULPTURE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST END, LOOKING NE, PHILADELPHIA ZOO LION SCULPTURE IN FOREGROUND. - Connecting Railway, Schuylkill River Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, north of Girard Avenue Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  19. The eastern extent of the Variscan belt in SE Poland and W Ukraine revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywiec, Piotr; Mazur, Stanisław; Gągała, Łukasz; Kufrasa, Mateusz; Hatcher, Robert D., Jr.; Buffenmyer, Vinton; Kurovets, Ihor

    2015-04-01

    High-quality seismic reflection data recently acquired in SE Poland provide new insights into the structure of the contact between the East European Craton (EEC) and the younger terranes to the SW. Our study focuses on two regional tectonic units: (1) the Radom-Kraśnik Block (RKB), a NW-SE elongate structural high where early Palaeozoic to Devonian strata subcrop beneath the Permo-Mesozoic cover, and (2) the Lublin Basin (LB), a major Palaeozoic sedimentary basin developed above the SW slope of the EEC and filled by the Neoproterozoic - Carboniferous strata. The RKB separates the LB from the Małopolska Massif (MM) and Łysogóry Unit (LU) that are usually considered early Palaeozoic terranes docked to the SW EEC margin. The seismic data show a continuous top-EEC basement that descends from ~2 km in the NE to ~20 km under the SW part of the RKB. The RKB and LB represent a NE-vergent thin-skinned system thrust toward the EEC with the thin-skinned fabric oriented oblique to the slope of the EEC basement. The RKB is a thrust stack that imbricates a 10-12 km thick pile of ?Neoproterozoic to Devonian sediments. A leading edge of the RKB is a triangle zone related to the jump of the basal detachment from a basement-cover interface to Silurian shales. The passive roof of this triangle zone involves Carboniferous strata. This defines the age of thrusting as Variscan. A minor amount of slip that has been conveyed to the Lublin Basin has been accommodated by a gentle deformation of the post-Silurian series. The thin-skinned deformation front is given by the Kock Fault Zone (KFZ) that is a frontal thrust forced to emerge above a step in the Precambrian basement. The KFZ could be partly regarded as an analogue to MUSHWAD structures described in the Appalachian foreland fold-and-thrust belt. It also could be a triangle zone like those in the Appalachian Plateau, but is more similar to the type triangle zone in the Canadian Rockies Foothills. Reinterpretation of published

  20. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  1. [In the 100 birth anniversary of the pioneer of stereotactic brain surgery in Poland professor Oskar Liszka. Functional neurosurgery in Poland and in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Stachura, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This article is the report from the meeting of the Medical Society of Cracow, that has been devoted to the 100 birth anniversary of Oskar Liszka, Assoc. Prof., MD. In the course of the meeting Professor Oskar Liszka's figure has been reminded and his work as a pioneer of stereotactic surgery in Poland has been discussed. In the next two sections, the development of functional neurosurgery in Poland and achievements in this field in the Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology of Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Krakow have been presented. PMID:27197434

  2. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  3. He-Ne laser treatment on menorrhagia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ai-Hua

    1993-03-01

    By using He-Ne laser treatment, 84.7 - 91.1% of patients with menorrhagia, a common symptom of multiple gynecological diseases, are treated effectively. After laser irradiation, the amount of vaginal bleeding was reduced 47.1% on average. It has been proven that low-energy laser is an effective non-traumatic, painless, and easily acceptable new physical method in patients with menorrhagia. To study the mechanisms of efficiency, the quantitative determination of PGE2, PGF2(alpha ), 6-Keto-PGF1(alpha ), TXB2 in endometrium and blood flow before and after treatment were carried out. The results suggest that the effectiveness may be due to the recovery regulation of local uterine PGS level.

  4. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2012-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation search experiment at Fermilab has recently updated results from a search for {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations, using a data sample corresponding to 8.58 x 10{sup 20} protons on target in anti-neutrino mode. This high statistics result represent an increase in statistics of 52% compared to result published in 2010. An excess of 57.7 {+-} 28.5 events is observed in the energy range 200 MeV < E{sub {nu}} < 3000 MeV. The data favor LSND-like {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations over a background only hypothesis at 91.1% confidence level in the energy range 475 < E{sub {nu}} < 3000 MeV.

  5. Electron impact collision strengths in Ne VII

    SciTech Connect

    Di, L.; Shi, J.R.; Zhao, G.

    2012-07-15

    The lines of Ne VII have been observed in many astronomical objects, and some transitions from high energy levels were observed both in Seyfert galaxies and stellar coronae. Thus, the atomic data for these transitions are important for modeling. Using the code FAC we calculated the collision strengths based on the distorted-wave method with large configuration interactions included. The Maxwellian averaged effective collision strengths covering the typical temperature range of astronomical and laboratory hot plasmas are presented. We extend the calculation of the energy levels to n=4 and 5. The energy levels, wavelengths, spontaneous transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and effective collision strengths were reported. Compared with the results from experiment or previous theoretical calculations a general agreement is found. It is found that the resonance effects are important in calculating the effective collision strengths.

  6. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH <3. W Mata was host to shrimp similar to those found at several other

  7. He-Ne laser extravascular irradiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong; Chen, Huifang; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Yanrong

    2000-10-01

    Based on the study of tissue optics related with the laser irradiation blood therapy, a new treatment method, extravascular low-level laser irradiation therapy (ELLLI) is developed. The veins of 30 patients with cerebrovascular disease combined with diabetes, asthma were treated by He-Ne laser (632.8nm, 25mW) which was delivered by an optics fiber. The fiber was outside the patient's skin and the laser irradiated on the blood vessel perpendicularly. The therapy time was 60 minutes each time and about 7-10 times a course of the treatment. The values of blood sugar, blood- fat and hemorrheology were measured as the effective indexes. After the treatment the effective indexes and the symptoms of the patients were all improved. With the advantages of simplicity and safety (no medical infection), laser extravascular irradiation therapy is likely to be a new medical method for heart brain and other diseases.

  8. RELEASE OF NE01643 HARD RED WINTER WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NE01643 is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2007 by the developing institutions and the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. NE01643 will be marketed under the na...

  9. 75 FR 12166 - Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    .... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Beatrice, NE. Decommissioning of the Shaw non-directional beacon (NDB) at...

  10. Relationships between the depth of cover sand transition to till and the intensity of albeluvic tonguing (case study from S-W Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabala, Cezary; Musztyfaga, Elzbieta; Glina, Bartlomiej; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    of Poland (research grant 2012/05/B/NZ9/03389). Komisarek J., Szałata S., 2008. Variabliy of soil texture In profiles of Albeluvisols In the Wielkopolska region. Nauka Przyr. Technol. 2, 2, 1-14. [In Polish] Kühn P. 2003. Micromorphology and Late Glacial/Holocene genesis of Luvisols in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (NE-Germany). CATENA 54, 537-555. World Reference Base for Soil Resources. 2006. 2nd edition, World Soil Resources Reports 103, FAO, Rome.

  11. Preliminar Performance Assessment of NeQuick2-Plas Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya Orue, Yenca; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro M.

    NeQuick is a semi-empirical model that describes spatial and temporal variations of the ionospheric electron density at global scale. It was jointly developed by the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy and the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. The model is able to calculate the electron concentration at any given location in the ionosphere as well as the total electron content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite ray-path. One of the recent major changes introduced in the NeQuick2 model is the integration of the plasmasphere formulation of IRI-Plas that gave origin to the NeQuick-Plas. The plasmasphere extension of IRI, IRI-Plas, is an empirical model derived from many years of measurements designed to represent typical ionospheric conditions as a function of geomagnetic and solar activity. For the smooth fitting of the NeQuick and plasmasphere models, the half-peak density point, h0.5p is searched iteratively from NeQuick topside electron density profile. The present study uses median values of IGS combined global vertical TEC maps as reference to be compared with NeQuick 2 and NeQuick-Plas models. Representative months of years of high, moderate and low solar activity have been utilized. The preliminary results indicate an improvement of the NeQuick 2 -Plas with respect to NeQuick 2 especially during periods of high and moderate solar activity as indicated by the average and standard deviation of the TEC error distributions (e.g. IGS-NeQ2 mean is -9.73, standard deviation is 5.6 while IGS-NePlas mean is 2.87, with a standard deviation of 4.8 for October 2000; IGS-NeQ2 mean is -5.28, standard deviation is 0.37 while IGS-NeQ-Plas mean is 1.25, standard deviation of 0.49 for Jul 2003). During low solar activity (year 2008), instead, there is a slight tendency of NeQuick-Plas to overestimate TEC values and so increase the

  12. Addendum to the MiniBooNE Run Plab. MinneBooNE Physics in 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.

    2004-11-02

    The primary physics goal of Mini BooNE is to confirm or rule out the LSND vμ→ve oscilliation observation with high significance. In the 2003 Run Plan document presented to the PAC, we outlined the need for 1 X 1021 protons on target (POT) to achieve this goal. In this document, we present an addendum to our run plan for fiscal year 2006 (FY2006).

  13. Photoionization and Recombination of ne IV and Excitation of NeV in Nebular Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Palay, Ethan; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2013-06-01

    %TEXT OF YOUR ABSTRACT The inverse processes of photoionization and electron-ion recombination are dominant in photoionized astrophysical plasmas. They determine the ionization fractions in photoionization equilibrium, physical conditions, and chemical abundances. We employ the unified theory of electron-ion recombination to study photoionization of Ne IV in photoionized nebulae. That leads to the production of Ne V and spectral emission of forbidden optical and mid-infrared [Ne V] lines via collisional excitation. These lines are prominent in the observations made by infrared space observatories SPITZER, SOFIA, and HERSCHEL. The unified method for electronic recombination provides self-consistent data for photoionization and recombination that is necessary to eliminate uncertainties in the determination of ionization fractions. To wit: Precise abundance of neon in the Sun is unknown owing to lack of accurate atomic data. A 20-level wave function expansion is used for the calculations of photoionization, recombination, and collisional excitation employing the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation. We find and delineate extensive resonance structures at low energies that considerably enhance the effective cross sections and rates in astrophysical sources. Acknowledgement: Partially supported by DOE and NSF. Computational work was carried out at the Ohio Supercomputer Center

  14. Dew Formation and Chemistry Near a Motorway in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, Grzegorz; Sobik, Mieczysław; Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Cichała-Kamrowska, Katarzyna

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the influence of traffic intensity on dew formation efficiency and chemistry is presented. The measurements were conducted near the A4 motorway in SW Poland in almost flat land relief with intense agricultural activity. The dew/hoarfrost was collected by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers at three sites: AN and AS located in the close vicinity of the motorway (30 m) on the opposite sides of the road, and AR, representing rural background conditions beyond the motorway influence. Measurements were conducted in two short campaigns in April and September 2009 with 9 and 10 collection days respectively. The average daily efficiency of dew formation was 0.179 L/m2. Its value for AN, AS and AR was on average 0.170, 0.199 and 0.173 L/m2, respectively. The efficiency of dew formation at measurement sites located on both sides of the road differed by up to about 200% during an individual dew episode. Maximum daily value reached 0.389 L/m2. The average volume-weighted pH was acidic and ranged from 4.29 (AS) to 4.58 (AR). The electric conductivity (EC) at all measurement sites was relatively low reaching on average 55.9 μS/cm for AN, 62.2 μS/cm for AS and 35.8 μS/cm for AR. The average volume-weighted TIC parameter (total ionic content) reached the value of 0.62 meq/L (AN and AS) and 0.38 meq/L (AR). Both EC and TIC values indicated strong influence of the motorway at sites located in its close vicinity (AN and AS). Depending on airflow direction during individual dew collection events, AN or AS sites were situated alternatively on windward or leeward side of the road, which distinctly influenced dew formation and chemistry: the leeward condenser was characterized by smaller water volume, higher EC and higher TIC when compared both with its windward counterpart and the background site. The ionic structure of the collected samples was similar at all measurement sites. The largest share had NO3 - anion (28-32%) and Ca2+ cation (22-25%). Thus

  15. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  16. Variscan tectonics in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) and the role of structural inheritance during Alpine tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, J.; Mansy, J. L.; Bergerat, F.; Averbuch, O.; Hakenberg, M.; Lewandowski, M.; Stupnicka, E.; Swidrowska, J.; Wajsprych, B.; Wieczorek, J.

    1999-11-01

    The present study was carried out in the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) of south-central Poland and includes computation of palaeostresses following Angelier's method and field structural analysis. The Palaeozoic basement of the HCM comprises two tectonic units separated by the major WNW-ESE-striking Holy Cross Fault (HCF). Fold analysis indicates a N-S to NNE-SSW direction of Variscan shortening. Micro-structures and fold analysis from Upper Devonian rocks further reveal: (1) a brittle tectonic event due to a NW-SE compression preceding folding that could be related to pre-Late Carboniferous tectonics, due to block transport within the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone (TTZ), and (2) polyphase Variscan folding comprising (a) an early stage of N-S shortening marked by north-verging ramps, (b) a main folding event and axial cleavage formation involving N-S to NNE-SSW shortening, and (c) a late stage of shortening deforming older folds and cleavage. A mainly extensional tectonic regime dominated from the Permian until the Cretaceous, during which time the HCF was reactivated as a normal fault. Large NW-SE faults bordering the Mid-Polish Trough (MPT) developed. Subsequent tectonic inversion of the MPT resulted in basin uplift (`Mid-Polish Swell', MPS). Palaeostress computations from Mesozoic strata suggest a NE-SW direction for the main Maastrichtian-Paleocene shortening phase, in addition to two minor brittle events resulting from N-S and E-W compression. Analysis of local folds in the Mesozoic cover indicates a causal relationship with the Maastrichtian-Paleocene reactivation of older faults. In particular, en-échelon folds in the Radomsko Elevation suggest a sinistral reactivation of the Palaeozoic HCF. Folds in the southwestern part of the HCM argue for reactivation in the reverse mode of a NW-SE-trending fault bordering the MPS that originated in the Mesozoic. In Palaeozoic strata, post-Variscan brittle deformation and micro-fault reactivation are attributed to the tectonic

  17. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to norepinephrine (NE) requires conversion of NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Sasikiran; Sule, Nitesh; Cohn, William B; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D

    2014-12-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, has been reported to be a chemoattractant for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Here we show that nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 grown in the presence of 2 μM NE is also attracted to NE. Growth with NE induces transcription of genes encoding the tyramine oxidase, TynA, and the aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase, FeaB, whose respective activities can, in principle, convert NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA). Our results indicate that the apparent attractant response to NE is in fact chemotaxis to DHMA, which was found to be a strong attractant for E. coli. Only strains of E. coli K-12 that produce TynA and FeaB exhibited an attractant response to NE. We demonstrate that DHMA is sensed by the serine chemoreceptor Tsr and that the chemotaxis response requires an intact serine-binding site. The threshold concentration for detection is ≤5 nM DHMA, and the response is inhibited at DHMA concentrations above 50 μM. Cells producing a heterodimeric Tsr receptor containing only one functional serine-binding site still respond like the wild type to low concentrations of DHMA, but their response persists at higher concentrations. We propose that chemotaxis to DHMA generated from NE by bacteria that have already colonized the intestinal epithelium may recruit E. coli and other enteric bacteria that possess a Tsr-like receptor to preferred sites of infection. PMID:25182492

  18. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  19. A Biological Stone from a Medieval Cemetery in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J.; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus. PMID:25275551

  20. Radioactivity of honeys from Poland after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years. PMID:24002443

  1. Genesis of transverse kame trains in eastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    Transverse kames, forming trains perpendicular to the direction of ice-sheet advance, are rare morphological elements in previously glaciated areas. The genesis of an example from the ice-contact zone of the Wartanian glaciation in eastern Poland is discussed. The transverse kames there form two main, distinctly separated, sub-parallel trains. Their sedimentary successions fill erosional troughs incised in the pre-Wartanian deposits on northern slopes. They consist of thick glaciofluvial sand and glaciofluvial/glaciolacustrine sandy/silty units that are covered with a thin, usually discontinuous, glacial till succession. The genesis of this kame type has been modelled. It is concluded that transverse kames developed in two phases: (1) erosion of the substratum in subglacial channels during initial deglaciation, and (2) glaciofluvial deposition in crevasses during advanced deglaciation (in the form of low-energy fans periodically submerged under stagnant water), followed locally by a cover of flowtills. Both the ablation of the ice and the accumulation of the kame deposits were controlled by the co-occurrence of ice zones either enriched or impoverished with sediment. Zonal enrichment of ice with debris was determined by the development of shear zones over substratum elevations that were inclined up-ice. The formation and subsequent infilling of crevasses both took place in zones of relatively clean ice, so that the resulting kames form a train perpendicular to the direction of ice movement.

  2. Problems of drug abuse and preventive measures in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tobolska-Rydz, H

    1986-01-01

    An increasing abuse of drugs emerged among young people in Poland at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. According to information provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, there are currently 35,000 drug abusers, but the actual number is estimated at approximately 200,000. The abuse of extract from poppy straw and the inhalation of volatile solvents, such as glue and paint remover, are the major drug abuse problems. Addicts prepare a decoction of poppy straw for injection, and morphine and heroin have been clandestinely manufactured in very elementary home-made laboratories. Recently, methamphetamine hydrochloride and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have also been illicitly produced in such home-made laboratories. The increasing drug abuse problem has prompted the authorities to prepare new complementary drug control legislation, the Act on the Prevention of Narcotic Addiction, which was adopted on 31 January 1985. The Act provides for more effective preventive and treatment measures, as well as severe punishment for involvement in illicit drug trafficking. Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug-dependent persons is provided on a voluntary basis, except for persons convicted of drug-related offences and for persons under 18 years of age, in which case treatment may be compulsory. PMID:3779183

  3. First detection of microsporidia in raised pigeons in Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Nowosad, Andrzej; Majewska, Anna C

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia are single-celled intracellular parasites which occur in a number of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates. Several species of microsporidia can cause disease in humans in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. However, the sources of human infection and the routes of transmission of microsporidia have not yet been fully determined, although more and more researchers are of the opinion that microsporidia in humans is zoonotic. The aim of the presented study was to identify the most common microsporidial species in the droppings of raised and wild pigeons in Poland. A total of 139 collective samples of droppings (33 samples of droppings from feral pigeons and 106 samples from raised pigeons) were examined using conventional staining and molecular techniques. Using chromotrope staining and multiplex FISH techniques, the microsporidial spores were found in 12 (8.6%) of the 139 samples of droppings. The spores of Encephalitozoon hellem were detected in five samples of pigeon droppings (3.6%), spores of E. intestinalis in four samples of droppings (2.9%), while spores of E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi were only detected in two samples (1.4%). Furthermore, a mixed infection of E. bieneusi and E. cuniculi was found in a single sample of droppings (0.7%). The presence of microsporidial spores in droppings collected from raised pigeons indicates a risk of infection to humans, mainly pigeon fanciers. PMID:23540206

  4. Molecular epidemiology of recent HIV-1 infections in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Smoleń-Dzirba, Joanna; Rosińska, Magdalena; Kruszyński, Piotr; Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Jolanta; Janiec, Janusz; Beniowski, Marek; Bociąga-Jasik, Monika; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Szetela, Bartosz; Porter, Kholoud; Wąsik, Tomasz J

    2012-12-01

    The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) offers an opportunity to track the development of the epidemic across different populations. Viral pol gene fragments from 55 individuals of Polish origin with recent HIV-1 infection identified in 2008-2010 in four Polish cities were analyzed. Viral sequences were compared with sequences from 100 individuals (reference group) infected before 2004. Viral spread among groups with different HIV transmission categories was compared using a phylogenetic approach. The majority of sequences from individuals with recent infection were subtype B (93%) within which four transmission clusters (18% of samples) were detected. Samples from men infected through sex between men and from persons infected through injecting drugs were broadly separated (P < 0.0001), while samples from individuals infected by heterosexual contacts were dispersed uniformly within phylogenetic tree (P = 0.244) inferred from viral sequences derived from individuals infected recently and the reference group. The percentage of samples from persons infected by heterosexual contacts which clustered with samples from men infected through sex between men was not significantly higher for those with recent infection (47%), compared to the reference group (36%). In conclusion, men infected by sex between men and individuals infected through injecting drugs appear to form separate HIV transmission networks in Poland. The recent spread of HIV-1 among persons infected with subtype B by heterosexual contacts appears to be linked to both these groups. PMID:23080488

  5. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  6. Imported cases of dengue in Poland and their diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pancer, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Marek Tomasz; Gut, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Infections with dengue virus are transmitted by mosquitoes. In tropical areas, it is mainly spread by Aedes aegypti while in countries with lower temperatures by Aedes albopictus. Since 2010, autochthonous cases of dengue are also reported in Europe. There are 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). No correlation between clinical presentation of disease and virus type, however, were determined. Nevertheless, reinfection with different type of DENV may lead to a serious, life-threatening condition. An estimated 100 million persons are infected with dengue virus per year. Of them, approximately a half (mainly children) develop the symptoms of dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Fatality is high in case of severe dengue. Dengue is a serious condition provided there is a presence of IgG antibodies directed against antigens of particular DENV serotypes, associated with primary infection caused by different serotype or transferred from infected mother to her child. For adequate dengue laboratory diagnosis, it is required to apply a set of various diagnostic methods. Within the family Flaviviridae, cross-reactivity is reported, which may lead to the occurrence of false-positive results. In Poland, differential diagnosis with different Flavivirus species is of special importance as it is an endemic area for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Thus, data regarding history of patient's immunization against TBE or yellow fever should be also taken into consideration as important in interpretation of results of serological examination. PMID:25848785

  7. Defining HIV Risk and Determining Responsibility in Postsocialist Poland

    PubMed Central

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of ethnographic research on HIV prevention programs in Poland, I explore the consequences of the shift from models of HIV prevention that emphasize “risk groups” and AIDS blame, to models that focus on “risky behaviors” and universal risk. The centrality of choice making and individual risk management in these models suggests objective risk assessment free from moralizing arguments. The Polish national prevention strategy shifted to focus on choice making, address all risk groups, and include concrete prevention strategies. This shift created a backlash that resulted in the reassertion of moral arguments about risk and risk groups that positioned those most vulnerable to HIV outside the purview of prevention efforts. AIDS organizations working with marginalized, “morally problematic” populations used the label “at risk” to legitimize claims to resources. They enacted a model of risk reduction in which the relevant actor is the individual buffeted by social forces, and behavior change, and therefore HIV risk reduction, is a long process because of myriad forms of vulnerability clients face. Despite efforts to reconceptualize risk, organizations positioned the individual as the locus of HIV prevention interventions, rather than attempting to address the social context that shapes risk. PMID:20092052

  8. [Bacillus subtilis a legislative health problem in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to discuss the problems related to the classification of B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria to the 2nd risk group under the 2005 decree of the Ministry of Health on hazardous biological agents (Law Gazette No. 81, item 716 with later amendments). The decree is a Polish implementation of the Directive 2000/54/EC generally consistent with its recommendations, but in the case of certain microorganisms a separate decision has been taken and having in mind the health of workers, changes in the list of hazardous agents existing in Poland have been made. The paper presents in detail the legal situation in this field, as well as current knowledge about the biology of these microorganisms, their use in the biotechnology industry and related production of allergenic proteins, and their effect on the human health. Placement ofB. subtilis and B. thuringiensis in the 2nd risk group resulted in the interpretative difficulties encountered by employers who use products containing these bacteria, institutions involved in such products trade and inspectorates supervising working conditions. Based on the literature review it is suggested to initiate actions leading to the development of hygiene norms for certain enzymes/bioinsecticides present in the air, the more that the tests to assess air concentrations of some of them are available. This solution would permit to remove B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria from the 2nd risk group without the risk for the care of workers' health. PMID:22774467

  9. Histomonosis - an existing problem in chicken flocks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dolka, Beata; Żbikowski, Artur; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Histomonosis (histomoniasis, blackhead), beside coccidiosis, belongs to the most important parasitic protozoan diseases in poultry. So far Histomonas meleagridis infections with varied mortality rates have been mainly diagnosed in young turkeys. Recently an increasing number of cases have been reported in chicken flocks in Europe resulting in economic losses. It is thought that this situation is predominantly caused by a complete withdrawal of the effective antihistomonals in the EU. Authors listed the selected outbreaks of histomonosis in 10 chicken flocks originated from different farms of 4 regions in Poland: 8 broiler breeder flocks (at mean age of 33 weeks) and 2 commercial layers flocks (at mean age of 38 weeks). This study reported here naturally occurring case of H.meleagridis infection in commercial broiler breeder (BB) flock line ROSS 308 at the age of 16 weeks. We showed acute form of infection with characteristic necrotic foci in the liver, and ulcerative typhilitis. Beside the liver and caeca, the multiple histomonads, lymphoid tissue depletion and heavy destruction in the bursa of Fabricius were observed. Additionally, the absence of systemic diffuse histomonads and lack of Heterakis gallinarum, caecal worm eggs in faecal samples were noted. PCR technique enabled to detect the presence of H.meleagridis genetic material in the investigated tissue samples. Authors indicate that histomonosis can be considered as re-emerging infectious diseases in chicken flocks of intensive production system. PMID:25976057

  10. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS. PMID:23118041

  11. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  12. Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Transport is a major source of air pollution, noise, injuries and physical activity in the urban environment. The quantification of the health risks and benefits arising from these factors would provide useful information for the planning of cost-effective mitigation actions. In this study we quantified the burden of disease caused by local transport in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated for transport related air pollution (particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium, lead and nickel), noise, injuries and physical activity. Exposure to these factors was based on local and international data, and the exposure-response functions (ERFs) were based on published reviews and recommendations. The uncertainties were quantified and propagated with the Monte Carlo method. Local transport generated air pollution, noise and injuries were estimated to cause approximately 58,000 DALYs in the study area. From this burden 44% was due to air pollution and 46% due to noise. Transport related physical activity was estimated to cause a health benefit of 17,000 DALYs. Main quantified uncertainties were related to disability weight for the annoyance (due to noise) and to the ERFs for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and walking. The results indicate that the health burden of transport could be mitigated by reducing motorized transport, which causes air pollution and noise, and by encouraging walking and cycling in the study area. PMID:26516622

  13. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a digest of works presented during the XVIth National Symposium on Optical Fibres and Their Applications. The Symposium is organized since 1976. OFTA 2015 was organized by Optical Fibre Laboratory of the Faculty of Chemistry at University of Maria Curie Skłodowska, and Institute of Electronics and Information Technology of Lublin University of Technology, in Nałęczów on 22-25 September 2015. The meeting has gathered around 120 participants who presented 85 research and technical papers. The Symposium organized every 18 months is a good portrait of optical fibre technology development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. Topical tracks of the Symposium were: optical and photonic materials, technology of classical, tailored and structural photonic optical fibres, light propagation physics in optical fibres, passive and active optical fibre components, optical fibre sensors, passive and active optical fibre networks, optical fibre amplifiers and lasers, optical fibre network issues: modulation, architectures, economy, etc.

  14. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources. PMID:25602567

  15. Phenological changes and reduced seasonal synchrony in western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Górska-Zajączkowska, Maria; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Botanical gardens offer continuity for phenological recording in observers, protocols and plant specimens that may not be achievable from other sources. Here, we examine phenological change and synchrony from one such garden in western Poland. We analysed 66 botanical phenophases and 18 interphase intervals recorded between 1977 and 2007 from the Poznań Botanical Garden. These were examined for trends through time and responsiveness to temperature. Furthermore, we derived measures of synchrony for start of spring and end of autumn events to assess if these had changed over time. All 39 events with a mean date before mid-July demonstrated a significant negative relationship with temperature. Where autumn events were significantly related to temperature, they indicated a positive relationship. Typically, spring events showed an advance over time and autumn events a delay. Interphase intervals tended to lengthen over the study period. The measures of synchrony changed significantly over time suggesting less synchrony among spring events and also among autumn events. In combination, these results suggest increases in growing season length. However, responses to a changing climate were species-specific. Thus, the transitions from winter into spring and from autumn into winter are becoming less clearly defined.

  16. Early Holocene hydrology and environments of the Ner River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Piotr; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Borówka, Ryszard K.; Okupny, Daniel; Pawłowski, Dominik; Peyron, Odille; Stachowicz-Rybka, Renata; Obremska, Milena; Cywa, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    The Ner River valley (central Poland) underwent substantial transformation during the Weichselian-Holocene transition as a result of fluvial processes and climate changes, resulting in the establishment of its present shape in the Holocene. A multiproxy study based on organic deposits from a palaeochannel fill (Lutomiersk-Koziówki) shows that after the channel was cut off during the late glacial termination, it became a shallow oxbow, fed by local springs. In the Boreal period, the oxbow lake was also fed by precipitation and became a telmatic environment overgrown by rush and swamp vegetation. Finally, it was covered by overbank deposits. The first flooding phase (9900-9600 cal. BP) was followed by the accumulation of overbank sediments (after 9500 cal. BP) and flooding increased after ca. 9300-9000 cal. BP. Pollen data provide information on the regional vegetation context for local and regional changes. In the Atlantic period, an increase in both summer and winter temperatures is inferred from the pollen data, corresponding to an expansion of thermophilous deciduous forests. While in general, flooding phases of the Early Holocene are poorly recognised in Eastern Europe, the Lutomiersk-Koziówki site may be considered as one of the reference points for this phenomenon in the region.

  17. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland: 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosz, Jan; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors, chairs of the 15th Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications OFTA2014, and editors of the conference proceedings summarize the developments of optical fiber technology in Poland (during the period of 2012-2014) on the basis of papers presented there and consecutively published in this volume. The digest covers the periodically presented work results every 18 months during the meetings on optical fibers in Białystok - Lipowy Most (with emphasis on technology and applications) and Lublin - Nałęczow (with emphasis on materials and technologies). The XVth Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications was held in Białystok and Lipowy Most on 29.01-01.02.2014. The first conference from this cycle was organized in Jabłonna in 1976. Conference topics were: optical fiber technology, materials for optoelectronics and photonics, rare earth doped and luminescent materials, metrology of optical fibers, components and optoelectronic circuits, applications of optical fibers, waveguides and optical fiber sensors, and lighting technology. The conference was attended by 120 participants, including international guests, and 90 papers were presented. Conference papers are traditionally published in Proceedings SPIE.

  18. Children's perceptions of the nursing profession in Poland.

    PubMed

    Slusarska, Barbara; Krajewska-Kułak, Elzbieta; Zarzycka, Danuta

    2004-10-01

    The drawing, as a kind of artistic language, used by the child-artist to express his or her thoughts and opinions concerning their environment is an immensely interesting form of cognition for the viewers of such artistic creations. The aim of the study was the analysis of the presentation of the image of the nursing profession created by children and the application of these experiences in vocational education of nurses. The objects of the analysis, were 182 artistic creations of children living in eastern Poland. The detailed analysis of the works was carried out by three independent competent judges who grouped the works according to the accepted indicators of evaluation. The young artists created the image of the nurse that presents a detailed range of professional duties, the quality of the child-nurse relationship and the prognostic vision of the new activities that will be put into practice in the future. The rich content of the drawings was complemented by the high artistic value of the composition. The study material collected should be used not only by nurses participating in care of children, but also in vocational education of nurses for more complete preparation of candidates to perform their future profession. PMID:15465167

  19. Observations of interstellar Ne at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Christian; Berger, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Galvin, Antoinette B.; Klecker, Berndt; Möbius, Eberhard

    2010-05-01

    as interstellar helium and neon using STEREO PLASTIC's Pulse Height Analysis data. We have investigated long time series of pickup count rates between 2007 and 2009 of He+, C+, and O+ which show a significant formation of the focusing cone for the interstellar component of pickup ions. In agreement with theoretical expectations focusing of inner-source PUIs, i.e. C+ and O+, is not observed. By comparing mass-per-charge spectra inside and outside the cone, we have succeeded in distinguishing interstellar from inner-source Ne+ pickup ions. This constitutes the first discovery of interstellar Ne at 1 AU.

  20. Positive nonlinear pressure shift of Cs in Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; McGuyer, Bart; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate that the hyperfine resonance frequency of ground state Cs atoms have a nonlinear dependence on the pressure of the buffer gas Ne at a fixed temperature. The hyperfine resonance frequency of alkali-metal atoms is shifted by an amount, which had long been assumed to be linear with the buffer gas pressure until Fei Gong discovered that the shift of Rb and Cs hyperfine resonance frequency has a nonlinear dependence on the pressure of the buffer gas Ar and Kr. While the nonlinear pressure shift of Cs in Ar and Kr is negative, we found that the nonlinear pressure shift of Cs hyperfine frequency in Ne is positive. The reason of the nonlinear shift is the three body collision(eg: Cs-Ne-Ne) and the formation of Van der Waals molecules of a Cs atom and a buffer gas atom of Ar, Kr, or Ne. The hyperfine precession rate of a Cs atom bound in molecule has a shift respect to a free Cs atom. The reversal sign of this nonlinear pressure shift of Cs in Ne respect to Ar and Kr demonstrate that the shift of the hyperfine precession rate of Cs in CsNe is reversed respect to CsAr and CsKr.

  1. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N.

    2016-01-01

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]+ structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH+ asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  2. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    PubMed

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions. PMID:24011650

  3. Pion inelastic scattering from sup 20 Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Burlein, M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-12-01

    Angular distributions for {sup 20}Ne({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime}) were measured on the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Data were taken with both {pi}{sup {plus}} and {pi}{sup {minus}} over an angular range of 12{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=180 MeV and with {pi}{sup +} from 15{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=120 MeV. The data were analyzed using both the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) and the coupled-channels impulse approximation (CCIA) with collective transition densities. In addition, microscopic transition densities were used in the DWIA analysis for states in the lowest rotational bands. The transitions to the 6.73-MeV 0{sup +} and several 1{sup {minus}} states, including the states at 5.79 MeV and 8.71 MeV, were studied using several models for the transition density. Strong evidence for the importance of two-step routes in pion inelastic scattering was seen in several angular distributions, including the 5.79-MeV 1{sup {minus}}, the first three 4{sup +} states, and the 8.78-MeV 6{sup +}. 100 refs., 81 figs., 33 tabs.

  4. MiniBooNE liner integrity study

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Stefanski, Phil Martin and Jeff Sims

    2001-11-09

    The civil construction for the MiniBooNE project includes a 50-m decay path and beam absorbers. The decay path is a six-foot diameter corrugated metal pipe (CMP). To prevent activation of the groundwater, the CMP and beam absorbers are surrounded by crushed aggregate, and enclosed in a double-walled geotextile membrane, referred to as the liner. The minimum distance from the beam centerline to the liner is 10 feet. The double-wall construction of the liner forms three regions, the containment volume, the interstitial volume, and the exterior. Each of these volumes is connected to monitoring wells at both the upstream and downstream ends of the decay volume, i.e. a total of six monitoring pipes extend to the surface. To confirm the integrity of the liner system following its placement, the firm Earth Tech was contracted to perform tests. Michael Williams was the primary contact with Earth Tech. The following is the report from Earth Tech, with minor changes in the interest of clarity. A sketch of the decay region is shown; only one of the layers of the liner is shown, and only one monitoring port. At the time of these tests, the excavation in general, but particularly in the vicinity of the monitoring wells had not been backfilled in the final grade, as indicated by the dashed lines.

  5. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Egorova, I. A.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Forssén, C.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Karakoç, M.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Larsson, K.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Parfenova, Yu. L.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Shul'gina, N. B.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Taylor, J.; Tengblad, O.; Tengborn, E.; Weick, H.; Wimmer, C.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  6. Reconstructing the cosmogenic 21Ne inventory of Neogene sedimentary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Finlay; Sinclair, Hugh; McCann, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides, in particular 10Be, have found use in modern sediments as a way of determining the erosion rate of river catchments. Cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz is easier and faster to measure than 10Be and has the potential to record erosion rates back 10s million years. However the routine use of cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz sand is hampered by ubiquitous nucleogenic 21Ne. When the eroding lithology can be identified it is possible to measure the nucleogenic in samples that are shielded from cosmic rays and correct for it in exposed bedrock [1]. However, identifying the lithologies that contributes quartz sand in large river catchments, and determining precise nucleogenic contributions is more problematic. The North and South Platte rivers drain early Prototerozoic lithologies of the Laramie and Front Ranges in the high Rockies of Wyoming. They have deposited several km of coarse clastic fluvial deposits on the Great Plains of Nebraska and Colorado up to 200 km from the mountain front. Quartz from shielded samples of granite and gneiss - the dominant quartz-bearing rocks - has high concentrations of nucleogenic 21Ne (60-140 e6 atoms/g). The 21Ne concentration in modern sand from the river (n=10) overlaps that measured in the shielded granite and gneiss. The sand data rarely lie on the air-spallation mixing line in the Ne three isotope plot indicating that it is dominantly derived from the granite and gneiss and has no resolvable cosmogenic 21Ne. Building on previous studies of cosmogenic 21Ne in pebbles [2] we have started a programme of analysis of pebbles derived from the Medicine Bow quartzite that are abundant throughout the Cenozoic alluvial sequence. Nucleogenic 21Ne in shielded quartzite is lower than granites (3-7 e6 atoms/g, n=4) and the data tend to lie on the air-spallation mixing line. All pebbles (n=14) from modern sediments analysed so far contain 2-80 times more excess 21Ne than the highest shielded quartzite suggesting that cosmogenic 21

  7. Projects Submitted by Participants of the Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Poland and Hungary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    These curriculum projects were developed by participants of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Poland and Hungary during the summer of 2000. The following 11 projects are in the collection: "A Thematic Multicultural Interactive School Event on Poland and Hungary: Exploration and Learning for 6-to-9-Year-Olds" (Ruth Albert); "Once upon a…

  8. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  9. Giving the Spirit a National Form: From Rousseau's Advice to Poland to Habermas' Advice to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Rousseau's philosophy of education is contained not only in "Emile" (1762), but also in "The Government of Poland" (1772). In each of them he emphasises different aspects of education: How to be a human being? And: How to be a citizen? The main theme investigated by Rousseau in "The Government of Poland", is how a minor nation surrounded by such…

  10. The first record of Molineus patens (Dujardin, 1845) (Nematoda, Molineidae) in the ermine (Mustela erminea L.) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Popiołek, Marcin; Jarnecki, Hubert; Łuczyński, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    A single specimen of the nematode Molineus patens (Dujardin, 1845) was isolated from the intestine of the ermine (Mustela erminea L.) found dead on a road in Lubuskie voivodeship (Western Poland) in July 2008. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the ermine from Poland, description, biometrical data and figures are given. PMID:20209821

  11. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States...

  12. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

  13. The 20Ne(d,p)21Ne transfer reaction in relation to the s-process abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsangu, C. T.; Laird, A. M.; Parikh, A.; Adsley, P.; Birch, M. D.; Chen, A. A.; Faestermann, T.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B. R.; Hertenberger, R.; Irvine, D.; Kay, B. P.; Longland, R.; Manwell, S.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Schmitt, K.; de Séréville, N.; Tomlinson, J. R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2016-01-01

    A study of the 20Ne(d,p)21Ne transfer reaction was performed using the Quadrupole Dipole Dipole Dipole (Q3D) magnetic spectrograph in Garching, Germany. The experiment probed excitation energies in 21Ne ranging from 6.9 MeV to 8.5 MeV. The aim was to investigate the spectroscopic information of 21Ne within the Gamow window of core helium burning in massive stars. Further information in this region will help reduce the uncertainties on the extrapolation down to Gamow window cross sections of the 17O(α,γ)21Ne reaction. In low metallicity stars, this reaction has a direct impact on s-process abundances by determining the fate of 16O as either a neutron poison or a neutron absorber. The experiment used a 22-MeV deuteron beam, with intensities varying from 0.5-1 μA, and an implanted target of 20Ne of 7 μg/cm2 in 40 μg/cm2 carbon foils. Sixteen 21Ne peaks have been identified in the Ex = 6.9-8.5 MeV range, of which only thirteen peaks correspond to known states. Only the previously-known Ex = 7.960 MeV state was observed within the Gamow window.

  14. The high abundance ratios of Ne/C and Ne/O in the footpoints of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemi, Amotz

    1988-05-01

    Element abundances in the solar chromosphere were deduced from analysis of the gamma ray disk flare of 27 April 1981. Abundances of Ne, Mg, Si and Fe correlated with the local galactic abundance but C and O were 3 to 4 times less apparent. A comparison between the gamma ray and coronal abundances indicated an excess of Ne in the chromosphere. A similar 3-fold reduction in the coronal and solar wind abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, S and Ar relative to the photosphere was explained by a high first ionization potential (greater than 9 V), keeping these elements in a neutral state in the photosphere and lower chromosphere. Gravitational, magnetic and thermal effects then lead to separation of the elements. A model was developed for a selective ionization process occurring only in the flaring area, at the preflare and impulsive phase. Soft X radiation at 1-3 A could penetrate the photospheric flare's footpoint and ionize the Ne there. In this range of wavelengths the photoionization cross section of C is an order of magnitude smaller than that of Ne, so that there is a region in which C remains neutral. O also remains neutral through the highly efficient charge exchange process with H, which is neutral in this region. Ionized Ne is exposed to vertical acceleration processes, which cause its relative enrichment during a 5 to 30 min. period. The vertical magnetic field structure at the flare's footpoint prevents horizontal diffusion of the upwardly moving ions. According to this model, Ne enrichment will occur mainly in gradual gamma ray flares which also have gradual continuous X radiation. The high Ne/O ratio would be expected in all such flares, while the Ne/C ratio, which is more susceptible to the intensity and duration of the soft X radiation, should vary among flares.

  15. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science. PMID:26445742

  16. ‘Other’ Posts in ‘Other’ Places: Poland through a Postcolonial Lens?

    PubMed Central

    Mayblin, Lucy; Piekut, Aneta; Valentine, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial theory has tended to focus on those spaces where European colonialism has had a territorial and political history. This is unsurprising, as much of the world is in this sense ‘postcolonial’. But not all of it. This article focuses on Poland, often theorised as peripheral to ‘old Europe’, and explores the application of postcolonial analyses to this ‘other’ place. The article draws upon reflections arising from a study of responses to ethnic diversity in Warsaw, Poland. In doing so we conclude that postcolonialism does indeed offer some important insights into understanding Polish attitudes to other nationalities, and yet more work also needs to be done to make the theoretical bridge. In the case of Poland we propose the ‘triple relation’ be the starting point for such work. PMID:26877557

  17. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  18. The Presence of Stimulant Drugs in Wastewater from Krakow (Poland): A Snapshot.

    PubMed

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Dudarska, Agnieszka; Zuba, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of wastewater from Krakow (Poland) for the presence of controlled and uncontrolled stimulant drugs of abuse was performed. Samples were collected from the Plaszow wastewater treatment plant, Krakow, Poland, and prepared by solid phase extraction. The LC-QTOFMS method was applied for identification and quantification of popular stimulants: MDMA, mephedrone, 4-MEC, MDPV and mCPP. Environmental loads of illicit drugs were calculated; the WWTP discharged loads ranging from 3.6 to 6.7 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of MDMA, 3.6 to 7.1 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of mephedrone and 4.8 to 5.8 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of 4-MEC. The results confirmed the growing popularity of new psychoactive substances in Poland. PMID:27365137

  19. Demographic and settlement transformations in peripheral regions (based on the example of eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszczuk, Andrzej; Wesołowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show specific demographic processes and accompanied transformations of settlement structure in eastern Poland at the turn of the 21st cent. Eastern Poland, covering Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeships, acquired the features of peripheral area in terms of communication and socio-economic aspects as a result of long-lasting historical processes. Unfavourable demographic processes can be observed in eastern Poland. They are accompanied by changes in settlement structure. Depopulation has significant social and economic consequences. The process increases social polarization between different regions in the country and between rural and urban areas. Moreover, the outflow of young and most active population to other regions or abroad is an important barrier for economic revival in peripheral regions. Consequently, unfavourable socio-economic structure in these areas is consolidated or even strengthened. This primarily concerns Lubelskie and Podlaskie voivodeships.

  20. The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawor, J J

    1995-05-01

    The digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in Poland were examined. Thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. The most prevalent small strongyle species were Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus leptostomus and Cylicostephanus minutus. Thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventral colon, five in the dorsal colon and three in the caecum. One species, Cylicocyclus triramosus, was new for Poland. Delafondia vulgaris was the most common large strongyle, with 74% prevalence, but low abundance. Parascaris equorum (26%) and Oxyuris equi (36%) were common. Strongyloides westeri (4%), Habronema majus (16%) and Habronema muscae (8%) were less prevalent. Both Habronema species were new for Poland. Tapeworm infection were not prevalent (Anoplocephala magna (4%) and Anoplocephala perfoliata (4%)). Botfly larvae were found in 40% of the horses examined. It was stated that no anthelmintics had been used on the farms. PMID:7676606

  1. Non-market valuation supporting water management: the case study in Czestochowa, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Y.; Godyn, I.; Sauer, J.

    2014-07-01

    Water resources in Poland continue to be under stress despite systematic efforts to safeguard ground and surface water quality and quantity. Groundwater protection from nitrate pollution of human origin requires the development of sewerage systems. Such investments are often financed from public funds that must be formally appraised. The appraisal should be done by a comparison of benefits and costs of investment measures - not only financial but also environmental and social. A significant challenge is the monetization of the effects on the environment. In this paper we use non-market valuation to examine residents' preferences and estimate their willingness to pay for improving drinking water quality. This paper also contributes to the narrow literature on valuation of benefits of measures for groundwater quality improvement by presenting an application of the choice experiment method in the Czestochowa Region of Poland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study estimating the value of benefits of the groundwater quality improvement in Poland.

  2. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    During the last two millennia human activity and their settlements together with varying climate conditions strongly influenced landscape scale changes. Especially within palaeoecological records these environmental responses are well expressed. However, a robust age control is needed for the evaluation and interpretation of biotic proxies.We present a record from the annually laminated (varved) sediments of Lake Czechowskie, located in northern Poland. The investigated record covers the past 2000 years and demonstrates the continuous vegetation history and human activity in the Northern part of the Tuchola Pinewoods. The chronology was established by varve counting and confirmed by AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity measurement and a tephra layer (Askja 1875). We used high-resolution biotic (pollen, green algae and diatom analysis) sedimentological (varve and sublayer thickness variations) and geochemical (µ-XRF data) proxies to reconstruct the environmental changes within a time of increasing human activity and fluctuating climatic conditions. Based on different spatial sampling and measuring increments the temporal resolution varies between subseasonal (µ-XRF), annual (varves) up to five-varveresolution (biotic proxies) making it possible to trace even short lasting local and regional changes. Our results display visible human pressure in this area between 50- 350 yr. AD (Roman Period) exerted by tribes related to the Wielbark Culture. The development of persisting settlements and agriculture took place at expense of surrounding hornbeam forests. An intensification of lake productivity (expressed as an increase of varve thickness) started after 250 AD. If this lake ecosystem response relates to an intensified agriculture (and a possible transport of nutrients from neighboring rural lands) or to a climate shift will be further discussed. The rapid decline of human indicators about 350 years AD at the transition to the migration period might be related to cooler

  3. Dew chemistry near a motorway in SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Błaś, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this project is to show the influence of a large linear source of air pollution on dew formation and chemistry. Dew sampling was performed during the growing season of 2009 at 3 sites near Wroclaw in SW Poland in the vicinity of A4 motorway which connects southern part of Poland with Germany and other EU countries. The road crosses in this part a rural landscape from WSW to ENE direction. The traffic is notoriously heavy, even at night, and lorries constitute about one third of vehicles. Two of the sampling sites were set in a distance of 30 meters from the motorway edge on the opposite sides (SE and NW) of the road to monitor dew efficiency and chemistry depending on wind direction. The third one was set 1.25 km to the NNW of the former pair to represent background rural conditions beyond the road influence. All three sites and the motorway are surrounded by vast arable grounds with intense agriculture activity. Three insulated plane radiative condensers, each 1 m2 in area, inclined at 15°, were installed at measurement sites. Two series of measurements were performed: the first in April lasted twenty days including several days without sampling, the second in September was continuous and lasted eleven days. Altogether there were nineteen dew or hoar frost sampling days, nine in April and ten in September. Basic meteorological data were gathered three times daily. Water yield of three condensers was compared to meteorological data and between each other. The research findings show that the most favorable weather conditions corresponding to high amounts of dew or hoar frost were characterized by synoptic scale warm air advection, high relative humidity, moderate wind speed i.e. 2-3 m/s and radiative weather. The samples from condenser located in calm air site usually had less volume than the other in windy place. The motorway heat source imposed a strong impact on efficiency of dew. The condenser on the leeward site of the road was characterized

  4. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NE ALONG RAILROAD APPROACH TO CHICAGO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NE ALONG RAILROAD APPROACH TO CHICAGO. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing doubletrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing double-track rail system leading to upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  6. View of twofamily house at 520522 Rison Ave., NE, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of two-family house at 520-522 Rison Ave., NE, originally occupied by workers in nearby mills. Note original asbestos shingle roof - 520-522 Rison Avenue, Northeast (House), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  8. 4. View of the NE side primary scrubbers with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of the NE side primary scrubbers with the collector main alongside the mezzanine platform; looking NW. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  9. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-08-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the 15O + p + p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  10. BLDG 8, VIEW OF NE SIDE LOOKING THRU SE DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 8, VIEW OF NE SIDE LOOKING THRU SE DRIVE THROUGH. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Ammo Rework Building, North of Fourth Street near intersection with B Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. BLDG 47, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF NE END OF HARBOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 47, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF NE END OF HARBOR SIDE WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Explosive & Small Train Depot, Main wharf area adjacent to Wharf No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. BLDG 47, ELEVATION DETAIL AT NE END OF HARBOR SIDE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 47, ELEVATION DETAIL AT NE END OF HARBOR SIDE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Explosive & Small Train Depot, Main wharf area adjacent to Wharf No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. BLDG 1, FRONT ENTRY (NE END) WITH POLE. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1, FRONT ENTRY (NE END) WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Administration Building & Storehouse, Main wharf area between wharves W1 & W2, north of First Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 4. August, 1971. GV FROM NE OF E END SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. August, 1971. GV FROM NE OF E END SHOWING TRANSMISSION LINE LINK TO POWER STATION AND TRANSFORMERS. - Telluride Power Company, Olmsted Hydroelectric Plant, mouth of Provo River Canyon West of U.S. Route 189, Orem, Utah County, UT

  15. Reconstructing Michel Electrons in the MicroBooNE Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratelli, David

    2016-03-01

    MicroBooNE is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detector located in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab which began collecting neutrino data in October 2015. MicroBooNE aims to explore the low-energy excess in the νe spectrum reported by MiniBooNE as well as perform ν-Ar cross-section measurements. In this talk, we present the current status of reconstructing Michel electrons from cosmic ray muons in the MicroBooNE detector. These Michel electrons are distributed uniformly inside the detector, and serve as a natural and powerful calibration source to study the detector's response for low energy (10s of MeV) interactions as a function of position. We have developed a reconstruction software tool to successfully identify such Michel electrons which could be of benefit to LArTPC experiments generically.

  16. 10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. Comparing pion production models to MiniBooNE data

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, P. A.

    2015-05-15

    Predictions for neutrino-induced charged- and neutral-current single pion production on CH{sub 2} from theoretical models and Monte Carlo event generators are compared with the cross section measurements from the MiniBooNE experiment.

  18. 6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  19. 10. Exterior view of NE corner showing crenellated parapet. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Exterior view of NE corner showing crenellated parapet. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Engine Boiler & Pattern Building, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief... Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), the licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln, Nebraska,...

  1. neXtProt: a knowledge platform for human proteins.

    PubMed

    Lane, Lydie; Argoud-Puy, Ghislaine; Britan, Aurore; Cusin, Isabelle; Duek, Paula D; Evalet, Olivier; Gateau, Alain; Gaudet, Pascale; Gleizes, Anne; Masselot, Alexandre; Zwahlen, Catherine; Bairoch, Amos

    2012-01-01

    neXtProt (http://www.nextprot.org/) is a new human protein-centric knowledge platform. Developed at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), it aims to help researchers answer questions relevant to human proteins. To achieve this goal, neXtProt is built on a corpus containing both curated knowledge originating from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase and carefully selected and filtered high-throughput data pertinent to human proteins. This article presents an overview of the database and the data integration process. We also lay out the key future directions of neXtProt that we consider the necessary steps to make neXtProt the one-stop-shop for all research projects focusing on human proteins. PMID:22139911

  2. neXtProt: a knowledge platform for human proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Lydie; Argoud-Puy, Ghislaine; Britan, Aurore; Cusin, Isabelle; Duek, Paula D.; Evalet, Olivier; Gateau, Alain; Gaudet, Pascale; Gleizes, Anne; Masselot, Alexandre; Zwahlen, Catherine; Bairoch, Amos

    2012-01-01

    neXtProt (http://www.nextprot.org/) is a new human protein-centric knowledge platform. Developed at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), it aims to help researchers answer questions relevant to human proteins. To achieve this goal, neXtProt is built on a corpus containing both curated knowledge originating from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase and carefully selected and filtered high-throughput data pertinent to human proteins. This article presents an overview of the database and the data integration process. We also lay out the key future directions of neXtProt that we consider the necessary steps to make neXtProt the one-stop-shop for all research projects focusing on human proteins. PMID:22139911

  3. 8. Detail view of original doorway, NE pavilion, E wing; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of original doorway, NE pavilion, E wing; looking SE. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 106, Rodman Avenue between Second & Third Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. Evaluation of the new gravity control in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sękowski, M.; Dykowski, P.; Krynski, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The new gravity control in Poland is based on absolute gravity measurements. It consists of 28 fundamental stations and 168 base stations. Fundamental stations are located in laboratories; they are to be surveyed in 2014 with the FG5-230 of the Warsaw University of Technology. Base stations are monumented field stations; they were surveyed in 2012 and 2013 with the A10-020 gravimeter. They are the subject of the paper. Besides absolute gravity measurements the vertical gravity gradient was precisely determined at all 168 base stations. Inconsistency of the determined vertical gravity gradients with respect to the normal ones has been presented. 77 base stations are also the stations of the previous gravity (POGK98) established in 90. of 20 century. Differences between newly determined gravity at those stations with those of POGK98 were evaluated. Alongside the establishment of the base stations of the gravity control multiple additional activities were performed to assure and provide the proper gravity reference level. They concerned regular gravity measurements on monthly basis with the A10-020 at three sites in Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory, calibrations of metrological parameters of the A10-020 gravimeter and scale factor calibrations of LCR gravimeters, participation with the A10-020 in the international (ECAG2011, ICAG2013) and regional comparison campaigns of absolute gravimeters, and local comparisons of the A10-020 with the FG5-230. The summary of the work performed during the establishment of the gravity control is best described by total uncertainty budget for the A10-020 gravimeter determined on each of the 168 gravity stations.

  5. New prospects in Cambrian platform orthoquartzites in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Labecki, J.; Weil, W. ); Schleicher, M.; Kulke, H.; Koester, J. )

    1991-08-01

    Middle Cambrian orthoquartzites produce oil in two small fields northwest of Gdansk, Poland; few developed offshore discoveries exist in the southeastern Baltic Sea. This joint Polish-German study on these poorly porous sandstones is aimed at delineating areas of better reservoir quality development and thus of future prospects. In the Polish part of the East European platform, Cambrian deposits exist in four geologic provinces (Lublin slope, Podiassle depression, Warsaw synclinorium, Baltic syneclise). In these areas, the Cambrian, which in part is more than 500 m thick, has been buried to depths between 300 and approximately 6000 m. The Middle Cambrian orthoquartzitic sandstones represent a shallow-marine sequences with interbedded claystones. Their porosities range form 2 to 8%, and oil production is improved by natural fractures. A major source rock for the oil accumulations is represented by Upper Cambrian black shales (TOC values, 3-13%; thickness approximately 1-10 m in northern onshore Baltic syneclise, up to 50 m in southern Scania, Sweden). The Middle Cambrian shales show low TOC contents (average, 0.3-0.6%) and a thickness of approximately 200 m. Despite their low organic content, they also could have been contributed to the reservoired oil because both black shales show maturities within the oil window and both contain an oil-prone algal kerogen. Therefore, in the northeast Polish oil province the restricted pore volume of the orthoquartzites and not the source rock parameters represents the major limiting factor for larger oil accumulations. Future prospects will be difficult to predict because the occurrence of traps might be much more controlled by diagenesis than by (tectonic) structures.

  6. EGNOS APV-I and HEDGE projects implementation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, A.; Trómiński, P.; Banaszek, K.

    2009-04-01

    The implementation of the EGNOS system to APV-I precision approach operations, according to ICAO requirements in Annex 10. This need many analysis accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability SIS (Signal in Space) to define useful and certification EGNOS like SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) in aviation, especially in landing. Also, the project will try to exploit the excellent accuracy performances of EGNOS to analyse the implementation of GLS (GNSS Landing System) approaches (Cat I-like approached using SBAS, with a decision height of 200 ft), Chełm Town located near Polish-Ukrainian border is also at the east border of planned EGNOS coverage for ECAC states. In this place there is a navigation center with EGNOS and EUPOS receivers. The starting of the project is close to October 2008. According to current EGNOS programme schedule, the project activities will be done with EGNOS system v2.2, which is the version released for civil aviation certification. Therefore, the project will allow to demonstrate the feasibility of the EGNOS certifiable version for civil applications. Other project that we will present in our article is HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe). The project objectives are to achieve the following by the end of the project: - To develop the helicopter SOAP (SBAS Offshore Approach Procedure) procedure (and necessary avionics) and then to successfully demonstrate it to the user community. - To develop helicopter PINS (Point in Space) procedures for mountain rescue and HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Services), and to then successfully demonstrate them to the user community. - To demonstrate EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) APV (approach with vertical guidance) approaches to general aviation in Spain, Poland and Greece. - To develop an integrated navigation/surveillance concept and demonstrate it in Greece.

  7. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  8. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  9. Neutral Current Elastic Interactions in MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan; /Alabama U.

    2011-10-01

    Neutral Current Elastic (NCE) interactions in MiniBooNE are discussed. In the neutrino mode MiniBooNE reported: the flux averaged NCE differential cross section as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, an axial mass (M{sub A}) measurement, and a measurement of the strange quark spin content of the nucleon, {Delta}s. In the antineutrino mode we present the background-subtracted data which is compared with the Monte Carlo predictions.

  10. Status of FNAL SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment at FNAL which will make precision neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements in the one GeV region. These measurements are essential for the future neutrino oscillation experiments. We started data taking in the antineutrino mode on June 8, 2007, and collected 5.19 x 10{sup 19} protons on target (POT) before the accelerator shutdown in August. The first data from SciBooNE are reported in this article.

  11. Neutral Current Elastic Interactions in MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan

    2011-11-23

    Neutral Current Elastic (NCE) interactions in MiniBooNE are discussed. In the neutrino mode MiniBooNE reported: the flux averaged NCE differential cross section as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, an axial mass (M{sub A}) measurement, and a measurement of the strange quark spin content of the nucleon, {Delta}s. In the antineutrino mode we present the background-subtracted data which is compared with the Monte Carlo predictions.

  12. Hard Coal in the Fuel-Mix Of Poland: The Long-Term Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Kaliski, Maciej; Kamiński, Jacek; Sikora, Andrzej P.; Szurlej, Adam

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the coal policy of Poland. It analyzes the forecasts of production and consumption of hard coal, the size of exports and imports and its importance for the energy sector on the basis of strategic documents. The main aim of the article is to show the role of hard coal in the fuel - energy balance of Poland until 2050. The adoption of appropriate assumptions for each scenario, including the maximum supply of hard coal from domestic mines, coal price curves, CO2 emission allowances and several calculations performed allowed to obtain certain results on the basis of which the future role of hard coal was determined.

  13. Social and legal determinants for the marketing of GM products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra

    2012-02-15

    The development of biotechnology is influenced by many factors unique for a specific region. In Poland the lack of legislative solutions (to facilitate the promotion of the inventions) and the public resistance against certain sectors of biotechnology are significant factors limiting any further development. Although, science and technology are the front runners in any innovation, the significance of social and legal aspects is difficult to overestimate. In our opinion those factors are interconnected and crucial for marketing of innovative products, therefore, we indicate and explain the most important issues restraining the implementation of innovative biotechnology in the context of national specificity in Poland. PMID:22210291

  14. Evaluation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data over the Eastern Poland using ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Jerzy; Łukowski, Mateusz; Słomiński, Jan; Stankiewicz, Krystyna; Usowicz, Bogusław; Lipiec, Jerzy; Marczewski, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    Validation of SMOS products is vital for their further use in the study of climate and hydrology. Several authors [1,2] have recently evaluated SMOS soil moisture data with an aid of in-situ observations of soil moisture. Collow and Robock have reported a dry bias as compared to in situ observations. Since their results are not much conclusive, they call for further studies using more data. Bircher and co-authors have also noted significant discrepancies between Danish network and SMOS soil moisture. SWEX_POLAND soil moisture network consists of 9 stations located in Eastern Poland. These stations are located on the areas representing variety types of land use: meadows, cultivated fields, wetlands and forests. We have expanded our analysis, as presented in the EGU 2012, using data from all network stations. Similarly as before, we have used three methods in our comparison studies: the Bland-Altman method, concordance correlation coefficient and total deviation index. Using these methods we have confirmed a fair/moderate agreement of SMOS L2 SM data and network observations. Like the other authors we have also noted the significant biases in SMOS soil moisture. However, the general trends in dynamics of soil moisture revealed by SMOS, the SWEX_POLAND network and referred to GLDAS, are in a considerable relevancy. We have shown that the SMOS satellite measurements are reliable, so can be used to detect areas of dry and moist soil. In Poland the trends indicating the growth of agricultural droughts are depicted by SMOS L2 very well, even better than national drought services for the agriculture. It is worth to note that the year 2011 was more variable and drier than the 2010 for Poland. Moreover, SMOS data prove the well-known property of central Poland to be drier than the rest of the country. It is expected that further mitigation of RFI contamination in Poland will be available due to the cooperation of ESA SMOS to the national spectrum control services (UKE

  15. Selected Problems of Applying the Law in Adaptation and Modernization of Buildings in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbel, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Chosen problems of law implementation in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland. One of the major problems in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland is the pluralism of different interpretations of chosen legal terms, existing in the contemporary building code. Incorrect interpretation, results in the incorrect application to the authorities for the proper building permit and as the effect, it causes the lost of time and money. The article tries to identify some of these problems and seeks the solution to solve them, through the evolutionary method of building law creation.

  16. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland--an overview.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975-1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples from the southern, most industrialised part of the country, and the lowest from north-eastern Poland. A significant decrease of heavy metals over 20 years (1975-1998) was found. PMID:11584642

  17. Lidar Measurements of Canadian Forest Fire Smoke Episode Observed in July 2013 over Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Heese, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of aerosol optical properties of air-mass advected on 10th July 2013 from Canada above Warsaw, Poland, during the forest fire event that occurred in Quebec at the beginning of July 2013. The observations were conducted with use of the modern version of 8-channel PollyXT lidar capable of measuring at 3β+2α+2δ+VW and interpreted with available information from the MACC model, the CALIPSO and MODIS satellite sensors, the AERONET data products and the data gathered within the Poland-AOD network.

  18. Treatment of defective newborns--a survey of paediatricians in Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Szawarski, Z; Tulczyński, A

    1988-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of the attitudes and practices of paediatricians in Warsaw, Poland, with respect to the treatment of infants born with severe handicaps. The results are compared with a similar survey conducted by Australian researchers (1). In the Polish medical community surveyed, unconditional respect for life is a dominant attitude. Our study has revealed a deeply-entrenched paternalistic attitude among Polish doctors and a strong unwillingness to distinguish between 'ordinary and extraordinary means' of prolonging life, as well as an ambivalent attitude towards legal regulations binding in Poland. PMID:2965245

  19. The Jewish psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, Poland.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-03-01

    The T4 euthanasia programme within Nazi Germany has been well researched, but much less is known about the extermination of psychiatric patients in Nazi-occupied territories during the same period. In Poland 20,000 mentally ill patients were deliberately killed during the German occupation. This paper traces the history of one psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, south-east of Warsaw. The hospital once served the Jewish population of Poland and was the largest, most prestigious neuropsychiatric centre in the country. It is now in ruins and said to be haunted by ghosts. PMID:25698689

  20. Status of the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, A.

    2014-04-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed.

  1. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09×10‑6 to 76.5×10‑6, 9.54±0.08 to 11.30±0.60 and from 0.0295±0.0001 to 0.0344±0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority of

  2. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel A.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09 ×10-6 to 76.5 ×10-6, 9.54 ± 0.08 to 11.30 ± 0.60 and from 0.0295 ± 0.0001 to 0.0344 ± 0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority

  3. Magma mixing, crustal contamination, contamination before chemical analysis or complex history? The case study from the Wołek Hill, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Monika

    2015-04-01

    and previous studies in mantle xenoliths three different scenarios for Wołek Hill could be proposed: 1) the basanite represents one portion of magma, ascent with great speed to the surface 2) the basanite represents two portions of magma mixed on MOHO level 3) the basanite was partly contaminated by crustal rocks. The selected model determines further considerations about magma genesis. This work was supported by MNiSW grants NN307040736 and NN307039740. References: Ladenberger A., Michalik M., Tomek C. & Peate D.W., (2006): Alkaine magmatism in SW Poland - an example of asthenosphere-lithosphere interactions? Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, 29: 40-47. Nowak M., Puziewicz J., Muszyński A., Grégoire M., (2012): The modal mantle metasomatism in the NE part of the Cenozoic Central European Volcanic Province: the example of the Wołek basanite (SW Poland). Geophysical Research Abstracts vol. 14, EGU2012-8270 Nowak, M. (2012): Genesis of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks based on study of the chosen xenoliths from the Lower Silesia. PhD thesis, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań. Unpublished PhD thesis. [In Polish].

  4. The Palaeoproterozoic accretionary crustal growth: implications from new age data on the crystalline basement in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland (the East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Wiszniewska, J.

    2012-04-01

    widespread c. 1.80-1.76 Ga metamorphism and tholeiitic magmatism related to post-collisional extension constrain the maximum age of the final accretion of the terranes. It is evidenced by numerous 1.80-1.79 Ga gabbro-noritic, dioritic and granitic intrusions in NE Poland and elsewhere in Lithuania and Belarus (Claesson, 2001; Vejelyte, 2011). The later reworking at c. 1.70-1.45 Ga and c. 1.60-1.45 Ga AMCG magmatism affected the already accreted craton. Evolutionary, a 1.90-1.87 Ga continental margin was established in present-day E Lithuania and NW Belarus, while younger volcanic arcs were still forming to the west and south at 1.86-1.84 Ga. They had been subsequently accreted to the c. 1.89 Ga continental margin in the time span of 1.84-1.80 Ga, and a new continental margin emerged. After the youngest c. 1.83-1.80 Ga island arcs were docked, the ocean was closed and the crust was finally cratonized. The younger 1.70-1.45 Ga events were intracratonic reflections of active geological processes further west. This is a contribution to the project "Precambrian rock provinces and active tectonic boundaries across the Baltic Sea and in adjacent areas" of the Visby Programme (the Swedish Institute), Lithuanian Science Council grant MIP-034/2011 and SYNTHESYS project SE-TAF-1535

  5. Atmospheric 21Ne abundance determined by the Helix-MC Plus mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Zhang, X.; Phillips, D.; Hamilton, D.; Deerberg, M.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Analyses of noble gas isotopes by multi-collector, high resolution mass spectrometry have the potential to revolutionise applications in the cosmo-geo-sciences. The Helix-MC Plus noble gas mass spectrometer installed at the Australian National University (ANU) is equipped with unique high mass resolution collectors [mass resolution (MR): ~1,800 and mass resolving power (MRP): ~8,000], including fixed axial (Ax), adjustable high mass (H2) and adjustable low mass (L2) detectors. The high mass resolution of the L2, Ax and H2 collectors permits complete separation of 20Ne (measured on L2 detector) from doubly charged interfering 40Ar (required MR of 1,777), 1H19F (MR = 1450), 1H218O (MR = 894) and partial separation of the 21Ne peak (on Ax detector) from interfering 20Ne1H (MR = 3,271), and 22Ne (on H2 detector) from interfering doubly charged CO2 (MR = 6,231). Because of the high MRP of ~8,000, 21Ne can be measured, essentially without interference from 20Ne1H, by setting the magnet position on a 20Ne1H interference-free position. This capability provides an important opportunity to re-evaluate the 21Ne abundance in the atmosphere. Our analyses demonstrate that 20Ne1H contributes ~4% to atmospheric 21Ne measurements, with the corresponding production ratio of 20Ne1H to 20Ne being ~1E-4. We calculate a new atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.00287 relative to an atmospheric 22Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.102; this new value is distinctly lower than the current IUPAC recommended 21Ne/20Ne value of 0.00298. There are several significant implications ensuing from the newly determined atmospheric 21Ne abundance. For example, in the area of Earth sciences the most critical issue relates to cosmogenic 21Ne surface exposure ages, which involve the calculation of 21Ne concentrations from excess 21Ne, relative to the atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio. For young samples, where cosmogenic 21Ne contents are small and the 21Ne/20Ne ratio is close to the atmospheric value, the revised value could

  6. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  7. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential. PMID:24657989

  8. Holocene and Late Glacial varved sediments from Czechowskie Lake (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Dulski, Peter; Plessen, Birgit; Blaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2013-04-01

    Annual laminated (varved) sediment records are essential for detailed paleoclimate and environmental reconstructions as they function as a natural memory beyond instrumental datasets. In order to determine Holocene inter-annual and decadal-scale variability we investigated varved Lake Czechowskie (53°52' N/ 18°14' E, 108 m asl.), northern Poland. During two coring campaigns in 2009 and 2012 we recovered several long and short cores with the longest core reaching 14.5 m. Based on correlation with a biostratigraphically and tephrochronologically dated neighboring paleolake sediment record (Trzechowskie mire) the record extends back in to the Late Glacial. Lake Czechowskie is well suited for climate reconstruction as varves are almost entirely well (88 %) or poorly (5%) preserved. Only 7 % of the sediment profile are non-varved. Detailed investigations have been carried out for the last 2000 years of the sediment profile applying micro-facies analyses combined with X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) at 200 µm resolution and carbon and nitrogen analyses (TOC, TC, TN) at five-varveresolution. The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach with 137Cs (for the last ca. 50 years), AMS 14C on plant macro remains (back to 2800 cal BP) and varve counting. Varve formation and preservation ceases at the beginning of the 20th century whereas the younger sediments are again faintly varved. Micro-facies analyses reveal that the sediment consists of biogenic calcite varves with intercalated diatom rich layers. Three distinct 100 to 200 years long periods of up to threefold thicker varves (approx. 1.4 to 5.0 mm/year) are predominantly caused by an increase in the diatom sub-layers and indicate distinct short-term climatic and environmental fluctuations. Possible reasons for these changes that occurred abruptly with only few years are either changes in lake water circulation or in nutrient supply to the lake. This study is a contribution to the Virtual

  9. Civic Education in Emerging Democracies: Lessons from Post-Communist Poland and Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    The 1999 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education Study revealed that most countries having recently undergone political and social transformations had lower civic knowledge scores than more stable nations. However, Poland, which instituted policies aimed at educating citizens for democratic…

  10. The New Biology in Poland after the Second World War: Polish Lysenkoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJong-Lambert, William

    2009-01-01

    Genetic research was banned in the Polish People's Republic from 1949 to 1956 as a result of the activities of Trofim D. Lysenko, a pseudo-biologist in the Soviet Union. This article examines the impact upon education in biology in Poland, including textbook revision, curriculum reform and revised understandings of the purpose of scientific…

  11. Implementation of the EU Noise Directive in Process of Urban Planning in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecień, J.; Szopińska, K.

    2013-05-01

    In Poland spatial planning policies are described by a system of planning documents controlled by act of Spatial Planning and Land Development of 27 March 2003. Sustainable development principle and spatial order form is the basis of spatial planning efforts. In the territory of Poland the manner of urban space management is defined by a planning document called Local Land Use Plan (LLUP). In a LLUP some issues are arranged, such as the purpose of a given area, location of public purpose investments, land development conditions. When analysing the development process of Polish cities, an obvious conclusion emerges about the lack of complex studies and researches of the environment concerning the issue of acoustic climate. The procedures of development of an LLUP involve merely a general diagnosis of an environment excluding measured values of pollution, including noise levels. The main aim of this article is to introduce the influence of acoustic climate on the urban space planning in Poland through the implementation of the provisions of Directive 2002/49/WE of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe from 25 June 2002. Moreover, in the stages of an LLUP implementations have been suggested the use of a Strategic Noise Map, being a tool for assisting the process of environmental noise level assessment in Poland.

  12. Equipment and apparatus used in the measurement of atmospheric pollution. ISA report (Poland). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The report describes the market in Poland for equipment and appliances used for the collection of air pollution samples. It includes statistical data, a market assessment including demand, characteristics and receptivity, best sales prospects, and overviews of competition and market access.

  13. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). On July 2, 2012, the... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR...

  14. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel...

  15. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  16. National Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplant Registry in Poland: Nationwide Internet Reporting System and Results.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, A; Dudkiewicz, M; Czerwiński, J; Malanowski, P; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, J; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment. The number of allotransplantations in Poland has grown significantly in the past 2 decades, which generated new needs and problems. In 2005, based on a new Transplant Law, a National Transplants Registry was created. Its main role is to collect data (registration of procedures and follow-up data) related to every transplantation case for stem cells and tissues as well as for organs. We present statistics concerning stem cell transplantations performed in Poland, as collected in the National Transplants Registry in the years 2006-2014. There are 18 centers transplanting hematopoietic stem cells in Poland. The total number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations performed in 2006-2014 was 3,537, with allotransplantations from relatives accounted for 1,491 and from unrelated donors for 2,046. The main indication for allotransplantation in past years was acute leukemia. PMID:27496493

  17. The Role of Urban Green Areas in the Education for Sustainable Development: Focus on Krakow, Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Aleksandra; Orlewicz-Musial, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Four selected green areas in Krakow (Poland) were compared, including: (1) the historical centre of Krakow with the green belt of Planty; (2) Blonia--grassland situated near the city centre; (3) the Park of Aviators, situated between the old part of Krakow and the industrial district of Nowa Huta and (4) the Nowa Huta Meadows. All these areas have…

  18. The Changing Role of Students' Representation in Poland: An Historical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Smuzewska, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Student representation in Poland has a relatively short but turbulent history. This article offers an historical appraisal of the development of student representation at the national level in the context of rapid and deep structural changes in Polish higher education. Based on a desktop analysis of official documentation, legislation, ideological…

  19. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  20. Determinants of Higher Education Choices and Student Satisfaction: The Case of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sojkin, Bogdan; Bartkowiak, Pawel; Skuza, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes in tertiary education that were observed in Poland for the last 20 years transformed the Polish educational market and led to the immense expansion of educational institutions. The rapid increase in the number of students that continued until 2006 is however over and Polish universities have begun to compete for their clients.…

  1. Measurements with Reticle Micrometer Performed by a New Double Stars Observing Group from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskupski, Marcin; Banacka, Natalia; Cupryjak, Justyna; Malinowska, Malgorzata; Bujel, Kamil; Koltek, Zdzislaw; Mazur, Jaroslaw; Muskala, Marcin; Plotkowski, Lukasz; Prowans, Barlomiej; Szkaplewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of 19 double stars using a reticle micrometer eyepiece are reported. The observational program was held in spring and summer of 2015 as an extended workshop for a new double stars observing group from Szczecin, Poland. The goal of the program was to learn how to measure position angle and separation using a reticle micrometer eyepiece.

  2. A Profile of an Effective Teacher of English: A Qualitative Study from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werbinska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a research study aimed at defining the profile of an effective Polish teacher of English. The study, which is qualitative in nature, has been conducted among English language teachers in Poland who are considered excellent in their professional environment. Their kinds of knowledge and their beliefs about the…

  3. Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

  4. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  5. Mass Media in Transition in Hungary and Poland. Fulbright Seminars Abroad Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Tim

    These materials were developed by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar to Poland and Hungary. The materials provide information for teaching about comparative media systems. The following information is included: (1) general characteristics of media in Eastern Europe; (2) role of the Catholic Church in media and political life; (3) media…

  6. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland. PMID:22790322

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Children with Reading and Writing Difficulties in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanowicz, Marta

    1989-01-01

    The history of specific difficulties in learning to read and write in Poland and multidisciplinary investigations in the field are discussed. A therapeutic care system including small correction-compensation groups, special grades, wards for dyslexic children, and individual outpatient treatment is currently in place, with research now focusing on…

  8. The Admission and Placement of Students from the Republic of Poland. A Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silny, Josef; And Others

    This volume is designed to be a comprehensive description of the Polish educational system as it existed under the communist regime, and of the radical changes currently taking place, as well as of possible future trends. Chapter 1 describes Poland's history, geography, and population. Chapter 2 describes the background and structure of its…

  9. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  10. Determinants and Options in the Development of Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozefowicz, Adam; Kluczynski, Jan

    Trends affecting the future development of higher education in Poland are considered. It is projected that the demographic pool of higher education enrollment will in 1995-2000 return to a level roughly comparable with the peak pressures for college entry in the years 1971-75. It is suggested that demographic changes alone can explain but a…

  11. The Impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.

    2006-01-01

    This article is the product of the writer's deliberations about the impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education using an information technology theoretical model consisting of three parts: (1) participation; (2) feedback; and (3) partnership. The main findings of the investigation revealed that: (1) there is wide participation in…

  12. New Tasks for Teachers of English in Poland in Light of Social, Economic, and Political Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhalt, Ewa

    The weakness of English and other language instruction in Poland is due largely to the political system after World War II. Political and economic change and gradual recognition of the importance of English have recently increased rapidly. Expanded contact with the West calls for immediate qualitative and quantitative changes in English language…

  13. A Health Education Program in Poland from the Perspective of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.

    2008-01-01

    Poland subscribes to an abstinence-only model of reproductive health education called "Education for Life in the Family." The aim of this study was to determine if the perceptions of adolescent mothers could be used to improve delivery of the Polish model of education. This study was conducted using focus group interviews with fourteen adolescent…

  14. Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…

  15. First case of imported African tick-bite fever in Poland - Case report.

    PubMed

    Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof; Krzowska-Firych, Joanna; Bielec, Dariusz; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of a case of African tick bite fever (ATBF) imported to Poland from South-Africa. The patient presented with fever of 38.4(o)C, generalized maculopapular rash and single eschar. Diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from eschar biopsies. The patient recovered without any sequelae after 7 days treatment with doxycycline. PMID:26403104

  16. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  17. Report on the Vocational Education and Training System in Poland. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory of Poland, Warsaw.

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Poland has nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents the socioeconomic situation; explains reasons for different rates of development in particular regions; and presents trends in job creation and rise and fall in unemployment. Chapter 2 deals with changes in the VET field in these areas: VET's…

  18. Adult Educators: An Example of the New Approach to Lifelong Learning in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    This article presents reflections arising from a study on adult learning professions in Poland. Changes in the socio-political and legal context created phenomena that have occurred in the adult education systems, mechanisms and approaches. The article focuses on the impact of those processes on a specific professional group--adult educators.…

  19. Yet Another Early-Start Languages Policy in Europe: Poland This Time!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enever, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The recent decision of Poland to introduce a mandatory starting age for early language learning from the very beginning of schooling can be viewed as part of both a global and a specifically European trend. Current statistics indicate that since 1990 approximately 60% of the nation-states of the European Union have reduced mandatory starting ages…

  20. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branska, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In Poland centre-based education and care for children from birth to the age of entry into compulsory school education, i.e. 7 years, is provided in creches ("zlobki") for children aged 0-3 years and in nursery schools ("przedszkola") for children from 3 years of age to the age of entry into primary school. Creches are part of the healthcare…

  1. 77 FR 76941 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Poland (DFARS Case 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country--Poland (DFARS Case 2012-D049) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... country. DATES: Effective Date: December 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amy G. Williams... placed into force on July 19, 2012. The agreement removes discriminatory barriers to procurements...

  2. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  3. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  4. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  5. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  6. Experiential Learning of History through Youth Journeys to Poland: Israeli Jewish Youth and the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lev, Michal

    2007-01-01

    National history and collective memory and their impact on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes are the topic of this article. A follow-up study, it examines the long-term impact of a journey to historical monuments. Israeli Jewish high-school students have the option of experiential study, visiting cities and death camps in Poland. The first…

  7. The Social Consequences of the Changing Functions of the Rural Family in Post-War Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocik, Lucjan

    Conducted in four villages situated near Tarnow, a large urban and industrial centre, this study examined the process of change in the functioning of the rural family, as set against the transformation of their general living conditions brought about by the socialist industrialization and urbanization in post-war Poland. Issues studied were:…

  8. Optical fiber technology in Poland: four decades of development 1975-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Dorosz, Jan; Wójcik, Waldemar; Mergo, Paweł; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a subjective yet critical authors' description of arbitrarily chosen series of events associated with the development of optical fibre technology (OFT) in Poland. There are reminding pioneering research activities in the second half of the seventies in Optical Fibre Technological Centres in Lublin (UMCS), in Warsaw (in ONPMP), which were joined soon after by Białystok (Polytechnics and Glass Works). There are mentioned with friendliness the key persons of that period, and in particular the pioneers of OFT in Poland, which are not with us anymore. There is emphasized the role of the first national symposia on "Optical Fibres and Their Applications", which played an integration role for the newly established research community of OFT and photonics. Omitting the complex history of the development of OFT in Poland during the intermediate years, we bravely jump to today, a day which would have not existed now, if the pioneering period had not been so rich in research results. The authors would like to show in particular these research, scientific and logistic activities, which despite difficult conditions of science development in Poland, when looked at from some distance in time and space, seemed to be then well ahead of their time.

  9. The Guide with the Tourist Gaze: Jewish Heritage Travel to Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sharon Kangisser

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, travel to Poland for youth and young adults has become increasingly popular, to the extent that it is even seen as a "rite of passage" for members of many Jewish communities. For these groups, the accompanying guides or educators are central to their educational experience. Based on a series of interviews…

  10. From System Expansion to System Contraction: Access to Higher Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Poland is changing due to the demography of smaller cohorts of potential students. Following a demand-driven educational expansion after the collapse of communism in 1989, the higher education system is now contracting. Such expansion/contraction and growth/decline in European higher education has rarely been…

  11. Job Search Strategies of Recent University Graduates in Poland: Plans and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to highlight plans versus actual actions of university graduates in Poland aimed at finding employment. The paper also empirically verifies the impact of chosen job-seeking strategies on the success or failure of their transition to employment. The study was Polish-wide and included graduates of geography. It…

  12. Matching Supply with Demand: Higher Education and the Labor Market. A Comparison of Kenya and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, R. Rees; And Others

    Conditions in Kenya and Poland concerning the labor market and educational preparation for jobs are discussed, along with public policy. In the decade of the 1980s, both nations reached saturation in the labor market and underwent changes in the demand for university-trained workers. Kenya needed highly trained personnel to replace expatriates…

  13. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT

  14. Relationships between individualism-collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: a study in China, Poland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Gordon; Zhang, Xiaoying; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Haas, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (women n=122; men n=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (women n=137; men n=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (women n=105; men n=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed. PMID:18985769

  15. Sounding-derived parameters associated with tornado occurrence in Poland and Universal Tornadic Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taszarek, M.; Kolendowicz, L.

    2013-12-01

    This study is mainly devoted to operational meteorology, to improve tornado forecast in Poland and create a Universal Tornadic Index formula. A study is focusing on climatology of sounding-derived parameters associated with tornadoes in Poland and their potential value for tornado forecasting. The data was collected from soundings made in 10 stations in and around Poland which were closely in time and space connected with tornado occurrence. The main aim of the study was to analyze the thermodynamic and kinematic parameters derived from soundings and formulate an index. The information about tornado incidents was taken from media reports and the European Severe Weather Database for the years 1977-2012. Total of 97 tornado cases were divided according to their strength for significant (F2/F3), weak (F0/F1) and unrated cases, and also according to their environmental surface temperature, for warm (> 18 °C) and cold (< 18 °C) tornadoes. As it turned out, depending on the temperature, tornadoes tended to present different environmental conditions for tornadogenesis. In warm cases, the most important factor was instability while for cold cases it was dynamic wind field. It was also proven that significant tornadoes in Poland occur in conditions accompanied by high moisture content, moderate instability and high wind shear conditions. The results of this study were used to create a Universal Tornadic Index designed to forecast activity in warm and cold, and weak and strong tornadic environments. The quality of this index was tested for the period with increased tornado activity in Poland from 2008 to 2010.

  16. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country. PMID:19746887

  17. Examining Ambrosia pollen episodes at Poznań (Poland) using back-trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Skjøth, C. A.; Brandt, J.

    2007-03-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens in parts of southern and central Europe. Back-trajectories have been analysed with the aim of finding the likely sources of Ambrosia pollen grains that arrived at Poznań (Poland). Temporal variations in Ambrosia pollen at Poznań from 1995-2005 were examined in order to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. The trajectories were calculated using the transport model within the Lagrangian air pollution model, ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). Analysis identified two separate populations in Ambrosia pollen episodes, those that peaked in the early morning between 4 a.m. and 8 a.m., and those that peaked in the afternoon between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m.. Six Ambrosia pollen episodes between 2001 and 2005 were examined using back-trajectory analysis. The results showed that Ambrosia pollen episodes that peaked in the early morning usually arrived at Poznań from a southerly direction after passing over southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, whereas air masses that brought Ambrosia pollen to Poznań during the afternoon arrived from a more easterly direction and predominantly stayed within the borders of Poland. Back-trajectory analysis has shown that there is a possibility that long-range transport brings Ambrosia pollen to Poznań from southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. There is also a likelihood that Ambrosia is present in Poland, as shown by the arrival of pollen during the afternoon that originated primarily from within the country.

  18. Spectroscopy of 25Ne and the N=16 magic number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, S. W.; Tripathi, Vandana; Tabor, S. L.; Mantica, P. F.; Hoffman, C. R.; Wiedeking, M.; Davies, A. D.; Liddick, S. N.; Mueller, W. F.; Stolz, A.; Tomlin, B. E.

    2005-12-01

    The low-energy level structure of 25Ne has been investigated following the β- decay of 25F. Beta-delayed γ spectroscopy revealed new γ transitions in 25Ne at 1234, 1622, and 2090 keV. The new transitions were placed in the level scheme of 25Ne in accordance with the observed γ-γ coincidences. The total β- decay strength has been accounted for. The spins and parities of the first two excited states could be ascertained by comparison with a shell model calculation and the literature. The half-life for 25F decay was also remeasured using fragment-β-γ correlations, revealing a value of 90 ± 9 ms. Comparison with shell model calculations are indicative of a wider N=16 gap as compared to the stable nuclei.

  19. Fusion in the 20Ne+24Mg system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albinska, M.; Belery, P.; Delbar, Th.; El Masri, Y.; Grégoire, Gh.; Michel, C.; Vervier, J.; Albinski, J.; Grotowski, K.; Kopta, S.; Kozik, T.; Płaneta, R.; Paič, G.

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive γ spectra from the 20Ne+24Mg interaction have been measured using from 45 up to 105 MeV 20Ne beams. Experimental mass and charge spectra are compared with statistical model calculations. Total reaction and fusion cross sections are extracted. The optical, Glas and Mosel, and Bass model calculations are presented and compared with the data. The limitation of the fusion cross section by the statistical yrast line is also discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 20Ne+24Mg, Elab=45, 55, 60, 70, 80, 85, 105 MeV; measured mass spectra for 12<=A<=44, charge spectra for 6<=Z<=22 measured total reaction and fusion cross sections σR, σf deduced critical angular momentum and radius lf and rcr.

  20. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  1. [Cancer risk in asbestos-cement industry workers in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    A cohort study was carried out in order to evaluate the cancer risk in the asbestos-cement industry workers. The cohort consisted of workers employed in four asbestos-cement plants. One of those plants was established in 1924, the other three in the 1960s and 1970s. Currently only two of these plants continue their production. The plants used mainly chrysotile asbestos as well as crocidolite and amosite. Amphibolite asbestos was used before the mid-nineteen eighties in production of pressure pipes utilising about 15% of the total quantity of asbestos used. The measurements of the asbestos fibre concentration at work-sites have been taken occasionally since the mid 1980s, thus, the determination of a cumulative dose for individual persons in the cohort and the evaluation of the dose-effect relationship were not feasible. It could only be supposed that the concentrations at the preparatory work-site during first years of the plants' operation accounted for several tens fibres/cm3 in the production that employed the dry method. The cohort consisted of workers employed in the plant for at least three months between beginning of the plant during the post-war period, and 1980, that is during the period when amphibolite asbestos was in use. The retrospective observation was completed on 31 December 1991. The analysis of the death risk by causes was based on a standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated using the person-years method. Statistical significance of SMRs was assessed by means of Poisson distribution one-sided test. The general population of Poland was used as the reference population to estimate the death risk. The cohort comprised 4,712 persons (3,563 males and 1,149 females). Of this number 4,500 persons (3,405 males and 1,095 females) were followed. The cohort availability were 95.5%. Male mortality, both total (473 deaths; SMR = 83) and due to malignant neoplasms (108 deaths; SMR = 86) was lower than in the general population. An excess of deaths from

  2. Geochemical evolution of lithospheric mantle underlying Intrasudetic Fault (SW Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    The Pilchowice basanite (SW Poland) forms volcanic plug located exactly on Intrasudetic Fault, which is one of the major tectonic lines in northern part of the Bohemian Massif. It originated during the formation of Variscan Orogen and marks the contact between two different crustal domains. The basanite is rhönite-bearing (Ladenberger et al., 2005. Min.Pol-Spec. Pap.) and contains small (<3 cm) xenoliths of clinopyroxene-bearing spinel harzburgites and spinel dunites. Numerous, fine-grained aggregates formed of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel and glass occur interstitially. A "glassy patch" enclosing subhedral clinopyroxene occurs in one of the xenoliths. The Fo content in olivine forming xenoliths varies from 91.4 down to 83.2%, but the NiO content is always high (0.31-0.45 % wt.). Orthopyroxene has the composition of Al-Cr-Fe enstatite (mg# 0.86- 0.92). It is either LREE-depleted or shows U-shaped REE patterns. Clinopyroxene is Al-Ti-Cr diopside (mg# = 0.80-0.95). Spinel is mainly chromite with wide variation of cr# (0.40-0.80). Clinopyroxene is usually LREE-enriched with convex upward REE pattern. Two other types of REE patterns in clinopyroxene are also present: convex downward (U-shaped) and with constant enrichment in LREE. All the clinopyroxenes show distinct Ti and Zr-Hf negative anomalies. Low Al2O3 content in orthopyroxene suggests that Pilchowice peridotites are restites after extensive (16-35%) partial melting (Faccini et al., 2013, JoP), which is in an opposition to modal content of clinopyroxene (0-4.1 vol.%). This suggests, that clinopyroxene is a "stealth" metasomatic phase (O'Reillly and Griffin, 2013, Springer). As trace element composition of clinopyroxene shows features typical for reaction with alkaline silicate melt (negative inflection at the most incompatible trace elements) and carbonatite (Ti, Zr, Hf anomalies), we suggest that majority of xenoliths were metasomatized by the an agent being a carbonatite-silicate melt or by CO2-bearing

  3. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, T.; Herold, B.; Shanidze, R.

    2013-10-01

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of 40K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. L’acétaminophène chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Question Je suggère fréquemment aux parents d’utiliser de l’acétaminophène comme traitement de la fièvre et de la douleur pour leurs enfants. J’ai récemment reçu un enfant à mon cabinet qui s’est présenté avec une éruption cutanée sous forme de lésions en cibles une journée après avoir pris de l’acétaminophène. L’éruption s’est résorbée 3 jours après qu’on ait arrêté l’administration d’acétaminophène. L’acétaminophène comporte-t-elle des risques d’événements indésirables comme celui-ci? Réponse Comme les autres médicaments ou substances actives, les préparations d’acétaminophène pourraient poser des risques d’événements indésirables. Au cours des dernières années, on a procédé à une investigation concernant une association potentielle entre l’acétaminophène et l’asthme et la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis a récemment publié un avertissement à propos de réactions cutanées éventuelles, graves mais rares, associées à l’acétaminophène. Même si l’acétaminophène est principalement un médicament sûr, les professionnels de la santé devraient être alertes et informer les parents à propos de la possibilité d’événements indésirables rares mais sévères.

  5. α cluster structures in unbound states of 19Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ito, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cluster structures in 19Ne are studied by the microscopic and macroscopic cluster models. In the microscopic calculation, the coupled-channels problem of (α+15O) + (3He+16O) are solved, and the calculated energy spectra nicely reproduce the low-lying levels. In the macroscopic approach, the α + 15O potential model is applied. The calculation of the potential model predicts the existence of the resonances above the α threshold, which has a weak-coupling structure of the α particle plus one hole inside of the 16O nucleus. The coupling effect of the 5p-2h configuration to 19Ne is briefly discussed.

  6. The Fe XI-excited fluorescent cascade in Ne IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical spectroscopic investigation of the fluorescent cascade to be expected in nitrogen-like Ne IV, when it is resonantly photoexcited by Fe XI in the solar atmosphere, symbiotic stars, or novae, is described. Primary and secondary cascade intensities are obtained as functions of photoexcitation rate, and expected absolute intensities in the solar atmosphere are derived on the basis of observed Fe XI and Ne EUV emission. Comparisons between the spatially resolved solar situation and spatially unresolved stellar cases of cataclysmic variables, in which these ions have been found to coexist, are made. An interesting possibility of periodic time-dependent fluorescence exists for the binary cataclysmics.

  7. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  8. Active faults and minor plates in NE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhurin, Andrey I.; Zelenin, Egor A.

    2014-05-01

    Stated nearly 40 yr ago the uncertainty with plate boundaries location in NE Asia (Chapman, Solomon, 1976) still remains unresolved. Based on the prepositions that a plate boundary must, first, reveal itself in linear sets of active structures, and, second, be continuous and closed, we have undertaken interpretation of medium-resolution KH-9 Hexagon satellite imageries, mostly in stereoscopic regime, for nearly the entire region of NE Asia. Main findings are as follows. There are two major active fault zones in the region north of the Bering Sea. One of them, the Khatyrka-Vyvenka zone, stretches NE to ENE skirting the Bering Sea from the Kamchatka isthmus to the Navarin Cape. Judging by the kinematics of the Olyutorsky 2006 earthquake fault, the fault zones move both right-laterally and reversely. The second active fault zone, the Lankovaya-Omolon zone, starts close to the NE margin of the Okhotsk Sea and extends NE up to nearly the margin of the Chukcha Sea. The fault zone is mostly right-lateral, with topographically expressed cumulative horizontal offsets amounting to 2.5-2.6 km. There may be a third NE-SW zone between the major two coinciding with the Penzhina Range as several active faults found in the southern termination of the Range indicate. The two active fault zones divide the NE Asia area into two large domains, which both could be parts of the Bering Sea plate internally broken and with uncertain western limit. Another variant implies the Khatyrka-Vyvenka zone as the Bering Sea plate northern limit, and the Lankovaya-Omolon zone as separating an additional minor plate from the North-American plate. The choice is actually not crucial, and more important is that both variants leave the question of where the Bering Sea plate boundary is in Alaska. The Lankovaya-Omolon zone stretches just across the proposed northern boundary of the Okhorsk Sea plate. NW of the zone, there is a prominent left-lateral Ulakhan fault, which is commonly interpreted to be a

  9. Crustal high-velocity anomaly at the East European Craton margin in SE Poland (TESZ) modelled by 3-D seismic tomography of refracted and reflected arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Środa, Piotr; Dec, Monika

    2016-04-01

    The area of Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland represents a contact of major tectonic units of different consolidation age - from the Precambrian East European Craton, through Palaeozoic West European Platform to Cenozoic Carpathian orogen. The region was built by several phases of crustal accretion, which resulted in a complex collage of tectonic blocks. In 2000, this region was studied by several seismic wide-angle profiles of CELEBRATION 2000 experiment, providing a dense coverage of seismic data in SE Poland and allowing for detailed investigations of the crustal structure and properties in this area. Beneath the marginal part of the EEC, the 2-D modelling of in-line data form several CELEBRATION profiles revealed a prominent high P-wave velocity anomaly in the upper crust, with Vp of 6.7-7.1 km/s, starting at 10-16 km depth (e.g., Środa et al., 2006). Anomalously high velocities are observed in the area located approximately beneath Lublin trough, to the NE of Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone. Based on 3-D tomography of first arrivals of in- and off-line CELEBRATION 2000 recordings (Malinowski et al., 2008), elevated velocities are also reported in the same area and seem to continue to the SW, off the craton margin. Gravimetric modelling also revealed anomalously high density in the same region at similar depths. High seismic velocities and densities are interpreted as indicative for a pronounced mafic intrusion, possibly related to extensional processes at the EEC margin. Previous 3-D models of the high-velocity intrusion were based on first arrivals (crustal refractions) only. In this study, also off-line reflections (not modelled up to now) are used, in order to enlarge the data set and to better constrain the geometry and properties of the velocity anomaly. A code for 3-D joint tomographic inversion of refracted and reflected arrivals, with model parametrization allowing for velocity discontinuities was used (Rawlinson, 2007). With this approach, besides the

  10. Comparative International Education: Institutions of Higher Education in Poland and Canadian Universities: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Herrington, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare institutions of higher learning in Poland and universities in Canada using an information technology conceptual framework consisting of three parts: participation, feedback and partnership. (Contains 15 notes.)

  11. Self-reported health in Poland and the United States: a comparative analysis of demographic, family and socioeconomic influences.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Cubbins, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the social determinants of individual health between the United States, a capitalist society, and Poland, a 'post-communist' society. The effects of demographic factors, family characteristics and socioeconomic status on self-reported health are estimated with OLS regression using data from the 1994 American and Polish General Social Surveys. The results show lower self-reported health and more rapid declines in health for people over 60 in Poland than in the United States. Also, in Poland, women report worse health than do men while the opposite is found for the United States. The relationships between education, income and health were stronger in the United States than in Poland. Age, gender and SES may operate differently in the two countries because of a gap in social development (e.g. varying living standards and styles, health care systems and cultural attitudes) between the West and the former Eastern Europe. PMID:15018716

  12. Joint phenotype distribution at the esterase D and complement C3 loci in the Upper Silesia population (Poland).

    PubMed

    Raczek, E; Kabiesz, J

    1995-01-01

    Among 1,239 unrelated adults from Upper Silesia (Poland), a significant association between ESD and C3 phenotypes was found. This is in accordance with the results obtained in an Indian population. PMID:7896302

  13. High-resolution microfacies analysis and tephrochronology of varved sediments from Lake Tiefer See (NE Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dräger, Nadine; Wulf, Sabine; Kienel, Ulrike; Dulski, Peter; Ott, Florian; Slowinski, Michál; Theuerkauf, Martin; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments represent unique archives in continental areas providing both, precise chronologies and up to seasonally resolving proxy data. Lake Tiefer See in NE Germany provides such an archive that permits an integrated multi-proxy study based on high-resolution sediment analyses and monitoring of lake condition and deposition of subannual laminae. Lake Tiefer See is located within the terminal moraine of the Pommeranian ice advance of the last glaciation and is part of the Klocksin Lake Chain which acted as a glacial gully system. Coring campaigns at the deepest part of the lake (~60 m depth) yielded 7 sediment profiles, 3 of which reached glacial sand deposits at the base. From these individual profiles a ~11 m long continuous composite profile has been established. The chronology of the core sequence is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains and identification of cryptotephras. Tephra layers of Eifel- and Icelandic provenance in the lowermost part of the core sequence suggest an onset of lake sedimentation in the late Allerød at about 13 000 years BP and an onset of varve preservation at the beginning of the Holocene. A combined approach of microfacies analyses on thin sections and µ-XRF analyses on split sediment cores has been carried out. In the first place we identified well and poorly varved or even homogeneous intervals. Poorly and non-varved intervals are characterised by higher Ti and K count rates suggesting increased detrital matter flux into the lake by surface runoff and/-or aeolian transport. The occurrence of poorly varved intervals increases towards the top probably triggered by either climate and environmental changes or anthropogenic influences leading to intensified lake mixing. The overarching goal within the ICLEA objective is to compare the sediment record from Lake Tiefer See with another varved record from Lake Czechowskie, located ca 400 km to the East in central northern

  14. Comparison of Ne and Ar seeded radiative divertor plasmas in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.

    2015-08-01

    In H-mode plasmas with Ne, Ar and a mixture of Ne and Ar injection, the divertor radiation power fractions amongst these impurities in addition to an intrinsic impurity, C, are investigated. In plasmas with the inner divertor plasma attached, carbon is the biggest radiator, whichever impurity, Ne, Ar or a mixture of Ar and Ne is injected. In contrast, in plasmas with the inner divertor plasma detached, Ne is the biggest radiator due to a significantly high recombination radiation from Ne VIII. Ar is always a minor contributor in plasmas with the inner divertor both attached and detached.

  15. Length and terms of occurrence of thermal seasons in Poland - are any changes observed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choryński, Adam; Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata

    2014-05-01

    While thinking of seasons, one mostly has in mind astronomical seasons which are very often mentioned by media. These are set using Sun's position above the equator and the tropics. Seasons defined by these manners very frequently do not match with prevailing climatic conditions in Poland. Therefore, especially in scientific research, different ways of setting the beginning and ending of seasons in Poland are employed. Climatic seasons are used very broadly. They divide the year into four parts of almost equal duration. Nevertheless, for Poland, this method is also not fully representative, because it does not take into account regional differentiation of climatic conditions. More objective criteria are used in phenological seasons, where their duration is set by, for example the terms of florescence and maturation of plants. In this research, thermal criterion is applied for setting the duration of seasons - terms of persistent exceedances of characteristic thresholds of mean daily air temperature (5 degrees C for autumn and spring, 0 degrees C for winter and 15 degrees C for summer). The climate of Poland is characterised by large long-term variability of thermal conditions. It results in the possibility of evident differences in the length and terms of seasons beginning and ending between years. The winter season 2012/2013 in Poland was exceptionally long, and very low temperatures occurred during the whole March, even in the first decade of April in some parts of the country. At the same year at the end of April temperatures exceeded 20 degrees C (summer conditions). It resulted in another wide discussion on evident changes of length or even fading of some seasons in the media. Based on meteorological data from 10 Polish meteorological stations, that represent different regions of the country, authors are researching how the length of thermal seasons changed between years 1951 and 2013 in Poland. The length of seasons in three multiannual periods (1951

  16. Archival data on wild food plants used in Poland in 1948

    PubMed Central

    Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1948, Professor Józef Gajek initiated a detailed census of the wild edible plants used in Poland. The questionnaires were collected by correspondents of the Polish Folklore Society in 95 localities throughout Poland. A major part of these archival materials, including a substantial collection of herbarium specimens, had not undergone thorough analysis prior to this study, which presents a quantitative analysis of this archival set of data. Methods Herbarium specimens were identified and a database was created. Results Ninety-eight taxa identified to genus or species level, including 71 botanical species, identified using herbarium specimens, were found. On average only 11 edible plant species per locality were listed, the longest list included 39 species. No correlation between latitude and the number of edible species was found, whereas there was small but significant correlation with the longitude. Fruits were the most frequently collected part of plants. Most plants were primarily collected by women and children. Children both helped parents to collect wild fruits and also ate many species raw, which were not consumed by adults, but had often been eaten in the past. Eighteen of the taxa had not been reported in a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland. Stratiotes aloides, used as a famine vegetable in the Łódź region, has never been reported as edible in any ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion The results undermine the conclusions of a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland, which stated that many more wild edible plants have been collected in the Carpathians than in lowland Poland. However such results were shown to be caused by the substantially larger number of ethnographic studies undertaken in the Carpathians. In fact, large numbers of edible plant species were collected in the mid-20th century in a few regions, particularly along the eastern border, in the Carpathians and in communities originating from

  17. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  18. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.D.

    1991-07-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing Nuclear Energy (NE) standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader applications by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplement program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab.

  19. Registration of 'NE01481' hard red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'NE01481' (Reg. No. PI 659689) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in April, 2010. Nebraska wheat growers, in addition to superior agronomic performance, would like to have increased r...

  20. 10. Track infield viewed from roof. Camera pointed NE. Infield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Track infield viewed from roof. Camera pointed NE. Infield road in upper right leads to barns. North Tote Board is visible on left. In distance is construction of Boeing Customer Services Training Center. Part of a panorama with photos WA-201-11 and WA-201-12. (July 1993) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  1. 1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, showing (l to r) 6-column beam engine, flywheel, reduction gears and 3-roll cane mill. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  2. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2010-11-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure to be constructed in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope with a volume of at least one cubic kilometre. The scientific case for a neutrino telescope of a cubic kilometre scale is overwhelming. The infrastructure it requires will be shared by a host of other sciences, making continuous and long-term measurements in the fields of oceanography, geophysics, and marine biological sciences possible. The feasibility of neutrino astronomy with a detector in the deep sea was proven by the successful deployment and operation of the ANTARES prototype detector. The potential of the detection technique, based on the reconstruction of the tracks of muons, the possible reaction products of the sought after neutrinos, has been demonstrated. With two other pilot projects, NEMO and NESTOR, different detector configurations and techniques were explored. The three projects have provided a wealth of information on the technologies required for a large deep-sea neutrino telescope. KM3NeT will reap the benefits. It is planned to make KM3NeT a CO2-neutral facility, using wind or solar energy to supply the required power for the underwater system as well as the shore station. The proposed infrastructure will be built by a European consortium (KM3NeT). The total cost is estimated at 220-250 M€.

  3. Resonance neutron capture by Ne-(20, 22) in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, R. R.; Macklin, R. L.

    1988-06-01

    The neutron capture cross sections were measured over the neutron energy range 2.5-200 keV of Ne-(20, 22) at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator using enriched samples at high pressures. The cross sections, averaged using a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution weighting function for a range of temperatures thought to be appropriate for the sites of s-process stellar nucleosynthesis, are small. For example, the Maxwellian-averaged Ne-22(n, gamma) cross section for kT = 30 keV derived from the present work is smaller than 0.27 mbarn. This result increases the calculated net neutron production from Ne-22 by reducing the importance of Ne-22(n, gamma) as a neutron poison in s-process calculations. The number of neutrons per Fe-56 seed available for s-process stellar nucleosynthesis appears sufficient to account for the observed abundances of the s-elements for A in the range of 60-90.

  4. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab.

  5. 1. LOOKING NE TOWARD CABRINI GREEN HOUSING PROJECT, NORTH HALSTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NE TOWARD CABRINI GREEN HOUSING PROJECT, NORTH HALSTED STREET AT RIGHT, WEST DIVISION STREET AT LEFT; GOOSE ISLAND AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - North Halsted Street Canal Bridge, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Halsted Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. KInNeSS: a modular framework for computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Versace, Massimiliano; Ames, Heather; Léveillé, Jasmin; Fortenberry, Bret; Gorchetchnikov, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Making use of very detailed neurophysiological, anatomical, and behavioral data to build biologically-realistic computational models of animal behavior is often a difficult task. Until recently, many software packages have tried to resolve this mismatched granularity with different approaches. This paper presents KInNeSS, the KDE Integrated NeuroSimulation Software environment, as an alternative solution to bridge the gap between data and model behavior. This open source neural simulation software package provides an expandable framework incorporating features such as ease of use, scalability, an XML based schema, and multiple levels of granularity within a modern object oriented programming design. KInNeSS is best suited to simulate networks of hundreds to thousands of branched multi-compartmental neurons with biophysical properties such as membrane potential, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, the presence of gap junctions or ionic diffusion, neuromodulation channel gating, the mechanism for habituative or depressive synapses, axonal delays, and synaptic plasticity. KInNeSS outputs include compartment membrane voltage, spikes, local-field potentials, and current source densities, as well as visualization of the behavior of a simulated agent. An explanation of the modeling philosophy and plug-in development is also presented. Further development of KInNeSS is ongoing with the ultimate goal of creating a modular framework that will help researchers across different disciplines to effectively collaborate using a modern neural simulation platform. PMID:18695948

  7. 76 FR 16530 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  8. Precise measurement of the {sup 19}Ne half-life

    SciTech Connect

    Triambak, S.

    2011-11-30

    We describe a high-precision measurement of the half-life of the T = 1/2 nucleus {sup 19}Ne, performed at TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vancouver, Canada. Some implications of this measurement related to tests of the Standard Model are discussed.

  9. Seismic tomographic evidence for upwelling mantle plume in NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we collected teleseismic data recorded by permanent and mobile seismic stations and carried out a teleseismic P-wave tomographic study. The results reveal low velocity perturbation regions at the central part of NE China and specifically in the Songliao basin at different depths, which correspond to the location of a proposed upwelling mantle plume identified by receiver function in a recent study. Receiver function data show a predominantly mafic/ultra-mafic lower crust in the Songliao basin, in contrast to the predominantly felsic lower crust in the other regions. The vestige of upwelling mantle plume is well defined at the mantle transition region. Based on the above results, we suggest that the volcanism in NE China and the Songliao basin formation might be related to Mesozoic mantle plume beneath NE China. We also evaluate alternate models on lower crustal delamination contributing to the volcanism in NE China following collision and amalgamation between the Siberia craton and the North China-Mongolian block during late Jurassic and early Cretaceous.

  10. Pion production in the MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Lalakulich, O.; Gallmeister, K.; Leitner, T.; Mosel, U.

    2011-11-23

    We investigate one pion production processes within the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) coupled channel transport model. Our calculations for integrated and differential cross sections for realistic experimental neutrino fluxes are compared to the data recently provided by the MiniBooNE collaboration.

  11. 76 FR 55153 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1..., Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/19/2011 through 06/21/2011. Effective Date:...

  12. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  13. 75 FR 55619 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Roger B. Garland, Acting Associate Administrator for Disaster...

  14. 75 FR 55618 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Roger B. Garland,...

  15. 75 FR 17178 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James...

  16. ReNE: A Cytoscape Plugin for Regulatory Network Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Politano, Gianfranco; Benso, Alfredo; Savino, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the study of biological regulatory mechanisms is the integration, americanmodeling, and analysis of the complex interactions which take place in biological networks. Despite post transcriptional regulatory elements (i.e., miRNAs) are widely investigated in current research, their usage and visualization in biological networks is very limited. Regulatory networks are commonly limited to gene entities. To integrate networks with post transcriptional regulatory data, researchers are therefore forced to manually resort to specific third party databases. In this context, we introduce ReNE, a Cytoscape 3.x plugin designed to automatically enrich a standard gene-based regulatory network with more detailed transcriptional, post transcriptional, and translational data, resulting in an enhanced network that more precisely models the actual biological regulatory mechanisms. ReNE can automatically import a network layout from the Reactome or KEGG repositories, or work with custom pathways described using a standard OWL/XML data format that the Cytoscape import procedure accepts. Moreover, ReNE allows researchers to merge multiple pathways coming from different sources. The merged network structure is normalized to guarantee a consistent and uniform description of the network nodes and edges and to enrich all integrated data with additional annotations retrieved from genome-wide databases like NCBI, thus producing a pathway fully manageable through the Cytoscape environment. The normalized network is then analyzed to include missing transcription factors, miRNAs, and proteins. The resulting enhanced network is still a fully functional Cytoscape network where each regulatory element (transcription factor, miRNA, gene, protein) and regulatory mechanism (up-regulation/down-regulation) is clearly visually identifiable, thus enabling a better visual understanding of its role and the effect in the network behavior. The enhanced network produced by ReNE

  17. ReNE: a cytoscape plugin for regulatory network enhancement.

    PubMed

    Politano, Gianfranco; Benso, Alfredo; Savino, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the study of biological regulatory mechanisms is the integration, americanmodeling, and analysis of the complex interactions which take place in biological networks. Despite post transcriptional regulatory elements (i.e., miRNAs) are widely investigated in current research, their usage and visualization in biological networks is very limited. Regulatory networks are commonly limited to gene entities. To integrate networks with post transcriptional regulatory data, researchers are therefore forced to manually resort to specific third party databases. In this context, we introduce ReNE, a Cytoscape 3.x plugin designed to automatically enrich a standard gene-based regulatory network with more detailed transcriptional, post transcriptional, and translational data, resulting in an enhanced network that more precisely models the actual biological regulatory mechanisms. ReNE can automatically import a network layout from the Reactome or KEGG repositories, or work with custom pathways described using a standard OWL/XML data format that the Cytoscape import procedure accepts. Moreover, ReNE allows researchers to merge multiple pathways coming from different sources. The merged network structure is normalized to guarantee a consistent and uniform description of the network nodes and edges and to enrich all integrated data with additional annotations retrieved from genome-wide databases like NCBI, thus producing a pathway fully manageable through the Cytoscape environment. The normalized network is then analyzed to include missing transcription factors, miRNAs, and proteins. The resulting enhanced network is still a fully functional Cytoscape network where each regulatory element (transcription factor, miRNA, gene, protein) and regulatory mechanism (up-regulation/down-regulation) is clearly visually identifiable, thus enabling a better visual understanding of its role and the effect in the network behavior. The enhanced network produced by ReNE

  18. Experimental Constraints on He, Ne, and Ar Solubility in Serpentinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to constrain the solubility of He, Ne, and Ar in natural samples of antigorite from three locations. Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material [1] and well gases [2] indicate that noble gases are recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. The mechanism by which uncharged atoms can be bound to a mineral and subsequently recycled remains unclear, but recent experimental work suggests that ring structures in silicate minerals are ideal sites for noble gases [3]. Serpentine contains such ring structures and is abundant in subducting slabs, providing significant potential for control of the recycling of noble gases. Experiments were performed in a cold seal pressure vessel at 350°C using a mix of equal parts He, Ne, and Ar as the pressure media (Brown University, USA). Pressures varied from 0.15 to 1.13 kbar total pressure and durations varied from 20 to 188 hours. Samples were analyzed by UV laser ablation, noble gas mass spectrometry (Open University, UK). He and Ne reached equilibrium during the experiments and both exhibit Henrian behavior. Data from the cleanest sample reduces the error by approximately an order of magnitude over previous work [3] and confirms that He is significantly more soluble (HCHe=6.05x10-10 mol/g/bar) than Ne (HCNe=5.12x10-12 mol/g/bar) in antigorite. Preliminary data from the cleanest sample suggests that Ar is more soluble than both He and Ne (HCAr=1.94x10-10 mol/g/bar). This provides a mechanism for fractionation of noble gases during recycling. 1. Kendrick, M.A., Scambelluri, M., Honda, M., Phillips, D., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G., and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Jackson, C.R.M., Parman, S.W., Kelley, S.P., Cooper, R.F., GCA, 159, 1-15, 2015

  19. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W.

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  20. The Welfare of Bears in Zoos: A Case Study of Poland.

    PubMed

    Maślak, Robert; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Bowles, David; Paśko, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of captive bears became a big issue of concern in Poland when a case of a bear being ill-treated became a high-profile case in the media. This case created a challenge to verify, study, and understand the main problems associated with bear keeping so that zoos could significantly improve the conditions in which they keep bears or ensure they keep bears at the minimum required standards. The results presented here are from 1 of the few countrywide studies of captive bear conditions conducted in all the captive institutions in Poland that keep bears. Thirteen institutions kept bears at the time of the study (2007-2009), including 54 individuals of 5 species. Major welfare problems were identified, and the results have been used to challenge zoos to address the changes required and focus the government's attention on areas that require legislative improvement. PMID:26451618

  1. Intense tornadoes in Poland in the years 2000-2012 and their synoptic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwik, Paulina

    2015-04-01

    Tornadoes, or high speed rotating columns of air, are some of the most extreme natural processes occurring on Earth. Currently the trend towards more frequent and more severe occurrence of tornadoes appear also in Poland. So far, tornadoes in Poland resulted in very serious damage to infrastructure and led to injury or death many of the people. Forecast of tornados is not a easy task, especially when the phenomenon is local. Must be based on a comprehensive analysis of mesoscale numerical models, atmospheric soundings and radar data. Unfortunately, there are a number of limitations.One of it, is that the mesoscale weather models often do not capture local events, so forecast of the tornados in real time and place can not occur well in advance. The phenomenon of tornadoes must be better understood and become the object of a comprehensive analysis, so that the resulting information can be used both for research purposes as well as educational.

  2. Spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management: case study in Odra Valley, Poland.

    PubMed

    Rucinska, Dorota

    2015-02-01

    This article presents methodological solutions aimed at presenting the spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management (land use), indicating both those areas used reasonably and those requiring modification. The purpose was to identify key risk areas and risk-free areas from the point of view of human security and activity on the floodplains, based on the examples of the vicinities of Wroclaw and Raciborz in the Odra Valley, Poland. Due to recent climate change, Poland has suffered the effects of severe flooding (e.g., 1997, 2001, 2010). The analyses conducted were motivated by the European Parliament and Council's recently implemented Directive 2007/60/WE, as well as by the demand for studies for local spatial planning. The analysis indicates that reasonably developed areas do not account for the majority of those studied, making up 36% of the Wroclaw area and 15% of the Raciborz area. PMID:25385027

  3. What factors may influence epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland and in the world?

    PubMed

    Rowińska-Zakrzewska, Ewa; Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szturmowicz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the review of factors influencing epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland and in the world. The groups of increased risk of tuberculosis, and clinical conditions predisposing to activation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) such as HIV, uremia, diabetes mellitus, transplantation of organs, treatment with glucocorticosteroids and with antibodies to TNF and to its receptors, were presented. The higher prevalence and worse prognosis of tuberculosis in elderly people was emphasised. The methods of LTBI recognition, according to recent recommendations, with special consideration to patients in immunosupression, were shown. Methods of treatment to prevent LTBI activation, according to WHO experts, were also presented. All data were discussed in relation to the actual epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland. PMID:27238173

  4. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions. PMID:23788867

  5. Anti-alcohol Posters in Poland, 1945-1989: Diverse Meanings, Uncertain Effects

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Dutka, Wojciech; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    We provide a historical study of the anti-alcohol public health poster in Poland between 1948 and 1990. Our case study illuminates public health policies under communism, with the state as the dominant force in health communication. Poland has a distinctive history of poster art, moving from a Stalinist phase of socialist realism to the diverse styles of the later Polish School. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 213 posters establishes the major themes and differentiates community approaches, which depict the drinker as a social or political deviant, from those emphasizing individual risk. Medical issues were a minor theme, reflecting public policies geared more toward confinement than treatment. However, Polish School artists used metaphor and ambiguity, and references to the contested cultural symbolism of drink, to complicate and subvert the narrow propaganda intent. Thus, although apparently unsuccessful in restraining overall consumption, these posters offer valuable lessons for policymakers on the use of visual media in health campaigns. PMID:20516371

  6. Autologous reconstruction of a complex form of Poland syndrome using 2 abdominal perforator free flaps.

    PubMed

    Masia, Jaume; Pons, Gemma; Loschi, Pietro; Sanchez Porro-Gil, Lidia; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Olivares, Leyre

    2015-05-01

    Poland syndrome is the most frequent cause of congenital breast aplasia and hypoplasia. Breast and possible chest wall deformities can be treated with several surgical techniques, including implants, and pedicled or free flaps.We describe the case of a young patient with severe Poland syndrome with amastia, athelia, and deformity of the chest wall, and aplasia of 2 ribs. Marked hypoplasia of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle ruled out a reliable reconstructive option.Two perforator flaps were performed in a single-stage operation. A hemi-deep inferior epigastric perforator flap was harvested to correct the chest deformity, whereas the contralateral superficial inferior epigastric artery flap allowed breast reconstruction.No complications occurred and a subjectively and objectively pleasing cosmetic result was maintained at 3-year follow-up. PMID:24322640

  7. First report of two asymptomatic cases of human infection with Babesia microti (Franca, 1910) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Radkowski, Marek; Pancewicz, Sławomir A; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siński, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Human infection by Babesia microti has been recognized as an emerging zoonosis with important public health implications worldwide. In Europe the reported cases of human babesiosis have been attributed mostly to B. divergens infection, with only sporadic cases of the disease caused by B. microti or B. venatorum. This study, based on molecular methods (PCR, R-T PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis), reveals for the first time in Poland, asymptomatic infection with . microti in immunocompetent healthy individuals working in forest ecosystems. Of the 58 professional foresters examined, two (3.4%) were identified as B. microti-positive by specific PCR. The results of this study also provide strong evidence that in eastern Poland, where tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are endemic, there is a potential risk of acquiring human babesiosis due to zoonotic B. microti parasites commonly found in rodents and I. ricinus ticks. The potential public health importance of this finding is discussed. PMID:25780828

  8. Anti-alcohol posters in Poland, 1945-1989: diverse meanings, uncertain effects.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin; Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Dutka, Wojciech; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-11-01

    We provide a historical study of the anti-alcohol public health poster in Poland between 1948 and 1990. Our case study illuminates public health policies under communism, with the state as the dominant force in health communication. Poland has a distinctive history of poster art, moving from a Stalinist phase of socialist realism to the diverse styles of the later Polish School. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 213 posters establishes the major themes and differentiates community approaches, which depict the drinker as a social or political deviant, from those emphasizing individual risk. Medical issues were a minor theme, reflecting public policies geared more toward confinement than treatment. However, Polish School artists used metaphor and ambiguity, and references to the contested cultural symbolism of drink, to complicate and subvert the narrow propaganda intent. Thus, although apparently unsuccessful in restraining overall consumption, these posters offer valuable lessons for policymakers on the use of visual media in health campaigns. PMID:20516371

  9. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic character of Tertiary basalts from southwest Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blusztajn, Jerzy; Hart, Stanley R.

    1989-10-01

    Tertiary basaltic volcanics from southwest Poland which form the eastern part of the Central European Volcanic Province (CEVP) have been studied for Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions. 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.70317 to 0.70369, 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.51285 to 0.51302 and Pb isotopic compositions range from 19.42 to 19.94 for 206Pb/204Pb. These data indicate the influence of three end-member mantle components DMM, HIMU and EM. An analysis of all isotopic results from the CEVP leads to the conclusion that basalts from SW Poland have the most depleted character. We propose a model whereby the depleted source mantle for the CEVP interacted with enriched components (EM). The western part of the CEVP was enriched on a larger scale than the eastern part, probably due to the influence of the Rhine Graben rift.

  10. HAER NE9B (sheet 1 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 1 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. HAER NE9B (sheet 2 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 2 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. HAER NE9A (sheet 1 of 1) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-A (sheet 1 of 1) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. [Epidemiology of human trichinellosis in Poland--currently and in the past].

    PubMed

    Gołab, Elzbieta; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata

    2006-01-01

    Since the XIX century human trichinellosis has remained an unsolved problem of public healthcare in Poland. This paper describes the past situation and analyses current changes in the epidemiological pattern of trichinellosis in Poland. Epidemiological data from the last 60 years, point out that the number of human cases as well as the number of deaths caused by trichinellosis has decreased significantly. Up to 90s the main source of Trichinella infection for people was pork. Among other implemented control measures, the introduction of the artificial digestion method in the early 80s to detect trichinellosis in pigs resulted in a shift in the sources of Trichinella infection in humans - pork was replaced with wild boar meat. In the years 1990-1995 the number of outbreaks due to pork consumption was 3.5-times higher than in the years 2000-2005. In the early nineties pork was the source of infection causing about 71% of all outbreaks; in 2000-2005 that number has fallen to only 12%. On the other hand wild boar meat was responsible for 23% of the outbreaks in 1990-1995 and as many as 88% of all outbreaks in the years 2000-2005. Moreover the number of persons infected in the outbreaks significantly decreased. The study of wild animals demonstrated that wild boars in Poland are infected not only with T. spiralis but also with Trichinella britovi. These results and EU recommendations indicate a requirement of determining the Trichinella species which cause infections in outbreaks. In the 3 trichinellosis outbreaks in 2005 the infected meat products were examined with molecular tools. T. spiralis species larvae were the etiological agents of infection in all these outbreaks. The current epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland indicates a need of increasing the awareness of risks related to wild boar meat consumption among the general public. Introducing the artificial digestion method as an obligatory method for wild boar meat examination is also necessary

  14. A new discovery of parautochthonous moldavites in southwestern Poland, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ŁUkasz

    2015-10-01

    Moldavites represent tektites derived from the Ries impact structure (~24 km diameter, ~15 Myr old) in southern Germany. Two new localities with parautochthonous moldavites in southwestern Poland were found. In these localities, fluvial sediments of the so-called Gozdnicka formation host the moldavites. Characteristic tektite features, especially bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite, are reported. The moldavites' size distribution and their abraded shapes indicate that they were redeposited from the nearby Lusatia substrewn field.

  15. Co-circulation of Soricid- and Talpid-borne Hantaviruses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010–2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0–18.8% and 0–5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1–100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3–100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species coexisting in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:25445646

  16. [Treatment of Poland syndrome thorax deformity with the lipomodeling technique: about ten cases].

    PubMed

    La Marca, S; Delay, E; Toussoun, G; Ho Quoc, C; Sinna, R

    2013-02-01

    The correct management, with the classic techniques, of the thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome is difficult, with often insatisfactory results. The current surgical treatment involves the use of prothetic material and/or different flaps with their own complications and scares. The experience of our team with fat grafting (we named lipomodeling) in breast reconstruction helped us to propose the correction of the thoracic and mammary deformity by repeated fat transfer sessions. Fat grafting is commonly used in our team since 1998 in various indication of breast surgery. We reviewed retrospectively our ten first cases of thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome treated with only fat grafting. Patients had repeated procedures until obtaining a satisfactory result. The fat was harvested from the thigh, buttocks, and abdomen. There were young patients with a mean age of 16years old (from 12 to 24). The mean follow-up was 51months. An average of 2.9 procedures (1 to 5) with 255cm(3) of fat injection at each procedure was needed to obtain symetry. Hundred percent of the patients were satisfied. No complication was noted. As reported, the reconstruction of the thoracic deformity and the mammary shape can be obtained by fat grafting. The absence of a flap donor site sequelae and the absence an implant allow this technique to be simple, reproductible, and without great complication. These criteria match well the surgical management of this deformity, which is mainly aesthetic. Moreover, the secondary benefit of liposuction of disgracious steatomery helps the acceptance of the procedure. Therefore in our hands, fat grafting to the breast (lipomodeling) is now our first choice treatment in thoracic Poland syndrome deformity. Given the rarity of this syndrome, we recommend a treatment by an operator who makes the learning curve of lipomodeling, and who often deals with Poland syndrome. PMID:23153632

  17. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Cabaj, Władysław

    2013-06-01

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens. Natural transmission between hosts can only occur through the ingestion of infected meat. To date, two Trichinella species are known to be etiological agents of disease among domestic animals and wildlife in Poland: T. spiralis and T. britovi. In the last decades, since the administration of an oral vaccination against rabies, the red fox population in Poland has increased exponentially. The study area covers the Nowy Targ region: a mountainous area (585-1138 m above the sea) in southern Poland. Of 24 red foxes examined in the study, four were infected with Trichinella isolates: three were identified as T. britovi and one as T. pseudospiralis. The muscle of red foxes infected with T. britovi harboured 2.75, 3.11, 4.4 LPG and with T. pseudospiralis 0.36 LPG. Trichinella larvae were identified at species level by genomic and mitochondrial multiplex PCR, the products of which were sequenced for comparison with other sequences available in GenBank. The sequences obtained from the Polish T. pseudospiralis isolate, deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JQ809660.1 and JQ809661.1, matched sequences already published in GenBank. Sequence comparison showed a 100% match with the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene of T. pseudospiralis isolate ISS 013, and a 96-95% match with those of T. pseudospiralis isolates ISS 141 and ISS 470. This is the first report of the identification of T. pseudospiralis larvae from red fox in Poland. PMID:23666649

  18. Molecular characterization of echovirus 30 isolates from Poland, 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Krzysztoszek, Arleta; Figas, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Echovirus 30 (E30) is one of the most frequently identified enterovirus and a major cause of meningitis in children and adults. To investigate the genetic variability and relationship of E30 isolated from specimens of aseptic meningitis cases that occurred in Poland over a period of 20 years, sequences of VP1 gene were determined and genetic analysis was performed. From 1995 to 2015, 124 E30 were isolated using RD cells, and 58 isolates were sequenced and characterized by phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 region (793 nt). In general, nucleotide sequence divergence in pairwise comparisons among Polish E30 isolates ranged from 0.0 to 15.0 %. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that E30 circulating in Poland since 1995 belong to two unique groups: Group I, characterized by high divergence (up to 13.1 %), segregated in four subgroups, and showed strong temporal circulation of E30. Group II, detected in Poland in 2013-2014, was closely correlated with two meningitis outbreaks and formed a separate genetically homogeneous group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from Poland had the closest genetic relationship with not only the isolates previously identified in Europe (Belarus, France, Germany, Italy, Russia) but also those in other parts of the world (Australia, China). Sequences of outbreak isolates were grouped in group II together with those from Russia and China isolated during 2010-2013. The identification of five distinct viral lineages during 1995-2015 confirmed the high E30 genetic diversity which may be an essential precondition for the emergence of new strains responsible for further potential aseptic meningitis outbreaks. PMID:26957092

  19. Methodology of Estimation of Methane Emissions from Coal Mines in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patyńska, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Based on a literature review concerning methane emissions in Poland, it was stated in 2009 that the National Greenhouse Inventory 2007 [13] was published. It was prepared firstly to meet Poland's obligations resulting from point 3.1 Decision no. 280/2004/WE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004, concerning a mechanism for monitoring community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol and secondly, for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol. The National Greenhouse Inventory states that there are no detailed data concerning methane emissions in collieries in the Polish mining industry. That is why the methane emission in the methane coal mines of Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe - GZW (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - USCB) in Poland was meticulously studied and evaluated. The applied methodology for estimating methane emission from the GZW coal mining system was used for the four basic sources of its emission. Methane emission during the mining and post-mining process. Such an approach resulted from the IPCC guidelines of 2006 [10]. Updating the proposed methods (IPCC2006) of estimating the methane emissions of hard coal mines (active and abandoned ones) in Poland, assumes that the methane emission factor (EF) is calculated based on methane coal mine output and actual values of absolute methane content. The result of verifying the method of estimating methane emission during the mining process for Polish coal mines is the equation of methane emission factor EF.

  20. Trichinella spiralis in road-killed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Osten-Sacken, Natalia; Solarczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses and is considered as a threat to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to use genotyping techniques to determine the prevalence of Trichinella species in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland. The infection rate in raccoon dogs was 0.8%. All infections were due to T. spiralis. PMID:27262962

  1. Organization and Development of Bone Marrow Donation and Transplantation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jagoda; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerwiński, Jarosław; Kosmala, Karolina; Łęczycka, Anna; Malanowski, Piotr; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, Jolanta; Małkowski, Piotr; Danielewicz, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes bone marrow donation and transplantation in Poland in terms of its history, current state, and information on the quality control system. Based on data gathered from the informatics systems of the Polish Central Unrelated Potential Bone Marrow Donor and Cord Blood Registry and the Polish transplant registries, as well as World Marrow Donor Association statistics, we performed an overview study to collect and compare numbers on hematopoietic stem cells donations and transplantations in Poland in the years 2010-2014. In the last 5 years, the number of registered potential hematopoietic stem cells donors in Poland increased by more than 4 times, from about 146,000 to over 750,000. During the same period, the number of patients qualified to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation from unrelated donor increased from 557 in 2010 to 817 in 2014. We observed a striking change in the percentage of transplantations performed in Polish centers using material collected from national donors--from 24% to 60%. This shift was also evident in the number of search procedures closed with acceptation of Polish donors--from 27% in 2010 to 58% in 2014. Another consequence of Polish registry growth is the increasing number of donations from Polish donors for international patients. Between 2010 and 2014, the percent of donation for non-national patient increased from 33% to 76%, placing Poland in 6th place in the ranking of the HSC "exporters" worldwide. Growth of transplantation rates involves standardization process, which is a natural way of development for national organizations in the field of HSCT because of its international character. PMID:26423563

  2. 19Ne levels studied with the 18F(d,n)19Ne*(18F+p) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Adekola, A. S.; Brune, C. R.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeffery C; Chae, K. Y.; Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Massey, T.; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Pain, Steven D; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Smith, Michael Scott; Thomas, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of the level structure of 19Ne around the proton threshold is critical to estimating the destruction of long-lived 18F in novae. Here we report the properties of levels in 19Ne in the excitation energy range of 6.9 Ex 8.4 MeV studied via the proton-transfer 18F(d, n)Ne reaction at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. The populated 19Ne levels decay by breakup into p + 18F and + 15O particles. The results presented in this manuscript are those of levels that are simultaneously observed from the breakup into both channels. An s-wave state is observed at 1468 keV above the proton threshold, which is a potential candidate for a predicted broad J = 1/2+ state. The proton and partial widths are deduced to be p = 228 50 keV and = 130 30 keV for this state.

  3. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emission reduction measures relevant for application in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlawiczka, S.; Fudala, J.

    2008-03-15

    Fuel combustion for heat and power generation, together with cement production, were the most significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission in Poland in 2003, with 57 and 27% of Hg emission, respectively. It was found that in Poland, Hg emission reduction measures need to be focused on the energy generation sector. Sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter, mercury oxidation upstream of a wet or dry flue gas desulphurisation installation, together with Hg capture on sorbents, should be considered as priority in Polish conditions. This refers mainly to fuel combustion processes but also to the production of cement. For economic reasons it seems advisable that, apart from activated carbons as sorbents, application of zeolites obtained from power plant fly ash should also be considered. Application of primary methods seems to be very promising in Polish conditions, although they should be considered rather as an additional option apart from sorbent injection as the best option. Switching from coal to liquid and gaseous fuels shows the highest potential for reducing Hg emission. For chlorine production using the mercury cell electrolysis method, strict monitoring of Hg emissions and good housekeeping of Hg releasing processes seems a promising approach, but the main activity should focus on changing mercury-based technologies into membrane cell methods. Emission abatement potential for the atmospheric mercury in Poland has been roughly assessed, showing that in perspective of 2015, the emission could be reduced to about 25% of the anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emission in 2003.

  4. Phylogenetic and geographic analysis of fowl adenovirus field strains isolated from poultry in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta

    2016-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are widely distributed in chickens in Poland and throughout the world. FAdV infections have been reported in the United States, Australia, Europe, and the Mediterranean basin. Detection of FAdVs strains is very important from the epidemiological point of view and for monitoring disease outbreaks and developing strategies for vaccine development. Several molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies have been performed, but the results obtained are still limited, because FAdV strains, even of the same serotype, have very diverse characteristics. Some strains are pathogenic and some are nonpathogenic. This report describes the successful isolation of 96 FAdV field strains from chickens in Poland. A PCR assay specific for the L1 loop region of the hexon gene was conducted, and the products were subjected to sequence analysis. The sequences were analysed using BLAST and Geneious 6.0 software and compared to adenovirus field and reference strain sequences from different parts of the world that are accessible in the NCBI GenBank database. The sequences of the adenovirus strains indicated that they belonged to five species, Fowl aviadenovirus A-E, represented by eight serotypes FAdV-1, FAdV-4, FAdV-5, FAdV-7, FAdV-8a, FAdV-8b, and FAdV-2/11 (FAdV-D). The relationships between FAdVs isolated in Poland and isolates from other regions of the world were determined. PMID:26446890

  5. Expansion of Nature Conservation Areas: Problems with Natura 2000 Implementation in Poland?

    PubMed Central

    Cent, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In spite of widespread support from most member countries’ societies for European Union policy, including support for the sustainable development idea, in many EU countries the levels of acceptance of new environmental protection programmes have been and, in particular in new member states, still are considerably low. The experience of the countries which were the first to implement union directives show that they cannot be effectively applied without widespread public participation. The goal of this study was, using the example of Poland, to assess public acceptance of the expansion of nature conservation in the context of sustainable development principles and to discover whether existing nature governance should be modified when establishing new protected areas. The increase in protected areas in Poland has become a hotbed of numerous conflicts. In spite of the generally favourable attitudes to nature which Polish people generally have, Natura 2000 is perceived as an unnecessary additional conservation tool. Both local authorities and communities residing in the Natura areas think that the programme is a hindrance, rather than a help in the economic development of municipalities or regions, as was initially supposed. This lack of acceptance results from many factors, mainly social, historic and economic. The implications of these findings for current approach to the nature governance in Poland are discussed. PMID:21107836

  6. Gunshot wounds (resulting from execution) of exhumed victims of the communist regime in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Kawecki, Jerzy; Jurek, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents. The results were also compared with studies concerning executions during a later period, i.e. 1949-1954. The research on the method of execution during this period of history carried out during the exhumations in Osobowicki Cemetery was the first conducted on such a scale in Poland. Forensic analysis revealed a wide variety of gunshot wounds inflicted during executions, revealing both gunshots to the head, especially single shots to the back of the head, and cases corresponding to the use of a firing squad, probably equipped with machine guns. The results of the research indicate that capital punishment by shooting was carried out in ways both similar to those the specified in the regulations and completely different. PMID:24767546

  7. Frequency of under- and overweight among children and adolescents during the economic transition in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ządzińska, E; Rosset, I; Kozieł, S; Nawarycz, T; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Lorkiewicz, W; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, L; Sitek, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, in four cohorts of children and adolescents living in Poland in different economic eras: communist economy (1977/1978), crisis of the 1980s (1987/1988), political and economic transformation (1992/1994) and the free market economy (2002/2004). Analysis was conducted on a database including 10,934 records for children of the age 7-18 years. In Poland, in the last 26 years of economic and political transformations, the epidemic of obesity was not noticed but the growing incidence of children and adolescents with body mass deficit was observed (p<0.0001) (20.2% of girls in 2002/2004 vs. 11.0% in 1977/1978 and 12.1% of boys in 2002/2004 vs. 7.2% in 1977/1978). Lower parental education and a higher number of children in a family resulted in a higher prevalence of underweight (odds ratio [OR] fluctuated from 1.26 to 1.63). The social effects of the political transformation in Poland significantly affected families with low socio-economic status (SES), and especially more eco-sensitive boys. This result is opposite to the trends observed in Western countries and makes an important contribution to the current knowledge of the course of further changes in weight-to-height ratio at a global scale. PMID:22608527

  8. International assistance and health care reform in Poland: barriers to project development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Sabbat, J

    1997-09-01

    The restoration of democracy in Poland initiated a major system transformation including reform of the health sector. The international community were quick to respond to the need for assistance. Polish proposals were supported by international experts and projects were developed together with international development agencies and donors. Donors had no experience of central and eastern Europe, these countries had never been beneficiaries of aid and neither side had experience working together. Progress and absorption of funds was slow. Comparative experience from developing countries was used to analyze the barriers encountered in project development and implementation in Poland. The conditions necessary for implementation were not satisfied. Insufficient attention was paid to the project process. Barriers originate on the side of both donors and recipients and additionally from programme characteristics. The most serious problems experience in Poland were lack of government commitment to health care reform leading to failure to provide counterpart funds and low capacity for absorption of aid. Rent seeking attitudes were important. Donor paternalistic attitudes, complex procedures and lack of innovative approach were also present. Poor coordination was a problem on both sides. Multi-lateral projects were too complex and it was not always possible to integrate project activities with routine ones. External consultants played an excessive role in project development and implementation, absorbing a large portion of funds. The barriers have been operationalised to create a checklist which requires validation elsewhere and may be useful for those working in this field. PMID:10170090

  9. Modelling of the atmospheric dispersion of mercury emitted from the power sector in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyśk, J.; Roustan, Y.; Wyrwa, A.

    2015-07-01

    Poland belongs to the group of EU countries with the highest levels of mercury emissions, with a large portion of these emissions being related to coal combustion. This paper presents a modelling analysis of the impact that the Polish power sector has on the atmospheric concentrations of mercury. A detailed mercury emission inventory is used to analyse the concentration and deposition of mercury. For this study, a chemical scheme devoted to mercury transformations in the atmosphere was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The system was then used to perform simulations for 2008 in two domains i.e. over Europe and over Poland. The impact of various parameters on concentration and wet scavenging of mercury has been analysed. The results of the mercury ambient concentrations and depositions, are presented. Additionally, the contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources to mercury deposition in Poland is shown. The performed works showed that the national sources have low impact to overall deposition, however local contribution in wet deposition of big emitters may reach 50%. Sensitive analysis showed a significant impact of reaction with bromine compound and scavenging coefficient on modelled results of mercury concentration and deposition.

  10. Extensive recombination detected among beak and feather disease virus isolates from breeding facilities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Julian, Laurel; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Walters, Matthew; Muhire, Brejnev; Harkins, Gordon W; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-05-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) causes the highly contagious, in some cases fatal, psittacine beak and feather disease in parrots. The European continent has no native parrots, yet in the past has been one of the world's biggest importers of wild-caught exotic parrot species. Following the banning of this practice in 2007, the demand for exotic pet parrots has largely been met by established European breeding facilities, which can also supply buyers outside Europe. However, the years of unregulated importation have provided numerous opportunities for BFDV to enter Europe, meaning the likelihood of birds within captive breeding facilities being BFDV positive is high. This study examined the BFDV status of such facilities in Poland, a country previously shown to have BFDV among captive birds. A total of 209 birds from over 50 captive breeding facilities across Poland were tested, and 43 birds from 18 different facilities tested positive for BFDV. The full BFDV genomes from these 43 positive birds were determined, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these samples harboured a relatively high degree of diversity and that they were highly recombinant. It is evident that there have been multiple introductions of BFDV into Poland over a long period of time, and the close association of different species of birds in the captive environment has probably facilitated the evolution of new BFDV strains through recombination. PMID:23324468

  11. Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Eike

    2008-08-15

    Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems.

  12. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    PubMed

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office. PMID:19899609

  13. Variability of growing degree days in Poland in response to ongoing climate changes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Agnieszka; Sulikowska, Agnieszka; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Czekierda, Danuta

    2016-05-01

    An observed increase in air temperature can lead to significant changes in the phenology of plants and, consequently, changes in agricultural production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial differentiation of thermal resources in Poland and their variability during a period of changing thermal conditions in Europe. Since the variability of thermal conditions is of paramount importance for perennial crops, the study focused on apple, plum, and cherry orchard regions in Poland. The analysis was conducted for the period of 1951-2010 using air temperature daily data. Thermal resources have been defined using the growing degree days (GDD) index calculated independently for the whole year and during in frost-free season for three air temperature thresholds: 0, 5, and 10 °C, which determine the non-winter period, growing season, and the period of full plant growth, respectively. In addition, due to the high significance for perennials in particular, the incidence and intensity of frost during flowering were calculated. In this study, a detailed analysis of the spatial differentiation of thermal resources was first performed, followed by an evaluation of long-term variability and associated change patterns. The obtained results confirmed an increase in thermal resources in Poland as a consequence of the lengthening of the growing season. However, the frequency and intensity of spring frost, especially during flowering or even during ripening of plants, remain a threat to harvests in both the eastern and western parts of the country.

  14. Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996-2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Obszańska, Katarzyna; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabella; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Machura, Katarzyna; Stefaniuk, Elzbieta; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus form a group of related streptococcal species, namely the Streptococcus Anginosus Group (SAG). The group, previously called "milleri" had been rarely described until 1980/1990 as source of infections. Nowadays SAG bacteria are often described as pathogens causing predominantly purulent infections. The number of infections is highly underestimated, as SAG strains are often classified in the microbiology laboratory as less virulent "viridans streptococci" Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by PFGE and MLVF analyses. All analyzed strains are sensitive to penicillin, a substantial group of strains is resistant to macrolides and the majority of strains are resistant to tetracycline. PMID:27281992

  15. Primary and specialist diabetes care three years after introduction of health care system reform in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mardarowicz, Grazyna; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss epidemics of diabetes in the world and in Poland. In the Lublin region (eastern Poland), for instance, they found type 2 diabetes (DM 2) in 15.6% of the examined aged over 35 (according to the WHO criteria of 1985). The health care system reform in Poland has made more difficult the access of the diabetic to a specialist that treats this disease. Therefore doctors and nurses of primary health care have become more responsible for diabcare than before. The authors believe that the systematic education of primary health care doctors by specialists so that they can treat patients according to the modern standards of practical diabetology as well as sharing of tasks and responsibilities between primary and specialist diabetologic care, are very important. Primary health care would be in charge of prevention and early diagnosis of DM 2 as well as prevention and early diagnosis of concomitant complications of the disease. Specialists would have consultation on the patients at the moment of diagnosis and then at least once a year. They would also take care of search for and diagnosis of remote diabetes complications. Primary health care doctors would still treat most of diabetics with DM 2; specialist centres doctors would treat most of diabetics with DM type 1, patients with complications and from special risk groups (e.g. women with gestational diabetes). PMID:12898974

  16. Varved sediments from Lake Czechowskie (Poland) reveal gradual increase in Atlantic influence during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Wulf, Sabine; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Plessen, Birgit; Błaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Detailed micro-facies and geochemical analyses have been carried out for the predominantly varved Holocene sediment record of Lake Czechowskie (north-central Poland). The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach comprising varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology. The combination of independent dating techniques revealed well-constrained time scales even in phases lacking annual laminations and allows reliable high-resolution archive synchronization. Quantitative (varve thickness variations) and qualitative (sublayer structure) varve parameters as well as geochemical composition have been obtained to gain a comprehensive view of climatic and environmental evolution during the last 11500 years in northern Poland. Five major sedimentological changes have been identified, encompassing transitions from varved to non-varved sediments (and vice versa) at 10.100 and 7.300 cal a BP, respectively, changes in general varve pattern at 6.500 and 4.200 cal a BP and distinct increase of varve thickness accompanied by increased annual variability since 2.800 cal a BP. These changes reflect large-scale reorganization of the climate system throughout the Holocene with increasing influences of the North Atlantic climate system in Poland. Moreover, the observed changes suggest different thresholds and trigger mechanisms over the investigated time period. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses - ICLEA - of the Helmholtz Association, grant number VH-VI-415.

  17. Ancient DNA reveals matrilineal continuity in present-day Poland over the last two millennia.

    PubMed

    Juras, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Kushniarevich, Alena; Malmström, Helena; Raghavan, Maanasa; Kosicki, Jakub Z; Metspalu, Ene; Willerslev, Eske; Piontek, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    While numerous ancient human DNA datasets from across Europe have been published till date, modern-day Poland in particular, remains uninvestigated. Besides application in the reconstruction of continent-wide human history, data from this region would also contribute towards our understanding of the history of the Slavs, whose origin is hypothesized to be in East or Central Europe. Here, we present the first population-scale ancient human DNA study from the region of modern-day Poland by establishing mitochondrial DNA profiles for 23 samples dated to 200 BC - 500 AD (Roman Iron Age) and for 20 samples dated to 1000-1400 AD (Medieval Age). Our results show that mitochondrial DNA sequences from both periods belong to haplogroups that are characteristic of contemporary West Eurasia. Haplotype sharing analysis indicates that majority of the ancient haplotypes are widespread in some modern Europeans, including Poles. Notably, the Roman Iron Age samples share more rare haplotypes with Central and Northeast Europeans, whereas the Medieval Age samples share more rare haplotypes with East-Central and South-East Europeans, primarily Slavic populations. Our data demonstrates genetic continuity of certain matrilineages (H5a1 and N1a1a2) in the area of present-day Poland from at least the Roman Iron Age until present. As such, the maternal gene pool of present-day Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, categorized as Western Slavs, is likely to have descended from inhabitants of East-Central Europe during the Roman Iron Age. PMID:25337992

  18. Release notice of MD 9ne and MD25 high fiber quality cotton germplasm lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MD 9ne and MD 25 are non-commercial breeding lines of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) released by the USDA-ARS at Stoneville, MS. One parent of MD 9ne was a strain of MD 51ne that had high fiber quality genes introduced from the Species Polycross. The other parent was MD 15. The parents of MD 25 a...

  19. Investigation on the lifetime of He--Ne lasers by means of Weibull function

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xishan; Sun Zhendong

    1987-04-01

    The failure mechanism of He-Ne lasers is compared with the physical model of the Weibull function. It follows that the lifetime of He-Ne lasers ought to obey Weibull function. An equation for accelerated aging is derived, which is used to determine readily the lifetime characteristics of He-Ne lasers.

  20. Post-socialist forest disturbance in the Carpathian border region of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick; Radeloff, Volker C; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Kruhlov, Ivan

    2007-07-01

    Forests provide important ecosystem services, and protected areas around the world are intended to reduce human disturbance on forests. The question is how forest cover is changing in different parts of the world, why some areas are more frequently disturbed, and if protected areas are effective in limiting anthropogenic forest disturbance. The Carpathians are Eastern Europe's largest contiguous forest ecosystem and are a hotspot of biodiversity. Eastern Europe has undergone dramatic changes in political and socioeconomic structures since 1990, when socialistic state economies transitioned toward market economies. However, the effects of the political and economic transition on Carpathian forests remain largely unknown. Our goals were to compare post-socialist forest disturbance and to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in the border triangle of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine, to better understand the role of broadscale political and socioeconomic factors. Forest disturbances were assessed using the forest disturbance index derived from Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images from 1978 to 2000. Our results showed increased harvesting in all three countries (up to 1.8 times) in 1988-1994, right after the system change. Forest disturbance rates differed markedly among countries (disturbance rates in Ukraine were 4.5 times higher than in Poland, and those in Slovakia were 4.3 times higher than in Poland), and in Ukraine, harvests tended to occur at higher elevations. Forest fragmentation increased in all three countries but experienced a stronger increase in Slovakia and Ukraine (approximately 5% decrease in core forest) than in Poland. Protected areas were most effective in Poland and in Slovakia, where harvesting rates dropped markedly (by nearly an order of magnitude in Slovakia) after protected areas were designated. In Ukraine, harvesting rates inside and outside protected areas did not differ appreciably, and harvests were widespread immediately before the