Science.gov

Sample records for hand anthropometric measurements

  1. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-10-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802

  2. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

  3. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  4. [Anthropometric proportion parameter of hand-face verification].

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, N

    1990-01-01

    By studying the criteria used in the pictorial art field, the Author obtained an anthropometric parameter. This appears to be a procedure to investigate and verify the ideal pattern as well as to calculate the vertical ratios and relationships of the face in different ages. The Pantaleoni's parameter shows the correspondence between Sn-Gn skin measurement and the interphalangeal flexion plica pf2-pf5. It is a parameter of verticality which changes depending on age, from youth to senility, and can be used in different dentistry areas. In orthognathia it allows to draw a borderline between true orthognathia and pre-surgical orthodontics; moreover it allows to detect if abnormal occlusion involves either maxillary or jaw-bone. PMID:2074883

  5. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  6. Estimation of stature from diversified hand anthropometric dimensions from Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jee, Soo-Chan; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2015-10-01

    The anthropometric method has served as a useful tool in reducing the amount of time and effort in confirmation of identity. This study is based on a sample of 321 people (167 males and 154 females) from South Korea. Twenty-nine variables including lengths, breadths, thickness, and circumference of their hands and wrists were measured. The body dimension data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To find the relationship between the various parts of the hand and height, Pearson correlation coefficients for the parts were compared. Further, the single regression and determination coefficient of a regression estimation equation (R(2)) and standard error of estimate (S.E.E) were calculated to compare prediction reliability. Hand length was found to be the variable with the highest correlation to stature in both males (r = 0.628) and females (r = 0.534). For male subjects, hand length (R(2) = 0.398) and palm length (R(2) = 0.358) proved to be the greatest determining factors for the regression equation. For both males and females, an R-square value of 0.643 was obtained with an estimation error of ±5.719 cm by using the derived multiple regressions. In this study single and multiple regression equations were derived for accurate estimation of stature and hand length was found to be the most relevant predictor of stature. PMID:26344451

  7. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  8. A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

  9. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  10. Reference values of anthropometric measurements in Dutch children. The Oosterwolde Study.

    PubMed

    Gerver, W J; Drayer, N M; Schaafsma, W

    1989-03-01

    In the period 1979-1980 the following anthropometric measurements were recorded in 2351 healthy Dutch children from 0-17 years of age: height, weight, sitting height, arm span, lengths of upper-arm, lower-arm and hand, tibial length, foot length, biacromial diameter, biiliacal diameter, and head circumference. Corresponding percentile values were constructed on the basis of normality assumptions, the mean and standard deviation at age t being determined by a cubic spline approximation. The results are compared with other studies and given in the form of growth charts. PMID:2929355

  11. Mismatch between classroom furniture and anthropometric measures in Chilean schools.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Viviani, C A

    2010-07-01

    Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical-functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of Chilean students in the Valparaíso region, in order to evaluate the potential mismatch between them. The sample consisted of 195 volunteer students (94 male, 101 female) of the 8th grade, ranging from 12.5 to 14.5 years of age from 3 different schools. Regarding the methodology, 6 anthropometric measures (Stature, Popliteal height, Buttock-popliteal length, Elbow height while sitting, Hip width, Thigh thickness and Subscapular height) were gathered, as well as 8 dimensions from the school furniture. For the evaluation of classroom furniture a match criterion equation was defined. After considering the existing classroom furniture dimensions in each match criterion equation, the anthropometric characteristics of the considered population were compared in order to determine the mismatch between them. Results indicated that seat height, which should be considered as the starting point for the design of classroom furniture, was appropriate for students' popliteal height in only 14% of the 2 out of the 3 schools, and 28% in the third. Seat to desk height was too high and mismatched 99% of the students in one school and 100% in the others. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the classroom's furniture was inadequate in almost all the analyzed cases and subjects. It is possible that the high mismatch percentage found between furniture and students' anthropometry can be associated to the fact that the acquisition and selection of the furniture was made without any ergonomic concern or criteria. PMID:20031115

  12. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; ?uri?, Goran; Selthofer-Relati?, Kristina; Radi?, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10?mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  13. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  14. The Anthropometric Measurement of Schober's Test in Normal Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yong-Ren; Luo, Jin-Fan; Liu, Ming-Li; Lu, Fung-Jou; Wang, Soo-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of lower back mobility is essential in the assessment of lower back pain including ankylosing spondylitis. Original Schober's test (OST) and modified Schober's test (MST) are popularly conducted in daily rheumatology and orthopedics clinical practices. To our knowledge, this report is the only anthropometric reference study in a normal oriental population. The OST declined with age from 5.0?cm in the youngest (20–30 years old) to 3.1?cm in the aged (70–80 years old) male subjects and from 3.6?cm to 2.4?cm in the female subjects. The male OST was significantly more than the female OST. There was a good correlation between OST and MST in each of the three age groups of both sexes. PMID:26273601

  15. Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901

  16. Are New Generations Getting Bigger in Size? Anthropometric Measurements in Erzurum

    PubMed Central

    Malkoc, ?smail; Kaya, M. Dursun; Erdogan, Osman; Kara, Asli; Yesilyurt, Hakki; Ozkan, Behzat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: When the dimensional measurements of the students who spend most of their time at school are taken into consideration, inappropriate dimensions of school equipment may affect their body and psychological improvements negatively. Anthropometric measurements are necessary for designing the educational equipment of the children at school. It is emphasized that anthropometric measurements of the people living in different climate and altitude conditions will be different. It is mentioned that anthropometric data available for a certain region will be able to change as a result of changing socio-economical conditions and therefore, anthropometric data update is necessary at certain periods. Materials and Methods: In 2000 anthropometric data obtained from the children between the age of seven and fifteen, who were in sitting and standing positions, were measured with a repeated measurement in the same schools in 2007. Results: Mean values of the heights of elbow at standing position of the female students, 8 years old, increased from 72.38 cm in 2000 to 74.67 cm in 2007 (p<0.001). Most of the other measurements in 2007 were larger than those in 2000, giving the impression that new generation children are getting larger in size. Conclusion: As reported in the literature, anthropometric data should be updated at certain period of times. PMID:25610324

  17. Sonographic Measurement of the Umbilical Cord and Its Vessels and Their Relation with Fetal Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Sheida; Kalantari, Mojgan; Shahriari, Mona; Shakiba, Madjid

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been established that presence of lean umbilical cord with reduced Wharton’s jelly in sonographic scans is a fetal marker for risk of small for gestational age at birth. With improvement of ultrasound techniques, more studies have been investigating the alterations of the umbilical cord on pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: To determine the reference ranges of the umbilical cord area during pregnancy and to find out the association between umbilical cord morphometry and fetal anthropometric measurements. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on a study population of 278 low-risk pregnant women between 15 and 41 weeks of gestational age. Fetal anthropometric measurements including biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were calculated. The measurements of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and circumference of the umbilical cord, vein and arteries were done on an adjacent plane to the insertion of umbilical cord into the fetus’s abdomen. The mean and standard deviation of the CSA of the umbilical cord and the 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th percentiles of it were calculated for each gestational age. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between the measures of the cord and fetal anthropometric measurements. Polynomial regression analysis was performed for curves. Results: The values of the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and Wharton’s jelly (WJ) increase consistently until 30 weeks of gestation, after which they reach a plateau. There was a significant correlation between anthropometric measurements and umbilical cord measurements especially with the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and WJ. The regression equation for the umbilical cord CSA according to gestational age up to 30 weeks was y = -0.2159 x2 + 23.828x-325.59 (R2 = 0.6334) and for the WJ area according to gestational age up to 30 weeks, it was y = -0.2124 x 2 +17.613x-221.66 (R2 = 0.4979). Conclusion: Reference ranges for umbilical cord CSA have been generated. The CSA of the umbilical cord and other components of it increase as a function of gestational age. These measurements correlate with fetal size. PMID:26528384

  18. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  19. Thyroid Volume and Its Relation to Anthropometric Measures in a Healthy Cuban Population

    PubMed Central

    Turcios, Silvia; Lence-Anta, Juan J.; Santana, Jose-Luis; Pereda, Celia M.; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Rodriguez, Regla; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Rubino, Carole; Ortiz, Rosa M.; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the thyroid volume in healthy adults by ultrasound and to correlate this volume with some anthropometric measures and other differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors. Study Design Thyroid volume and anthropometric measures were recorded in a sample of 100 healthy adults, including 21 men and 79 women aged 18-50 years, living in a non-iodine-deficient area of Havana city. Results The average thyroid volume was 6.6 ± 0.26 ml; it was higher in men (7.3 ml) than in women (6.4 ml; p = 0.15). In the univariate analysis, thyroid volume was correlated with all anthropometric measures, but in the multivariate analysis, body surface area was found to be the only significant anthropometric parameter. Thyroid volume was also higher in current or former smokers and in persons with blood group AB or B. Conclusion Specific reference values of thyroid volume as a function of body surface area could be used for evaluating thyroid volume in clinical practice. The relation between body surface area and thyroid volume is coherent with what is known about the relation of thyroid volume to thyroid cancer risk, but the same is not true about the relation between thyroid volume and smoking habit. PMID:25960963

  20. Reliability of anthropometric measures in a longitudinal cohort of patients initiating ART in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measurements are a non invasive, inexpensive, and suitable method for evaluating the nutritional status in population studies with relatively large sample sizes. However, anthropometric techniques are prone to errors that could arise, for example, from the inadequate training of personnel. Despite these concerns, anthropometrical measurement error is seldom assessed in cohort studies. We describe the reliability and challenges associated with measurement of longitudinal anthropometric data in a cohort of West African HIV+ adults . Methods In a cohort of patients initiating antiretroviral treatment in Mali, we evaluated nutritional status using anthropometric measurements(weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and triceps skinfold). Observers with no prior experience in the field of anthropometry were trained to perform anthropometrical measurements. To assess the intra- and inter-observer variability of the measurements taken in the course of the study, two sub-studies were carried out: one at the beginning and one at the end of the prospective study. Twelve patients were measured twice on two consecutive days by the same observer on both study occasions. The technical error of measurement (TEM) (absolute and relative value), and the coefficient of reliability (R) were calculated and compared across reliability studies. Results According to the R and relative TEM, inter-observer reliabilities were only acceptable for height and weight. In terms of intra-observer precision, while the first and second anthropometrists demonstrated better reliability than the third, only height and weight measurements were reliable. Looking at total TEM, we observed that while measurements remained stable between studies for height and weight, circumferences and skinfolds lost precision from one occasion to the next. Conclusions Height and weight were the most reliable measurements under the study's conditions. Circumferences and skinfolds demonstrated less reliability and lost precision over time, probably as a result of insufficient supervision over the entire length of the study. Our results underline the importance of a careful observer's selection, good initial preparation, as well as the necessity of ongoing training and supervision over the entire course of a longitudinal nutritional study. Failure to do so could have major repercussions on data reliability and jeopardize its utilization. PMID:20969785

  1. Standardization of Research-Quality Anthropometric Measurement of Infants and Implementation in a Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Coburn-Miller, Christine; Casey, Susan; Luong, Quynh; Cameron, Natalia; Hocevar-Trnka, Jasna; Leung, Daniel H; Gelfond, Daniel; Heubi, James E; Ramsey, Bonnie; Borowitz, Drucy

    2015-08-01

    Malnutrition is one of the earliest clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with poorer pulmonary and cognitive outcomes and survival later in life. Infant growth can be a responsive measure for clinical research in this age group if obtained and characterized accurately. We report here the methods to standardize and implement research-quality anthropometric measurement of infants with cystic fibrosis in the Baby Observational Nutrition Study multicenter trial. PMID:26053284

  2. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  3. Boston University, Computer Science technical report BUCS-TR-2009-009 An alignment based similarity measure for hand detection in cluttered sign

    E-print Network

    measure for hand detection in cluttered sign language video Ashwin Thangali and Stan Sclaroff Department,sclaroff]@cs.bu.edu, http://www.cs.bu.edu/groups/ivc/ Abstract Locating hands in sign language video is challenging due to a number of factors. Hand appearance varies widely across signers due to anthropometric variations and vary

  4. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  5. Percentile Curves for Anthropometric Measures for Canadian Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kuhle, Stefan; Maguire, Bryan; Ata, Nicole; Hamilton, David

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess a child's weight status but it does not provide information about the distribution of body fat. Since the disease risks associated with obesity are related to the amount and distribution of body fat, measures that assess visceral or subcutaneous fat, such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), or skinfolds thickness may be more suitable. The objective of this study was to develop percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and sum of 5 skinfolds (SF5) in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The analysis used data from 4115 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age that participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 were measured using standardized procedures. Age- and sex-specific centiles were calculated using the LMS method and the percentiles that intersect the adult cutpoints for BMI, WC, and WHtR at age 18 years were determined. Percentile curves for all measures showed an upward shift compared to curves from the pre-obesity epidemic era. The adult cutoffs for overweight and obesity corresponded to the 72nd and 91st percentile, respectively, for both sexes. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The percentile curves presented are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive as associations with cardiovascular disease markers or outcomes were not assessed. PMID:26176769

  6. Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

  7. Longitudinal association of anthropometric measures of adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Heo, Moonseong; Van Horn, Linda V.; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Getaneh, Asqual; Ard, Jamy; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Waring, Molly E.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Smoller, Sylvia Wassertheil; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Some studies suggest that anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity may be superior to body mass index for the prediction of cardiometabolic risk factors; however, most studies have been cross-sectional. Our aim was to prospectively examine the association of change in body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), and waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR) with change in markers of cardiometabolic risk in a population of postmenopausal women. Methods We used a subsample of participants in the Women’s Health Initiative aged 50 to 79 at entry with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements obtained at multiple time points over 12.8 years of follow-up (N = 2,672). The blood samples were used to measure blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides at baseline, and at years 1, 3, and 6. We conducted mixed-effects linear regression analyses to examine associations at baseline and longitudinal associations between change in anthropometric measures and change in cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for covariates. Results In longitudinal analyses, change in BMI, WC, and WCHtR robustly predicted change in cardiometabolic risk, whereas change in WHR did not. The strongest associations were seen for change in triglycerides, glucose, and HDL-C (inverse association). Conclusion Increase in BMI, WC, and WCHtR strongly predicted increases in serum triglycerides and glucose, and reduced HDL-C. WC and WCHtR were superior to BMI in predicting serum glucose, HDL-C, and triglycerides. WCHtR was superior to WC only in predicting serum glucose. BMI, WC, and WCHtR were all superior to WHR. PMID:25453348

  8. Impact of anthropometric measures and serum leptin on severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, N A; Montasser, I F; Bioumy, E E; Saad, W E

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of obesity, determined by different anthropometric measures, on clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD and the relation between serum leptin and clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD in Egyptian patients. The study was carried out at Ain Shams University Hospitals and Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. A total of 60 patients with clinically and endoscopically evident gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were enrolled in this study as well as 20 healthy subjects matched for age and gender serving as the control group. Patients were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) into two groups: group 1 (n = 30): overweight and obese (BMI ?25 and/or waist-to-height ratio [WHtR] ?0.5) and group 2 (n = 30): normal weight (BMI ?18 to <25 and/or WHtR ?0.4 to <0.5). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, anthropometric measures, and symptom severity score questionnaire were done for all patients. Serum leptin hormone was assessed for patients and control groups.The evidence revealed statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of different anthropometric measures (P < 0.00) except the height (P < 0.9), abdominal fat depot equations (P < 0.00), endoscopic findings according to Los Angeles classification (P < 0.001), symptom severity score (P < 0.00), and serum leptin hormone (43.96 ± 23.50 in group 1 vs. 7.5133 ± 8.18294 in group 2 and 6.98 ± 5.90 in the control group) (P = 0.00). Obesity in general and central (abdominal) obesity specifically has significant impact on clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD. Increased leptin hormone level is associated with clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD. Future trial on larger number of patients is emphasized. PMID:25168182

  9. Anthropometric sourcebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

  10. Choosing the Best Newborn Anthropometric Measure Associated With the Risks and Outcomes of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Lei, XiaoPing; Zhang, YongJun; Fang, Fang; Wu, Ting; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with various prenatal risks and postnatal adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to choose the most sensitive newborn anthropometric measure, which is closely associated with IUGR-related risks and outcomes, to substitute IUGR after delivery. Data were obtained from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multicenter prospective cohort study in the United States from 1959 to 1976. Maternal heavy smoking and severe hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, neonatal polycythemia and hypothermia, low intelligence quotient (<70) at age 7 years were chosen as IUGR-related risks and outcomes. Eight anthropometric measures at birth were tested by logistic regression model. Birth weight-to-head circumference (W/HC) had the largest odds ratio (OR) for neonatal polycythemia (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.0), severe hypertensive disorders (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.2), and maternal heavy smoking (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.7-2.1) during pregnancy. It also had the highest summary OR (9.3). Thus, W/HC may be a good measure for IUGR. PMID:25854788

  11. Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí-Parana, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey, carried out in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 279 girls) from 6th to 9th grade, aged 10 to 14 years, from public and private schools of Paranavaí - PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity through a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis, the U Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise for body composition control and weight reduction. PMID:25623726

  12. Association between various anthropometric measures of obesity and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kommuri, Naga Va; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Veeranna, Vikas; Kollepara, Sri Lakshmi S; Ramesh, Krithi; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Afonso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Central obesity is a known cardiovascular risk factor and measures of visceral obesity are known to predict atherosclerosis. This study sought to explore the association between various anthropometric measures and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (MoSCA) among low risk healthy individuals. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a population-based study of Caucasian (38%), Afro-American (28%), Chinese (22%) and Hispanic (12%) subjects, aged 45-84 years, free from clinical cardiovascular disease. We performed a post hoc analysis of the limited access dataset of MESA subjects to evaluate the association between carotid intima media thickness and coronary artery calcium score (CACS), as MoSCA and various measures of obesity. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, ethnicity and C-reactive protein were performed. Each unit increase in waist-hip ratio was strongly associated with increase in both common and internal carotid intima media thickness (beta: 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 to 0.18, p < 0.001 and beta: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.43, p = 0.021, respectively). Measures of central obesity were superior to body mass index as demonstrated by their consistent association with each category of CACS when compared to the reference category (CACS = 0). Compared to body mass index, measures of visceral obesity were significantly associated with MoSCA in this multiethnic healthy population. Waist-hip ratio seems to be more consistent in its association with various MoSCA compared to other anthropometric measures. PMID:26559851

  13. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  14. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. PMID:25810218

  15. Anthropometric Measurements and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Sun, Ling; Wen, Yi Feng; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2-18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended. PMID:26567204

  16. Waist related anthropometric measures - simple and useful predictors of coronary artery disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sharanjit; Sharma, Anand; Singh, Harinder Jot

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the waist related anthropometric measures like waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist – hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. Methods: The study included 88 women aged 40-80 years. Waist circumference, hip circumference, height, weight, age, and other covariates were collected by questionnaire. The primary endpoint was incident coronary heart disease that was reported by physician. The data was analyzed statistically using ?2-test for quantitative data and student t-test. The significance of the results as determined in 95.0% confidence interval. Results: The mean age was 59.07 ± 11.53 in the study group and 54.36 ± 10.84 in the control group. The waist circumference in the study group was higher (95.443 ± 11.187) than the control group (74.886 ± 6.672) (p < 0.001). The mean waist to hip ratio (WHR) was 0.96 ± 0.08 in the study group and 0.78 ± 0.06 in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.62 ± 0.07 in the study group and 0.48 ± 0.04 in the control group (p < 0.001). Waist derived measures were superior to BMI in predicting CAD. The unadjusted AUC (95% Confidence Interval) was 0.008 (0.006-0.095) for WHtR, 0.001 (0.00 0.002) for waist – hip ratio, and 1 (0.323-1.766) for body mass index. Conclusion: Waist related anthropometric measures are important predictors as CAD risk factors among middle-aged and older women, as compared to BMI. PMID:25755843

  17. Predicting Football Players' Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Using Standard Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jonathan M.; Lambert, Brad S.; Martin, Steven E.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population specific and might not be accurate for football athletes. Objective: To develop multiple regression equations using standard anthropometric measurements to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry %Fat (DEXA%Fat) in collegiate football players. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA football athletes (age ?=? 20 ± 1 years, height ?=? 185.6 ± 6.5 cm, mass ?=? 103.1 ± 20.4 kg, DEXA%Fat ?=? 19.5 ± 9.1%) participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants had the following measures: (1) body composition testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; (2) skinfold measurements in millimeters, including chest, triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal (SFAB), and thigh; and (3) standard circumference measurements in centimeters, including ankle, calf, thigh, hip (AHIP), waist, umbilical (AUMB), chest, wrist, forearm, arm, and neck. Regression analysis and fit statistics were used to determine the relationship between DEXA%Fat and each skinfold thickness, sum of all skinfold measures (SFSUM), and individual circumference measures. Results: Statistical analysis resulted in the development of 3 equations to predict DEXA%Fat: model 1, (0.178 • AHIP) + (0.097 • AUMB) + (0.089 • SFSUM) ? 19.641; model 2, (0.193 • AHIP) + (0.133 • AUMB) + (0.371 • SFAB) ? 23.0523; and model 3, (0.132 • SFSUM) + 3.530. The R2 values were 0.94 for model 1, 0.93 for model 2, and 0.91 for model 3 (for all, P < .001). Conclusions: The equations developed provide an accurate way to assess DEXA%Fat in collegiate football players using standard anthropometric measures so athletic trainers and coaches can monitor these athletes at increased health risk due to increased size. PMID:22892406

  18. Body Image, Anthropometric Measures, and Eating-Disorder Prevalence in Auxiliary Unit Members

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leeper, James D; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Richardson, Mark; Bishop, Phillip A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Medical professionals have recognized eating disorders and related problems in competitive athletes. Auxiliary members (color guard, dance, majorettes) experience the same appearance-related pressures observed in sports commonly associated with eating disorders. Objective: To estimate eating-disorder prevalence based on associated eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors in female auxiliary members and to compare perceived and ideal body images and anthropometric measurements between at-risk and not–at-risk participants for eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Three universities in the southeastern United States. Patients or Other Participants: Participants (n ?=? 101, mean age ?=? 19.2 ± 1.2 years) represented 3 auxiliary units, including color guard (n ?=? 35), dance line (n ?=? 47), and majorettes (n ?=? 19). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants self-reported menstrual history, height, and weight. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body fat percentage, and waist and hip circumferences. We screened for eating-disorder risk behavior with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 and for body dissatisfaction with the Figural Stimuli Survey. Results: Based on the EAT-26, we estimated eating-disorder prevalence among members to measure 29.7% (95% confidence interval ?=? 20.8%, 38.6%). The EAT-26 results revealed that 21% of participants used purgatives and 14% vomited to control weight or shape. The at-risk group had higher scores on the EAT-26 total (P ? .01) and on the dieting (P ? .01), oral control (P ?=? .02), and bulimia (P ?=? .01) subscales. Hip circumference (P ?=? .01), self-reported weight (P ?=? .03), measured weight (P ?=? .04), difference between measured and preferred weights (P ?=? .02), and calculated target weight (P ?=? .02) were different between the at-risk and not–at-risk groups. Conclusions: Collegiate auxiliary unit members may have an unacceptable prevalence of eating disorders. Our results validate concerns that auxiliary members may exhibit an unacceptable eating-disorder risk, highlighting the need to examine and address unhealthy weight-management behaviors independent of eating-disorder status. PMID:19593425

  19. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

  20. Dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and blood lipid values in weight training athletes (body builders).

    PubMed

    Faber, M; Benadé, A J; van Eck, M

    1986-12-01

    Dietary intake, plasma lipid levels, and anthropometric measurements were studied in 76 weight trained athletes (body builders) who had been following a consistent eating and training program for at least 2 years prior to the study. Dietary data were collected using the 7-day diet record. Nutrient analysis indicated that these athletes followed an atherogenic diet, characterized by a high-fat, high-cholesterol intake. The high-cholesterol intake was due to a high egg intake, which varied from 0 to 81 eggs per week. Although those athletes with a high egg intake consumed significantly more fat and cholesterol than those with a low egg intake, plasma total cholesterol levels (mean = 182.9 +/- 25.7) did not differ over the range of egg intakes. Plasma HDL-cholesterol levels were higher and plasma triacylglycerol levels were lower at a high egg intake compared with that at a low egg intake. Plasma uric acid was not affected by the high animal protein intake. Despite the unfavorable intake of macronutrients, food alone supplied adequate amounts of micronutrients as compared with the RDA. Using different measurements of obesity, it was difficult to classify this group of athletes as overweight or obese, due to increased muscle development. PMID:3804543

  1. Anthropometric measurements to design best-fit femoral stem for the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, BR; Ribeiro, Rahul; Malhotra, Rajesh; Bhatnagar, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The standard commercially available marketed prostheses sometimes may not be the best fit to Indian patients because of the large anatomic variation. Orthopedic surgeons always stress the need for a proper implant–patient match in hip joint replacements, in particular, for a cementless femoral stem. The complications of mismatch are aseptic loosening, improper load distribution, and discomfort. The present study was undertaken to compare the differences in dimensions between femurs of elderly Indians and those of populations from other regions in order to solve the problem of a possible geometric mismatch between a selected implant and the hip joint as far as Indian patients are concerned. Materials and Methods: Measurements were made using computer aided design techniques on computed tomography (CT) scanned images of 98 femurs (56 left and 42 right). The software used to convert the CT images into solid models was MIMICS® (Materialize, Inc., Leuven, Belgium). The geometrical parameters, viz., the femoral head offset, femoral head center (HC), femoral head diameter, femoral head relative position, position of shaft isthmus, neck-shaft angle, bow angle, femoral neck length, canal flare index, femoral length, and canal width at various locations, were chosen to design best-fit standard femoral stems for cementless insertion. These data were compared with the published data of other countries. Results: A difference of 16.8% was found in the femoral head offset between Indian and Swiss populations, which can affect soft tissue tension and range of motion. At a distance of 20 mm above the lesser trochanter (LT), the anteroposterior (AP) canal width was found to differ by 45.4%, when compared with a French population which can affect the mechanical stability of femoral stem. Femoral dimensions of Indian male and female subjects have also been compared and differences evaluated. At the LT, the aspect ratio (ratio of mediolateral canal width and AP canal width) in case of males (1.198) is approximately13% higher than that of females (1.059). Conclusions: This study indicates a need for redesign of femoral stems. The obtained anthropometric femoral dimensions can be used to design and develop indigenous hip joint prosthesis in India. The results of this study can also be used in forensic anthropometric studies. PMID:22345806

  2. Improved Method for Individualization of Head-Related Transfer Functions on Horizontal Plane Using Reduced Number of Anthropometric Measurements

    E-print Network

    Hugeng, W Wahab

    2010-01-01

    An important problem to be solved in modeling head-related impulse responses (HRIRs) is how to individualize HRIRs so that they are suitable for a listener. We modeled the entire magnitude head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), in frequency domain, for sound sources on horizontal plane of 37 subjects using principal components analysis (PCA). The individual magnitude HRTFs could be modeled adequately well by a linear combination of only ten orthonormal basis functions. The goal of this research was to establish multiple linear regression (MLR) between weights of basis functions obtained from PCA and fewer anthropometric measurements in order to individualize a given listener's HRTFs with his or her own anthropomety. We proposed here an improved individualization method based on MLR of weights of basis functions by utilizing 8 chosen out of 27 anthropometric measurements. Our objective experiments' results show a superior performance than that of our previous work on individualizing minimum phase HRIRs and a...

  3. Anthropometric measures, physical activity, and risk of glioma and meningioma in a large prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Bové, Gerald; Gallo, Valentina; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Teucher, Brigit; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Kyrozis, Andreas; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; José Sánchez, Maria; Rodríguez, Laudina; Duell, Eric J; Hallmans, Göran; Melin, Beatrice S; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio

    2011-09-01

    Body fatness has been associated with increased risk of a number of hormone-dependent cancers. Recent studies suggest that body mass index (BMI) may be related to meningiomas, which are more common in women than men, and for which estrogens are believed to play a role. Using data from a large European propective cohort, 203 incident cases of meningioma and 340 cases of glioma were included in the analysis for measures of body fat, height, and physical activity among 380,775 participants. All analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards model and controlling for age, sex, country, and education. A 71% increase in risk of meningioma was observed among men and women in the top quartile of waist circumference (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.08-2.73, P(trend) = 0.01). A positive association was also observed for BMI and meningioma (HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 0.98-2.23, for BMI ?30 compared with a BMI of 20-24.9, P(trend) = 0.05). An association with height and meningioma was also suggestive (HR = 1.24, 95% 0.96-1.51, for each 10 cm increase). In contrast, no associations were observed for height and different measures of body fat and risk of glioma. Physical activity was not related to either type of brain tumors. Results from this study support an increase in risk of meningioma with higher body fatness among both men and women. No association was observed between anthropometric measures and risk of glioma. PMID:21685234

  4. A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurement of interpupillary distance

    PubMed Central

    Ladda, Ruchi; Bhandari, Aruna J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of techniques are being practiced for the evaluation of VDO, but none of them is scientifically more accurate than other. Each method advocated has its own limitations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and interpupillary distance (IPD). Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 dentate subjects comprising of 200 males and 200 females. Anthropometric measurement of VDO was recorded clinically using modified digital vernier caliper. Also, a standardized digital photograph of face was generated from the frontal aspect using a digital camera for the measurement of IPD in millimeters. Correlation between VDO and IPD was studied using Spearman’s coefficient. For the execution of regression command and preparation of prediction equations to estimate VDO, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software Version 11.5 was used. Results: VDO and IPD was more in males compared to females. VDO was significantly and positively correlated with IPD only in males whereas females showed a weak correlation. Hence, regression equation was derived only for males. VDO estimation using regression equation for IPD had a standard error of ± 3.94 in males. Conclusions: Since the variations between VDO and IPD are within the range of 2-4 mm, VDO prediction through this method is reliable and reproducible for male patients. Also, the method is simple, economic, and non invasive; hence it could be recommended for everyday practice to determine vertical dimension of occlusion in case of male patients. Key words:Anthropometry, interpupillary distance, jaw relation, vertical dimension of occlusion. PMID:25593663

  5. Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study in the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2014-12-15

    Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290

  6. Adaptive Staircase Measurement of Hand Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Sexton, Brandon M.; Kurtz, Karl; Liu, Yang; Block, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers often need to measure proprioception (position sense), for example to monitor the progress of disease, to identify the cause of movement or balance problems, or to ascertain the effects of an intervention. While researchers can use sophisticated equipment to estimate proprioceptive acuity with good precision, clinicians lack this option and must rely on the subjective and imprecise methods currently available in the clinic. Here we describe a novel technique that applies psychometric adaptive staircase procedures to hand proprioception with a simple tablet-style apparatus that could easily be adapted for the clinic. We report test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the adaptive staircase method vs. two other methods that are commonly used in clinical settings: passive motion direction discrimination (PMDD) and matching. As a first step, we focus on healthy adults. Subjects ages 18–82 had their proprioception measured with each of the three techniques, at the metacarpophalangeal joint in the second finger of the right hand. A subset completed a second session in which the measures were repeated, to assess test-retest reliability. Another subset had the measurements done by two different testers to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed using stepwise regression on age and activity level, and correlations calculated across the three methods. Results suggest that of the three methods, the adaptive staircase method yields the best test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity. The adaptive staircase method may prove to be a valuable clinical tool where more accurate assessment of proprioception is needed. PMID:26274824

  7. Association of Change of Anthropometric Measurements With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Medenwald, Daniel; Tiller, Daniel; Herzog, Beatrice; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Müller, Grit; Haerting, Johannes; Kluttig, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to investigate the association of change of anthropometric measurements and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a pooled sample of 2 population-based cohorts. A final sample of 1324 women and 1278 men aged 31 to 83 years from 2 prospective cohorts in Germany, the CARLA (Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle) and the SHIP study (Study of Health in Pomerania), were pooled. The association of change of body weight and waist circumference (WC) with incidence of T2DM was assessed by calculating sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs). We investigated the absolute change of markers of obesity as well as change relative to the baseline value and estimated crude and adjusted HRs. Furthermore, we conducted the analyses stratified by obesity status and age (<60 vs ?60 years) at baseline. Associations were found for both change of body weight and WC and incidence of T2DM in the crude and adjusted analyses. In the stratified study sample, those participants with a body mass index of <30?kg/m2 at baseline showed considerably lower HRs compared with obese women and men for both weight and WC. In the age-stratified analysis, we still found associations between change of weight and WC and incident T2DM with only marginal differences between the age groups. Our study showed associations of change of weight and WC as markers of obesity with incidence of T2DM. Keeping a healthy and primarily stable weight should be the goal for preventing the development of T2DM. PMID:26313783

  8. Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Coll., CA.

    The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

  9. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Deborah R.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. Design/Methods 1690 participants (1196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Results Among HIV+ women, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with poorer cognitive performance evidenced by longer Trails A and Trails B and shorter SDMT completion times. An obese BMI (30 kg/m2 or higher) was related to better performance on Trails B and worse performance on the Stroop Interference test. Among HIV- women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop – Color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR and cognition. Conclusion Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV infected women. PMID:24338243

  10. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Deborah R; Mielke, Michelle M; Tien, Phyllis C; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. One thousand six hundred ninety participants (1,196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Among HIV+ women, BMI?anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV-infected women. PMID:24338243

  11. Measurement of baseball glove and hand dynamics

    E-print Network

    LaCrosse, Brian A

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus was developed that provides a dynamic representation of the hand-glove interaction inside a baseball glove during catching situations. Until recent history, baseball manufacturers relied primarily upon player ...

  12. CHEN, ROBERTSON, CIPOLLA: BODY SHAPES FROM SINGLE VIEW MEASUREMENTS 1 A Practical System for Modelling Body

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    to conveniently extract anthropometric measurements from a single photo, while using readily available scene cues effort for segmentation. Measurement-based systems, on the other hand, use anthropometric measurements (e with silhouettes, anthropometric measurements are relatively invariant to articulation changes (e.g. arm pose

  13. Detecting Invalid Samples in Hand Geometry Verification Through Geometric Measurements

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Detecting Invalid Samples in Hand Geometry Verification Through Geometric Measurements Javier.ortega}@uam.es Abstract The performance of an automatic hand geometry au- thentication system relies heavily on the quality of the captured hand images. Factors related to the acqui- sition device (e.g. dirty scanner

  14. Biomechanical hand-functionality measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paske, William C.; Metzger, Charles L.; Sutherland, Jeffrey M.

    2005-05-01

    Functional assessment of the hands may now be accomplished via a biomechanical handset designed to repeatably and reproducibly aid in the identification of fine motor performance issues which may be present in either or both hands of the test subject. The test is accomplished by monitoring the force triangle defined by the thumb (digit I), index finger (digit II), and small finger (digit V) as they maintain a grip on a hand sensor throughout several repetitive exercises. The sensor consists of three independent load cells built into a single block. The three independently applied forces are sampled every 4ms. These forces are evaluated as a function of time and test parameters are then derived for use as diagnostic aids.

  15. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  16. Indices of Central and Peripheral Obesity; Anthropometric Measurements and Laboratory Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Aras, ?ükrü; Üstünsoy, Seyfettin; Armutçu, Ferah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are serious health problems in the World, including Turkey. Contemporary studies have suggested a meaningful association between insulin resistance (IR), MetS parameters, and thyroid function tests. Aims: We aimed to elucidate the impact of fat distribution on the anthropometric and laboratory parameters, especially indices of MetS, IR and thyroid function, in obese women. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Anthropometric measurements of all participants and biochemical tests in their serum samples were performed. Results: Weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and other parameters of fat distribution were significantly increased in all obese compared to control subjects; but there was no significant difference between central and peripheral obese groups. The central obese group had significantly higher insulin levels, components of MetS, the ratio free triiodothyronine (fT3) to free thyroxin fT4, and fT4 than those of peripheral obese and control groups. Conclusion: Elevated triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels may be associated with increased IR, which in turn is related to MetS. Body fat composition may affect thyroid tests in the obese; the changes in fT3/fT4 could be the consequence of fat distribution.

  17. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 ? 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 ? 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  18. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction?The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective?Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods?A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results?There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion?The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  19. Impact of anthropometric, lifestyle, and body composition variables on ultrasound measurements in school children.

    PubMed

    Dib, Lea; Arabi, Asma; Maalouf, Joyce; Nabulsi, Mona; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2005-04-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement at hand phalanges was demonstrated to be a reliable method to assess skeletal maturation during childhood and adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender, puberty, lifestyle factors, and body composition on QUS parameters and to provide a normative database for QUS in school children in Lebanon. Measurements of phalangeal osteosonography were examined in 256 healthy subjects (132 boys and 124 girls) aged 11-18 years using an ultrasound device. In both genders, amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and bone transmission time (BTT) increased significantly with age and pubertal stages. Girls had higher AD-SoS values than boys between 11 and 15 years of age and at Tanner stages III and IV; however, no differences were detected in the older age groups. AD-SoS and BTT showed a significant positive correlation with age and height in both genders (R = 0.41-0.66, P < 0.01). There was no correlation between physical activity, calcium intake, sun exposure, and any of the QUS parameters in either gender. Weight showed moderate positive correlation with AD-SoS in boys and with BTT in both genders (R = 0.31-0.47, P < 0.01). Lean mass showed significant positive correlation with AD-SoS and BTT (R = 0.2-0.68, P < 0.01) in both genders. Percentage body fat showed significant negative correlation with BTT and AD-SoS in boys (R = -0.25 to -0.37, P < 0.01). In the linear regression analyses, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage fat mass and both AD-SoS and BTT in both genders. In conclusion, QUS parameters of the phalanges in Lebanese children are related to growth variables such as height, age, and puberty in healthy children. The impact and magnitude of body composition variables and lifestyle factors on ultrasonometry derived variables differ from their effect on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry derived parameters. PMID:15784188

  20. NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

  1. Comparative study of cranial anthropometric measurement by traditional calipers to computed tomography and three-dimensional photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Derick A; Naidoo, Sybill D; Skolnick, Gary; Skladman, Rachel; Woo, Albert S

    2013-07-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry by direct caliper measurements is a common method of quantifying the morphology of the cranial vault. New digital imaging modalities including computed tomography and three-dimensional photogrammetry are similarly being used to obtain craniofacial surface measurements. This study sought to compare the accuracy of anthropometric measurements obtained by calipers versus 2 methods of digital imaging.Standard anterior-posterior, biparietal, and cranial index measurements were directly obtained on 19 participants with an age range of 1 to 20 months. Computed tomographic scans and three-dimensional photographs were both obtained on each child within 2 weeks of the clinical examination. Two analysts measured the anterior-posterior and biparietal distances on the digital images. Measures of reliability and bias between the modalities were calculated and compared.Caliper measurements were found to underestimate the anterior-posterior and biparietal distances as compared with those of the computed tomography and the three-dimensional photogrammetry (P < 0.001). Cranial index measurements between the computed tomography and the calipers differed by up to 6%. The difference between the 2 modalities was statistically significant (P = 0.021). The biparietal and cranial index results were similar between the digital modalities, but the anterior-posterior measurement was greater with the three-dimensional photogrammetry (P = 0.002). The coefficients of variation for repeated measures based on the computed tomography and the three-dimensional photogrammetry were 0.008 and 0.007, respectively.In conclusion, measurements based on digital modalities are generally reliable and interchangeable. Caliper measurements lead to underestimation of anterior-posterior and biparietal values compared with digital imaging. PMID:23851749

  2. The CODAtwins project: the cohort description of COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins to study macro-environmental variation in genetic and environmental effects on anthropometric traits

    PubMed Central

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    For over one hundred years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically 1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and 2) to study the effects of birth related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects including both monozygotic and dizygotic twins using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  3. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-08-01

    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  4. Hand transmitted vibration measurement using experimentally simulated hand-arm rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Rahul; Johnson, Marty; Muract, Jorge; Burdisso, Ricardo

    2005-09-01

    Hand transmitted vibration (HTV) is one of the most common hazards faced by workers in the construction industry. A major source of HTV is hand held percussion tools, such as pneumatically driven chipping hammers and rock drills. This paper presents a new approach to measuring the vibration from these tools using a mechanically simulated hand arm model to which the tools are attached. The simulated hand-arm model has been designed to have similar dynamic characteristics to that of a human hand-arm system. This approach addresses the issue of repeatability as HTV measurements suffer from variability between cases and from user to user. Different percussion tools ranging from a small chipping hammer to a rock drill, from two major construction equipment manufacturing companies, were used to conduct the vibration tests. The goals of these tests were to measure the vibration levels and to determine the most dominant modes of vibration. Comprehensive data analyses of the tests results are presented. Further, the paper discusses potential vibration control methods and expected performance levels.

  5. Associations of Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity, Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measures with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jennifer M.; Hensey, Owen; McLoughlin, Brenda; Lyons, Alan; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP. Methods This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD) age 11.3 (0.2) yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (?10 min bouts) were calculated. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (? = 0.339, p<0.01), sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (? = 0.250, p<0.05) and total activity (? = 0.238, p<0.05) were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05). Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01), waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001), waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05) after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Conclusions Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is associated with high cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25835955

  6. STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Wen

    STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION M. Zhang, R, Australia ABSTRACT This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence measured data. Principle component analysis is separately performed on the head-related impulse responses

  7. Heritability of anthropometric phenotypes in caste populations of Visakhapatnam, India

    E-print Network

    Arya, Rector; Duggirala, R.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Puppala, Sobah; Modem, Saileela; Busi, Bhaskara R.; Crawford, Michael H.

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phenotypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste differences. We obtained...

  8. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ±11.6 up to ±13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available. PMID:26654071

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

  14. Estimation of sex from the anthropometric ear measurements of a Sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Omer, Nosyba

    2015-09-01

    The external ear and its prints have multifaceted roles in medico-legal practice, e.g., identification and facial reconstruction. Furthermore, its norms are essential in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies and the design of hearing aids. Body part dimensions vary in different ethnic groups, so the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes are developed using population-specific standards. Sudan lacks comprehensive data about ear norms; moreover, there is a universal rarity in assessing the possibility of sex estimation from ear dimensions using robust statistical techniques. Therefore, this study attempts to establish data for normal adult Sudanese Arabs, assessing the existence of asymmetry and developing a population-specific equation for sex estimation. The study sample comprised 200 healthy Sudanese Arab volunteers (100 males and 100 females) in the age range of 18-30years. The physiognomic ear length and width, lobule length and width, and conchal length and width measurements were obtained by direct anthropometry, using a digital sliding caliper. Moreover, indices and asymmetry were assessed. Data were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All linear dimensions used were sexually dimorphic except lobular lengths. Some of the variables and indices show asymmetry. Ear dimensions showed cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranging between 60.5% and 72%. Hence, the ear measurements cannot be used as an effective tool in the estimation of sex. However, in the absence of other more reliable means, it still can be considered a supportive trait in sex estimation. Further, asymmetry should be considered in identification from the ear measurements. PMID:25813757

  15. Anthropometric measurements of general and central obesity and the prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Louise G H; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Welborn, Timothy A; Lee, Andy H; Della, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is important to ascertain which anthropometric measurements of obesity, general or central, are better predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. 10-year CVD risk was calculated from the Framingham risk score model, SCORE risk chart for high-risk regions, general CVD and simplified general CVD risk score models. Increase in CVD risk associated with 1 SD increment in each anthropometric measurement above the mean was calculated, and the diagnostic utility of obesity measures in identifying participants with increased likelihood of being above the treatment threshold was assessed. Design Cross-sectional data from the National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Setting Population-based survey in Australia. Participants 4487 women aged 20–69?years without heart disease, diabetes or stroke. Outcome measures Anthropometric obesity measures that demonstrated the greatest increase in CVD risk as a result of incremental change, 1 SD above the mean, and obesity measures that had the greatest diagnostic utility in identifying participants above the respective treatment thresholds of various risk score models. Results Waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio had larger effects on increased CVD risk compared with body mass index (BMI). These central obesity measures also had higher sensitivity and specificity in identifying women above and below the 20% treatment threshold than BMI. Central obesity measures also recorded better correlations with CVD risk compared with general obesity measures. WC and WHR were found to be significant and independent predictors of CVD risk, as indicated by the high area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (>0.76), after controlling for BMI in the simplified general CVD risk score model. Conclusions Central obesity measures are better predictors of CVD risk compared with general obesity measures in women. It is equally important to maintain a healthy weight and to prevent central obesity concurrently. PMID:24503301

  16. Comparisons of Measured and Self-Reported Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Hong Kong Female Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yao Jie; Ho, Suzanne C.; Liu, Zhao Min; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the validity of self-reported weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure compared with standardized clinical measurements and to determine the classification accuracy in overweight/obesity and central adiposity. Methods This pilot study was integrated into a life-course study entitled “Hong Kong Women's Health Study” among 1,253 female nurses in Hong Kong who were aged 35 years to 65 years. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires that were mailed to the respondents. Of these participants, we obtained the standard body measurements of 144 (11.5%) at our research center. We then compared the self-reported anthropometric variables and blood pressure with the measured data to assess validity based on the level of misreporting, percentage of agreement, consistency, sensitivity and specificity. Results The self-reported and measured values were highly correlated in terms of anthropometry and blood pressure (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.96). Height was overestimated at an average of 0.42 cm, and waist circumference was underestimated at 2.33 cm (both P<0.05), while no significant differences were observed from weight, blood pressure and BMI (all P>0.05). The proportions of overweight, obesity, and central adiposity by self-reported data did not vary greatly from the measured data (all P>0.05). The self-reporting resulted in correct classifications of BMI, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure in 85%, 78%, and 87% of women, with corresponding Kappa index values of 0.79, 0.55, and 0.82, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 95.7%, respectively, with respect to overweight/obesity detection, whereas those for central adiposity detection were 70.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Conclusion In a sample of female Hong Kong nurses, the self-reported measures of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were generally valid. Furthermore, the classification accuracies of overweight/obesity and central adiposity were acceptable. PMID:25222707

  17. Inconsistent associations among anthropometric measurements in elderly Dutch men and women.

    PubMed

    Minten, V K; Löwik, M R; Deurenberg, P; Kok, F J

    1991-11-01

    In a national survey of 515 apparently healthy Dutch elderly people aged 65 through 79 years, interrelationships among weight, height, weight-for-height indexes (especially the Quetelet index), body fatness (assessed by skinfold measurements), and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion were investigated in various age groups. Body weight, body height, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion (absolute and per kilogram body weight) were lower in older age groups. In men the correlation coefficient between weight and body fatness was .54 for the group aged 65 through 69 years and .33 for the group aged 75 through 79 years. In women the correlation between weight and percentage of body fat varied from .52 to .70 among the age groups. In comparison with results reported for younger adults, a lower correlation between the Quetelet index and body fatness was observed (r = .49 in men, r = .64 in women). The correlation of the Quetelet index with both height and urinary creatinine excretion tended to be higher in the older age groups. We concluded that some of the associations found were inconsistent and that there may be some doubt about the adequacy of the Quetelet index as a measure of body fatness among the elderly. However, no convenient alternative weight-for-height index is presently available. Perhaps circumferences are a better option to choose for elderly people. PMID:1939979

  18. Relationship of anthropometric measurements to thyroid nodules in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Zexin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Huo, Liangliang; Huang, Yangmei; Jin, Xingyi; Deng, Jin; Zhu, Sujuan; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have found that overweight and obesity are related to numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer and thyroid volume. This study evaluates the relationship between body size and the presence of thyroid nodules in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 6793 adults and 2410 children who underwent thyroid ultrasonography were recruited in this cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, from March to October, 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics and potential risk factors of thyroid nodules were collected by questionnaire. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Associations of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) with the presence of thyroid nodules were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for potential risk factors, an increased risk of thyroid nodule incidence was associated with height (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.30), weight (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.58), BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) and BSA (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.62) in all adults, but most obviously in women. In children, similar associations were observed between risk of thyroid nodule incidence and weight, BMI and BSA, but not height. BSA was the measurement most significantly associated with thyroid nodules in both adults and children. Conclusions This study identified that the presence of thyroid nodules was positively associated with weight, height, BMI and BSA in both women and girls. It suggests that tall, obese individuals have increased susceptibility to thyroid nodules. Trial registration number: NCT01838629. PMID:26692553

  19. Relationship between Anthropometric Measures and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Miria Suzana; Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Camargo, Marcelo Dias; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Borges, Tássia Silvana; Todendi, Pâmela Ferreira; Reckziegel, Miriam Beatris; Reuter, Cézane Priscila

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk stratification in pediatrics. Objective To analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods We evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. Results WC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r = 0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001, respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age, BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p < 0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y = 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). Conclusion WC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies. PMID:23979777

  20. A new anthropometric phantom for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the human leg using X-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, H.; Jenkins, M.; Lodwick, J.; Bornschein, R.

    2000-02-01

    A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead deposited in bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape of the mid shaft of the adult human leg and is fabricated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to produce materials that exhibit the same density, energy transmission, and calcium content as cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle. The phantom includes a removable tibia fabricated using simulants for cortical bone and bone marrow to which a precise amount of stable lead has been added to cortical bone. The formulations used in fabricating the new anthropometric phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the conventional phantom made from Plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster-of-Paris. The energy spectrum from an x-ray fluorescence measurement of the phantom using a {sup 109}Cd source is indistinguishable from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement of the human leg, demonstrating that the materials used in the phantom exhibit the same radiological properties as human tissue. Likewise, results from x-ray fluorescence measurements of the phantom exhibit the same positional dependency as the human leg and vary by approximately 36% when, for example, the phantom containing 54 ppm of stable lead in the tibia was rotated by only 15 degrees. The detection limit for a 30 min {sup 109}Cd K shell x-ray fluorescence in vivo measurement is approximately 20 ppm determined from a background measurement using the new phantom containing no added lead in the muscle, bone, or bone marrow. The new anthropometric phantom significantly improves in vivo x-ray fluorescence calibration measurements by (1) faithfully reproducing the anatomy of the human leg, (2) having components that exhibit radiological properties similar to that of human tissue, and (3) providing a realistic calibration standard that can be used for in vivo x-ray fluorescence intercomparison measurements.

  1. A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

  2. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  3. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

  4. Anthropometric evaluation of internal horizontal circulation environments.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Sadi; Barros, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The relevant research is questioning the essence of the existence of an adequate internal circulation to human dimensions. The research was based on the method of anthropometric assessment of internal circulation de Barros (2009), which was applied in three different sizes of apartments in the city of Caruaru-PE. These apartments were evaluated through the floor plans and furniture layouts, suggested by the builders, with the use of anthropometric models in simulation of movement. The study found that traffic problems are not just a consequence of small rooms, but projects that do not bother to match the anthropometric measurements to the space environment. PMID:22317306

  5. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... measuring tools. As prescribed in 225.7002-3(b), use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  7. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players.

    PubMed

    Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2007-08-01

    In handball and basketball the longer the finger length the better the accuracy of the shot or throw. All shots and throws are finished with the wrist and fingers. It can be proposed that athletes with longer fingers and greater hand surface parameters also probably have greater grip strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of general body and hand-specific anthropometric dimensions on handgrip strength in boys participating in handball and basketball training. In total, 193 boys aged 10-17 years participated in this study. They were divided into 6 groups: 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, 14-15-, and 16-17-year-olds. The body height and body mass were measured and body mass index was calculated as general anthropometric parameters. The outlines of the hands of the boys were drawn on paper with a thin marker. Three groups of hand anthropometric parameters were measured: 5 finger spans, 5 finger lengths, and 5 perimeters of the hand. Handgrip strength was measured on the dominant hand with a Lafayette dynamometer. As a rule, general anthropometric parameters determined the maximal handgrip strength more accurately than did specific hand anthropometric parameters. From the specific hand anthropometric parameters, finger lengths and perimeters of the hand significantly correlated with the maximal handgrip strength. In summary, fingers are the smallest, lightest parts of the motor apparatus, and, therefore, they represent the parts most easily deflected by force from the ball, but at the same time, finger control is especially important for the accuracy of different shots, both in handball and basketball. Thus, it is especially necessary to measure finger length and perimeters of the hand for practical reasons. PMID:17685672

  8. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  11. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  12. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  13. Anthropometric differences among occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Long, Daniel; Snyder, Karl

    2002-02-10

    The increasing demands for anthropometric information for the design of machinery and personal protective equipment to prevent occupational injuries has necessitated an understanding of the anthropometric differences to be found among occupations. This study identified differences in various body measurements between occupational groups in the USA, as determined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Approximately 16,000 of its 32,900 subjects were associated with an occupational group. The analysis of the data showed that the body size, or body segment measurements, of some occupational groups differ significantly. For example, agricultural workers were shorter by an average of 2.5 cm in height, and had wider wrist breadths, than other workers. Female agricultural and manufacturing workers had larger waist circumferences than those in the 'other occupations' and 'all occupations' categories. Protective service workers (i.e. firefighters, police and guards) were taller and heavier (7 kg heavier for males and over 10 kg heavier for females) than those in all occupations combined. These differences and other deviations as well as some age-and-ethnicity-adjusted results were tabulated for users' reference. Researchers and designers who use anthropometric databases to evaluate human-machine interfaces and personal protective equipment (PPE) must use caution in selecting databases that are adequate for their occupational applications. PMID:11964200

  14. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AMONG HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND WITH LIPOATROPHY/LIPOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Lismeia Raimundo; da SILVA, Daniela Cardeal; GONSALEZ, Claudio R.; BATISTA, Felipe G.; FONSECA, Luiz Augusto M.; DUARTE, Alberto J.S.; CASSEB, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has improved and extended the lives of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS around the world. However, this treatment can lead to the development of adverse reactions such as lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome (LLS) and its associated risks. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of self-reported lipodystrophy and nutritional status by anthropometric measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: An observational study of 227 adult patients in the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo (3002 ADEE-HCFMUSP). The sample was divided into three groups; Group 1 = 92 patients on HAART and with self-reported lipodystrophy, Group 2 = 70 patients on HAART without self-reported lipodystrophy and Group 3 = 65 patients not taking HAART. The nutritional status of individuals in the study sample was determined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (% BF). The cardiovascular risk and diseases associated with abdominal obesity were determined by waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). Results: The prevalence of self-reported lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome was 33% among women and 59% among men. Anthropometry showed depletion of fat mass in the evaluation of the triceps (TSF) in the treatment groups with HAART and was statistically independent of gender; for men p = 0.001, and for women p = 0.007. Similar results were found in the measurement of skin folds of the upper and lower body (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). In assessing the nutritional status of groups by BMI and % BF, excess weight and body fat were more prevalent among women compared to men (p = 0.726). The WHR and WC revealed risks for cardiovascular and other diseases associated with abdominal obesity for women on HAART and with self-reported LLS (p = 0.005) and (p = 0.011). Conclusions: Anthropometric measurements were useful in the confirmation of the prevalence of LLS. BMI alone does not appear to be a good parameter for assessing the nutritional status of HIV-infected patients on HAART and with LLS. Other anthropometric measurements are needed to evaluate patients with the lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome. PMID:25923888

  15. A Comparison of Anthropometric Measures for Assessing the Association between Body Size and Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain: The HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous work indicates that overweight and obese individuals carry an increased risk of experiencing chronic low back pain (LBP). It is not known, however, how the association with body size depends on the choice of anthropometric measure used. Objective This work compares relationships with LBP for several measures of body size. Different results may indicate underlying mechanisms for the association between body size and risk of LBP. Methods In a cohort study, baseline information was collected in the community-based HUNT2 (1995–1997) and HUNT3 (2006–2008) surveys in Norway. Participants were 10,059 women and 8725 men aged 30–69 years without LBP, and 3883 women and 2662 men with LBP at baseline. Associations with LBP at end of follow-up were assessed by generalized linear modeling, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Relationships between waist-hip-ratio and occurrence of LBP at end of follow-up were weak and non-significant after adjustment for age, education, work status, physical activity, smoking, lipid levels and blood pressure. Positive associations with LBP at end of follow-up were all significant for body weight, BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference after similar adjustment, both in women without and with LBP at baseline, and in men without LBP at baseline. After additional mutual adjustment for anthropometric measures, the magnitude of the association with body weight increased in women without LBP at baseline (RR: 1.130 per standard deviation, 95% CI: 0.995–1.284) and in men (RR: 1.124, 95% CI 0.976–1.294), with other measures showing weak associations only. Conclusion Central adiposity is unlikely to play a major role in the etiology of LBP. Total fat mass may be one common factor underlying the associations observed. The association with body weight remaining after mutual adjustment may reflect mechanical or structural components behind the relationship between overweight or obesity and LBP. PMID:26506618

  16. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged. PMID:23167700

  17. The effects of symbiotic therapy on anthropometric measures, body composition and blood pressure in patient with metabolic syndrome: a triple blind RCT

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Samira; Shakerhosseini, Rahebeh; Saadat, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which are of the main risk factors of metabolic syndrome, is not only the result of changes in genetic, diet or physical activity, but also an imbalance of micro flora may play an important role. Therefore, alteration of micro flora using pre/probiotic is considered as a new strategy for treatment of metabolic disorders. Methods: The current study is a triple blind randomized controlled trial. 46 patients from both sexes, who fulfilled inclusion criteria, randomly categorized into intervention or placebo group. The intervention and placebo groups consumed 2 probiotic capsules or 2 placebo capsules during 3 months, respectively. Both groups received a weight loss diet, according to their adjusted ideal body weight. Anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and nutritional measurements were done in the beginning, at 6th week, and at the end of the study. T-test and paired-t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 40 patients completed the study. BMI, WC, HC, fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure were reduced in all participants (p< 0.05). Systolic blood pressure in symbiotic group was less than placebo group, significantly (p< 0.05). The trend of weight loss in symbiotic group continued at least for 12 weeks while it was stopped at week 6 in placebo group. Conclusion: Symbiotic supplement with the weight loss diet had synergistic effects on improvement in systolic blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Based on our findings, symbiotic can postpone plateau phase of weight loss and it may prevent resistance to further weight loss. PMID:26478871

  18. [Secular trends in anthropometrical measurements observed in three to 11-year-old French children between 1953 and 2005].

    PubMed

    Lalys, Loïc; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Serre, Thierry; Bartoli, Christophe; Leonetti, Georges

    2012-02-01

    This study covers a fifty-year period between 1953 and 2005 and looks at secular trends in stature, weight and sitting height sizes among French boys and girls between the ages of 3 and 11. A special modelling in function to the age and variable for each child was established so that a comparison could be made in the kinetic growth patterns over these same two periods. Statistical analysis shows a significant increase in growth, of 0.8cm per decade in stature, characterised by a certain increase in the lower limbs and the weight (0.8kg per decade) together with a proportional increase on the body mass index. Positive secular trends of this anthropometric nature are generally thanks to improved eating and sanitary habits and this study enables us to build and elaborate new standards in growth patterns essential for monitoring auxological development in 3 to 11-year-old children in the years 2000 and onwards. PMID:22325566

  19. U.S. Truck Driver Anthropometric Study and Multivariate Anthropometric Models for Cab Designs

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jinhua; Hsiao, Hongwei; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Reed, Matthew R.; Jahns, Steven K.; Loczi, Josef; Hardee, H. Lenora; Piamonte, Dominic Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study presents data from a large-scale anthropometric study of U.S. truck drivers and the multivariate anthropometric models developed for the design of next-generation truck cabs. Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. truck driver population is needed for the design of safe and ergonomically efficient truck cabs. Method We collected 35 anthropometric dimensions for 1,950 truck drivers (1,779 males and 171 females) across the continental United States using a sampling plan designed to capture the appropriate ethnic, gender, and age distributions of the truck driver population. Results Truck drivers are heavier than the U.S. general population, with a difference in mean body weight of 13.5 kg for males and 15.4 kg for females. They are also different in physique from the U.S. general population. In addition, the current truck drivers are heavier and different in physique compared to their counterparts of 25 to 30 years ago. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide more accurate anthropometric information for cab designs than do the current U.S. general population data or truck driver data collected 25 to 30 years ago. Multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the current truck driver population on the basis of a set of 12 anthropometric measurements, have been developed to facilitate future cab designs. Application The up-to-date truck driver anthropometric data and multivariate anthropometric models will benefit the design of future truck cabs which, in turn, will help promote the safety and health of the U.S. truck drivers. PMID:23156628

  20. SNCF experience in anthropometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    The lecturer describes the methods and the means to design in relation with anthropometrics datas the driving cab of modern SNCF vehicles such as the SYBIC universal locomotive and the TGV-Atlantique power car vehicle is to operate in the end of the decade.

  1. DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric

    E-print Network

    Juan, Alfons

    DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric Data B. Nácher, S user data, anthropometric measures, and fit p of user data. The model involved the design of a footwear classification system which grouped different

  2. Anthropometric aspects of body seated in school.

    PubMed

    Reis, P; Moro, A R; Da Silva, J; Paschoarelli, L; Nunes Sobrinho, F; Peres, L

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the student-furniture interface from anthropometric parameters of the sitting posture. The sample was composed of 887 students from two public schools in the State of Parana-Brazil, which attended children from 7 to 17 years of age. The data collection used anthropometric measures of the sitting position, a questionnaire containing a human body diagram for indication of discomfort areas and photographic records to verify postural and ergonomic inadequacies in classroom. The following anthropometric variables were measured: popliteal height, sacro-popliteal length, hip width, lumbar support height, and elbow and thigh height. Percentiles 5 and 95 of anthropometric variables showed differences statistically significant, with variation coefficient greater than 30%. In relation to body discomfort, the highest occurrences were recorded for ankle, knees and shoulder joints as well as for spine and buttocks. It was concluded that children use school furniture that does not meet their anthropometric standards, which favored the adoption of incorrect postures and contributed to the emergence of musculoskeletal problems that can interfere with their educational process. PMID:22316837

  3. Relations of anthropometric parameters with scores on basic and specific motor tasks in young handball players.

    PubMed

    Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relations of anthropometric variables with scores on basic and specific motor tests for 133 young male handball players. These Estonian boys were divided into four age groups: 10-11 years (n = 34), 12-13 years (n = 39), 14-15 years (n = 39), and 16-17 years (n = 21). The anthropometric parameters were body height, sitting height, height with outstretched hands, arm span, leg length, and body mass. Body Mass Index (kg x m2) was calculated. Basic motor ability tests were 30-m run from standing position, vertical jump with hands on hip and with arm swing, medicine ball (1 kg) overhand throw with dominant hand from sitting position, and handgrip strength. Specific motor ability tests were 4- x 10-m shuttle-run, slalom dribble test, 30-m dribbling test, handball throw with dominant hand from sitting position, vertical jump from one step run-up on dominant leg, and passing the handball on speed and precision. Relatively few anthropometric parameters were significantly associated with scores on basic motor tasks in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, but sitting height was significantly associated with scores on all measured basic motor tests for the 14- to 15-yr.-old group (16.5-52.4%; R2 x 100) and also with specific motor tests for 12- to 13-yr.-olds and 14- to 15-yr.-olds (13.4-41.6%; R2 x 100). The anthropometric parameters are then relatively poor predictors for basic and specific motor ability test scores of young handball players. PMID:19725303

  4. 3D head anthropometric analysis Reyes Enciso*ab

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    3D head anthropometric analysis Reyes Enciso*ab , Alex Shawa , Ulrich Neumannb , and James Maha develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model, and to a lesser extent CT slice data. Within this system, recording and analysis of facial form are conducted

  5. An Analysis of Anthropometric Data on Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Hafezi, R; Mirmohammadi, SJ; Mehrparvar, AH; Akbari, H; Akbari, H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric data can be used to identify the physical dimensions of equipment, furniture, etc. The use of furniture that fails to fulfill the anthropometric data of its users has a negative impact on human health. Specific anthropometric dimensions are necessary to design school furniture. Anthropometric data have been measured in many communities especially among schoolchildren. There are different ethnic groups with probably different anthropometric data in Iran, and anthropometric data can change by time, so gathering data about anthropometric dimensions is important. This study was designed to obtain anthropometric dimensions of Iranian children (Fars ethnicity) aged 7–11 years. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Yazd, Iran, descriptive statistics as well as key percentiles for 17 static anthropometric data of primary school students (1015 males and 1015 females), were measured and compared between boys and girls. Results: The age of the students was between 6 and 11 years. Mean weight was between 21.56±5.33 kg and 36.63±9.45 kg in boys and between 20.79±3.48 kg and 35.88±9.40 kg in girls. Mean height was between 1187/02±53.98 mm and 1420.83± 69.39 mm in boys and between 1173.90±51.01mm and 1421.27±70.82 mm in girls. There was also some difference in other anthropometric data between two genders. Conclusion: Results of this study showed some differences in anthropometric data with other studies. We also observed significant gender differences in some dimensions as well. PMID:23113041

  6. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  7. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  8. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  9. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  10. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  11. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  12. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  13. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    PubMed Central

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999

  14. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans' ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans. PMID:26525705

  15. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans’ ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans. PMID:26525705

  16. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

    1992-06-01

    In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation. PMID:1607187

  17. Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).

    PubMed

    McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

    2008-03-01

    Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001. PMID:18478625

  18. The effect of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Kamali, Sara; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. METHODS A total of 40 patients with T2D, 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarium A7 and those in control group consumed 200 ml/day of soy milk for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and BP measurements were performed according to standard protocols. For detecting within-group differences paired-sample t-tests was used and analysis of covariance was used for determining any differences between two groups. (The trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, identifier: IRCT: IRCT201405265062N8). RESULTS In this study, we failed to find any significant changes between probiotic soy milk and soy milk in term of body mass index (26.65 ± 0.68 vs. 26.33 ± 0.74, P = 0.300) and waist to hip ratio (1.49 ± 0.08 vs. 1.54 ± 0.1, P = 0.170). Although soy milk did not have any effect on BP, probiotic soymilk significantly decreased systolic (14.7 ± 0.48 vs. 13.05 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) and diastolic BP (10 ± 0.7 vs. 9.1 ± 1, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION In our study, probiotic soy milk in comparing with soy milk did not have any beneficial effects on anthropometric measures in these patients. We need more clinical trial for confirming the effect of probiotic foods on anthropometric measure in diabetic patients. However, probiotic soy milk decreased systolic and diastolic BP significantly. PMID:26261453

  19. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Yoga in Overweight and Obese Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Quality of Life and Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Littman, Alyson J; Bertram, Lisa Cadmus; Ceballos, Rachel; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Ramaprasad, Jaya; McGregor, Bonnie; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To obtain estimates of time to recruit the study sample, retention, facility-based class attendance and home practice for a study of yoga in breast cancer survivors, and its efficacy on fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and weight change. METHODS Sixty-three post-treatment stage 0–III borderline overweight and obese (body mass index ? 24 kg/m2) breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to a 6-month, facility- and home-based viniyoga intervention (n = 32) or a waitlist control group (n = 31). The yoga goal was 5 practices per week. Primary outcome measures were changes in self-reported QOL, fatigue, and weight from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in waist and hip circumference. RESULTS It took 12 months to complete recruitment. Participants attended a mean of 19.6 classes and practiced at home a mean of 55.8 times during the 6-month period. At follow-up, 90% of participants completed questionnaires and 87% completed anthropometric measurements. QOL and fatigue improved to a greater extent among women in the yoga group relative to women in the control group, although no differences were statistically significant. Waist circumference decreased 3.1 cm (95% CI: ?5.7, ?0.4) more among women in the yoga compared with the control group, with no differences in weight change. CONCLUSIONS This study provides important information regarding recruitment, retention, and practice levels achieved during a 6-month, intensive yoga intervention in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors. Yoga may help decrease waist circumference and improve quality of life; future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:21207071

  20. CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

  1. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji )

    1994-04-01

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Anthropometric measurements of the arm span and their correlation with the stature of bangladeshi adult muslim females.

    PubMed

    Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Husain, M S; Holy, S Z; Islam, M S

    2010-10-01

    Anthropometry is the science that deals with the measurement of size, weight and proportion of the human body. Stature is natural heights of a person in an upright position. This can be estimated from arm span length. In the last 50 years of the 20th century various mass disasters such as different powerful storm, flood, plane crash, train accident was increased. Very recently in Chittagong and southern Bangladesh many people were killed through land slides and Seder. As so many disasters were occurring it is possible to identify a missing person if a part of his or her body is available. The arm span lengths can be used as a basis for estimating age-related loss in stature and as an alternative measure to stature. The study was done for the estimation of stature from the arm span on one hundred and fifty Bangladeshi adult Muslim females. Subject was collected from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka and some urban region of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and the arm span. PMID:20956900

  3. The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and

    E-print Network

    The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and Features of Electromyography Signal for Human anthropometric variables to calibrate EMG recognition system automatically/semi-automatically is proposed EMG signals and twelve related anthropometric variables. The strong and significant associations

  4. Self-Report Measures of Hand Pain Intensity: Current Evidence and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Castarlenas, Elena; Vega, Rocío de la; Jensen, Mark P; Miró, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Successful management of problems related to the hands and upper extremities begins with a comprehensive assessment of the pain experience and related factors. Pain intensity is the domain most commonly assessed, and pain relief is often the primary goal of treatment. Because pain is a private and subjective experience, self-report is considered the gold standard of pain measurement. This article describes and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used self-report scales used to measure hand pain intensity, and gives recommendations to help clinicians select from among the various options for measuring the intensity of hand pain. PMID:26611384

  5. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  6. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  7. Smartphone-based evaluation of parkinsonian hand tremor: quantitative measurements vs clinical assessment scores.

    PubMed

    Kostikis, N; Hristu-Varsakelis, D; Arnaoutoglou, M; Kotsavasiloglou, C

    2014-01-01

    With an ever-growing number of technologically advanced methods for the diagnosis and quantification of movement disorders, comes the need to assess their accuracy and see how they match up with widely used standard clinical assessment tools. This work compares quantitative measurements of hand tremor in twenty-three Parkinson's disease patients, with their clinical scores in the hand tremor components of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which is considered the "gold standard" in the clinical assessment of the disease. Our measurements were obtained using a smartphone-based platform, which processes the phone's accelerometer and gyroscope signals to detect and measure hand tremor. The signal metrics used were mainly based on the magnitude of the acceleration and the rotation rate vectors of the device. Our results suggest relatively strong correlation (r>0.7 and p<;0.01) between the patients' UPDRS hand tremor scores and the signal metrics applied to the measured signals. PMID:25570106

  8. Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone in patients participating in a low-energy dietary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. Methods The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Results Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (? 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (? 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (? 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (? 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Conclusions Weight loss and improvements in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels occurred after a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. PMID:23997718

  9. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR?=?0.57;95%CI:0.43?0.76;p?0.0001) and men (OR?=?0.67;95%CI: 0.51?0.87;p?=?0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR?=?0.71;95%CI:0.54?0.93;p?=?0.005) and women (OR?=?0.79;95%CI:0.59?1.05;p>0.05) who consume ?1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ?1 portion was associated with obesity (OR?=?1.51;95%CI:1.00?2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR?=?1.65;95%CI:1.08?2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore, confirmatory studies are needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23593300

  10. Complex hand dexterity: a review of biomechanical methods for measuring musical performance

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Cheryl D.; Irvine, Thomas A.; Sims, Jennifer L.; Wang, Yu L.; Su, Alvin W. Y.; Norris, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social, and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation. The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities. PMID:24860531

  11. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trieu; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Trinh, Hieu; Fay, Pearse

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM) of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers. PMID:26225976

  12. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Trieu; Pathirana, Pubudu N.; Trinh, Hieu; Fay, Pearse

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM) of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers. PMID:26225976

  13. Perioral aging--an anthropometric appraisal.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

  14. COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

  15. Personality stability of institutionalized mentally retarded adults as measured by the Hand Test.

    PubMed

    Wagner, E E; Ryan, C A; Panek, P E

    1991-05-01

    Eighty-two institutionalized mentally retarded individuals were administered the Hand Test and a measure of intellectual/cognitive functioning (Stanford-Binet or WAIS-R) in a 3-year test-retest paradigm (longitudinal research design) to investigate the stability of personality during adulthood. Stability of both personality and intellectual functioning during adulthood was observed. Implications are discussed. PMID:2066415

  16. Measurement Issues in Anthropometric Measures of Limb Volume Change in Persons at Risk for and Living with Lymphedema: A Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Tidhar, Dorit; Armer, Jane M; Deutscher, Daniel; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Azuri, Josef; Madsen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on measurements of limb volume, based on circumferences taken by physiotherapists using a flexible tape. This study aimed to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements taken by physiotherapists of legs and arms with and without lymphedema and to evaluate whether there is a difference in reliability when measuring a healthy versus a lymphedematous limb. The intra-rater reliability of arm and leg measurements by trained physiotherapist is very high (scaled standard error of measurements (SEMs) for an arm and a leg volume were 0.82% and 0.64%, respectively) and a cut-point of 1% scaled SEM may be recommended as a threshold for acceptable reliability. Physiotherapists can rely on the same error when assessing lymphedematous or healthy limbs. For those who work in teams and share patients, practice is needed in synchronizing the measurements and regularly monitoring their inter-rater reliability. PMID:26437431

  17. (appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational Techniques

    E-print Network

    DeCarlo, Doug

    (appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements geometries to be extracted quickly, scanned data frequently includes artifacts that must be touched up

  18. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    PubMed

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance. PMID:25148680

  19. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  20. Morphologic outcome of bimaxillary surgery–An anthropometric appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769

  1. Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of hand-transmitted vibration converts oscillatory movements to a form in which they can be evaluated with respect to human responses and assessed for their acceptability. This paper presents methods of measurement, evaluation, and assessment currently advocated in standards and other forms of guidance. The degree to which the methods of evaluating different frequencies, directions, and durations of vibration affect the assessment of vibration on different tools is illustrated. With the frequency weighting currently used to allow for the effects of different frequencies there is little need to measure vibration at frequencies as high as 1000 Hz; this has significant implications to the design and evaluation of proposed antivibration devices, including gloves. Without the current frequency weighting, vibration at frequencies greater than 250 Hz can contribute to the magnitude of the vibration, but many common causes of injury from hand-transmitted vibration have their dominant components of vibration below 250 Hz. On many powered tools, although the dominant frequency of vibration is the same before and after frequency weighting, the reported magnitude of vibration is greatly affected by the frequency weighting. On tools with dominant low frequencies, their vibration is rated as being of far greater importance relative to other tools when considering frequency-weighted acceleration than when considering unweighted acceleration. It is shown that the effect of considering three axes of vibration as opposed to one axis has a greater effect on some tools than on others. The uncertainties and assumptions involved in the measurement, evaluation, and assessment of hand-transmitted vibration are reviewed. It is suggested that whereas current decisions on health and welfare should be based on current assessment methods, the measurement and evaluation of hand-transmitted vibration should involve the collection and reporting of data which allow other interpretations in the future. PMID:9072014

  2. An examination of the handheld adapter approach for measuring hand-transmitted vibration exposure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xueyan S.; Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a handheld adapter equipped with a tri-axial accelerometer is the most convenient and efficient approach for measuring vibration exposure at the hand-tool interface, especially when the adapter is incorporated into a miniature handheld or wrist-strapped dosimeter. To help optimize the adapter approach, the specific aims of this study are to identify and understand the major sources and mechanisms of measurement errors and uncertainties associated with using these adapters, and to explore their improvements. Five representative adapter models were selected and used in the experiment. Five human subjects served as operators in the experiment on a hand-arm vibration test system. The results of this study confirm that many of the handheld adapters can produce substantial overestimations of vibration exposure, and measurement errors can significantly vary with tool, adapter model, mounting position, mounting orientation, and subject. Major problems with this approach include unavoidable influence of the hand dynamic motion on the adapter, unstable attachment, insufficient attachment contact force, and inappropriate adapter structure. However, the results of this study also suggest that measurement errors can be substantially reduced if the design and use of an adapter can be systematically optimized toward minimizing the combined effects of the identified factors. Some potential methods for improving the design and use of the adapters are also proposed and discussed.

  3. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    PubMed

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. PMID:24661995

  4. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  5. Conceptual design of a device to measure hand swelling in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hysinger, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of pressurized suits for use by astronauts in space, proper fit is an important consideration. One particularly difficult aspect of the suit design is the design of the gloves. If the gloves of the suit do not fit properly, the grip strength of the astronaut can be decreased by as much as fifty percent. These gloves are designed using an iterative process and can cost over 1.5 million dollars. Glove design is further complicated by the way the body behaves in a micro-gravity environment. In a micro-gravity setting, fluid from the lower body tends to move into the upper body. Some of this fluid collects in the hands and causes the hands to swell. Therefore, a pair of gloves that fit well on earth may not fit well when they are used in space. The conceptual design process for a device which can measure the swelling that occurs in the hands in a micro-gravity environment is described. This process involves developing a specifications list and function structure for the device and generating solution variants for each of the sub functions. The solution variants are then filtered, with the variants that violate any of the specifications being discarded. After acceptable solution variants are obtained, they are combined to form design concepts. These design concepts are evaluated against a set of criteria and the design concepts are ranked in order of preference. Through this process, the two most plausible design concepts were an ultrasonic imaging technique and a laser mapping technique. Both of these methods create a three dimensional model of the hand, from which the amount of swelling can be determined. In order to determine which of the two solutions will actually work best, a further analysis will need to be performed.

  6. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  7. Relationships among anthropometric and stroking characteristics of college swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grimston, S K; Hay, J G

    1986-02-01

    A theoretical model was developed to identify anthropometric variables relevant to success in swimming. Frontal areas, cross-sectional areas (XSA), and lengths of body segments were measured on twelve members of a men's college team using a photographic procedure. Motion-picture films were taken of the subjects competing in freestyle events and were analyzed to determine the average stroke length (SL), average stroke frequency (SF), and average stroking speed (S). Correlation and multiple regression procedures were used to determine the relationships among the anthropometric variables and SL, SF, and S, respectively. Of the 21 anthropometric variables selected with the aid of the theoretical model, 6 were found to be significantly related to one or more of the measures of swimming performance when the influence of event distance was partialled out (P less than or equal to 0.05). The anthropometric variables characterizing the subjects accounted for 89% (SL), 41% (SF), and 17% (S) of the variances in the measured characteristics of their strokes. The axilla XSA was shown to have the largest influence on both SL and SF, accounting for 57% of the variance in the SL and 24% in the SF. These results suggest that although S is little influenced by the physique of a swimmer, the combination of SL and SF used to attain a given S is very much a function of his physique. PMID:3959866

  8. Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Chettle, D R; Pejovi?-Mili?, A; Waker, A J

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 microg Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 microg g(-1) Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 microg Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4pi detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation was constrained to be less than 150 mSv as opposed to the previously imposed dose equivalent limit of 20 mSv. A maximum beam current, which could be delivered on the lithium target to produce neutrons, was restricted to 500 microA. The length of irradiation intervals larger than 10 min, was considered inconvenient and impractical to implement with Mn measurements in humans. To fulfil the requirements for developing a protocol for in vivo bone Mn measurements, a revised estimate of the dose equivalent has been presented here. Beam energy of 1.98 MeV was determined to be optimal to complete the irradiation procedure within 10 min using 500 microA beam current. The local dose equivalent given to hand was estimated as 118 mSv, which is lower by a factor of 1.5 compared to that of 2.00 MeV. The optimized beam parameters are expected to improve the currently obtained detection limit of 2.1 microg Mn/g Ca to 0.6 microg Mn/g Ca. Using this dose equivalent delivered to the central location of the hand, the average dose equivalent to the hand of 74 mSv and an effective dose of approximately 70 microSv will be accompanying the non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone Mn, which is little over the chest radiograph examination dose. PMID:19060358

  9. Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam; Chettle, D. R.; Pejovi?-Mili?, A.; Waker, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 µg g-1 Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 µg Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4? detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation was constrained to be less than 150 mSv as opposed to the previously imposed dose equivalent limit of 20 mSv. A maximum beam current, which could be delivered on the lithium target to produce neutrons, was restricted to 500 µA. The length of irradiation intervals larger than 10 min, was considered inconvenient and impractical to implement with Mn measurements in humans. To fulfil the requirements for developing a protocol for in vivo bone Mn measurements, a revised estimate of the dose equivalent has been presented here. Beam energy of 1.98 MeV was determined to be optimal to complete the irradiation procedure within 10 min using 500 µA beam current. The local dose equivalent given to hand was estimated as 118 mSv, which is lower by a factor of 1.5 compared to that of 2.00 MeV. The optimized beam parameters are expected to improve the currently obtained detection limit of 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to 0.6 µg Mn/g Ca. Using this dose equivalent delivered to the central location of the hand, the average dose equivalent to the hand of 74 mSv and an effective dose of approximately 70 µSv will be accompanying the non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone Mn, which is little over the chest radiograph examination dose.

  10. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  11. HAND WIPE SUBSAMPLING METHOD FOR USE WITH BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure studies incorporating urinary biomarker measurements are complicated because dermal sampling may intercept or remove the target chemical before it is absorbed. A hand wipe subsampling method has been developed using polyurethane foam-tipped (PUF) swabs to minim...

  12. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  13. Hand hygiene practices in a dental teaching center: Measures and improve

    PubMed Central

    Thivichon-Prince, Béatrice; Barsotti, Odile; Girard, Raphaele; Morrier, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure the compliance and the quality of HH practices and the knowledge of the healthcare workers’ of the university dental care center. Materials and Methods: All educators and students present were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each healthcare professional was observed in care situation over a period of 30 min. The knowledge, attitudes and opinions were collected through a questionnaire. Results: Number of healthcare professionals included was 190 (64.4%). Study group consisted of 151 students (74.4%) and 39 educators (42.4%). Out of a total number of expected disinfection of hands (993), 396 were made (39.9%). Educators had a higher compliance rates than students (63.7-35.8%, P = 10?9). Large differences were found between care situations (compliance higher before the first care to a patient and lower during installation of patient in dental X-ray area or at exit of dental X-ray area). Concerning hand rubbing (HR), 36.6% were performed correctly, and the main error was all steps of HR not observed (54.4%), and shorter duration (46.7%). The observance and the quality of HR were associated with better knowledge. Conclusion: This data suggests areas of improvement: (1) A comprehensive intervention including care organization/clinic ergonomics/planning/anticipation of materials needed for care; (2) the development of HH education program should include the educators, since the behavior of students is strongly influenced and formed by their mentor's attitude and behaviors. PMID:25512728

  14. [Nicolò Paganini: Devil's violinist because of abnormal hands?--New investigations using a bronze cast from the right hand].

    PubMed

    Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new measurements of a bronze cast from the right hand of the famous Italian violin virtuoso Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840). These are compared to anthropometric standard values. In addition, detailed dorsal and palmar views of the cast are shown. With a middle finger length of 75 mm, the palm width is 60 mm and the hand length 152 mm, which is significantly below the 5% percentile of today's standard values. Also the finger length index (0.55), the ratio of finger length to palm length (0.98) and the ratio of finger length to palm width (1.25) are significantly above normal limits. Hence, Paganini had abnormal hand measurements with a very small palm and relatively "long" fingers. This remarkable constellation, among others, could have been advantageous for his amazing skills as a violinist. PMID:25004620

  15. Association between objective and subjective measurements of comfort and discomfort in hand tools.

    PubMed

    Kuijt-Evers, L F M; Bosch, T; Huysmans, M A; de Looze, M P; Vink, P

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using handsaws was examined. Twelve carpenters evaluated five different handsaws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and pressure-time (P-t) integral) in static and dynamic conditions, muscle activity (electromyography) of five muscles of the upper extremity, and productivity were obtained during a sawing task. Subjective comfort and discomfort were assessed using the comfort questionnaire for hand tools and a scale for local perceived discomfort (LPD). We did not find any relationship between muscle activity and comfort or discomfort. The P-t integral during the static measurement (beta=-0.24, p<0.01) was the best predictor of comfort and the pressure area during static measurement was the best predictor of LPD (beta=0.45, p<0.01). Additionally, productivity was highly correlated to comfort (beta=0.31, p<0.01) and discomfort (beta=-0.49, p<0.01). PMID:17010301

  16. Immediate effects of positioning devices on the normal and spastic hand measured by electromyography.

    PubMed

    Mathiowetz, V; Bolding, D J; Trombly, C A

    1983-04-01

    There is a continuing controversy in the literature and in clinical practice about whether positioning devices are effective in decreasing spasticity and, if so, which type is most effective. In this study, the immediate effects of a volar resting splint, a finger spreader, a firm cone, and no device were compared on eight normal and four hemiplegic subjects. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure flexor muscle activity of the tested forearm while the subjects squeezed a grasp meter with the contralateral hand and during the following relaxation period. Results showed significantly greater EMG activity for the finger spreader compared to no device in the flexor carpi radialis of normal subjects during the grasping period. Hemiplegic subjects did not show significantly less EMG activity when using positioning devices compared to no device. In fact, the volar splint appeared to increase the EMG activity while the subjects were grasping. PMID:6869487

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-01-01

    The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  18. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  19. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  20. Participant adherence indicatiors predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose. To evaluate several adherence indicators, created using 2 measures, separately and in combination, for predicting health outcome changes. Design. Non-experimental with pre-post measures. Setting. Mid-sized city in southern region of United States. Subjects. 269 primarily African-America...

  1. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Anthropometric Study of the Piriformis Muscle and Sciatic Nerve: A Morphological Analysis in a Polish Population.

    PubMed

    Ha?adaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Polguj, Micha?; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Miros?aw

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine relationships between piriformis muscle (PM) and sciatic nerve (SN) with reference to sex and anatomical variations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Deep dissection of the gluteal region was performed on 30 randomized, formalin-fixed human lower limbs of adults of both sexes of the Polish population. Anthropometric measurements were taken and then statistically analyzed. RESULTS The conducted research revealed that, apart from the typical structure of the piriformis muscle, the most common variation was division of the piriformis muscle into two heads, with the common peroneal nerve running between them (20%). The group with anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course displayed greater diversity of morphometric measurement results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter in the male specimens. On the other hand, in the female specimens, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the ischial tuberosity. The shortest distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter measured at the level of the inferior edge of the piriformis was 21 mm, while the shortest distance to the ischial tuberosity was 63 mm. Such correlations should be taken into account during invasive medical procedures performed in the gluteal region. CONCLUSIONS It is possible to distinguish several anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course within the deep gluteal region. The statistically significant correlations between some anthropometric measurements were only present within particular groups of male and female limbs. PMID:26629744

  3. Anthropometric Study of the Piriformis Muscle and Sciatic Nerve: A Morphological Analysis in a Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Ha?adaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Polguj, Micha?; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Miros?aw

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine relationships between piriformis muscle (PM) and sciatic nerve (SN) with reference to sex and anatomical variations. Material/Methods Deep dissection of the gluteal region was performed on 30 randomized, formalin-fixed human lower limbs of adults of both sexes of the Polish population. Anthropometric measurements were taken and then statistically analyzed. Results The conducted research revealed that, apart from the typical structure of the piriformis muscle, the most common variation was division of the piriformis muscle into two heads, with the common peroneal nerve running between them (20%). The group with anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course displayed greater diversity of morphometric measurement results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter in the male specimens. On the other hand, in the female specimens, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the ischial tuberosity. The shortest distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter measured at the level of the inferior edge of the piriformis was 21 mm, while the shortest distance to the ischial tuberosity was 63 mm. Such correlations should be taken into account during invasive medical procedures performed in the gluteal region. Conclusions It is possible to distinguish several anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course within the deep gluteal region. The statistically significant correlations between some anthropometric measurements were only present within particular groups of male and female limbs. PMID:26629744

  4. Effect of Pregnancy Upon Facial Anthropometrics and Respirator Fit Testing.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B

    2015-11-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups. There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  5. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  6. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  7. Performance of a new hand-held device for exhaled nitric oxide measurement in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Alving, K; Janson, C; Nordvall, L

    2006-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurement has been shown to be a valuable tool in the management of patients with asthma. Up to now, most measurements have been done with stationary, chemiluminescence-based NO analysers, which are not suitable for the primary health care setting. A hand-held NO analyser which simplifies the measurement would be of value both in specialized and primary health care. In this study, the performance of a new electrochemical hand-held device for exhaled NO measurements (NIOX MINO) was compared with a standard stationary chemiluminescence unit (NIOX). Methods A total of 71 subjects (6–60 years; 36 males), both healthy controls and atopic patients with and without asthma were included. The mean of three approved exhalations (50 ml/s) in each device, and the first approved measurement in the hand-held device, were compared with regard to NO readings (Bland-Altman plots), measurement feasibility (success rate with 6 attempts) and repeatability (intrasubject SD). Results Success rate was high (? 84%) in both devices for both adults and children. The subjects represented a FENO range of 8–147 parts per billion (ppb). When comparing the mean of three measurements (n = 61), the median of the intrasubject difference in exhaled NO for the two devices was -1.2 ppb; thus generally the hand-held device gave slightly higher readings. The Bland-Altman plot shows that the 95% limits of agreement were -9.8 and 8.0 ppb. The intrasubject median difference between the NIOX and the first approved measurement in the NIOX MINO was -2.0 ppb, and limits of agreement were -13.2 and 10.2 ppb. The median repeatability for NIOX and NIOX MINO were 1.1 and 1.2 ppb, respectively. Conclusion The hand-held device (NIOX MINO) and the stationary system (NIOX) are in clinically acceptable agreement both when the mean of three measurements and the first approved measurement (NIOX MINO) is used. The hand-held device shows good repeatability, and it can be used successfully on adults and most children. The new hand-held device will enable the introduction of exhaled NO measurements into the primary health care. PMID:16626491

  8. Anthropometric Variation Among Bering Sea Natives

    E-print Network

    Justice, Anne E.; Rubicz, Rohina C.; Chittoor, Greetha; Jantz, Richard; Crawford, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that anthropometrics can be used to study microevolutionary forces acting on humans. We examine the use of morphological traits in reconstructing the population history of Aleuts and Eskimos of the Bering Sea. From 1979...

  9. Cognitive ability and continuous measures of relative hand skill: a note.

    PubMed

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia, 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is consistent with the idea that failure to develop dominance of one hemisphere is associated with various pathologies such as learning difficulties. Using the same data source but utilising additional data, evidence is found of a more complex relationship between cognitive ability and relative hand skill. PMID:18342341

  10. Hand-handle interface force and torque measurement system for pneumatic assembly tool operations: suggested enhancement to ISO 6544.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2007-05-01

    A hand-handle interface force and torque measurement system is introduced to fill the void acknowledged in the international standard ISO 6544, which governs pneumatic, assembly tool reaction torque and force measurement. This system consists of an instrumented handle with a sensor capable of measuring grip force and reaction hand moment when threaded, fastener-driving tools are used by operators. The handle is rigidly affixed to the tool in parallel to the original tool handle allowing normal fastener-driving operations with minimal interference. Demonstration of this proposed system was made with tools of three different shapes: pistol grip, right angle, and in-line. During tool torque buildup, the proposed system measured operators exerting greater grip force on the soft joint than on the hard joint. The system also demonstrated that the soft joint demanded greater hand moment impulse than the hard joint. The results demonstrate that the measurement system can provide supplemental data useful in exposure assessment with power hand tools as proposed in ISO 6544. PMID:17454501

  11. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ??0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ??0.3?kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i.?e., anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer. PMID:26258817

  12. Two-hand line-bisection task outcomes correlate with several measures of hemisphericity.

    PubMed

    Morton, Bruce E

    2003-04-01

    While seeking new functional methods to reassess the concept of hemisphericity, a two-hand line-bisection task was investigated because of reports of large, stable differences among the general population. These were found to be due to hemispheric differences in judgment of the midpoint of horizontal lines, made visible due to the unilateral brain control of each hand. By use of a two-hand line-bisection test (Best-Hand Test), university workers (n=412) were readily sorted into theoretical response categories, resulting in the production of two large groups. These two groups correlated well with those produced by four independent hemisphericity assessments, two physiological and two psychological. This is the third biophysical method whose performance-based group separations significantly correlated with those produced by preference-based hemisphericity-type questionnaires. It is rapid and avoids language, education, or cultural bias. PMID:12727185

  13. Assessment of techniques for measuring hand pressures in mock deliveries on a mannequin

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Cynthia Mary

    2012-08-31

    with deliveries, this study analyzed hand pressures applied by obstetricians in mock deliveries and suggests improvements for pressure-sensing gloves. The subjects were obstetricians, both residents and staff, recruited from the University of Kansas Hospital. A...

  14. Determination of sex from various hand dimensions of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jee, Soo-Chan; Bahn, Sangwoo; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2015-12-01

    In the case of disasters or crime scenes, forensic anthropometric methods have been utilized as a reliable way to quickly confirm the identification of victims using only a few parts of the body. A total of 321 measurement data (from 167 males and 154 females) were analyzed to investigate the suitability of detailed hand dimensions as discriminators of sex. A total of 29 variables including length, breadth, thickness, and circumference of fingers, palm, and wrist were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. The accuracy of sex indication from the hand dimensions data was found using discriminant analysis. The age effect and interaction effect according to age and sex on hand dimensions were analyzed by ANOVA. The prediction accuracy on a wide age range was also compared. According to the results, the maximum hand circumference showed the highest accuracy of 88.6% for predicting sex for males and 89.6% for females. Although the breadth, circumference, and thickness of hand parts generally showed higher accuracy than the lengths of hand parts in predicting the sex of the participant, the breadth and circumference of some finger joints showed a significant difference according to age and gender. Thus, the dimensions of hand parts which are not affected by age or gender, such as hand length, palm length, hand breadth, and maximum hand thickness, are recommended to be used first in sex determination for a wide age range group. The results suggest that the detailed hand dimensions can also be used to identify sex for better accuracy; however, the aging effects need to be considered in estimating aged suspects. PMID:26597170

  15. Effects of tea combined with high-protein meal replacement shakes on anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, cellular biochemistry, neurochemistry, and microbial metabolism: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Balliett, Mary; Rasmussen, Oscar; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report preliminary data on the effects of tea and high-protein meal replacement shakes on weight loss, waist-to-hip ratios, and lipid profiles in healthy subjects. Secondary analyses of urine samples assessed pre-post changes in cellular biochemistry, neurochemistry, and microbial metabolism. Methods This study used a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Thirty healthy subjects (20-60 years of age; 23 women and 7 men) participated in a 28-day diet intervention program consisting of a cleansing day and 6 restricted diet days per week. On cleansing days, the subjects drank 4 oz of tea 4 times per day with a recommendation to drink at least 64 oz of filtered water. On the restricted diet days, the subjects drank 2 high-protein meal replacement shakes, consumed one 400- to 600-cal (1674.3-2511.5 joules) meal consisting of low–glycemic index foods, and drank at least 64 oz of filtered water. Results Multiple paired t tests detected reductions in weight (6.4 lb), waist (1.9 in), and hip (1.1 in) measurements and in total cholesterol (13.3 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.4 mg/dL) (P < .05). Multiple paired t tests detected significant increases in energy metabolism from carbohydrates and amino acids and concomitant increases in oxidative stress (P < .05). Conclusion The data support the concept that a low–glycemic load diet intervention incorporating tea and high-protein meal replacement shakes may cause weight loss and improve lipid profiles. The significant physiologic changes from the urine samples did not reflect meaningful metabolic effects. PMID:22654685

  16. Estimation of Stature From Hand and Foot Measurements in a Rare Tribe of Kerala State in India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, GN; Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present study has been undertaken on the Vettuvar group of tribes in Kasargod district of Kerala state, and explores the usability of dimensions of hands and feet as predictors of stature in the tribal population of Kasargod District of Kerala, India. The present study is the first ever documented anthropological work on the tribes of Kasargod district, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods Two hundred subjects comprising of 100 males and 100 females in 20-30 years age group were included in the study group. Dimensions of hands and feet viz: hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth were measured independently on left and right side of each individual using a Sliding calliper. Stature of individuals was measured with the help of a Stadiometer. Results Statistical analysis indicated that the bilateral variations were insignificant for all the measurements except foot breadth among females (p<0.001). The paired sample t-test showed that the statistical difference between males and females was highly significant for all the measurements (p<0.001). The correlation between the stature and various parameters studied in males and females were found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Linear and multiple regression equation for stature estimation were calculated separately for males and females. Conclusion The significant positive correlation between the study variables and the stature indicates that these variables can be successfully used to predict stature. PMID:26557539

  17. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. PMID:24894129

  18. Differences among Holland Types as Measured by the Hand Test: An Attempt at Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Frank R, Jr.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1982-01-01

    Subjects classified into one of six Holland personality types on the basis of the Vocational Preference Inventory high-point codes differed significantly with respect to absolute and relative number of responses on certain Hand Test scoring variables. These results provide evidence for the construct validity of the postulated vocational types.…

  19. Hand Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... del pulgar Dedo en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... del pulgar Dedo en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  20. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  1. Hand Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  2. Hand Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  3. Anthropometric characteristics and nutritional profile of young amateur swimmers.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Sonia; Pasquarelli, Bruno N; Romaguera, Dora; Arasa, Cati; Tauler, Pedro; Aguiló, Antoni

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional and anthropometric profiles of young swimmers belonging to semiprofessional teams. Thirty-six caucasian adolescent swimmers (22 boys and 14 girls) participated voluntarily in the study. Anthropometric data, dietary intake, and blood parameters were determined. Female swimmers had greater values of triceps, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. Endomorphic somatotype was twofold greater in girls compared with in boys. Energy intake and protein intake per kilogram of body weight were significantly greater in boys compared to in girls. On the other hand, girls had significantly greater polyunsaturated fatty acid intake compared that of boys. Energy intake of boys and girls was below their requirements. In contrast, protein intake doubled the requirements of the study population. Furthermore, inadequate intake of carotenes, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin D, and folic acid was found in both boys and girls; girls also had inadequate intake of iron and calcium. Plasma levels of iron, vitamins C and E, and carotenes were similar in male and females swimmers, and they were within the normal range. In conclusion, young swimmers participating in the present study had differences between sexes in somatotypes. Adolescent swimmers had low average total energy intakes, excessive protein intake, and lower intake of several micronutrients in both sexes. PMID:20838252

  4. Apportionment of Genetic Variation in Contemporary Aleut and Eskimo Populations of Alaska Using Anthropometrics and Classical Genetic Markers

    E-print Network

    Justice, Anne E.

    2007-12-27

    anthropometric measurements and classical genetic markers. Relethford-Blangero method was applied to athropometrics of the study populations. Results were compared to Nei's genetic distance matrix of classical genetic markers. Multivariate analyses were used...

  5. Personality characteristics of eating-disordered outpatients as measured by the Hand Test.

    PubMed

    Lenihan, G O; Kirk, W G

    1990-01-01

    The Hand Test was administered to 34 eating-disordered and 26 noneating-disordered college-age women to determine discriminating projective personality features. Eating-disordered women scored higher on response time, overall pathology, and passivity. Anorexics present more tension, aggression, and acting out potential whereas bulimics demonstrate significantly more passive responses. The more severely affected women scored higher on crippled, passive, and withdrawal variables. Similarities as well as differences between the groups may have important implications for the diagnosis of subgroups of eating-disordered women and for treatment planning. PMID:2231254

  6. A New Electronic Monitoring Device to Measure Medication Adherence: Usability of the Helping Hand

    PubMed Central

    De Bleser, Leentje; Vincke, Birgit; Dobbels, Fabienne; Happ, Mary Beth; Maes, Bart; Vanhaecke, Johan; De Geest, Sabina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the user performance, satisfaction and acceptability of the Helping Hand™ (B&O Medicom) electronic medication adherence monitor. Using a mixed-method design, we studied 11 kidney transplant patients and 10 healthy volunteers during three weeks. Although testing showed positive usability aspects, several areas requiring technical improvement were identified: the most important obstacles to usability and acceptability were the weak sound signal, problems loading the medication, and the fact that only one medication could be used at a time. PMID:22294885

  7. Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics

    E-print Network

    Wang, Song

    Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics from Kinect Videos Brent,quc,songwang}@cec.sc.edu Abstract. For person identification, motion and anthropometric bio- metrics are known to be less sensitive method that uses motion and anthropometric biometrics acquired from an inexpensive Kinect RGBD sensor

  8. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential. PMID:15463979

  9. Comparison of the Refractive Measurements with Hand-held Autorefractometer, Table-mounted Autorefractometer and Cycloplegic Retinoscopy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Soner; Çavdarli, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of the hand-held and table-top autorefractokeratometer in measuring refractive errors by comparing them with cycloplegic retinoscopy. Methods Included in the study were 112 eyes of 112 pediatric patients whose mean age was 6.78 ± 2.61 years (range, 2 to 12 years). The refractive errors of all the eyes were measured with and without cycloplegia using a hand held autorefractokeratometer (Retinomax K-plus 3), table top autorefractokeratometer (Canon RK-F1) and performing cycloplegic retinoscopy. The spherical equivalent, cylindrical axis and keratometer values were statistically compared. Results The mean spherical equivalent obtained from the Retinomax K-plus 3 was significantly less hyperopic than that of Canon RK-F1 (p = 0.004) before cycloplegia. When the Bland Altman analysis was performed in comparisons of spherical equivalent values measured with the Retinomax K-plus 3, Canon RK-F1 and cycloplegic retinoscopy, it was seen that almost all of the differences between the measurements remained within the range of ±2 standard deviation. Good agreement was found between Retinomax K-plus 3 and Canon RK-F1 for the Jackson cross-cylinder values at axis 0° and 45°; keratometer values respectively. Conclusions The refractive error components were highly correlated between the two instruments and cycloplegic retinoscopy. PMID:26028946

  10. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ya?ar; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Güven, Mehmet; K?l?nç, Faruk; Kara, Ali Veysel; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; K?rba?, Gökhan; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal; Y?lmaz Ayd?n, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ?30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (n = 25) and OSA group with an AHI ?5 (n = 25). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1?mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, p = 0.034). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. PMID:26257957

  11. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  12. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements.

    PubMed

    Arkenbout, Ewout A; de Winter, Joost C F; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman filter. The Nimble VR and filter output were compared using measurements performed on (1) a wooden hand model placed in various static postures and orientations; and (2) three differently sized human hands during active finger flexions. Precision and accuracy of joint angle estimates as a function of hand posture and orientation were determined. Moreover, in light of possible self-occlusions of the fingers in the Kinect camera images, data completeness was assessed. Results showed that the integration of the Data Glove through the Kalman filter provided for the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the fingers a substantial improvement of 79% in precision, from 2.2 deg to 0.9 deg. Moreover, a moderate improvement of 31% in accuracy (being the mean angular deviation from the true joint angle) was established, from 24 deg to 17 deg. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint was relatively unaffected by the Kalman filter. Moreover, the Data Glove increased data completeness, thus providing a substantial advantage over the sole use of the Nimble VR system. PMID:26694395

  13. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, MAntonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients. Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group?×?condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of ?2. AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups. Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients. PMID:26222840

  14. Anthropometric asymmetry in chronically undernourished children from Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Little, B B; Buschang, P H; Malina, R M

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies, environmental stress has been associated with increased structural asymmetry, indicating differential rates of development on either side of the median plane. To analyse the effect of environmental stress upon anthropometric asymmetry, six bilateral measurements and one derived measurement were compared between chronically mild-to-moderately undernourished school children (7-13 years of age) and a well-nourished control sample (5-35 years of age). The undernourished sample was from a subsistence agricultural community in Southern Mexico. The well-nourished comparison (control) sample was middle class, White children and young adults in Texas. Anthropometric asymmetry of the skeleton was not consistently increased in the undernourished school children compared to the well-nourished controls. Arm and estimated mid-arm muscle circumferences had significantly increased asymmetry, but these differences are likely due more to laterality in function or physical work than to undernutrition. Genetic influences are hypothesized to underlie skeletal asymmetry (i.e. differences in development on either side of the median plane). PMID:12396372

  15. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  16. [Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043

  17. Anthropometric Typology of Male and Female Rowers Using K-Means Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Forjasz, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the morphological features of rowers. The objective is to establish the type of body build best suited to the present requirements of this sports discipline through the determination of the most important morphological features in rowing with regard to the type of racing boat. The subjects of this study included competitors who practise rowing and were members of the Junior National Team. The considered variables included a group of 32 anthropometric measurements of body composition determined using the BIA method among male and female athletes, while also including rowing boat categories. In order to determine the analysed structures of male and female rowers, an observation analysis was taken into consideration and performed by the k-means clustering method. In the group of male and female rowers using long paddles, higher mean values for the analysed features were observed, with the exception of fat-free mass, and water content in both genders, and trunk length and horizontal reach in women who achieved higher means in the short-paddle group. On the men’s team, both groups differed significantly in body mass, longitudinal features, horizontal reach, hand width and body circumferences, while on the women’s, they differed in body mass, width and length of the chest, body circumferences and fat content. The method of grouping used in this paper confirmed morphological differences in the competitors with regard to the type of racing boat. PMID:23486287

  18. Anthropometric change: implications for office ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Claire C; Bradtmiller, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Well-designed office workspaces require good anthropometric data in order to accommodate variability in the worker population. The recent obesity epidemic carries with it a number of anthropometric changes that have significant impact on design. We examine anthropometric change among US civilians over the last 50 years, and then examine that change in a subset of the US population--the US military--as military data sets often have more ergonomic dimensions than civilian ones. The civilian mean stature increased throughout the period 1962 to 2006 for both males and females. However, the rate of increase in mean weight was considerably faster. As a result, the male obesity rate changed from 10.7% in 1962 to 31.3% in 2006. The female change for the same period was 15.8% to 33.2%. In the Army, the proportion of obesity increased from 3.6% to 20.9%, in males. In the absence of national US ergonomic data, we demonstrate one approach to tracking civilian change in these dimensions, applying military height/weight regression equations to the civilian population estimates. This approach is useful for population monitoring but is not suitable for establishing new design limits, as regression estimates likely underestimate the change at the ends of the distribution. PMID:22317429

  19. An in situ hand calibration method using a pseudo-observation scheme for low-end inertial measurement units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang

    2012-10-01

    MEMS chips have become ideal candidates for various applications since they are small sized, light weight, have low power consumption and are extremely low cost and reliable. However, the performance of MEMS sensors, especially their biases and scale factors, is highly dependent on environmental conditions such as temperature. Thus a quick and convenient calibration is needed to be conducted by users in field without any external equipment or any expert knowledge of calibration. A novel and efficient in situ hand calibration method is presented to meet these demands in this paper. The algorithm of the proposed calibration method makes use of the navigation algorithm of the loosely-coupled GPS/INS integrated systems, but replaces the GPS observations with a kind of pseudo-observations, which can be stated as follows: if an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was rotating approximately around its measurement center, the range of its position and its linear velocity both would be within a limited scope. Using a Kalman filtering algorithm, the biases and scale factors of both accelerometer triad and gyroscope triad can be calibrated together within a short period (about 30 s), requiring only motions by hands. Real test results show that the proposed method is suitable for most consumer grade MEMS IMUs due to its zero cost, easy operation and sufficient accuracy.

  20. The Influence of Anthropometric, Kinematic and Energetic Variables and Gender on Swimming Performance in Youth Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Jorge E; Garrido, Nuno D; Marques, Mário C; Silva, António J; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the: (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers’ anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 ± 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 ± 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics. PMID:24511356

  1. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  2. Rugged, lightweight, and long-operating hand-held instruments for neutron and gamma-ray verification measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a developer of intelligent, hand-held instruments for detecting special nuclear materials. These have used NaI(Tl) or plastic scintillation detectors and discrete or microprocessor digital alarm circuitry to permit nonspecialists to detect low-intensity sources. Two new instruments have the added ability to verify the presence or absence of certain nuclear materials: one instrument uses a /sup 6/LiI(Eu) scintillator and pulse-height analysis to verify the presence or absence of plutonium by measuring neutron intensity at a container surface; the other uses an LED-stabilized, NaI(Tl) scintillator and three single-channel analyzers to measure and strip Compton background from a gamma-ray peak or region of interest to verify that certain isotopes of plutonium or particular enrichments of uranium are present or absent. The new instruments are lightweight, low power, and easily operated in the field by nonspecialists. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Estimation of stature using hand and foot dimensions in Slovak adults.

    PubMed

    Uhrová, Petra; Be?uš, Radoslav; Masnicová, So?a; Obertová, Zuzana; Kramárová, Daniela; Kyselicová, Klaudia; Dörnhöferová, Michaela; Bodoriková, Silvia; Neš?áková, Eva

    2015-03-01

    Hand and foot dimensions used for stature estimation help to formulate a biological profile in the process of personal identification. Morphological variability of hands and feet shows the importance of generating population-specific equations to estimate stature. The stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 250 young Slovak males and females, aged 18-24 years, were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test for sex and bilateral differences. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for assessing relationship between stature and hand/foot parameters, and subsequently linear regression analysis was used to estimate stature. The results revealed significant sex differences in hand and foot dimensions as well as in stature (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between stature and all measurements in both sexes (p<0.01). The highest correlation coefficient was found for foot length in males (r=0.71) as well as in females (r=0.63). Regression equations were computed separately for each sex. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ±4.6 to ±6.1cm. The results of this study indicate that hand and foot dimension can be used to estimate stature for Slovak for the purpose of forensic field. The regression equations can be of use for stature estimation particularly in cases of dismembered bodies. PMID:25459368

  4. The nutritional and anthropometric status of Gaelic football players.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Sue; Collins, Kieran

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intakes and anthropometric profiles of county and club Gaelic football players and compare them to soccer players and control subjects. Seven-day dietary records were analyzed and anthropometric measurements were taken midway through the Gaelic football competitive season. The county group with a mean height of 1.82 +/- 0.04 m were significantly taller (p < .05) and had less body fat that any other group. The county and club teams consumed 151 +/- 11 and 150 +/- 16 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1), respectively, with 52.2 +/- 5% and 49.5 +/- 9% of their energy intakes as carbohydrate. This compares to 173 +/- 11 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) for the soccer players and 159 +/- 8 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) for the controls, with 57 +/- 4% and 44.9 +/- 5% of their energy from carbohydrate. The nature of Gaelic football demands a balanced diet, rich in energy and carbohydrate and with adequate calcium is consumed; the subjects needed to increase these dietary components in order to meet the energetic demands of competition and training. Additional nutritional counseling was provided on an individual basis. PMID:14967875

  5. Anthropometric predictors of visceral adiposity in normal-weight and obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Marcus, Carole L; Kim, Christopher; Gallagher, Paul R; Schwab, Richard; Bradford, Ruth M; Zemel, Babette S

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and fat distribution patterns [subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] are important predictors of future cardiometabolic risk. As accurate VAT measurement entails imaging, surrogate anthropometric measurements that would be cheaper and quicker to obtain would be highly desirable. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be better than other VAT surrogate measures in adults, but the value of SAD to predict magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined VAT in adolescents of different races, sexes, and pubertal stages has not been determined. Aim To test the hypothesis that SAD correlates more strongly with volumetric VAT than other anthropometric measurements, independent of age, sex, race, and Tanner stage. Subjects and methods Twenty-eight normal-weight and 44 obese adolescents underwent Tanner staging, anthropometric examinations, and abdominal MRI for volumetric partitioned fat calculation. Results VAT increased exponentially in the body mass index (BMI) > 97th percentile range. SAD, waist circumference (WC), BMI, and BMI Z-score correlated strongly with VAT (correlation coefficients of 0.85–0.86, all p-values < 0.0005); waist–hip ratio was less predictive of VAT (r = 0.68, p < 0.0005). On hierarchical regression, the strongest predictors of VAT in obese subjects were BMI Z-score and SAD (R2 = 0.34 vs. 0.31, respectively, p < 0.0005); in normal-weight subjects, most anthropometric measures predicted VAT equally (R2 = 0.16–0.18, p-values = 0.018–0.026). Conclusions Unlike adults, in obese adolescents, SAD is not the strongest predictor of visceral adiposity. BMI Z-score is equivalently predictive and, together with BMI, provides sufficient information to assess visceral adiposity; more specialized anthropometric measurements (e.g., SAD and WC) do not add additional predictive value. PMID:23710887

  6. Measurement of vibrations and evaluation of protective gloves for work with hand-held power tools in industrial settings.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Matija; McConville, Kristiina M V

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the use of hand-held power tools and the exposure of a large number of employees to hand-arm vibrations in work settings as well as the harmful effects that such exposure has on health and safety. The major objective of the project was the development of a diagnostic device for the detection and monitoring of the vibrations produced during work activities in a natural working environment and to analyze the impact of the vibrations on workers during different work operations. The developed device for vibration monitoring is based on the latest generation MEMS tri-axis accelerometer with a wireless link with the PC station. This study demonstrates the use of the device in evaluating the level of protection that gloves provide concerning the level of vibrations during work operations. The initial evaluation shows that the proposed solution provides an effective multifunctional, low-cost diagnostic device for vibration measurement in natural work settings. Preliminary results indicate that the developed device could be used for health and safety studies, evaluation of protective equipment, and ongoing monitoring in a natural working environment, and in this way may lead to more effective prevention and management of the risks associated with exposure to workplace vibrations. PMID:18002446

  7. Claw hand

    MedlinePLUS

    Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. ... Someone can be born with claw hand (congenital), or they can develop it because of certain disorders, such as nerve injury.

  8. Chapped hands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... regularly, especially if you live in a dry climate To soothe chapped and sore hands: Apply skin lotion frequently (if this does not work, try creams or ointments) Avoid putting your hands in water unless necessary If your hands do not improve, ...

  9. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

    2012-05-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs. PMID:22505243

  10. Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. Materials and Methods: One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Results: Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Conclusions: Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high school baseball pitchers. PMID:25883777

  11. Vestibulo-Ocular Responses to Vertical Translation using a Hand-Operated Chair as a Field Measure of Otolith Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Campbell, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Prather, L.; Clement, G.

    2016-01-01

    The translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (tVOR) is an important otolith-mediated response to stabilize gaze during natural locomotion. One goal of this study was to develop a measure of the tVOR using a simple hand-operated chair that provided passive vertical motion. Binocular eye movements were recorded with a tight-fitting video mask in ten healthy subjects. Vertical motion was provided by a modified spring-powered chair (swopper.com) at approximately 2 Hz (+/- 2 cm displacement) to approximate the head motion during walking. Linear acceleration was measured with wireless inertial sensors (Xsens) mounted on the head and torso. Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed near (0.5m) and far (approximately 4m) targets, and then imagined these targets in darkness. Subjects also provided perceptual estimates of target distances. Consistent with the kinematic properties shown in previous studies, the tVOR gain was greater with near targets, and greater with vision than in darkness. We conclude that this portable chair system can provide a field measure of otolith-ocular function at frequencies sufficient to elicit a robust tVOR.

  12. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. Images p100-a p100-b PMID:4027491

  13. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  14. Quantifying repetitive hand activity for epidemiological research on musculoskeletal disorders--part II: comparison of different methods of measuring force level and repetitiveness.

    PubMed

    Bao, S; Howard, N; Spielholz, P; Silverstein, B

    2006-03-15

    This paper focuses on comparisons between the different methods of assessing repetitive hand activities. Various methods were used to measure hand force and repetitiveness of hand activities on 733 subjects in the study described by Bao et al. (2006). Two definitions of repetitiveness were used in analysis of detailed time studies of repetitive hand activities and four parameters of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) hand activity level (HAL) and the Strain Index methods were estimated by ergonomists and used to quantify repetitiveness. Hand forces were measured or estimated using three different methods: 1) measured with a force gauge or mimicked on a force gauge (force matching); 2) estimated by ergonomists using rating scales; 3) self-reports by subjects. The jobs were also evaluated using the ACGIH HAL and Strain Index methods when different repetitiveness quantification methods were used. Results showed that different definitions of repetitive exertion might lead to measuring different physical exposure phenomena and produce very different results. There were poor correlations between the measures of repetitiveness estimated by the different methods. Correlations between force quantifications using different methods were also poor. This suggests that parameters measured by different methods might not be interchangeable. Both the ACGIH HAL and Strain Index methods identified more 'hazardous' jobs when repetitiveness was estimated by ergonomists than when it was calculated by detailed time studies of forceful hand exertions. The Strain Index method identified more 'hazardous' jobs than the ACGIH HAL method. Overall, the between-methods agreements were found to be moderate to substantial. PMID:16690566

  15. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  16. A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, part I: Vibration acceleration levels measured on pneumatic tools used in chipping and grinding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. D.; Basel, R.; Wasserman, D. E.; Taylor, W.

    1984-08-01

    This paper describes the acceleration measurements and data analysis aspect of a comprehensive multidisciplined field study of several hundred chipper and grinder workers using pneumatic hand-held tools. Engineering testing of a sampling of these tools indicated that for a frequency range of 6·3 Hz to 1000 Hz, overall acceleration levels between 2000 m/s 2 and 24 000 m/s 2 were measured on the chisels and levels between 37 m/s 2 and 350 m/s 2 were measured on the handles of chipping hammers. Hand grinder acceleration levels ranged from 6 m/s 2 to 21 m/s 2.

  17. Pain and Hand Function.

    PubMed

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas. PMID:26611383

  18. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz de

    2015-09-01

    Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults.Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (?2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05).Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed.Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

  19. Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players

    PubMed Central

    Jawis, M; Singh, R; Singh, H; Yassin, M; Khanna, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Anthropometric and physiological profiles of national sepak takraw players were determined. Methods: Thirty nine players, specialising in the three playing positions (tekong/server, feeder, and killer/spiker) were divided into three age categories of under 15 (U15), under 18 (U18), and under 23 (U23) years of age. Height, weight, percent body fat (%bf), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max), range of motion (ROM), back and leg strength, and heart rate, for the estimation of oxygen consumption during matches, were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA for independent measurements and data are presented as mean±standard deviation. Results: The U23 players were significantly taller and heavier with significantly better ROM of the neck, trunk, and ankle joints and back and leg strength than the U15 players. No significant difference was found in %bf between the three age categories. Mean maximum heart rate during exercise was significantly higher in the U15 group when compared to the U18 and U23 groups (p<0.05). Mean Vo2max was similar between the three groups. Estimated oxygen consumption during matches was 69.1%, 68.5%, and 56.4% of Vo2max in the killer, tekong, and the feeder groups, respectively. Conclusions: The mean height, body weight, and cardiopulmonary capacities of the players were within the Malaysian population norms, but were somewhat lower than those of players of other court games from other countries. %bf was also lower in these players. This study provides the much needed anthropometric and physiological data of sepak takraw players for further development of this sport. PMID:16244191

  20. Measurement of the effect of playground surface materials on hand impact forces during upper limb fall arrests.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woochol J; Kaur, Harjinder; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-04-01

    Distal radius fractures are common on playgrounds. Yet current guidelines for the selection of playground surface materials are based only on protection against fall-related head injuries. We conducted "torso release" experiments to determine how common playground surface materials affect impact force applied to the hand during upper limb fall arrests. Trials were acquired for falls onto a rigid surface, and onto five common playground surface materials: engineered wood fiber, gravel, mulch, rubber tile, and sand. Measures were acquired for arm angles of 20 and 40 degrees from the vertical. Playground surface materials influenced the peak resultant and vertical force (P<.001), but not the peak horizontal force (P=.159). When compared with the rigid condition, peak resultant force was reduced 17% by sand (from 1039 to 864 N), 16% by gravel, 7% by mulch, 5% by engineered wood fiber, and 2% by rubber tile. The best performing surface provided only a 17% reduction in peak resultant force. These results help to explain the lack of convincing evidence from clinical studies on the effectiveness of playground surface materials in preventing distal radius fractures during playground falls, and highlight the need to develop playground surface materials that provide improved protection against these injuries. PMID:24347512

  1. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  2. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Is Not Related to Any Physical Fitness Component in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Van Aken, Katrijn; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13,5–18 y) was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance) was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index) are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.925±0.019) was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9,2% (flexibility) and 33,9% (static strength) of variance. Conclusion Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls. PMID:23565167

  3. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  4. Hand Washing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive ... hands clean: Use warm water (not cold or hot). Use whatever soap you like. Antibacterial soaps are ...

  5. Hallowed hands

    E-print Network

    Ruppel, Emily (Emily C.)

    2011-01-01

    Human hand transplantation became a medical reality at the turn of the 2 1st century. Often hailed by media and the general public as miraculous, these life-changing surgeries are also highly controversial. Many doctors, ...

  6. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  7. High resolution MRI evaluation of meniscal volume and anthropometric correlations.

    PubMed

    Narvy, Steven J; Asami, Danny K; Solomon, Thomas C; Burke, Wendy S; Colletti, Patrick M; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to digitally determine meniscal volumes, and compare them with linear and surface area anthropometric measurements to evaluate these measurements for meniscal allograft sizing. Eighteen subjects (10 male and 8 female; mean age 37.5 years) underwent 3.0 T knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant leg. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: medial meniscal volume (MMV), lateral meniscal volume (LMV), tibial plateau width (TPW), width of the femoral condyles (WFC), and tibial plateau surface area (TPSA). MMV and LMV were compared to TPW, WFC, and TPSA. Meniscal volume and TPW were correlated to height and body-mass index (BMI) and stratified by gender. Statistical analysis included coefficient of determination (r(2)) between MRI-based MMV, LMV, TPW, TPSA, WFC, height, BMI, and gender. Significance was set at the P = 0.05 level. The mean MMV was 2275 mm(3) and the mean LMV was 2102 mm(3). TPW correlated well with meniscal volumes (r(2) > 0.62). WFC and TPSA correlated with meniscal volumes in the range of 0.40 < r(2) < 0.61. Height, BMI, and gender correlated poorly with total meniscal volume and TPW with values of r(2) < 0.44. Medial and lateral menisci have statistically similar volumes. TPW had the greatest utility for volumetric meniscal sizing. MRI-based TPW can be considered as a statistically accurate measurement for determining meniscal volumes and meniscal size. PMID:26118625

  8. Coordination of Hand Shape

    PubMed Central

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In Experiment 1, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  10. [Analysis of young male anthropometric parameters for design of driving and operations in cars].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yulin; Zhou, Qianxiang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Chunhui; Cai, Gui

    2012-06-01

    Fitting formulas of typical parameters were obtained through analysis of anthropometric parameters of armored car driver and operators. These formulas could be a basis for design of product and equipment of cars, cumulating and updating of basic data of similar sample and edition of relative standards. 76 anthropometric static parameters and 11 functional parameters were chosen, and 1 243 soldiers with armored forces were chosen to be tested. The correlation and fitting formulas of body height, sitting height and other parameters were measured and obtained. We also contrasted measured data with data from GJB1835-1993. The present analysis showed that the correlation between sizes of body length and body height and sitting height was significant. Sizes of body length and enclose size and width direction were all increased compared to those in the 1980s. The present results were consistent with other researchers' current research results. The measured data could be an important basis for the data of young male anthropometric parameters and edition of relative standards and design of specific equipment. PMID:22826933

  11. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  12. Estimation of sex from the upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    Sex estimation is the first biological attribute needed for personal identification from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts in medical-legal autopsies. Populations have different sizes and proportions that affect the anthropometric assessment of sex. Relatively few published works assess the accuracy of sex estimation from soft tissue measurements of upper limb parts, except for the hand and its components, but these studies involve a limited range of global populations. The current study aimed to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper limb measurements and the accuracy of using these measurements for sex estimation in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, and hand breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured by international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who composed the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The ulnar length, wrist breadth and hand breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Forearm dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than hand dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78.5% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 77.5% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:24237816

  13. Anthropometric comparison of cyclists from different events.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, J P; Bird, S R; White, J A

    1989-01-01

    An anthropometric analysis was conducted upon 36 competitive male cyclists (mean age 23.4 years) who had been competing on average for 8.2 years. Cyclists were allocated to one of four groups; sprint, pursuit, road and time trial according to their competitive strengths. The sample included cyclists who were classified as category 1, 2, 3 or professional (British Cycling Federation and Professional Cycling Association). The sprint cyclists were significantly shorter and more mesomorphic than the other three groups (p less than 0.05). The time trialists were the tallest, most ectomorphic group, having the longest legs (p less than 0.01), the highest leg length/height ratio (p less than 0.05) and the greatest bitrochanteric width (p less than 0.05). The pursuit and road cyclists were found to have similar physiques, which were located between those of the sprinters and time trialists. The biomechanical implications of these differences in physique may be related to the high rate of pedal revolutions required by sprinters and the higher gear ratios used by time trialists. PMID:2730997

  14. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emily L.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45–88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44–81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature—and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them. PMID:26097455

  15. Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins Using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of this study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13,014 subjects participated in this study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression (LR) to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. LR and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 1.895; area under curve (AUC) = 0.681) in women and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.624; AUC = 0.633) in men. In women, the strongest indicator of LDL was age (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.662; AUC by NB = 0.653 ; AUC by LR = 0.636). Among the anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.369; AUC by NB = 0.594; AUC by LR = 0.595 ). The predictive power of almost all individual anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol. The best indicator for HDL and LDL might differ according to the type of cholesterol and the gender. In women, but not men, age was the variable that strongly predicted HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. Our findings provide new information for the development of better initial screening tools for HDL and LDL cholesterol. PMID:25148675

  16. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to Assess Motor Imagery: A Study of Practice Effects in Repeated Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the…

  17. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in vitro measurements reported in the literature and therefore allows for a quantitative intersubject comparison, even if to a limited extent. The features of the developed technique such as its simplicity, rapidity, accuracy, robustness, noninvasive nature, and very effective use of radiation doses, present the technique as a viable diagnostic tool available for trial in a clinical environment.

  18. Kinematics and force analysis of a robot hand based on an artificial biological control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man Guen

    An artificial biological control scheme (ABCS) is used to study the kinematics and statics of a multifingered hand with a view to developing an efficient control scheme for grasping. The ABCS is based on observation of human grasping, intuitively taking it as the optimum model for robotic grasping. A final chapter proposes several grasping measures to be applied to the design and control of a robot hand. The ABCS leads to the definition of two modes of the grasping action: natural grasping (NG), which is the human motion to grasp the object without any special task command, and forced grasping (FG), which is the motion with a specific task. The grasping direction line (GDL) is defined to determine the position and orientation of the object in the hand. The kinematic model of a redundant robot arm and hand is developed by reconstructing the human upper extremity and using anthropometric measurement data. The inverse kinematic analyses of various types of precision and power grasping are studied by replacing the three-link with one virtual link and using the GDL. The static force analysis for grasping with fingertips is studied by applying the ABCS. A measure of grasping stability, that maintains the positions of contacts as well as the configurations of the redundant fingers, is derived. The grasping stability measure (GSM), a measure of how well the hand maintains grasping under the existence of external disturbance, is derived by the torque vector of the hand calculated from the external force applied to the object. The grasping manipulability measure (GMM), a measure of how well the hand manipulates the object for the task, is derived by the joint velocity vector of the hand calculated from the object velocity. The grasping performance measure (GPM) is defined by the sum of the directional components of the GSM and the GMM. Finally, a planar redundant hand with two fingers is examined in order to study the various postures of the hand performing pinch grasping by applying the GSM and the GMM.

  19. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  20. The relationship between anthropometric indicators and walking distance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Hsu, Min-Fang; Kuo, Han-Pin; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Li-Fei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a major issue affecting many people with COPD. Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) is a widely used indicator of exercise capacity in patients with COPD. The process is strenuous and time-consuming, especially for patients who have muscle wasting. Anthropometric indicators that reflect body lean mass, such as body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), and calf circumference (CC), may have value in predicting exercise intolerance. Purpose This study attempted to determine the abilities of simple anthropometric indicators including BMI, MAC, and CC in reflecting the exercise intolerance of COPD patients. Methods We recruited 136 nonhospitalized ambulatory COPD patients without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. Each subject’s BMI, MAC, and CC were measured, and they were examined with pulmonary function tests and a 6-minute walk test. Results Among the three anthropometric indicators examined, CC showed the strongest correlation with the 6MWD, followed by MAC and BMI. CC was also strongly associated with functional capacity, followed by MAC, according to the receiver operating characteristic curves. CC and MAC, but not BMI, were significantly associated with exercise intolerance according to logistic regression models that controlled for potential confounders. Conclusion Among the three variables examined, CC and walking distance may have the strongest association in COPD patients. CC may have value in serving as an adjunct to 6MWD in evaluating exercise intolerance of patients with COPD. PMID:26392760

  1. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

  2. Anthropometric, physiological and maturational characteristics in selected elite and non-elite male adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gil, Javier; Ruiz, Fátima; Irazusta, Amaia; Kortajarena, Maider; Seco, Jesus; Irazusta, Jon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anthropometric, physiological and maturation characteristics of young players (13-14 years old) associated with being successful in basketball. Body parameters were measured (stature, total body mass, skinfolds and lengths) and physiological capacities were assessed by endurance, sprint (20 m), jump and dribbling tests. Chronological age (CA) was recorded and maturity estimated using predicted age at peak height velocity (APHV). Anthropometric analysis indicated that elite players were taller, heavier and had a higher percentage of muscle. Further, physiological testing showed that these elite players perform better in jump, endurance, speed and agility tests (especially in the agility and ball tests). In addition, these skills are correlated with point average during the regular season. More basketball players born in the first semester of the year are selected and there is a predominance of early-maturing boys among those selected for the elite team. Those who are more mature have advantages in anthropometric characteristics and physiological test results. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of basketball players. These findings should be taken into account by trainers and coaches, to avoid artificial bias in their selection choices. PMID:23046359

  3. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

  4. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (T(c)) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured T(c) of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m(-2) walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378?±?32 w·m(-2) for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1). PMID:21573821

  5. Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team.

    PubMed Central

    Maud, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg; lean body weight, 74 kg; body fat, 12%, endurance sit-ups, 50/min; vertical jump height, 51 cm; anaerobic power output, 132 m.kg.s-1 (1.32 kw); anaerobic capacity, 2247 m.kp/40s (22.5 kJ); maximum heart rate, 186 beats/min; maximum ventilation, 175 l/min-1; maximum respiratory quotient 1.23; and maximum oxygen uptake, 56.6 ml.kg-1 min-1. In comparison with other rugby players studied these players had higher maximum oxygen uptake values, were similar in endurance sit-up and vertical jump ability, exhibited less upper body strength, and the forwards had lower body fat percentages. They were generally within the range of scores found to describe the aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and body composition of other élite amateur and professional intermittent sport athletes. Images p16-a p19-a PMID:6850200

  6. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater1, Norton and Olds2. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr3. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter4. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the ? 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  7. Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

  8. Physiological, Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Predictors of Sprint Swimming Performance in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (?La). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ?La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers. PMID:24149633

  9. Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

    1989-01-01

    Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

  10. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  11. Development and validation of anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the cross validity of two anthropometric equations commonly used and propose simple anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass (AMM) in elderly women. Methods Among 234 physically active and functionally independent elderly women, 101 (60 to 89 years) were selected through simple drawing to compose the study sample. The paired t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to perform cross-validation and concordance was verified by intraclass correction coefficient (ICC) and by the Bland and Altman technique. To propose predictive models, multiple linear regression analysis, anthropometric measures of body mass (BM), height, girth, skinfolds, body mass index (BMI) were used, and muscle perimeters were included in the analysis as independent variables. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (AMMDXA) was used as criterion measurement. The sample power calculations were carried out by Post Hoc Compute Achieved Power. Sample power values from 0.88 to 0.91 were observed. Results When compared, the two equations tested differed significantly from the AMMDXA (p <0.001 and p?=?0.001). Ten population / specific anthropometric equations were developed to estimate AMM, among them, three equations achieved all validation criteria used: AMM (E2)?=?4.150 +0.251 [bodymass (BM)] - 0.411 [bodymass index (BMI)]?+?0.011 [Right forearm perimeter (PANTd) 2]; AMM (E3)?=?4.087?+?0.255 (BM) - 0.371 (BMI)?+?0.011 (PANTd) 2 - 0.035 [thigh skinfold (DCCO)]; MMA (E6)?=?2.855?+?0.298 (BM)?+?0.019 (Age) - 0,082 [hip circumference (PQUAD)]?+?0.400 (PANTd) - 0.332 (BMI). The equations estimated the criterion method (p?=?0.056 p?=?0.158), and explained from 0.69% to 0.74% of variations observed in AMMDXA with low standard errors of the estimate (1.36 to 1.55 kg) and high concordance (ICC between 0,90 and 0.91 and concordance limits from -2,93 to 2,33 kg). Conclusion The equations tested were not valid for use in physically active and functionally independent elderly women. The simple anthropometric equations developed in this study showed good practical applicability and high validity to estimate AMM in elderly women. PMID:23815948

  12. Anthropometric Procedures for Protective Equipment Sizing and Design

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. Background While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product designs. Methods For this study, 100 farm tractor operators, 3,718 respirator users, 951 firefighters, and 816 civilian workers participated in four studies on the design of tractor roll-over protective structures (ROPS), respirator test panels, fire truck cabs, and fall-arrest harnesses, respectively. Their anthropometry and participant-equipment interfaces were evaluated. Results Study 1 showed a need to extend the 90-cm vertical clearance for tractor ROPS in the current industrial standards to 98.3 to 101.3 cm. Study 2 indicated that current respirator test panel would have excluded 10% of the male firefighter population; a systematic adjustment to the boundaries of test panel cells was suggested. Study 3 provided 24 principal component analysis-based firefighter body models to facilitate fire truck cab design. Study 4 developed an improved gender-based fall-arrest harness sizing scheme to supplant the current unisex system. Conclusions This article presented four anthropometric approaches and a six-step design paradigm for ROPS, respirator test panel, fire truck cab, and fall-arrest harness applications, which demonstrated anthropometric theories and practices for defining protective equipment fit and sizing schemes. Applications The study provided a basis for equipment designers, standards writers, and industry manufacturers to advance anthropometric applications for product design and improve product efficacy. PMID:23516791

  13. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  14. Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

  15. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Bach, CW, Brown, AF, Kinsey, AW, and Ormsbee, MJ. Anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained motocross athletes compared with physically active men. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3392-3398, 2015-Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ? 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  16. Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Katragadda, Anuradha; Addepally, Uma; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. Objectives: To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. Results: The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Conclusions: Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. PMID:24696694

  17. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (?) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  18. Prediction of kinematic and kinetic performance in a drop vertical jump with individual anthropometric factors in adolescent female athletes: implications for cadaveric investigations.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range <0.01-0.95). However, none of the anthropometric relationships accounted for clinical variance or provided substantive univariate accuracy needed for clinical prediction algorithms (r(2) < 0.20). Mass and BMI demonstrated models that were significant (p < 0.05) and predictive (r(2) > 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions. PMID:25266933

  19. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  20. Sex of Preceding Sibling and Anthropometrics of Subsequent Offspring at Birth and in Young Adulthood

    E-print Network

    Helle, Samuli

    Sex of Preceding Sibling and Anthropometrics of Subsequent Offspring at Birth and in Young is associated with anthropometrics of the subsequent child at birth and in young adulthood. This population- gest that even though the sex of the previous child is associated with the anthropometrics

  1. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  2. Measurements of bovine albumin as a model system for the development of a hand-held ellipsometer for ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miran Baygi, M. H.; Payne, P. A.

    2000-06-01

    Scattering ellipsometry is a measurement technique that can extract the characteristics of particles with relative ease. For some while, we have been interested in the use of scattering ellipsometry to examine the particles in the anterior chamber of the human eye. These particles are globular proteins, typically some 6 or 7 nm in diameter and measurements conducted at a wavelength of 670 nm confirm this. Particles or particle aggregates much greater in size will give rise to characteristic patterns in the ellipsometric results and analysis of these patterns could lead to a complete description of the physical properties of such particles. Examples of measurements of this nature made on latex particles are included. The results obtained from the measurements described confirm that bovine serum albumin is suitable as a calibrant for a scattering ellipsometer.

  3. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  4. Linking selected kinematic, anthropometric and hydrodynamic variables to young swimmer performance.

    PubMed

    Morais, Jorge E; Jesus, Sérgio; Lopes, Vasco; Garrido, Nuno; Silva, António; Marinho, Daniel; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a structural equation model (i.e., a confirmatory technique that analyzes relationships among observed variables) for young swimmer performance based on selected kinematic, anthropometric and hydrodynamic variables. A total of 114 subjects (73 boys and 41 girls of mean age of 12.31 ± 1.09 years; 47.91 ± 10.81 kg body mass; 156.57 ± 10.90 cm height and Tanner stages 1-2) were evaluated. The variables assessed were the: (i) 100 [m] freestyle performance; (ii) stroke index; (iii) speed fluctuation; (iv) stroke distance; (v) active drag; (vi) arm span and; (vii) hand surface area. All paths were significant (p < .05). However, in deleting the path between the hand surface area and the stroke index, the model goodness-of-fit significantly improved. Swimming performance in young swimmers appeared to be dependent on swimming efficiency (i.e., stroke index), which is determined by the remaining variables assessed, except for the hand surface area. Therefore, young swimmer coaches and practitioners should design training programs with a focus on technical training enhancement (i.e., improving swimming efficiency). PMID:23196769

  5. Anthropometric measurements by ethnicity in Colombia, 1965-1990.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Karina; Meisel, Adolfo

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed the evolution of height in Colombia of cohorts born in the period 1965-1990 by ethnic groups. We found that Afro-Colombian men and women were the tallest: 6cm taller than indigenous people and 2cm taller than the rest of the population. We also found that the height gap between Afro-Colombians and others decreased during the period under study by 0.7cm for both men and women. While improvements were noticeable among the Afro-Colombians and those who chose not to be classified by ethnicity, in the case of the indigenous population only female cohorts registered an average-height increase of 1.5cm. Moreover, we found that indigenous Colombians were more likely than other ethnic groups to experience an increase in biological well-being as a consequence of an improvement in their socio-economic status, thereby reducing the average-stature gap between them and the rest of the population by 2.1 and 3.6cm for men and women, respectively. PMID:23602686

  6. Correlation of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations with Anthropometric Parameters and Insulin Sensitivity in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Lili; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective. High-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) and leptin are two important adipokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the two adipokines and anthropometric measurements of neonates at birth. Furthermore, we would like to explore whether HMW-adiponectin and leptin correlate with insulin sensitivity in neonates. Methods. Venous cord blood samples were obtained from 266 full-term healthy neonates consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. HMW-adiponectin, leptin, blood glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured. Results. HMW-adiponectin and leptin were significantly higher in females compared with males (P = 0.031 and P = 0.000, resp.). Univariate correlation analysis showed that leptin concentrations in cord blood were positively associated with gestational age, birth weight, body length, ponderal index, placenta weight, insulin, and insulin sensitivity (all P < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between cord blood HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal anthropometric measurements or foetal insulin sensitivity indicators (all P > 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that leptin (B = ?0.126, P = 0.045) in cord blood was independently associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Leptin concentrations, but not HMW-adiponectin, were positively associated with foetal anthropometric measurements. Leptin concentrations are significantly associated with foetal insulin sensitivity, and there were no significant correlations between HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal insulin sensitivity. PMID:25374599

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

  8. Find a Hand Surgeon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  9. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  10. Stiffness in the Hand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  11. Hands in Systemic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  12. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  13. About Hand Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  14. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  15. Anthropometric reference data for elderly Swedes and its disease-related pattern

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidou, N N; Pihlsgård, M; Elmståhl, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60–99 years, from a population study ‘Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations. Results: Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8?kg/m2 (men) and 27.2±8.1?kg/m2 (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4?mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8?kg/m2 and SST: 21±9.2?mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9?kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9?kg/m2, TST=19.2±1.3?mm. Conclusion: New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion. PMID:25990690

  16. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  17. Neck Circumference, along with Other Anthropometric Indices, Has an Independent and Additional Contribution in Predicting Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bi-xia; Zhu, Ming-fan; Wu, Ting; Zhou, Jing-ya; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhou, Rui-fen; Wang, Li-jun; Chen, Yu-ming; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88) recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed. Results The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1) of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99) for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74) for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05) but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05). A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values. Conclusions Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures. PMID:25679378

  18. General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Kondri?, Miran; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Konti?, Dean; Sekuli?, Damir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

  19. Fitness and Anthropometric Profiles of International vs. National Judo Medalists in Half-Heavyweight Category.

    PubMed

    Drid, Patrik; Casals, Cristina; Mekic, Amel; Radjo, Izet; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric and fitness profiles of European half-heavyweight judokas by success in competition. For this purpose, we compared 5 international medalists (elite) with 5 national medalists (subelite). All male judokas won at least 1 medal in the half-heavyweight category during the previous 2 years. The testing in this cross-sectional study was performed during 4 days. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with body mass, height, skinfold, and limb circumference measures, and the body fat percentage was estimated by manual bioimpedance. The physical fitness evaluation consisted in peak torques for thigh and shoulder muscles, handgrip strength, high and long jumps, medicine ball throw, pull-ups, deadlift, bench press, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. The statistical analysis by the Student's t test showed significant differences for forearm and upper-arm circumferences, peak torques, pull-ups, bench press, deadlift, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. Our results showed that elite judokas have a superior fitness profile than subelite athletes from the half-heavyweight category. Moreover, elite judokas seem to have a higher arm muscle mass than subelite athletes but a similar body fat percentage. This study could be of interest for judo coaches with athletes competing in the half-heavyweight category, as some tests that discriminate by judo success for this specific weight category are described. Few studies analyze anthropometric and fitness profiles in half-heavyweight male judokas, so additionally our results can be used as a reference for coaches, athletes, and scientists. PMID:25647645

  20. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and atopic dermatits were studied and compared. In healthy volunteers increased baseline TEWL and increased light reflection from the skin, interpreted as "fair" skin, was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to SLS. Hand eczema patients were found to have fairer and thinner skin than matched controls. Increased susceptibility to SLS was found only in patients with acute eczema. Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased baseline TEWL as well as increased skin susceptibility as compared to controls. Skin susceptibility is thus influenced by individual- as well as environment-related factors. Knowledge of determinants of skin susceptibility may be useful for the identification of high-risk subjects for development of irritant contact dermatitis, and may help to prevent the formation of the disease. PMID:1636360

  1. Association of dietary caloric intake with blood pressure, serum lipids and anthropometric indices in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Siji; Chary, T M

    2013-10-01

    The influence of dietary caloric intake was studied on blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) according to age and gender. The study population consisted of 400 healthy individuals as controls and 746 first time detected untreated hypertensive (HTN) subjects. The subjects were regrouped according to amount of calorie intake per day i.e. high and low calorie intake diet within two age-groups: 30-50 years and 51-80 yrs. Blood samples were drawn from all the subjects, following an overnight fast and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and HDL-C were measured by standard methods. Serum LDL-C was calculated by Fredrickson-Friedwald formula. BP and anthropometric measurements were measured by a standardized protocol. Highly significant increases in TC, TG, LDL-C, anthropometric and atherogenic indices were seen. While a decrease in HDL-C was observed in high calorie HTN, as compared to low calorie controls. Gender-wise, men had increased values compared to women, except, HDL-C and BMI. With increase in age, all parameters increased in both the subject categories, except atherogenic and anthropometric indices. Hypertensive subjects with high calorie intake diet showed an increase in BP, serum lipids and BMI which might be the major contributor in precipitation of hypertension and also in increasing risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24772970

  2. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.

    PubMed

    Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  3. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  4. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G). Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA). All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years) have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items) ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p < 0.001). Correlation between the CAHAI-G and CMSA subscales for hand and arm was r = 0.74 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) respectively. Internal consistency of the CAHAI-G for all four versions ranged between ? = 0.974 and ? = 0.979. Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in ADL in patients after stroke. PMID:21114807

  5. Flight deck design and pilot selection: anthropometric considerations.

    PubMed

    Buckle, P W; David, G C; Kimber, A C

    1990-12-01

    Safe and successful operation of flight displays and controls is, in part, dependent on the anthropometric characteristics of the pilots with respect to the design of a particular aircraft. This paper describes the approach required to optimise this fit and provides guidelines for both those responsible for design and those who select pilot recruits. The major results reported are those for a British population, although the aircraft considered (Boeing 737-200, 747, 757 and Lockheed TriStar) are used by airlines throughout the world. The study shows that limitations in design considerably reduce the pool of potential recruits with the appropriate anthropometric characteristics. The selection criteria, based on functional seated eye height, might exclude 73% of the British, 19-65-year-old female population and 13% of the male population. PMID:2285396

  6. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  7. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. METHOD We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = ?0.563; P = <0.001), BMI (r = ?0.448; P = <0.001), MAMC (r = ?0.506; P = <.0001), TSF (r = ?0.483; P = <.0002), and BSF (r = ?0.508; P = <0.0001). Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. CONCLUSION Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status. PMID:26327781

  8. Ergonomic Evaluation of Biomechanical Hand Function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for tendon and joint force analysis. EMG is used on hand muscles associated with hand functions and with signal-processing technology. PMID:25830064

  9. 1 ?m-thickness ultra-flexible and high electrode-density surface electromyogram measurement sheet with 2 V organic transistors for prosthetic hand control.

    PubMed

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Shinozuka, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Koichi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Takamiya, Makoto; Someya, Takao; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2014-12-01

    A 64-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) measurement sheet (SEMS) with 2 V organic transistors on a 1 ?m-thick ultra-flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) film is developed for prosthetic hand control. The surface EMG electrodes must satisfy the following three requirements; high mechanical flexibility, high electrode density and high signal integrity. To achieve high electrode density and high signal integrity, a distributed and shared amplifier (DSA) architecture is proposed, which enables an in-situ amplification of the myoelectric signal with a fourfold increase in EMG electrode density. In addition, a post-fabrication select-and-connect (SAC) method is proposed to cope with the large mismatch of organic transistors. The proposed SAC method reduces the area and the power overhead by 96% and 98.2%, respectively, compared with the use of conventional parallel transistors to reduce the transistor mismatch by a factor of 10. PMID:24951707

  10. Psoriasis, Depression Often Go Hand in Hand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154925.html Psoriasis, Depression Often Go Hand in Hand: Study But research ... skin condition psoriasis face an elevated risk for depression, new research suggests. The depression risk may be ...

  11. Three-dimensional anthropometric techniques applied to the fabrication of burn masks and the quantification of wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitestone, Jennifer J.; Geisen, Glen R.; McQuiston, Barbara K.

    1997-03-01

    Anthropometric surveys conducted by the military provide comprehensive human body measurement data that are human interface requirements for successful mission performance of weapon systems, including cockpits, protective equipment, and clothing. The application of human body dimensions to model humans and human-machine performance begins with engineering anthropometry. There are two critical elements to engineering anthropometry: data acquisition and data analysis. First, the human body is captured dimensionally with either traditional anthropometric tools, such as calipers and tape measures, or with advanced image acquisition systems, such as a laser scanner. Next, numerous statistical analysis tools, such as multivariate modeling and feature envelopes, are used to effectively transition these data for design and evaluation of equipment and work environments. Recently, Air Force technology transfer allowed researchers at the Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to work with the Dayton, Ohio area medical community in assessing the rate of wound healing and improving the fit of total contract burn masks. This paper describes the successful application of CARD Lab engineering anthropometry to two medically oriented human interface problems.

  12. ANTHROPOMETRIC DETERMINANTS OF ROWING ERGOMETER PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICALLY INACTIVE COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Choszcz, DJ; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR – 0.1130 LR2 – 0.0589 LN2 + 29.2157 CPI2 + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI – 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  13. Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  14. Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722

  15. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

  16. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    PubMed Central

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ ? = .137 and p < .001). Finally, children performing under average on the tests spent significantly fewer hours in sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport. PMID:25978313

  17. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  18. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The measurements will be useful as standard reference data for forensic practices and as material data for future studies in this field. PMID:26341158

  19. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  20. Analysis of Experts’ Quantitative Assessment of Adolescent Basketball Players and the Role of Anthropometric and Physiological Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Štrumbelj, Erik; Er?ulj, Frane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated two questions: (1) can measurements of anthropometric and physiological attributes substitute for expert assessment of adolescent basketball players, and (2) how much does the quantitative assessment of a player vary among experts? The first question is relevant to the potential simplification of the player selection process. The second question pertains directly to the validity of expert quantitative assessment. Our research was based on data from 148 U14 female and male basketball players. For each player, an array of anthropometric and physiological attributes was recorded, including body height, body mass, BMI, and several motor skill tests. Furthermore, each player’s current ability and potential ability were quantitatively evaluated by two different experts from a group of seven experts. Analysis of the recorded data showed that the anthropometric and physiological attributes explained between 15% and 40% of the variance in experts’ scores. The primary predictive attributes were speed and agility (for predicting current ability) and body height and growth potential (for predicting potential ability). We concluded that these attributes were not sufficiently informative to act as a substitute for expert assessment of the players’ current or potential ability. There is substantial variability in different experts’ scores of the same player’s ability. However, the differences between experts are mostly in scale, and the relationships between experts’ scores are monotonic. That is, different experts rank players on ability very similarly, but their scores are not well calibrated. PMID:25414759

  1. Anthropometric trends and the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in a Lithuanian urban population aged 45–64 years

    PubMed Central

    Luksiene, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Bernotiene, Gailute; Peasey, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate trends in anthropometric indexes from 1992 to 2008 and to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in relation to anthropometric indexes (body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio). Methods: Data from the three surveys (1992–2008) are presented. A random sample of 5147 subjects aged 45–64 years was selected for statistical analysis. During follow-up there were 141 deaths from cardiovascular disease (excluding those with cardiovascular disease at entry). Cox’s regression was used to estimate the associations between anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular disease mortality. Results: During a 17-year period among men, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ?30 kg/m2) increased from 18.4% to 32.1% (p<0.001) and a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.9) from 59.3% to 72.9% (p<0.001). The risk profile of obesity did not change in women, but prevalence of a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.85) increased from 25.9% to 41.5% (p<0.001). Multivariable-adjusted Cox’s regression models showed that body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio were associated with cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men (hazard ratios 1.40, 1.45, 1.49, 1.46 respectively (p<0.01)). Conclusions: Our data indicate that anthropometric measures such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio and waist:height ratio are good indicators of cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men aged 45–64 years. PMID:26261188

  2. Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images.

    PubMed

    Davis, Josh P; Valentine, Tim; Davis, Robert E

    2010-07-15

    Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and profile images of young males meeting a similar description. The system produces 37 linear and 25 angular measurements across the two viewpoints. A series of 64 analyses were conducted to examine whether separate novel probe facial images of target individuals whose face dimensions were already stored within the database would be correctly identified as the same person. Identification verification was found to be unreliable unless multiple distance and angular measurements from both profile and full-face images were included in an analysis. PMID:20570069

  3. Anthropometric, Gait and Strength Characteristics of Kenyan Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Pui W.; de Heer, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports. PMID:24149957

  4. Relation between the Sensory and Anthropometric Variables in the Quiet Standing Postural Control: Is the Inverted Pendulum Important for the Static Balance Control?

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica C.; Mochizuki, Luis; Silva Luna, Natália Mariana; Ayama, Sérgio; Canonica, Alexandra Carolina; Greve, Júlia M. D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the sensory and anthropometric variables in the quiet standing. Methods. One hundred individuals (50 men, 50 women; 20–40 years old) participated in this study. For all participants, the body composition (fat tissue, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density) and body mass, height, trunk-head length, lower limb length, and upper limb length were measured. The center of pressure was measured during the quiet standing posture, the eyes opened and closed with a force platform. Correlation and regression analysis were run to analyze the relation among body composition, anthropometric data, and postural sway. Results. The correlation analysis showed low relation between postural sway and anthropometric variables. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that the height explained 12% of the mediolateral displacement and 11% of the center of pressure area. The length of the trunk head explained 6% of displacement in the anteroposterior postural sway. During eyes closed condition, the support basis and height explained 18% of mediolateral postural sway. Conclusion. The postural control depends on body composition and dimension. This relation is mediated by the sensory information. The height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural sway. PMID:26539550

  5. Relation between the Sensory and Anthropometric Variables in the Quiet Standing Postural Control: Is the Inverted Pendulum Important for the Static Balance Control?

    PubMed

    Alonso, Angélica C; Mochizuki, Luis; Silva Luna, Natália Mariana; Ayama, Sérgio; Canonica, Alexandra Carolina; Greve, Júlia M D A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the sensory and anthropometric variables in the quiet standing. Methods. One hundred individuals (50 men, 50 women; 20-40 years old) participated in this study. For all participants, the body composition (fat tissue, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density) and body mass, height, trunk-head length, lower limb length, and upper limb length were measured. The center of pressure was measured during the quiet standing posture, the eyes opened and closed with a force platform. Correlation and regression analysis were run to analyze the relation among body composition, anthropometric data, and postural sway. Results. The correlation analysis showed low relation between postural sway and anthropometric variables. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that the height explained 12% of the mediolateral displacement and 11% of the center of pressure area. The length of the trunk head explained 6% of displacement in the anteroposterior postural sway. During eyes closed condition, the support basis and height explained 18% of mediolateral postural sway. Conclusion. The postural control depends on body composition and dimension. This relation is mediated by the sensory information. The height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural sway. PMID:26539550

  6. Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesak, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

  7. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha?1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm?1 (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha?1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm?1 (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10?4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10?4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  8. An approach to precise nitrogen management using hand-held crop sensor measurements and winter wheat yield mapping in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha(-1) and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm(-1) (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha(-1) and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm(-1) (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with r(xy) = 0.64 and p < 10(-4) in field 1 and r(xy) = 0.78 and p < 10(-4) in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  9. Anthropometric differences among natives of Abuja living in urban and rural communities: correlations with other cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increase of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors worldwide, but especially in developing countries where multifaceted transitions are occurring. There is need for more evidence for the cardio-metabolic effect of changing lifestyles and urbanization in Nigeria. This study aimed at defining rural–urban differences in anthropometric parameters in two Nigerian communities of the same ancestral origin and to determine the cardiovascular risk correlates of these anthropometric measurements. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study using stratified cluster sampling method. We studied 335 and 332 urban and rural dwellers respectively. A complete cardiovascular profile as well as anthropometric measurements was compared between the two populations. Results All anthropometric indices considered in this study (weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference/height ratio, abdominal height; biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, abdominal, superior iliac skinfold thicknesses) were significantly higher in urban than in the rural population (p?=?<0.001). Overweight, obesity and hypertension were significantly prevalent among the urban population (p?=?<0.001) while there was no significant difference in the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (p?=?0.096) and diabetes (p?=?0.083) between the two cohorts. Females tend to have a higher chance of obesity than males although there was no gender difference in waist circumference and central skin fold thickness in the rural population. Age was the significant predictor of systolic blood pressure among the rural (R2?=?0.157, ??=?0.258, p?=?0.016) and urban female population (R2?=?0.201, ??=?0.351, p?=?<0.001) while Abdominal height (R2?=?0.16, ??=?0.281, p?=?0.001) and waist circumference (R2?=?0.064 ??=?0.064, p?=?.003) were predictors of systolic blood pressure in urban and rural men respectively. Conclusion Anthropometric indices were significantly higher among the urban than the rural populations. Cardiovascular risks were equally more prevalent among the urban population. Appropriate health education and lifestyle modification strategies may reduce the increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors associated with rural–urban migration. PMID:23537291

  10. Association among obesity-related anthropometric phenotypes: analyzing genetic and environmental contribution.

    PubMed

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Rebato, Esther

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has become a public-health and policy problem in many parts of the world. Epidemiological and population studies in this field are usually based on different anthropometric measures; however, common genetic and environmental factors between these phenotypes have been scarcely studied. The objective of this article is to assess the strength of these factors on the covariation among a large set of obesity-related traits. The subject group consisted of 533 nuclear families living in the Greater Bilbao (Spain), and included 1,702 individuals aged 2-61 years. Detailed anthropometric measurements (stature, breadths, circumferences and skinfolds) were carried out in each subject. Bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were performed using a variance-components procedure implemented in the software SOLAR. The results revealed that the majority of these traits is affected by common genetic and environmental factors. All correlations were significantly different from 1 and varied from non-significant to very high (>0.90, P < 0.0001), with clearly lower pleiotropic effects among pairs including fat-distribution traits. Despite the strong common genetic effects detected among phenotypes determining the amount of body fat and mass, there is a residual genetic influence on the local fatness measures that cannot be explained exclusively by the genetic influence on overall fatness. Moreover, the observed relationships confirm a partially different genetic control of truncal and peripheral fat. In conclusion, our findings highlight the relevance of considering different types of traits in the prevention and treatment of obesity, as well as in the search for genes involved in its development. PMID:22708817

  11. A study of anthropometric characteristics between Malaysian and Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years.

    PubMed

    Taha, Zahari; Jomoah, Ibrahim M; Zadry, Hilma Raimona

    2009-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the anthropometric characteristics of 241 Malaysian and 646 Saudi Arabian males aged 20 to 30 years. The mean values, standard deviation (SD), and 5th and 95th percentile values of 26 measurements and 22 proportions of each group were given. The results showed that there were significant differences in a number of body dimensions between these populations, except for eye height and elbow height (standing) and height, eye height, shoulder height, and elbow height (sitting). These results are important for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems and furniture: The presented data may be useful for providing a safer, more productive and user-friendly workplace for Malaysian and Saudi Arabian populations. PMID:20034316

  12. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  13. Anthropometric and Biochemical Assessment of Nutritional Status in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    ?lhan, ?nci Ergürhan; Sar?, Neriman; Ye?il, ?ule; Eren, Tuba; Taçy?ld?z, Nurdan

    2015-09-01

    Children are at greater risk for malnutrition due to increased needs of nutrients to obtain appropriate growth, and they exhibit elevated substrate needs due to cancer and its treatment. This study aimed to report anthropometric and biochemical evaluation of nutritional status in children with cancer at initial presentation and during treatment. A prospective, controlled study was performed in the pediatric oncology department of a tertiary care center. Control group consisted of the siblings of patients. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, serum lipids, trace minerals, C-reactive protein (CRP), and vitamins were compared in patients and controls at initial presentation and at 6th month after the onset of treatment. According to weight for height, the frequency of malnutrition was 16% at initial presentation and 22% at 6th month. Triceps skinfold thickness was significantly thinner in patients than controls at both measurements. Patients had lower levels of prealbumin, albumin, iron, folate, zinc, and vitamin C and higher levels of ferritin, vitamin B12, and copper. Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients at initial presentation and seemed to be correlated with copper levels. Compared with other patients, malnourished patients had significantly higher levels of vitamin B12 at 6th month. Results of the current study demonstrate that trace minerals, vitamins, and anthropometric measures may yield important clues for nutritional status and disease activity in pediatric oncology patients. However, validation and updating these potential markers warrant further trials on larger series. PMID:26237587

  14. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337

  15. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  16. Factors that influence bone mass of healthy children and adolescents measured by quantitative ultrasound at the hand phalanges: a systematic review?

    PubMed Central

    Krahenbühl, Tathyane; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the main factors that influence bone mass in children and teenagers assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the phalanges. Data source: A systematic literature review was performed according to the PRISMA method with searches in databases Pubmed/Medline, SciELO and Bireme for the period 2001-2012, in English and Portuguese languages, using the keywords: children, teenagers, adolescent, ultrasound finger phalanges, quantitative ultrasound of phalanges, phalangeal quantitative ultrasound. Data synthesis: 21 articles were included. Girls had, in QUS, Amplitude Dependent Speed of Sound (AD-SoS) values higher than boys during pubertal development. The values of the parameters of QUS of the phalanges and dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) increased with the increase of the maturational stage. Anthropometric variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass showed positive correlations with the values of QUS of the phalanges. Physical activity has also been shown to be positively associated with increased bone mass. Factors such as ethnicity, genetics, caloric intake and socioeconomic profile have not yet shown a conclusive relationship and need a larger number of studies. Conclusions: QUS of the phalanges is a method used to evaluate the progressive acquisition of bone mass during growth and maturation of individuals in school phase, by monitoring changes that occur with increasing age and pubertal stage. There were mainly positive influences variables of sex, maturity, height, weight and BMI, with similar data when compared to the gold standard method, the DXA. PMID:25479860

  17. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  18. Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Koropanovski, Nenad; Berjan, Bobana; Bozic, Predrag R.; Pazin, Nemanja; Sanader, Aleksandra; Jovanovic, Srecko; Jaric, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility (“T”- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors. PMID:23486746

  19. Anthropometric and kinematic influences on release speed in men's fast-medium bowling.

    PubMed

    Glazier, P S; Paradisis, G P; Cooper, S M

    2000-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify significant relationships between selected anthropometric and kinematic variables and ball release speed. Nine collegiate fast-medium bowlers (mean +/- s: age 21.0 +/- 0.9 years, body mass 77.2 +/- 8.1 kg, height 1.83 +/- 0.1 m) were filmed and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Ball release speeds were measured by a previously validated Speedchek Personal Sports Radar (Tribar Industries, Canada). Relationships between selected anthropometric variables and ball release speed and between kinematic variables and ball release speed were investigated using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients (r). A significant relationship was found between the horizontal velocity during the pre-delivery stride (r = 0.728, P < 0.05) and ball release speed (31.5 +/- 1.9 m(-1) s(-1)). We believe that the high correlation was due to the bowlers using techniques that allowed them to contribute more of the horizontal velocity created during the run-up to ball release speed. We also found that the angular velocity (40.6 +/- 3.4 rad x s(-1)) of the right humerus had a low correlation (r = 0.358, P > 0.05) with ball release speed. Although the action of the wrist was not analysed because of an inadequate frame rate, we found high correlations between ball release speed and shoulder-wrist length (661 +/- 31 mm; r = 0.626, P < 0.05) and ball release speed and total arm length (860 +/- 36 mm; r = 0.583, P < 0.05). We conclude that the variance in release speed within this group may be accounted for by the difference in radial length between the axis of rotation at the glenohumeral joint and the release point. PMID:11138981

  20. Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jørgensen, T; Wright, C M

    2007-01-01

    Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with “significant undernutrition”, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 2–6 and 6–11?months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456

  1. Interrelationships between strength, anthropometrics, and strongman performance in novice strongman athletes.

    PubMed

    Winwood, Paul W; Keogh, Justin W L; Harris, Nigel K

    2012-02-01

    The sport of strongman is relatively new; hence, specific research investigating this sport is currently very limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between anthropometric dimensions and maximal isoinertial strength to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Twenty-three semiprofessional rugby union players with considerable resistance training and some strongman training experience (age 22.0 ± 2.4 years, weight 102.6 ± 10.8 kg, height 184.6 ± 6.5 cm) were assessed for anthropometry (height, body composition, and girth measurements), maximal isoinertial performance (bench press, squat, deadlift, and power clean), and strongman performance (tire flip, log clean, and press, truck pull, and farmer's walk). The magnitudes of the relationships were determined using Pearson correlation coefficients, and interpreted qualitatively according to Hopkins (90% confidence limits ?±0.37). The highest relationship observed was between system force (body mass + squat 1-repetition maximum) and overall strongman performance (r = 0.87). Clear moderate to very large relationships existed between performance in all strongman events and the squat (r = 0.61-0.85), indicating the importance of maximal squat strength for strongman competitors. Flexed arm girth and calf girth were the strongest anthropometric correlates of overall strongman performance (r = 0.79 and 0.70, respectively). The results of this study suggest that body structure and common gymnasium-based exercise strength are meaningfully related to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Future research should investigate these relationships using more experienced strongman athletes and determine the relationships between changes in anthropometry, isoinertial strength, and strongman performance to determine the role of anthropometry and isoinertial strength in the sport of strongman. PMID:22233785

  2. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  3. Proper hand washing (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to 30 seconds. Clean under your ... any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to 30 seconds. Clean under your ...

  4. Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurto?lu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

  5. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  6. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  7. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  9. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n?=?129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n?=?129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples, the present study cannot discriminate sedentary girls from world-class female gymnasts by means of the left hand 2D:4D ratio. PMID:22768268

  10. The Rubber Hand Illusion Revisited: Visuotactile Integration and Self-Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked, while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked, may cause the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body, to "feel like it's my hand." A behavioral measure of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a drift of the perceived position of one's own hand toward the rubber hand. The authors investigated (a) the…

  11. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  12. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  13. Analysis of the most relevant anthropometric dimensions for school furniture selection based on a study with students from one Chilean region.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M

    2015-01-01

    Most of the worldwide standards used for furniture selection suggest the use of the Stature of the school children, assuming that all the other anthropometric characteristics will also be appropriate. However, it is important to consider that students' growth differ with age. The aim of this study is to determine if Popliteal Height can be used as a better, or more adequate, measure for classroom furniture selection when comparing with Stature. This study involved a representative group of 3046 students from the Valparaíso Region, in Chile. Regarding the methodology, eight anthropometric measures were gathered, as well as six furniture dimensions from the Chilean standard. After assigning the level of school furniture using Stature and Popliteal Height to each of the students, six mismatch equations were applied. The results show that when using Popliteal Height, higher levels of match were obtained for the two more important furniture dimensions. Additionally, it also presents a better cumulative fit than Stature. In conclusion, it seems that Popliteal Height can be the most accurate anthropometric measure for classroom furniture selection purposes. PMID:25151312

  14. Structuring software anthropometric variables on CD Rom as a facilitator of the process of design of work situations.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Lisboa Filho, Jugurta; Guimarães, Elza Maria Vidigal; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The environment where everyday activities are developed, these should be appropriate and the individual who will execute them, for greater efficiency of their work and even if you feel safe, comfortable and satisfied when interacting with that space, expending less energy to this interaction. Given this context, this study aims to structure a software with the results obtained in the field, from anthropometric measure to subsidize the furniture industry in manufacturing of furniture, definition work situations, considering the different anthropometric measurements made between 2001 and 2010, using data from this sample of adults aged 18 to 65 years old and children between 6 and 11 years old. It was convenient to make the software with a site, only instead of staying on the Web has been recorded on CD Rom. Tests with the prototype allow navigation through the structure of the software. The data needed to implement the remaining modules were also raised. Issues related to system layout and usability of the interface also were not considered, because it is an initial prototype. PMID:22317345

  15. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (editor); Iberall, Thea (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  16. Arm-Hand-Finger Video Game Interaction 

    E-print Network

    Logsdon, Drew Anthony

    2012-02-14

    ................................. 35 7 The fingers of the hand flex (lower left) and abduct (lower right) ............ 36 8 Joints whose angles are measured by the CyberGlove .............................. 37 9 Example of a sliding window segmentation approach... control gestures solely using hand posture, finger motion, and finger orientation as provided by two CyberGlove sensing gloves. This is done to highlight the power of finger motion and position in recognition. Hand motion is used for visualization...

  17. IRON STATUS AND DIETARY AND ANTHROPOMETRIC RISK FACTORS IN US TODDLERS

    E-print Network

    Kerling, Elizabeth Helen

    2008-05-01

    -six healthy, 18-to 36-month-old toddlers were recruited. Anthropometric, dietary, and hematological data were collected. Multiple regression analyses revealed dietary calcium intake and body mass index negatively influenced body iron, and birth weight, dietary...

  18. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  19. Hand biometric recognition based on fused hand geometry and vascular patterns.

    PubMed

    Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%. PMID:23449119

  20. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  1. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  2. Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854

  3. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  4. Systematisation of anthropometric data of 17-year-old schoolgirls from Tartu, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saluvere, K; Peterson, J; Saluste, L; Koskel, S

    1998-09-01

    An anthropometric study of 358 healthy schoolgirls at the age from 17 to 18 years from all secondary schools of Tartu was carried out. 42 single body measurements and 11 skinfolds were measured, and 45 indices and body composition characteristics were derived from them. The data were systematised into 5 height-weight SD-classes according to the correspondence between height and weight. There were 3 classes with relative correspondence between height and weight: 1. short and light girls, 2. medium-height and medium-weight girls, 3. tall and heavy girls and 2 classes with the largest relative non-correspondence between height and weight: 4. pycnics, 5. leptosomes. In addition to the well-known differences between pycnics and leptosomes it was also shown that in the classes small--medium--big statistically significant gradual changes take place. The increase in the fullness of the body and in the amount of soft tissue was in positive correlation with total body fat and subcutaneous body fat and with bone-muscle rate in the cross-sectional area of the arm and the thigh. The increase in height was connected with proportional changes in the whole skeleton. As the proportions of fat, muscles and bones are in mutual correlation, for establishing of norms for these proportions it is necessary to take the body size into consideration. PMID:9816429

  5. Birth weight, current anthropometric markers, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Boscaini, Camile; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5-13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  6. The validity of anthropometric leg muscle volume estimation across a wide spectrum: From able-bodied adults to individuals with a spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Venturelli, Massimo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of muscle volume, and changes over time, have significant clinical and research-related implications. Methods to assess muscle volume vary from simple and inexpensive to complex and expensive. Therefore this study sought to examine the validity of muscle volume estimated simply by anthropometry compared with the more complex proton magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRI) across a wide spectrum of individuals including those with a spinal cord injury (SCI), a group recognized to exhibit significant muscle atrophy. Accordingly, muscle volume of the thigh and lower leg of eight subjects with a SCI and eight able-bodied subjects (controls) was determined by anthropometry and 1H-MRI. With either method, muscle volumes were significantly lower in the SCI compared with the controls (P < 0.05) and, using pooled data from both groups, anthropometric measurements of muscle volume were strongly correlated to the values assessed by 1H-MRI in both the thigh (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.05) and lower leg (r2 = 0.98; P < 0.05). However, the anthropometric approach systematically overestimated muscle volume compared with 1H-MRI in both the thigh (mean bias = 2407cm3) and the lower (mean bias = 170 cm3) leg. Thus with an appropriate correction for this systemic overestimation, muscle volume estimated from anthropometric measurements is a valid approach and provides acceptable accuracy across a spectrum of adults with normal muscle mass to a SCI and severe muscle atrophy. In practical terms this study provides the formulas that add validity to the already simple and inexpensive anthropometric approach to assess muscle volume in clinical and research settings. PMID:24458749

  7. The validity of anthropometric leg muscle volume estimation across a wide spectrum: from able-bodied adults to individuals with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Layec, Gwenael; Venturelli, Massimo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of muscle volume, and changes over time, have significant clinical and research-related implications. Methods to assess muscle volume vary from simple and inexpensive to complex and expensive. Therefore this study sought to examine the validity of muscle volume estimated simply by anthropometry compared with the more complex proton magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H-MRI) across a wide spectrum of individuals including those with a spinal cord injury (SCI), a group recognized to exhibit significant muscle atrophy. Accordingly, muscle volume of the thigh and lower leg of eight subjects with a SCI and eight able-bodied subjects (controls) was determined by anthropometry and (1)H-MRI. With either method, muscle volumes were significantly lower in the SCI compared with the controls (P < 0.05) and, using pooled data from both groups, anthropometric measurements of muscle volume were strongly correlated to the values assessed by (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (r(2) = 0.89; P < 0.05) and lower leg (r(2) = 0.98; P < 0.05). However, the anthropometric approach systematically overestimated muscle volume compared with (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (mean bias = 2407cm(3)) and the lower (mean bias = 170 cm(3)) leg. Thus with an appropriate correction for this systemic overestimation, muscle volume estimated from anthropometric measurements is a valid approach and provides acceptable accuracy across a spectrum of adults with normal muscle mass to a SCI and severe muscle atrophy. In practical terms this study provides the formulas that add validity to the already simple and inexpensive anthropometric approach to assess muscle volume in clinical and research settings. PMID:24458749

  8. Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mündermann, Lars; Mündermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

  9. Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundermann, Lars; Mundermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

  10. Does Q223R Polymorphism of Leptin Receptor Influence on Anthropometric Parameters and Bone Density in Childhood Cancer Survivors?

    PubMed Central

    Sawicka-?ukowska, Malgorzata; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Muszynska-Roslan, Katarzyna; Panasiuk, Anna; Latoch, Eryk; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are in augmented risk for developing obesity. For many factors leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphism play an important role in the development and metabolism not only of fat, but also, bone tissue. The aim of the analysis was to find the relationships between Q223R, leptin levels, and anthropometric parameters. Patients and Methods. In the study 74 cancer survivors participated (ALL n = 64, lymphomas n = 10), and the control group consisted of 51 healthy peers. Leptin blood concentration was determined by ELISA method. To estimate leptin receptor gene polymorphism, RFLP method was used. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), fat, and lean tissue measurements were obtained by DXA. Results. We found no correlations between serum leptin concentrations and anthropometric parameters nor BMD. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly lower in the group of cancer survivors compared to controls; however, in those overweight from examined group we found leptin levels higher than those in nonoverweight. Genotype Q223R was not associated with higher leptin levels, BMI, BMD, body fat or lean tissue. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the relationship between BMD and Q223R polymorphism in childhood cancer survivors. Further analysis, based on a larger group of patients, is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24319457

  11. "Measuring Me": Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sara; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Duffrin, Melani

    2012-01-01

    "Measuring Me" is an introductory activity developed to be used while collecting pre-study anthropometric data for the Food Math and Science Teacher Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative. Using "Measuring Me" as an introductory activity for collecting anthropometric measurements in the classroom was feasible and well received by students…

  12. Human and Animal Fecal Contamination of Community Water Sources, Stored Drinking Water and Hands in Rural India Measured with Validated Microbial Source Tracking Assays

    PubMed Central

    Schriewer, Alexander; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R.; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined pathways of exposure to fecal contamination of human and animal origin in 24 villages in Odisha, India. In a cross-sectional study during the monsoon season, fecal exposure via community water sources (N = 123) and in the home (N = 137) was assessed using human- and nonhuman-associated Bacteroidales microbial source tracking (MST) markers and fecal coliforms (FCs). Detection rates and marker concentrations were examined to pinpoint pathways of human fecal exposure in the public and domestic domains of disease transmission in study communities. Human fecal markers were detected much more frequently in the domestic domain (45% of households) than in public domain sources (8% of ponds; 4% of groundwater drinking sources). Animal fecal markers were widely detected in both domains (74% of ponds, 96% of households, 10% of groundwater drinking sources), indicating ubiquitous risks of exposure to animal feces and zoonotic pathogens. This study confirms an often suggested contamination link from hands to stored water in the home in developing countries separately for mothers' and children's hands and both human and animal fecal contamination. In contrast to MST markers, FCs provided a poor metric to assess risks of exposure to fecal contamination of human origin in this rural setting. PMID:26149868

  13. Human and Animal Fecal Contamination of Community Water Sources, Stored Drinking Water and Hands in Rural India Measured with Validated Microbial Source Tracking Assays.

    PubMed

    Schriewer, Alexander; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    We examined pathways of exposure to fecal contamination of human and animal origin in 24 villages in Odisha, India. In a cross-sectional study during the monsoon season, fecal exposure via community water sources (N = 123) and in the home (N = 137) was assessed using human- and nonhuman-associated Bacteroidales microbial source tracking (MST) markers and fecal coliforms (FCs). Detection rates and marker concentrations were examined to pinpoint pathways of human fecal exposure in the public and domestic domains of disease transmission in study communities. Human fecal markers were detected much more frequently in the domestic domain (45% of households) than in public domain sources (8% of ponds; 4% of groundwater drinking sources). Animal fecal markers were widely detected in both domains (74% of ponds, 96% of households, 10% of groundwater drinking sources), indicating ubiquitous risks of exposure to animal feces and zoonotic pathogens. This study confirms an often suggested contamination link from hands to stored water in the home in developing countries separately for mothers' and children's hands and both human and animal fecal contamination. In contrast to MST markers, FCs provided a poor metric to assess risks of exposure to fecal contamination of human origin in this rural setting. PMID:26149868

  14. Anthropometric variables and their relationship to performance and ability in male surfers.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew John; Findlay, Malcolm; Gresty, Karen; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17 kg), junior national level (n=15; age: 15.61, s =1.06 years, stature: 173.86, s =5.72 cm; body mass: 63.27, s =7.17 kg) and intermediate level surfers (n=47; age: 22.47, s =2.80 years, stature: 179.90, s =5.41; body mass: 77.83, s =9.43 kg). The mean somatotype values for the different groups of surfers were found to be 2.48, 5.00 and 1.03 for the professional surfers; 2.18, 3.72 and 3.24 for the junior national surfers and 2.79, 3.57 and 2.42 for the intermediate surfers. Professional surfers were significantly (P < 0.01) more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than intermediate level surfers. Significant correlations were observed between endomorphy (r = -0.399, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.341, P < 0.05), and body fat percentage (r = -0.380, P < 0.01) and the rating of ability among the intermediate group of surfers. Across all participants, the rating of surfer ability was significantly correlated with endomorphy (r = -0.366, P ? 0.01), mesomorphy (r = 0.442, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.274, P < 0.05) and body fat percentage (r = -0.268, P < 0.05). Findings suggest that the levels of adiposity and muscularity may influence the potential for progression between intermediate and professional-level surfing performance. PMID:24444202

  15. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hand cream poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  16. Competencies in hand therapy.

    PubMed

    Kasch, Mary C; Greenberg, Sandra; Muenzen, Patricia M

    2003-01-01

    The Hand Therapy Certification Commission, Inc., in consultation with the Professional Examination Service, completed a practice analysis of hand therapy in 2001. One goal was to obtain information about the competencies shown by therapists at specific points of experience. Six competency areas were identified and included in the final survey: scientific knowledge, clinical judgment/clinical reasoning, technical skills, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and resource management. Certified Hand Therapists (CHTs) in the United States and Canada participated in the survey. All six competencies were rated moderately or highly critical to professional effectiveness. Thirty hypothesized behavioral progressions (from novice to expert) were included; 27 were validated by the results, indicating that CHTs show competence that is unique and increases over time. Potential uses of these results by CHTs and hand therapy organizations are proposed, especially in regard to candidate eligibility, self-assessment by CHTs, and planning for continuing education. PMID:12611446

  17. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ? Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  18. [Anthropometric methods used in the evaluation of the postpartum weight retention: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jamile Lima; Saunders, Cláudia; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a systematic review of scientific papers that studied postpartum weight retention. The identification of the studies was conducted in the Medline, Lilacs and Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases between 2000 until 2013. The main information evaluated was: author, year of publication, sample size, year of data collection, losses and analysis thereof, age, follow-up time, weight in the baseline and in the postpartum, assessment methods of weight retention and main results. Twenty studies were selected, of which 25% (n = 5) were national. Regarding the mode of analysis, in some works the result was analyzed in different ways as continuous and categorical. Of the selected papers, 45% (n = 9) analyzed the retained weight only continuously, 5% (n = 1) only categorically and 40% (n = 8) both ways. One of the studies used distribution in percentiles and the other evaluated continuously, categorical and by indicators of absolute and relative weight reduction. In conclusion, the results found reveal a lack of well-defined information about the forms of anthropometric measurements of women after delivery, indicating the need for developing national proposals, consistent with the reality of our population. PMID:25715134

  19. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

  20. Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101

    E-print Network

    time. Rub your hands together vigorously. Work into a lather from wrist to fingertip. Scrub under yourHand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101 Hand washing may be a simple task, but it is extremely important in preventing the spread of contagious illnesses. Wash your hands often to remove disease

  1. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Wrist Injuries: A Brief Literature Update HAND Journal HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND is the official peer-reviewed ... to HAND via the Members' Only webpage. HAND Journal Featured Article de Quervain’s tenosynovitis: a review of ...

  2. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    MedlinePLUS

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  3. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  4. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive results that encompass the variation within the entire population. The current EMU does not accommodate humans at the extremes of the anthropometric spectrum. To account for this and to ensure that these requirements cover the population, another phase of testing will be conducted in a differential pressure glove box. This phase will focus on smaller females and very large males that do not have a properly fitted EMU suit. Instead, they would wear smaller or larger gloves and be tested in the glove box as a means to compare and contrast their strength capabilities against the EMU accommodated hand size subjects. The glove box s ability to change pressures easily will also allow for a wider range of glove pressures to be tested. Compared to the data collected on the subjects wearing the EMU suit, it is expected that there will be similar ratios to bare-hand. It is recommended that this topic be sent to the Physical Ergonomics Board for review.

  5. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  6. Dexterity analysis and robot hand design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, LU; Soni, A. H.; Chunsheng, Cai; Brown, Max

    1988-01-01

    Understanding about a dexterous robot hand's motion ranges is important to the precision grasping and precision manipulation. A planar robot hand is studied for object orientation, including ranges of motion, measures with respect to the palm, position reaching of a point in the grasped object, and rotation of the object about the reference point. The rotational dexterity index and dexterity chart are introduced and an analysis procedure is developed for calculating these quantities. A design procedure for determining the hand kinematic parameters based on a desired partial or complete dexterity chart is also developed. These procedures have been tested in detail for a planar robot hand with two 2- or 3-link fingers. The derived results are shown to be useful to performance evaluation, kinematic parameter design, and grasping motion planning for a planar robot hand.

  7. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

  8. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    PubMed

    Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  9. [THE DYNAMICS OF INDICATORS OF ANTHROPOMETRIC SIGNS OF NEWBORN CHILDREN IN NIZHNEVARTOVSK FROM 1990 TO 2011].

    PubMed

    Tupitsyna, L S

    2015-01-01

    There were studied anthropometric data of newborn infants and their dynamics from 1990 to 2011. There was evaluated the distribution of infants according to five criteria: body weight and length, head, chest and abdomen circumference. There is done the characteristic of the set of anthropometric signs of mothers. In the middle of the studied period investigated parameters of infants were shown to be lower than at the beginning and the end, which might be due to the decrease in the proportion of repeated births, to the aggravation ofanthropogenic pollution and with the deterioration of the socio-economic situation. PMID:26302569

  10. 3-D Human body models in C.A.D. : Anthropometric Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, C.; Steck, R.; Pineau, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    Modeling and simulation methods of man-machine systems are developed at the laboratory by interactive infography and C.A.D. technics. In order to better apprehend the morphological variability of populations we have enriched the 3-D model with a parametric function using classical anthropometric dimensions. We have selected reference, associate and complementary dimensions : lengths, breadths, circumferences and depths, which depend on operator's tasks and characteristics of workplaces. All anthropometric values come from the International Data Bank of Human Biometry of ERGODATA System. The utilization of the parametric function brings a quick and accurate description of morphology for theoretic subjects and can be used in C.A.D. analysis.

  11. Studying the Relation Between Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome and Anatomic and Anthropometric Characteristics of Military Male Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Khatibi Aghda, Amidoddin; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Delavari, Abbasali; Jahandideh, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is common among military recruits and to our knowledge; the factors that might put the military recruits at higher risk of incidence of MTSS are not well known. Objectives: This study was done to investigate the association between some anthropometric and anatomical factors and the prevalence of MTSS among military recruits. Patients and Methods: One hundred and eighty one randomly selected military recruits were included in this cross sectional study. Using history taking and physical examinations they were tested for MTSS. Accordingly the subjects were assigned to the case (those with MTSS) and control groups (normal healthy subjects). Using standard guidelines, the anthropometric and anatomical criteria of the subjects were measured. The correlation between the measurements and the prevalence of MTSS was tested using statistical analysis. Results: Data of all the 181 subjects with the mean age of 30.7 ± 4.68 years were Included in the final analysis. The prevalence of MTSS was found to be 16.6% (30 people). Internal and external rotation range of motion, iliospinale height, the score of navicular drop test, and the trochanteric tibial lateral length were significantly different between healthy subjects and patients with MTSS (P < 0.05). Discussion: The prevalence of MTSS was relatively lower in this study comparing to other studies on military personnel. It was not probably due to type of military shoes or exercise area surface (none of them were standardized); it could be due to low intensity trainings and the long intervals between training sessions. PMID:26448835

  12. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  13. Alien hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Biran, I; Chatterjee, A

    2004-02-01

    In Stanley Kubrick's movie Dr Strangelove, the main character is described as "erratic" and displays a bizarre movement disorder. His right hand seems to be driven by a will of its own, at times clutching his own throat and at other times raising into a Nazi salute. Dr Strangelove must try to restrain this wayward limb with his left hand. Bizarre as this fictional character is, a similar movement disorder can occur in neurologic disease. The complex phenomenon associated with this disorder falls under the rubric of alien hand syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a limb that seems to perform meaningful acts without being guided by the intention of the patient. Patients find themselves unable to stop the alien limb from reaching and grabbing objects, and they may be unable to release these grasped objects without using their other hand to pry open their fingers. These patients frequently express astonishment and frustration at the errant limb. They experience it as being controlled by an external agent and often refer to it in the third person. This article outlines the origins of the terminology used in describing this syndrome, early observations, and studies regarding its functional neuroanatomy. PMID:14967782

  14. Learning "Hands On."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Janice T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a computer teacher's incorporation of hand-held computer technology into her third- and fifth-grade students' study of acid rain. The project successfully brought two grade levels together for cross-grade research, provided an opportunity for classroom teachers and technology specialists to work collaboratively, and enhanced students'…

  15. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  16. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  17. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Arnie

    2003-01-01

    Describes steps schools can take to provide cleaner and safer washrooms. Emphasizes hand-washing to battle germs and asserts that creating a comfortable and user-friendly washroom is a critical and often overlooked aspect for encouraging better hygiene habits. (EV)

  18. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  19. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  20. The alien hand syndrome: What makes the alien hand alien?

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    The alien hand syndrome: What makes the alien hand alien? Iftah Biran Department of Neurology of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA The alien hand syndrome is a deeply puzzling phenomenon in which brain, the limb may interfere with the actions of their normal limb. We report a case of alien hand syndrome

  1. Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Lu, Xiaoyan; Cromeans, Theresa; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Erdman, Dean D

    2014-12-01

    As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination. PMID:24760731

  2. Evidence for hand-size constancy: the dominant hand as a natural perceptual metric.

    PubMed

    Linkenauger, Sally A; Geuss, Michael N; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Leyrer, Markus; Richardson, Beth H; Proffitt, Dennis R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2014-11-01

    The hand is a reliable and ecologically useful perceptual ruler that can be used to scale the sizes of close, manipulatable objects in the world in a manner similar to the way in which eye height is used to scale the heights of objects on the ground plane. Certain objects are perceived proportionally to the size of the hand, and as a result, changes in the relationship between the sizes of objects in the world and the size of the hand are attributed to changes in object size rather than hand size. To illustrate this notion, we provide evidence from several experiments showing that people perceive their dominant hand as less magnified than other body parts or objects when these items are subjected to the same degree of magnification. These findings suggest that the hand is perceived as having a more constant size and, consequently, can serve as a reliable metric with which to measure objects of commensurate size. PMID:25253278

  3. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  4. Metabolic and anthropometric changes in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Grazia; De Angelis, Carmine; Buono, Giuseppe; Colao, Annamaria; Giuliano, Mario; Malgieri, Simona; Cicala, Stefania; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Accurso, Antonello; Crispo, Anna; Limite, Gennaro; Lauria, Rossella; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Forestieri, Valeria; Bruzzese, Dario; De Placido, Sabino

    2015-11-01

    Weight gain and metabolic changes have been related to survival of early breast cancer patients (EBC). ''However, factors influencing metabolism post-diagnosis are not fully understood. We measured anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), body weight, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio] and metabolic (levels of insulin, glucose, H1Ac, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and the homeostasis model assessment score [HOMA]) parameters in 433 pre- and post-menopausal women with EBC at diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months thereafter. At diagnosis, compared with post-menopausal women, pre-menopausal patients were more likely to be leaner and to have a lower BMI, smaller waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio. They had also lower glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels and a lower HOMA score. Furthermore, they were more likely to have an estrogen- and/or progesterone-positive tumor and a higher proliferating breast cancer. During the first two post-diagnosis years, all women showed a significant increase of weight (+0.72 kg/year, P < 0.001), waist circumference (+1.53 cm/year, P < 0.001), and plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (+5.4 mg/dl per year, P = 0.045) and triglycerides (+10.73 mg/dl per year, P = 0.017). In patients receiving chemotherapy only, there was a significant increase in hip circumference (+3.16 cm/year, P < 0.001) and plasma cholesterol levels (+21.26 mg/dl per year, P < 0.001). We showed that weight, body fat distribution, and lipid profile changed in EBC patients receiving adjuvant therapy. These changes occurred during the first 2 years after diagnosis and were not specifically related to chemotherapy, menopausal status, or initial body weight. PMID:26424165

  5. Comparison of Various Anthropometric Indices as Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment in Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Yup; Choi, Eun Woo; Do, Jun Young

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between various anthropometric measures and metabolic syndrome and hearing impairment in Asian women. Methods We identified 11,755 women who underwent voluntary routine health checkups at Yeungnam University Hospital between June 2008 and April 2014. Among these patients, 2,485 participants were <40 years old, and 1,072 participants lacked information regarding their laboratory findings or hearing and were therefore excluded. In total 8,198 participants were recruited into our study. Results The AUROC value for metabolic syndrome was 0.790 for the waist to hip ratio (WHR). The cutoff value was 0.939. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting metabolic syndrome were 72.7% and 71.7%, respectively. The AUROC value for hearing loss was 0.758 for WHR. The cutoff value was 0.932. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting hearing loss were 65.8% and 73.4%, respectively. The WHR had the highest AUC and was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome and hearing loss. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses showed that WHR levels were positively associated with four hearing thresholds including averaged hearing threshold and low, middle, and high frequency thresholds. In addition, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that those with a high WHR had a 1.347–fold increased risk of hearing loss compared with the participants with a low WHR. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that WHR may be a surrogate marker for predicting the risk of hearing loss resulting from metabolic syndrome. PMID:26575369

  6. Vitamin D Status and Anthropometric Indices of an Omani Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Abiaka, Clifford; Delghandi, Marit; Kaur, Meenu; Al-Saleh, Mohsin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations reflect vitamin D status, with deficiency implicated as causative of many diseases. This study assessed vitamin D status and anthropometric indices in a sample of healthy Omanis. Methods: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 206 healthy Omanis, aged 18–55 years (mean age: men 31.1, women 26.8) in Muscat, Oman. Of this number, 95% indicated that they had never taken vitamin D supplements. Findings were compared with published values for populations domiciled in more northerly latitudes. Classical procedures were used to determine global obesity (body mass index [BMI]), and central obesity determined by waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio. Results: Women, as compared to men, had markedly lower concentrations of 25(OH)D. Applying the cut-off point of serum 25(OH)D levels at 50 nmol/L, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the study population was 87.5%; this was higher than the rates reported for the British, and European-, Hispanic-, and African-Americans. At a BMI cut-point of ?30 kg/m2, the prevalence of obesity was 14.6%; this was lower than the rates reported for European-, Hispanic-, and African-Americans. Levels of 25(OH) D increased relative to age and obesity. WHR was the main predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Conclusion: The striking vitamin D deficiency seen in the study population, relative to more northerly populations, may be linked to sun avoidance, inadequate dietary vitamin D, and virtual non-intake of supplemental vitamin D. Age and male-gender determined the status of vitamin D and of obesity. PMID:23862027

  7. Hand-held lactate analyzer as a tool for the real-time measurement of physical fatigue before slaughter and pork quality prediction.

    PubMed

    Rocha, L M; Dionne, A; Saucier, L; Nannoni, E; Faucitano, L

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between blood lactate variation measured at the plant, and pork quality variation on a large sample size and under commercial preslaughter handling conditions. A total of 600 pigs were randomly chosen on arrival at a commercial slaughter plant and blood samples taken from the ear vein at unloading (UN), after lairage (LA), in the restrainer (RE; before stunning) and at exsanguination (EX) were analysed for lactate content using a Lactate Scout Analyzer (LSA). In order to have a large range of measures, pigs were distributed into two groups; one kept in lairage overnight (G1) and the other for 2 to 3 h (G2) before slaughter. Meat quality was assessed in the Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semimembranosus (SM) and Adductor (AD) muscles by measuring the pH 30 min postmortem (pH1) and at 24 h postmortem (pHu), the colour and the drip loss. Blood lactate levels did not differ between G1 and G2 (P>0.05). A reduced muscle lactate and glucose contents (P=0.02 and P=0.004, respectively) resulting in a lower (P<0.001) glycolytic potential (GP) was observed in the LT muscle of G1 pigs when compared with G2 loins. In the LT muscle of G1 pigs, the lower GP resulted in an increased pHu (r=-0.67; P<0.001), decreased drip loss (r=0.57; P<0.001) and darker colour (r=0.50; P<0.001) compared with G2. In both G1 and G2 pigs, the lower GP was correlated to higher pHu value in the SM and AD muscles (r=-0.73; P<0.001). The greatest correlation was observed in G2 between blood lactate levels at LA and pHu value of the SM and AD muscles (r=0.46 and r=0.44, respectively; P<0.001 for both muscles). The second greatest correlation was found between blood lactate levels at EX and pH1 value in the SM muscle in both groups (r=-0.37 and r=-0.41, respectively; P<0.001 for both groups). Based on the results of this study, it appears that blood lactate levels, as measured by the LSA, reliably reflect the physiological response of pigs to perimortem stress and may help explain the variation in pork quality. PMID:25399703

  8. The HAND Nanosatellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.; Moses, R.

    The HAND (Human Activated Nanosatellite Demonstration) satellite was developed with the objective of producing a satellite within the time and budgetary constraints associated with Master level undergraduate research projects. HAND was designed as a passively stabilised nanosatellite with a mass of about 6.5 kilograms and over 1.2 m tall when deployed. It was intended to be carried into orbit in a mid-deck locker in the Space Shuttle. It would then be deployed by an astronaut during an EVA simply by pushing it away. It was hoped the spacecraft would prove the engineering and operational aspects of the nanosatellite platform, which could then be the basis of a series of low cost education satellites from universities and even secondary schools.

  9. Analysis of the Association Between Motor and Anthropometric Variables with Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Performance.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tine; Sekuli?, Damir; Spasi?, Miodrag; Peri?, Mia; Krolo, Ante; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Kondri?, Miran

    2015-09-29

    There is an evident lack of studies examining the factors associated with reactive agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anthropometrics, body composition, jumping capacity, reactive strength, and balance with a stop-and-go change of direction speed (CODS) and reactive agility. The total sample comprised 39 male (body height: 182.95 ± 5.19 cm; body mass: 80.66 ± 7.69 kg) and 34 female (body height: 171.45 ± 6.81 cm; body mass: 61.95 ± 6.70 kg) college-level athletes (21.9 ± 1.9 years of age). The variables included body height, body mass, the percentage of body fat (BF%), balance as measured by an overall-stability index, the countermovement jump (CMJ), a reactive-strength index (RSI), stop-and-go reactive agility, and stop-and-go CODS. To define the associations between motor and anthropometric variables with CODS and reactive agility, the participants were clustered into three achievement groups based on their CODS and reactive agility performances. The ANOVA showed a significant difference between the CODS-based achievement groups for the CMJ (F test = 3.45 and 3.60 for males and females, respectively; p < 0.05), the RSI (F test = 6.94 and 5.29 for males and females, respectively; p < 0.05), and balance (F test = 3.47; p < 0.05 for males). In females, the reactive agility achievement groups differed significantly in the RSI (F test = 6.46; p < 0.05), the CMJ (F test = 4.35; p < 0.05) and BF% (F test = 4.07; p < 0.05), which is further confirmed by discriminant canonical analysis (Can R = 0.74; p < 0.05). The results confirm the need for independent evaluation and training for both CODS and reactive agility performance in sports. PMID:26557198

  10. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all p<0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3 to 28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all p<0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6 to 13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  11. Analysis of the Association Between Motor and Anthropometric Variables with Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Tine; Sekuli?, Damir; Spasi?, Miodrag; Peri?, Mia; Krolo, Ante; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Kondri?, Miran

    2015-01-01

    There is an evident lack of studies examining the factors associated with reactive agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anthropometrics, body composition, jumping capacity, reactive strength, and balance with a stop-and-go change of direction speed (CODS) and reactive agility. The total sample comprised 39 male (body height: 182.95 ± 5.19 cm; body mass: 80.66 ± 7.69 kg) and 34 female (body height: 171.45 ± 6.81 cm; body mass: 61.95 ± 6.70 kg) college-level athletes (21.9 ± 1.9 years of age). The variables included body height, body mass, the percentage of body fat (BF%), balance as measured by an overall-stability index, the countermovement jump (CMJ), a reactive-strength index (RSI), stop-and-go reactive agility, and stop-and-go CODS. To define the associations between motor and anthropometric variables with CODS and reactive agility, the participants were clustered into three achievement groups based on their CODS and reactive agility performances. The ANOVA showed a significant difference between the CODS-based achievement groups for the CMJ (F test = 3.45 and 3.60 for males and females, respectively; p < 0.05), the RSI (F test = 6.94 and 5.29 for males and females, respectively; p < 0.05), and balance (F test = 3.47; p < 0.05 for males). In females, the reactive agility achievement groups differed significantly in the RSI (F test = 6.46; p < 0.05), the CMJ (F test = 4.35; p < 0.05) and BF% (F test = 4.07; p < 0.05), which is further confirmed by discriminant canonical analysis (Can R = 0.74; p < 0.05). The results confirm the need for independent evaluation and training for both CODS and reactive agility performance in sports. PMID:26557198

  12. NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-07-01

    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques used by other systems. Key Words: Teleoperation, Robotic Hand, Robotic Force Scaling

  13. Test-retest reliability of the Hand Test with normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Stoner, S

    1979-04-01

    The Hand Test (Wagner, 1962) was administered to 71 subjects; 14 days later these subjects were again administered the Hand Test. Results indicated the Hand Test is a highly reliable measure of an individual's behavioral action tendencies. PMID:16367109

  14. Hand tools: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

  15. American Society for Surgery of the Hand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Grants and Awards Touching Hands Project Job Listings Social Media e-Learning Portal Hand-e Sign In To ... Grants and Awards Touching Hands Project Job Listings Social Media e-Learning Portal Hand-e Sign In To ...

  16. Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

  17. Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

  18. Steps/day ability to predict anthropometric changes is not affected by its plausibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...

  19. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  20. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  1. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  2. Impact of physical activity interventions on anthropometric outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam; Phillips, Lorraine J; Ruppar, Todd M; Chase, Jo-Ana D

    2014-08-01

    Considerable research has tested physical activity (PA) interventions to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. This comprehensive meta-analysis synthesized the anthropometric effects of supervised exercise interventions and motivational interventions to increase PA. Eligible intervention studies included healthy participants with reported anthropometric outcomes [e.g., body mass index (BMI)]. Extensive searching located 54,642 potentially eligible studies. We included data from 535 supervised exercise and 283 motivational interventions in our syntheses, which used random-effects analyses. Exploratory moderator analyses used meta-analytic analogues of ANOVA and regression. We synthesized data from 20,494 participants in supervised exercise and 94,711 undergoing motivational interventions. The overall mean effect sizes (ES, d) for treatment versus control groups in supervised exercise interventions were 0.20 (treatment vs. control within-group comparison) and 0.22 (between-group comparison). The ES of 0.22 represents a post-intervention BMI of 26.7 kg/m(2) for treatment participants relative to 27.7 kg/m(2) for controls. The corresponding mean ES for motivational interventions was significantly smaller (d = 0.09 for between group, d = 0.10 for treatment vs. control within-group). Control group within-group comparisons revealed slightly worsening anthropometric outcomes during study participation (d = -0.03 to -0.04). Moderator analyses identified potential variables for future research. These findings document significant improvements in anthropometric effects from both supervised exercise and motivational interventions. PMID:24852179

  3. Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

  4. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  5. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  6. This Hand Is My Hand: A Probabilistic Approach to Hand Disambiguation in Egocentric Video

    E-print Network

    Yu, Chen

    the child's attention, we study hand tracking and disambiguation in egocentric video, and proposeThis Hand Is My Hand: A Probabilistic Approach to Hand Disambiguation in Egocentric Video Stefan,chenyu}@indiana.edu Abstract Egocentric cameras are becoming more popular, intro- ducing increasing volumes of video in which

  7. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  8. Modeling the effects of maternal nutritional status and socioeconomic variables on the anthropometric and psychological indicators of Kenyan infants from age 0-6 months.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the factors affecting growth and psychological development of over 100 infants from birth to age 6 months in the Embu region of Kenya. The analysis was divided into four parts. First, infants' birth weight, and length and head circumference as measured few days after birth, were modeled using multiple regression models. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestation period, and parity were associated with infants' anthropometric measurements (P < 0.05). Second, the scores on seven clusters of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were explained by health and socioeconomic indicators. While the models had poor predictive power, the scores were comparable to those reported in the literature for Puerto Rican and African American infants. The third part of the analysis modeled infant growth between 1-6 months by analyzing longitudinal data on length, head circumference, and weight. Dynamic models were postulated for the effects of nutritional, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and morbidity on anthropometric variables. The results showed that infants' calcium intakes were positively associated with length (P < 0.05). Maternal BMI and hemoglobin concentration were positively associated with infant weight (P < 0. 05); infant morbidity was negatively associated with weight (P < 0. 05). Lastly, the infants' scores at 6 months on the Bayley Motor Scale and on eight items from the Bayley Infant Behavior Record were explained using anthropometric, socioeconomic, and psychological variables. The infants' arm circumference and intake of protein were significant predictors of scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. In addition, time spent by the mother talking to the infant was positively associated with the scores on the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. The empirical results have implications for identifying vulnerable children in developing countries. PMID:10618590

  9. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. PMID:24209795

  10. Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Marcia; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. PMID:22464622

  11. Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryfogle, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

  12. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  13. Anthropometric approaches and their uncertainties to assigning computational phantoms to individual patients in pediatric dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Scott; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    Current efforts to reconstruct organ doses in children undergoing diagnostic imaging or therapeutic interventions using ionizing radiation typically rely upon the use of reference anthropomorphic computational phantoms coupled to Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. These phantoms are generally matched to individual patients based upon nearest age or sometimes total body mass. In this study, we explore alternative methods of phantom-to-patient matching with the goal of identifying those methods which yield the lowest residual errors in internal organ volumes. Various thoracic and abdominal organs were segmented and organ volumes obtained from chest-abdominal-pelvic (CAP) computed tomography (CT) image sets from 38 pediatric patients ranging in age from 2 months to 15 years. The organs segmented included the skeleton, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs and spleen. For each organ, least-squared regression lines, 95th percentile confidence intervals and 95th percentile prediction intervals were established as a function of patient age, trunk volume, estimated trunk mass, trunk height, and three estimates of the ventral body cavity volume based on trunk height alone, or in combination with circumferential, width and/or breadth measurements in the mid-chest of the patient. When matching phantom to patient based upon age, residual uncertainties in organ volumes ranged from 53% (lungs) to 33% (kidneys), and when trunk mass was used (surrogate for total body mass as we did not have images of patient head, arms or legs), these uncertainties ranged from 56% (spleen) to 32% (liver). When trunk height is used as the matching parameter, residual uncertainties in organ volumes were reduced to between 21 and 29% for all organs except the spleen (40%). In the case of the lungs and skeleton, the two-fold reduction in organ volume uncertainties was seen in moving from patient age to trunk height—a parameter easily measured in the clinic. When ventral body cavity volumes were used, residual uncertainties were lowered even further to a range of between 14 and 20% for all organs except the spleen, which continued to remain at around 40%. The results of this study suggest that a more anthropometric pairing of computational phantom to individual patient based on simple measurements of trunk height and possibly mid-chest circumference or thickness (where influences of subcutaneous fat are minimized) can lead to significant reductions in organ volume uncertainties: ranges of 40-50% (based on patient age) to between 15 and 20% (based on body cavity volumes tied to trunk height). An expanded series of non-uniform rational B-spine (NURBS) pediatric phantoms are being created at the University of Florida to allow the full application of this new approach in pediatric medical imaging studies.

  14. Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

  15. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

  16. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age ...

  17. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… ... a handwashing campaign for your school community. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Resources for healthcare workers and ...

  18. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

  19. Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

  20. Comparing Utility of Anthropometric Indices Based on Gender Differences in Predicting Dyslipidaemia in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pawaskar, Priyanka N.; Prabhu, M. Venkatraya; Pai, Sheila R.; Kumar, Nayanatara Arun; Pawaskar, Niwas G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Anthropometry is a simple reliable method for quantifying body proportions by measuring body length, weight and circumferences. Aim Our intention in this study was to compare sensitivities and positive predictive values of waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) in identifying healthy subjects, males and females separately for identifying obesity associated dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods We analysed randomly selected 100 healthy subjects (males:58%, females:42%) between 25 and 60 years of age attending tertiary health care center in South India, after obtaining informed consent and Institutional Ethical Clearance. WC, WHR, WHtR and BMI of all the enrolled subjects were measured and estimated. Their fasting serum lipid profile was assessed. Subjects were divided based on their gender and each group was then categorized as obese and non-obese using anthropometric parameters and their individual serum lipid profile values depending on the cut off standards as per WHO and ATP III guidelines and compared. Data obtained was statistically analysed. Results Mean values of WC, WHR, WHtR and BMI were highly significant (p<0.000) in obese in both males (97.43 ± 6.21cm, 0.96 ± 0.04, 0.61 ± 0.05, 27.72 ± 2.45kg/m2) and females (91.82 ± 5.18cm, 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.60 ± 0.04, 27.70 ± 3.44kg/m2) when considered separately compared to non-obese males (82.27 ± 5.33cm, 0.83 ± 0.033, 0.51 ± 0.03, 22.80 ± 2.11kg/m2) and females (71.68 ± 7.33cm, 0.78 ± 0.03, 0.48 ± 0.03, 21.82 ± 1.98kg/m2 respectively). WC was more sensitive for predicting the altered lipid profile (85%) in females and WHR (65%) in males. WHR showed higher ability to correctly predict the occurrence of dyslipidemia in the obese males (90% positive predictive value) and WHtR in females (92%). Conclusion The present study inferred that WC, WHR are more sensitive while WHR and WHtR have a higher positive predictive value than BMI in identifying dyslipidemia in healthy males and females. PMID:26435939

  1. Altered Vision Near the Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

  2. The mirror illusion: does proprioceptive drift go hand in hand with sense of agency?

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tota; Kume, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Vection can be regarded as the illusion of “whole-body” position perception. In contrast, the mirror illusion is that of “body-part” position perception. When participants viewed their left hands in a mirror positioned along the midsaggital axis while moving both hands synchronously, they hardly noticed the spatial offset between the hand in the mirror and the obscured real right hand. This illusion encompasses two phenomena: proprioceptive drift and sense of agency. Proprioceptive drift represented a perceptual change in the position of the obscured hand relative to that of the hand in the mirror. Sense of agency referred to the participants' subjective sense of controlling body image as they would their own bodies. We examined the spatial offset between these two phenomena. Participants responded to a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) question regarding the subjective position of their right hands and questionnaires regarding sense of agency at various positions of the right hand. We analyzed the 2AFC data using a support vector machine and compared its classification result and the questionnaire results. Our data analysis suggested that the two phenomena were observed in concentric space, but the estimated range of the proprioceptive drift was slightly narrower than the range of agency. Although this outcome can be attributed to differences in measurement or analysis, to our knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that proprioceptive drift and sense of agency are concentric and almost overlap. PMID:25774145

  3. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness. PMID:26638046

  4. Laterality in the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Rüther, Naima; Peterburs, Jutta; Pinnow, Marlies; Güntürkün, Onur

    2011-03-01

    In patient studies, impairments of sense of body ownership have repeatedly been linked to right-hemispheric brain damage. To test whether a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership could also be observed in healthy adults, the rubber hand illusion was elicited on both hands of 21 left-handers and 22 right-handers. In this illusion, a participant's real hand is stroked while hidden from view behind an occluder, and a nearby visible hand prosthesis is repeatedly stroked in synchrony. Most participants experience the illusionary perception of touch sensations arising from the prosthesis. The vividness of the illusion was measured by subjective self-reports as well as by skin conductance responses to watching the rubber hand being harmed. Handedness did not affect the vividness of the illusion, but a stronger skin conductance response was observed, when the illusion was elicited on the left hand. These findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership in healthy adults. PMID:20198533

  5. Hands-On Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Daniel M.; White, Christopher G.

    2003-05-01

    Packed full of real circuits to build and test, Hands-On Electronics is a unique introduction to analog and digital electronics theory and practice. Ideal both as a college textbook and for self-study, the friendly style, clear illustrations and construction details included in the book encourage rapid and effective learning of analog and digital circuit design theory. All the major topics for a typical one semester course are covered including RC circuits, diodes, transistors, op-amps, oscillators, TTL logic, counters, D/A converters and more. There are also chapters explaining how to use the equipment needed for the examples (oscilloscope, multimeter and breadboard) together with pin-out diagrams and manufacturers' specifications for all the key components referred to in the book. Practical introduction with real circuit examples to build Compact - just right for a single semester introductory text Ideal for both college use and self-study

  6. A helping hand.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    In Thailand, the Center for Women's Rights Protection of the Friends of Women Foundation operates a Women's Club for women experiencing domestic problems. In a little over a year of existence, the club has attracted 94 members, including six men. Women from all walks of life join the club to share their experiences and provide support to other women. The volunteers attend counseling programs to learn how to broach difficult subjects. More than 90% of the women who seek counseling have felt so desperate that they have entertained thoughts of murdering their husbands. The Women's Club lets them know that they are not alone in their trouble and that they have other, less drastic, solutions. The volunteers who work with the women's club, some of whom have experienced domestic problems first-hand, find their work self-affirming. PMID:12290168

  7. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  8. A Multigrasp Hand Prosthesis for Providing Precision and Conformal Grasps

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Daniel A.; Dalley, Skyler A.; Truex, Don; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an anthropomorphic prosthetic hand that incorporates four motor units in a unique configuration to explicitly provide both precision and conformal grasp capability. The paper describes the design of the hand prosthesis, and additionally describes the design of an embedded control system located in the palm of the hand that enables self-contained control of hand movement. Following the design description, the paper provides experimental characterizations of hand performance, including digit force capability, bandwidth of digit movement, physical properties such as size and mass, and electrical power measurements during activities of daily living. PMID:26167111

  9. A cystatin C-based formula without anthropometric variables estimates glomerular filtration rate better than creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft-Gault formula.

    PubMed

    Grubb, A; Björk, J; Lindström, V; Sterner, G; Bondesson, P; Nyman, U

    2005-01-01

    t In 1976, Cockcroft and Gault introduced a widely used formula comprising several anthropometric variables to compensate for the inadequacies of creatinine level as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present work investigates the possibility of introducing cystatin C-based formulas without anthropometric variables to predict GFR, determined by an invasive "gold standard" procedure (iohexol clearance), and to compare the diagnostic efficiency of such formulas with that of Cockcroft and Gault. All 451 adult patients referred to the University Hospital for determination of GFR by iohexol clearance measurements during a period of 6 months were included in the study. Calculations of bias (median percent error), correlation (adjusted R2), and accuracy (percentage of estimates within 30 and 50% of iohexol clearance) were used in the comparison. The cystatin C-based formula GFR (ml/min)=89.12 x cystatin C(-1.675) had lower bias and higher accuracy in predicting GFR than the Cockcroft-Gault formula. If a cystatin C-based formula including gender was constructed: GFR (ml/min)=99.19 x cystatin C(-1.713) x (0.823 for women), an even lower bias and higher accuracy were obtained. It is suggested that measurement of cystatin C should be used for the initial prediction of GFR of a patient. PMID:16025838

  10. Population Structure of the Chenchu and Other South Indian Tribal Groups: Relationships between Genetic, Anthropometric, Dermatoglyphic, Geographic, and Linguistic Distances

    E-print Network

    Sirajuddin, S. M.; Duggirala, R.; Crawford, Michael H.

    1994-10-01

    different data sets (genetic, dermatoglyphic, anthropometric, geographic, and linguistic) at three levels involving nine, six, and five populations. Although multiple correlation analysis reveals significant combined effects of geography and language...

  11. Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

  12. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ? 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ? 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p < 0.01) components, whereas no differences in mesomorphy. Analyzing the interaction between subcategories and playing position factors, a significant effect was found only in the endomorphy component (p = 0.05). The analysis of anthropometric characteristic of Italian young soccer players indicates that players have high muscularity value and low adiposity. This study showed the presence of somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence. PMID:25734780

  13. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

  14. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ? 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.

  15. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    PubMed Central

    Akça, F?rat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE). Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s). Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s). As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing. PMID:25114740

  16. Hands-in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlough, Vickie; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an earth science unit in which students study soil from their own backyards through a series of integrated activities. Introduces several earth science concepts, including local geology and the development of different types of geological regions. Presents activities to make a county soil map, measure moisture in soil, and measure the…

  17. Prosthetic helping hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  18. Anthropometric reference values in an Afro-Caribbean adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Selby D; Cadogan, Frances I

    2008-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is increasingly becoming a major public health issue in the Caribbean. In this study, we analyze patterns of growth in a population of Afro-Caribbean adolescents 12-18 years old and to compare these with those established for US adolescents. A cross-section of adolescent schoolchildren had weight and height measured using standardized procedures. In addition, percentage body fat (% BF) was measured using a foot-to-foot bioelectric impedance body fat analyzer (Tanita model 531). Selected age- and gender- specific percentiles of BMI, %BF, weight and height were derived and smoothed by cubic splines. These were compared with similar percentiles from US adolescent growth data. A total of 3,707 adolescents (1,585 males; 2,122 females) participated in the study. The age-specific correlation between BMI and %BF ranged from 0.75 to 0.87 in males and 0.79 to 0.87 in females. Females had significantly higher %BF than males in each age category. Overall, Tobagonian females were heavier and had higher BMI than their US counterparts especially levels above the median percentiles. Tobagonian males had similar height, weight, and BMI to their US counterparts over the range of percentiles. Overall, the pattern of growth in this group of adolescents suggests that they are growing at rates that are comparable to those seen in a more well-nourished population. PMID:17929244

  19. Continuation of a Project to Develop a Vocational Classroom Teacher's "Hands-On" Instrument to Measure Entry and Exit Skills of the Special Education Student for Specific Occupations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Richard; And Others

    To investigate the feasibility of developing hands-on instruments to aid classroom teachers in assessing both entering and exiting skills of the special needs students in vocational education, a continuing project at the University of Pittsburgh was conducted to meet two major objectives: develop a definitive rationale for the design of a hands-on…

  20. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. PMID:26117153

  1. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    PubMed

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-01

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R 2 and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R 2 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R 2 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R 2 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and agreements suitable for use in groups and populations across a wide range of fatness. PMID:26435103

  2. [Reconstructive surgery for hand injuries].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    Injuries to the hand requiring emergency treatment concern 1.4 million people a year in France. The creation of the European Federation of Emergency Services for the Hand (FESUM) has brought about an improvement in the quality of care. The aim of reconstructive surgery is to preserve the hand's ability to grasp, its mobility and agility, depending on the seriousness of the injuries. PMID:22730886

  3. [Malignant tumours of the hand].

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Rasmussen, Per Joen Svabo; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Jensen, Nina Vendel; Søe, Niels Henrik

    2011-05-30

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy. A correct diagnosis without delay is important because the life expectancy, due to a metastasis on the hand or fingers is approximately six months. PMID:21627901

  4. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  5. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals. PMID:23586369

  6. American Society of Hand Therapists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... member Gayle Severance was recently spotlighted by Drexel University for her role in historic hand surgeries. Photo from Drexel University From The Digital Dragon -- Drexel University's online news, ...

  7. A biometric authentication model using hand gesture images.

    PubMed

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan; Fister, Iztok; Fister, Iztok

    2013-01-01

    A novel hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's stationary hand gesture of hand sign language is proposed. The measurement of hand gestures could be sequentially acquired by a low-cost video camera. There could possibly be another level of contextual information, associated with these hand signs to be used in biometric authentication. As an analogue, instead of typing a password 'iloveu' in text which is relatively vulnerable over a communication network, a signer can encode a biometric password using a sequence of hand signs, 'i' , 'l' , 'o' , 'v' , 'e' , and 'u'. Subsequently the features from the hand gesture images are extracted which are integrally fuzzy in nature, to be recognized by a classification model for telling if this signer is who he claimed himself to be, by examining over his hand shape and the postures in doing those signs. It is believed that everybody has certain slight but unique behavioral characteristics in sign language, so are the different hand shape compositions. Simple and efficient image processing algorithms are used in hand sign recognition, including intensity profiling, color histogram and dimensionality analysis, coupled with several popular machine learning algorithms. Computer simulation is conducted for investigating the efficacy of this novel biometric authentication model which shows up to 93.75% recognition accuracy. PMID:24172288

  8. Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101

    E-print Network

    important in preventing the spread of contagious illnesses in child-care settings. Wash your hands often to remove disease-causing germs. Wash your hands upon arrival to the child-care setting in addition to: Wet of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion

  9. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  10. A cohort study of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy and associations with uteroplacental blood flow and fetal anthropometrics in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Elizabeth M.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Lazebnik, Noam; Mungai, Peter; King, Christopher L.; Hudgens, Michael; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria; Dent, Arlene E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use ultrasound to explore the impact of malaria in pregnancy on fetal growth and newborn outcomes among a cohort of women enrolled in an intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) program in coastal Kenya. Methods Enrolled women were tested for malaria at first prenatal care visit, and physical and ultrasound examinations were performed. In total, 477 women who had term, live births had malaria tested at delivery and their birth outcomes assessed, and were included in the study. Results Peripheral malaria was detected via polymerase chain reaction among 10.9% (n=87) at first prenatal care visit and 8.8% (n=36) at delivery. Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) were used by 73.6% (n=583) and were associated with decreased malaria risk. There was a trend for impaired fetal growth and placental blood flow in malaria-infected women in the second trimester, but not later in pregnancy. Among women with low body mass index (BMI), malaria was associated with reduced birth weight (P=0.04); anthropometric measures were similar otherwise. Conclusion With IPTp-SP and ITNs, malaria in pregnancy was associated with transient differences in utero, and reduced birth weight was restricted to those with low BMI. PMID:24792408

  11. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and psychopathology status of Egyptian male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Maggie M; Said, Nagwa S; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A; Abdel-Moety, Hanaa

    2015-02-28

    Ramadan fasting is believed to be beneficial. We assessed a random sample of 100 Egyptian male schizophrenia outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measures at baseline (T1) before Ramadan of 2014 and during the fourth week of Ramadan (T2). The metabolic syndrome was identified in 31 patients and these showed a reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and increase in the levels of dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), waste circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, all PANSS subscales, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In a multiple regression analysis, total energy intake and body mass index (BMI) emerged as the main independent predictors of deterioration in most inflammatory and psychopathology parameters. These findings did not support our hypothesis but suggested that Ramadan fasting has a negative impact on schizophrenia patients, especially those with metabolic syndrome. This could draw attention to the need in the psycho-education management of such patients to focus more on nutrition education for safe fasting. PMID:25529262

  12. Sex differences of anthropometric indices of obesity by age among Iranian adults in northern Iran: A predictive regression model

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Background and Objectives: The biological variation of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with age may vary by gender. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional relationship of anthropometric measures with age and sex. Methods: The data were collected from a population-based cross-sectional study of 1800 men and 1800 women aged 20-70 years in northern Iran. The linear and quadratic pattern of age on weight, height, BMI and WC and WHR were tested statistically and the interaction effect of age and gender was also formally tested. Results: The quadratic model (age2) provided a significantly better fit than simple linear model for weight, BMI and WC. BMI, WC and weight explained a greater variance using quadratic form for women compared with men (for BMI, R2=0.18, p<0.001 vs R2=0.059, p<0.001 and for WC, R2=0.17, p<0.001 vs R2=0.047, p<0.001). For height, there is an inverse linear relationship while for WHR, a positive linear association was apparent by aging, the quadratic form did not add to better fit. Conclusion: These findings indicate the different patterns of weight gain, fat accumulation for visceral adiposity and loss of muscle mass between men and women in the early and middle adulthood.

  13. An Anthropometric-Based Subject-Specific Finite Element Model of the Human Breast for Predicting Large Deformations

    PubMed Central

    Pianigiani, Silvia; Ruggiero, Leonardo; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The large deformation of the human breast threatens proper nodules tracking when the subject mammograms are used as pre-planning data for biopsy. However, techniques capable of accurately supporting the surgeons during biopsy are missing. Finite element (FE) models are at the basis of currently investigated methodologies to track nodules displacement. Nonetheless, the impact of breast material modeling on the mechanical response of its tissues (e.g., tumors) is not clear. This study proposes a subject-specific FE model of the breast, obtained by anthropometric measurements, to predict breast large deformation. A healthy breast subject-specific FE parametric model was developed and validated by Cranio-caudal (CC) and Medio-Lateral Oblique (MLO) mammograms. The model was successively modified, including nodules, and utilized to investigate the effect of nodules size, typology, and material modeling on nodules shift under the effect of CC, MLO, and gravity loads. Results show that a Mooney–Rivlin material model can estimate healthy breast large deformation. For a pathological breast, under CC compression, the nodules displacement is very close to zero when a linear elastic material model is used. Finally, when nodules are modeled, including tumor material properties, under CC, or MLO or gravity loads, nodules shift shows ~15% average relative difference.

  14. Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

  15. Magnetic Field & Right Hand Rule

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Magnetic Field & Right Hand Rule Academic Resource Center #12;Magnetic Fields And Right Hand Rules By: Anthony Ruth #12;Magnetic Fields vs Electric Fields · Magnetic fields are similar to electric charges and stationary charges. · In addition, magnetic fields create a force only on moving charges

  16. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  17. One-Handed Thumb Use on Smart Phones by Semi-literate and Illiterate Users in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katre, Dinesh

    There is a tremendous potential for developing mobile-based productivity tools and occupation specific applications for the semi-literate and illiterate users in India. One-handed thumb use on the touchscreen of smart phone or touch phone is considered as an effective alternative than the use of stylus or index finger, to free the other hand for supporting the occupational activity. In this context, usability research and experimental tests are conducted to understand the role of fine motor control, usability of thumb as the interaction apparatus and the ergonomic needs of users. The paper also touches upon cultural, racial and anthropometric aspects, which need due consideration while designing the mobile interface. Design recommendations are evolved to enhance the effectiveness of one-handed thumb use on smart phone, especially for the benefit of semi-literate and illiterate users.

  18. The hand of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  19. The hand of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Kivell, Tracy L; Deane, Andrew S; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  20. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  1. Hand Preference for Precision Grasping Predicts Language Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether or not there is a relationship between hand preference for grasping and hemispheric dominance for language--and how each of these is related to other traditional measures of handedness. To do this we asked right- and left-handed participants to put together two different sets of 3D puzzles made out of big or very small…

  2. Anthropometric Measurements as Predictors of the Degree of Carrying Angle in College Baseball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The goal of this study was to examine whether or not height, shoulder range of motion, hip width, shoulder width, and pitching experience were predictors for increased carrying angle of the throwing side. The premise of the study is based on an assumption that valgus extension overload produces tensile strain on the…

  3. Apolipoprotein A5 and lipoprotein lipase interact to modulate anthropometric measures in Hispanics of Caribbean origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) proteins interact functionally to regulate lipid metabolism, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene have also been associated independently with obesity risk. Evaluating gene combinations may be more effective than single SNP a...

  4. Risk of Complex and Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia in Relation to Anthropometric Measures and Reproductive History

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan D.; Voigt, Lynda F.; Newton, Katherine M.; Holt, Victoria L.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors sought to test the hypothesis that characteristics and exposures which influence the balance of estrogen and progesterone bear on the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia (EH), a noninvasive proliferation of the lining of the uterus. Cases included all female members of Group Health (Washington State) who were diagnosed with complex EH or EH with atypia during the period 1985–2003 and whose diagnoses were confirmed in a pathology review (n = 446). Controls were selected randomly from Group Health membership files and were matched to the cases by age and enrollment status at the reference date. An increased risk of EH was associated with increasing body mass index and nulliparity. There was a suggestion of a decreased risk of EH with atypia among current smokers. No association with diabetes or hypertension was found. The risk factors observed to be associated with EH in this study are similar to those associated with endometrial cancer. Whether these risk factors predispose women to cancer simply by increasing EH incidence or continue to augment cancer risk even after EH is present is currently unknown. PMID:18682485

  5. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  6. Anthropometric Measures and Fasting Insulin Levels in Children Before and after Cure of Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Margaret F; Graf, Jennifer; Gokarn, Nirmal; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Children with Cushing syndrome present with growth delay and excess adiposity that tends to be generalized rather than centripetal. There are no prospective studies of this phenotype as it evolves before and after treatment in children. The aims of this study were to evaluate children prior to and one-year after surgical cure compared to controls and to determine fasting insulin levels and their possible association with waist circumference and waist-height ratio, pre- and post-cure of Cushing syndrome. Methods 30 children with Cushing syndrome were evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment and compared to 14 age and body mass index-matched controls. Results Only triceps skin fold z- score showed a significant difference between patients with active Cushing syndrome and controls. A positive correlation between fasting insulin levels and waist circumference z- score was found for children with Cushing syndrome; this association persisted one-year following cure. Conclusions Unlike adults affected with Cushing syndrome, upper arm muscle area of children with Cushing syndrome did not differ from obese children without Cushing syndrome. The persistence of a positive correlation between waist circumference and fasting insulin despite remission of Cushing syndrome suggests that children with a history of Cushing syndrome may have an increased risk for adverse long-term effects of increased abdominal fat mass. Clinical Trial numbers: NCT00001595, NCT00001452, NCT00005927 PMID:22154461

  7. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ?7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

  8. The Associations between Anthropometric Indices and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeon Hui; Kang, Ji Young; Ha, Jick Hwan; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that OSA and obesity are strongly associated, few Asian studies have examined the associations between anthropometric obesity indices and OSA, especially in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric obesity indices on OSA in a Korean population. Methods Anthropometric indices, including neck circumference, waist circumference, and body mass index, were assessed in 383 consecutive subjects with suspected OSA. Results Of the 383 subjects assessed, 316 (82.5%) were diagnosed with OSA. Neck circumference (r?=?0.518), waist circumference (r?=?0.570), and body mass index (r?=?0.512) were correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (p<0.001, for all). After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking, a logistic regression model showed that neck circumference [odds ratio (OR), 1.414; p<0.001)], waist circumference (OR, 1.114; p<0.001), and body mass index (OR, 1.364; p<0.001) were associated with OSA. The linear regression model showed that neck circumference (??=?3.748, p<0.001), waist circumference (??=?1.272, p<0.001), and body mass index (??=?3.082, p<0.001) were associated with apnea-hypopnea index. The cut-off values for predicting OSA were determined as 34.5 cm for neck circumference, 76.5 cm for waist circumference, and 23.05 kg/m2 for body mass index for females, and 38.75 cm for neck circumference, 88.5 cm for waist circumference, and 24.95 kg/m2 for body mass index for males. Conclusion Increased anthropometric indices were significantly associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a Korean population. In addition, this study demonstrated the cut-off values for body mass index, waist circumference, and neck circumference for increased OSA risk. PMID:25474257

  9. Cognitive bias, hand preference and welfare of common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

    2015-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have hand preferences for grasping pieces of food and holding them while eating and these are stable throughout adult life. We report here that left-handed marmosets have negative cognitive bias compared to right-handed marmosets. Twelve marmosets were trained to expect a food reward from a bowl with a black lid and not from one with a white lid, or vice versa. In probe tests with ambiguous, grey-lidded bowls a left-handed group (N=7) were less likely to remove the lid to inspect the bowl than a right-handed group (N=5). This difference between left- and right-handed marmosets was not dependent on rate of learning, sex or age. In fact, hand-preference was not associated with rate of learning the task. Furthermore, retrospective examination of colony records of 39 marmosets revealed that more aggression was directed towards left- than right-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference, which can be measured easily, could serve as an indicator of cognitive bias and may signal a need for particular care in laboratory environments. We explain the results by arguing that hand preference reflects more frequent (or dominant) use of the opposite hemisphere and this predisposes individuals to behave differently. PMID:25813746

  10. Non-contacting Hand Image Certification System Using Morphological Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritani, Motoki; Saitoh, Fumihiko

    This paper proposes a non-contacting certification system by using morphological analysis of hand images to access security control. The non-contacting hand image certification system is more effective than contacting system where psychological resistance and conformability are required. The morphology is applied to get useful individual characteristic even if the pose of a hand is changed. First, a hand image is captured using the transmitted lighting. Next, the wrist area is removed from the hand area. The pattern spectrum that represents the form of the hand area is measured by the morphological analysis, and the spectrum is normalized to the invariant pattern to the scale change. Finally, the certification of an individual is performed by the neural network. The experimental results show that the sufficient accuracy to certificate individuals was obtained by the proposed system.

  11. [Aims of hand therapy in treatment of rheumatoid hand].

    PubMed

    Bureck, W

    2005-02-01

    When dealing with rheumatoid arthritis, the main issues of hand therapy are the treatment of hand and finger joints. We emphasize mobilisation of joints, muscle strengthening, correcting deformities by low temperature splints and joint protection. Further tasks of occupational therapy are: Informing patients about adaptive devices and training their use as well as educational programs for patients with reduced mobility of the upper limb. The most common surgery on the rheumatoid hand, that need postoperative treatment by a hand therapist are complete and limited arthrodesis of the wrist, surgical reconstruction of tendons, arthroplasty and arthrodeses of and for finger joints, and so on. At the Nordwestdeutsches Rheumazentrum St. Josef-Stift Sendenhorst we have designed a standard postoperative management for treating arthroplasty with a "Silikonspacer" in the metacarpophalangeal joints. PMID:15744657

  12. An anthropometric study to evaluate the correlation between the occlusal vertical dimension and length of the thumb

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Bishal Babu; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Shrestha, Pragya; Baral, Dharanidhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishment of proper occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is one of the important tasks for successful prosthodontic therapy. An ideal method for determining OVD in terms of cost, time, and instrument requirements has been sought in prosthodontics by various investigators. However, no such single method has been formulated. In the current anthropometric study, the relationship of the length of the thumb to the OVD was tested in two ethnic groups of Nepal, Aryans, and Mongoloids. The result of this study can be useful in determining proper OVD in edentulous patients. Aims and objectives The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the length of the thumb and OVD in Aryan and Mongoloid ethnic groups. The secondary aim was to compare the correlation between OVD and other anatomic measurements (eye–ear distance and pupil-to-rima oris distance) in these ethnicities. Materials and methods The OVD, thumb length, eye–ear distance and distance between pupil of eye and rima oris were measured in a total of 500 adult dentulous volunteers. The correlation between OVD and thumb length as well as other anatomic measurements was checked with Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship of OVD to the length of the thumb. Results The thumb length was significantly (P?0.05) correlated with strong and positive values (Pearson’s coefficient =0.874 in the whole population, 0.826 in Aryans, and 0.944 in Mongoloids). Regression analysis showed that thumb length was significantly related to OVD in both ethnic groups. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, the result implies that thumb length can be used as an adjunct for establishing OVD in the edentulous patients. PMID:25678817

  13. Anthropometric Assessment of Neck Adipose Tissue and Airway Volume Using Multidetector Computed Tomography: An Imaging Approach and Association With Overall Mortality.

    PubMed

    Maresky, Hillel S; Sharfman, Zachary; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Gomori, J M; Copel, Laurian; Tal, Sigal

    2015-11-01

    Neck adiposity tissue volume (NATV) accumulation is an indicator for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Neck circumference is a poor measure of NATV, and a quantifier for this entity has not yet been established.To evaluate volumetric quantification by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as a reproducible anthropometric tool to measure NATV and airway volume (AWV).A total of 519 patients, including a subset of 70 random patients who underwent head and neck CT scanning in our hospital within 1 year (2013), were studied. Included patients were all those undergoing nonenhanced CT (NECT) or CT angiography (CTA). Neck cross-sectional areas (NCSA) were measured at 2 separate levels of the neck, and 3D postprocessing tissue reconstruction was performed, and NATV and AWVs were quantified volumetrically for all patients within the year.The average NCSA at the level of the soft palate and thyroid cartilage was 22,579 and 14,500?mm, respectively. NATV when compared to the upper and lower levels of NCSA showed correlations of 0.64 and 0.79, respectively (P?anthropometric tool, as a high NATV:AWV demonstrated a significant risk factor for mortality; future research may further advance our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:26559286

  14. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following: SF-12, CES-D, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Rosenberg SE, and EQ-5D. Result: Preoperatively, our patient did not have any evidence of depression (CES-D = 3), had a nonstressful relationship with his spouse (Dyadic Adjustment Scale = 100), and self-esteem was in the normal range (Rosenberg SE = 21). These metrics and his additional scales (SF-12 MCS, EQ-5D, and EQ-VAS) did not change appreciably and were within the normal range for the entire duration of 3.5-year follow-up at all different time points. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of hand transplantation and the increasing awareness of the importance of psychosocial parameters in overall success, appropriate, comprehensive, and standardized measurements are important. These should be an integral part of patients’ screening and follow-up. PMID:26579339

  15. Neural bases of hand synergies

    PubMed Central

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is “synergy control” which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of “fixed” vs. “flexible” synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control. PMID:23579545

  16. Principles of Hand Fracture Management

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, DN; Jordan, D; Malahias, M; Hindocha, S; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    The hand is essential in humans for physical manipulation of their surrounding environment. Allowing the ability to grasp, and differentiated from other animals by an opposing thumb, the main functions include both fine and gross motor skills as well as being a key tool for sensing and understanding the immediate surroundings of their owner. Hand fractures are the most common fractures presenting at both accident and emergency and within orthopaedic clinics. Appropriate evaluation at first presentation, as well as during their management, can significantly prevent both morbidity and disability to a patient. These decisions are dependant on a wide range of factors including age, hand dominance, occupation and co-morbidities. A fracture is best described as a soft tissue injury with an associated bony injury. Despite this being the case, this paper intends to deal mainly with the bone injury and aims to discuss both the timing, as well as the methods available, of hand fracture management. PMID:22423303

  17. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... someone is sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused ...

  18. Correlation of leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels with anthropometric parameters in mother-newborn pairs

    PubMed Central

    Marino-Ortega, Linda A; Molina-Bello, Adiel; Polanco-García, Julio C; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if anthropometric parameters are associated with both leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sLEPR) levels in newborns and their mothers. This cross-sectional study was performed in 118 mother-newborn pairs. The venous blood sample of mothers was taken before delivery and immediately after delivery an umbilical cord blood sample was collected. Levels of leptin and sLEPR in maternal and umbilical cord sera were assessed by ELISA. Maternal serum concentration of leptin and sLEPR (6.2 and 25.7 ng/ml, respectively) were higher than in umbilical cord blood (2.4 and 14.2 ng/ml, respectively). However, the newborns and their mothers had higher sLEPR levels than leptin levels. In mothers was observed that leptin levels increase with weight gain in pregnancy and decreased sLEPR levels. Cord leptin levels correlated with neonatal birth weight and length, the body circumferences, placental weight and maternal leptin levels. Cord sLEPR levels correlated with maternal sLEPR and leptin levels. Maternal serum concentration of leptin correlated with pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain, cord sLEPR and leptin levels. Maternal sLEPR concentration correlated with cord sLEPR levels. The leptin and sLEPR levels in mother-newborn pairs are related with anthropometric parameters and an inverse correlation between leptin levels and sLEPR was observed in pairs. PMID:26379933

  19. Correlation between elite male Iranian gymnast’s wrist injuries and their anthropometric characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Hadi; Rajabi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Nikro, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: In gymnastics, wrists are under considerable force that causes various injuries. The influences of various risk factors have not been studied sufficiently to date to reduce the wrist injuries of gymnasts. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and the wrist injuries of elite male gymnasts who took part in the Iranian Premier League and Division One in 2012. Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlation study concerning the injuries of 43 elite male gymnasts. The extent of their wrist injuries was determined by a questionnaire and interviews. Also, their anthropometric characteristics were collected according to the criteria established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Event tree analysis and the Spearman rho correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the gymnasts, 53.5% experienced wrist injuries over the past year, and the rate of wrist injuries was three per gymnast for one year. The incidents of skin and muscular injuries were the most prevalent type of injuries followed by Injuries to ligaments and bones respectively. Body weight was the only anthromopetric characteristic of the participants that was found to have a significant positive relationship with wrist injuries (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gymnasts and their coaches should pay special attention to gymnasts’ weight as an intrinsic risk factor and take the required actions to prevent wrist injuries. PMID:25763171

  20. Surgical exposures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Watt, Andrew J; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-11-01

    Surgical approaches to the hand are commonly executed in the treatment of fractures, ligament injuries, and less commonly in the resection of bony tumors. Careful design and execution of these surgical approaches translates into superior functional and aesthetic outcomes. We have provided a thorough review of commonly used approaches to the hand by evaluating each of these approaches in the context of core principles including safety, versatility, preservation of stability, and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:25440073

  1. Two-handed grip on a mobile phone affords greater thumb motor performance, decreased variability, and a more extended thumb posture than a one-handed grip.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Matthieu B; Asakawa, Deanna S; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2016-01-01

    Holding a mobile computing device with two hands may affect thumb motor performance, joint postures, and device stability compared to holding the device and tapping the touchscreen with the thumb of the holding hand. We tested the hypotheses that holding a touchscreen mobile phone with two hands lead to increased thumb motor performance, different thumb postures, and decreased device movement relative to using one hand. Ten right-handed participants completed reciprocal thumb tapping tasks between emulated keys on a smartphone in either a one- (portrait) or two-handed (landscape) grip configuration. Effective index of performance measured from Fitts' Law was 9% greater (p < 0.001), movement time 7% faster (p < 0.001), and taps were 4% more precise (p < 0.016) for the two-handed grip. Tapping with a two-handed grip involved significantly different wrist and thumb postures than a one-handed grip. Variability of the computing device's movement was 36-63% lower for the two-handed grip compared to the one-handed grip condition (p < 0.001). The support for our hypotheses suggests that a two-handed grip results in increased performance and more extended wrist and thumb postures than a single-handed grip. Device designs that allow two-handed grips may afford increased performance relative to a one-handed grip. PMID:26360191

  2. Weight disorders and anthropometric indices according to socioeconomic status of living place in Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    PubMed Central

    Bahreynian, Maryam; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kasaeian, Amir; Ardalan, Gelayol; Rad, Tahereh Arefi; Najafi, Fereshteh; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excess weight in children and adolescents is a multi-factorial phenomenon and associated with earlier risk of obesity-related diseases. This study aims to assess the prevalence of weight disorders and the mean values of anthropometric indices according to regional, socioeconomic, and urban-rural variations among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This nationwide study was performed in 2011-2012 among a representative multi-stage cluster sample of 14,880 Iranian students aged 6-8 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) reference curves were used to define weight disorders. Abdominal obesity was defined as the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of more than 0.5. Iran was classified into four regions according to the socioeconomic status (SES). Results: The mean (95% confidence interval) of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) was 18.8 (18.7, 18.9) kg/m2, 67.0 (66.7, 67.3) cm, and 80.8 (80.3, 81.2) cm, respectively. The prevalence of underweight was 12.2%. A total of 9.7%, 11.9%, and 19.1% of students overweight, obese, and abdominally obese, respectively. The highest mean of BMI, WC, wrist circumference, HC, and WHtR were related to the second high SES (North-northeast) area (19.2 [18.8, 19.5], 68.3 [67.3, 69.4], 14.8 [14.7, 15.0], 82.6 [81.1, 84.0], and 0.464 [0.460, 0.468]). In contrast, the lowest SES (Southeast) region had the lowest mean of these anthropometric indices (17.6 [17.1, 18.2], 63.2 [61.7, 64.8], 14.5 [14.2, 14.8], 76.9 [74.9, 79.0], and 0.439 [0.434, 0.444]). Conclusion: We found considerable differences in the prevalence of anthropometric measures throughout the country by SES of the region. Health policy making and implementing health strategies should consider SES of regions. PMID:26487872

  3. HandWave : design and manufacture of a wearable wireless skin conductance sensor and housing

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Marc D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis report details the design and manufacture of HandWave, a wearable wireless Bluetooth skin conductance sensor, and dedicated housing. The HandWave collects Electrodermal Activity (EDA) data by measuring skin ...

  4. Noninvasive Technique for the Diagnosis of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Infants by Analyzing Pulse Wave Phases on Photoplethysmography Signals Measured in the Right Hand and the Left Foot

    PubMed Central

    Goudjil, Sabrina; Imestouren, Fatiha; Armougon, Aurelie; Razafimanantsoa, Lucie; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Wallois, Fabrice; Leke, André; Kongolo, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on the pulse phase difference (PPD) between the left foot (postductal region) and the right hand (preductal region). Materials and Methods PPD was determined from arterial photoplethysmography signals (pulse waves) measured by infrared sensors routinely used for pulse oximetry in 56 premature infants less than 32 weeks gestation. Only infants with significant PDA (sPDA) diagnosed by echocardiography were treated with ibuprofen (for 3 days). Patients were classified according to whether or not they responded (Success/Failure) to this treatment. The Control group was composed of infants in whom ductus had already closed spontaneously at the time of the first echocardiography. The 3 groups were compared in terms of PPD at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the study. For patients in the Failure (n?=?17) and Success groups (n?=?18), T1 corresponded to the first day of treatment and T2 to the day after completion of the course of ibuprofen. In the Control group (n?=?21), T1 corresponded to 1 to 3 days of life (DOL), and T2 to 4–6 DOL. Results Compared to the Control group, PPD was higher in the Failure (at T1 and T2) and Success (at T1) groups characterized by sPDA. After ibuprofen therapy, PPD in the Success group decreased to about the level observed in the Control group. The area under the ROC curve of PPD for the diagnosis of sPDA was 0.98 (95% CI 0.96–1); for an optimal cut-off of PPD ?1.65 deg/cm, the sensitivity was 94.2% and the specificity was 98.3%. Conclusion In this study, PPD was correlated with ductus arteriosus status evaluated by echocardiography, indicating involvement of the ductal shunt in the mechanism of redistribution in systemic vascular territories. PPD can be considered for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant PDA. PMID:24892695

  5. Alexithymia modulates the experience of the rubber hand illusion

    PubMed Central

    Grynberg, Delphine; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is associated with lower awareness of emotional and non-emotional internal bodily signals. However, evidence suggesting that alexithymia modulates body awareness at an external level is scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether alexithymia is associated with disrupted multisensory integration by using the rubber hand illusion task. Fifty healthy individuals completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and underwent the rubber hand illusion measure. In this measure, one watches a rubber hand being stroked synchronously or asynchronously with one’s own hand, which is hidden from view. Compared to the asynchronous stimulation, the synchronous stimulation results in the illusion that the rubber hand and the participant’s hand are closer together than they really are and that the rubber hand belongs to them. Results revealed that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with a lower ownership illusion over the rubber hand. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high alexithymia scorers integrate two simultaneous sensory and proprioceptive events into a single experience (lower multisensory integration) to a lesser extent than low alexithymia scorers. Higher susceptibility to the illusion in high alexithymia scorers may indicate that alexithymia is associated with an abnormal focus of one’s own body. PMID:26150779

  6. A Miniature Force Sensor for Prosthetic Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Chu, Mars; Diftler, Myron; Martin, Toby; Valvo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Tactile sensing is an important part of the development of new prosthetic hands. A number of approaches to establishing an afferent pathway back to the patient for tactile information are becoming available including tactors and direct stimulation of the afferent nerves. Tactile information can also be used by low-level control systems that perform simple tasks for the patient such as establishing a stable grasp and maintaining the grasping forces needed to hold an object. This abstract reports on the design of a small fingertip load cell based on semi-conductor strain gauges. Since this load cell is so small (measuring only 8.5mm in diameter and 6.25 mm in height), it easily fits into the tip of an anthropomorphic mechatronic hand. This load cell is tested by comparing a time series of force and moment data with reference data acquired from a much larger high-precision commercial load cell.

  7. A hand speed and duty cycle equation for estimating the ACGIH hand activity level rating

    PubMed Central

    Akkas, Oguz; Azari, David P.; Chen, Chia-Hsiung Eric; Hu, Yu Hen; Ulin, Sheryl S.; Armstrong, Thomas J.; Rempel, David; Radwin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective An equation was developed for estimating hand activity level (HAL) directly from tracked RMS hand speed (S) and duty cycle (D). Background Table lookup, equation, or marker-less video tracking can estimate HAL from motion/exertion frequency (F) and D. Since automatically estimating F is sometimes complex, HAL may be more readily assessed using S. Methods Hands from 33 videos originally used for the HAL rating were tracked to estimate S, scaled relative to hand breadth (HB), and single-frame analysis was used to measure D. Since HBs were unknown, a Monte Carlo method was employed for iteratively estimating the regression coefficients from US Army anthropometry survey data. Results The equation: =10[e?15.87+0.02D+2.25lnS1+e?15.87+0.02D+2.25lnS], R2 = 0.97, had a residual range ±0.5 HAL. Conclusions The S equation superiorly fit the Latko (1997) data and predicted independently observed HAL values (Harris, 2011) better (MSE=0.16) than the F equation (MSE=1.28). Practitioner Summary An equation was developed for estimating the HAL rating for the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value® based on hand RMS speed and duty cycle. Speed is more readily evaluated from videos using semi-automatic markerless tracking, than frequency. The speed equation predicted observed HAL values much better than the F equation. PMID:25343278

  8. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    PubMed Central

    Khanicheh, Azadeh; Muto, Andrew; Triantafyllou, Christina; Weinberg, Brian; Astrakas, Loukas; Tzika, Aria; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2006-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR) compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device). A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs) to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a) an ERF based resistive element; b) a gearbox; c) two handles and d) two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed compatibility tests demonstrated that there is neither an effect from the MR environment on the ERF properties and performance of the sensors, nor significant degradation on MR images by the introduction of the MR_CHIROD in the MR scanner. Conclusion The MR compatible hand device was built to aid in the study of brain function during generation of controllable and tunable force during handgrip exercising. The device was shown to be MR compatible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first system that utilizes ERF in MR environment. PMID:17022828

  9. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Capdarest-Arest, Nicole; Bertoch, Spencer T.; Bakken, Erik C.; Hoover, Susan E.; Zou, Jiyao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s) and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection. PMID:25210653

  10. Anthropometric factors related to sprint and agility performance in young male soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Mathisen, Gunnar; Pettersen, Svein Arne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between anthropometrics and sprint and agility performance and describe the development of sprint (acceleration) and agility performance in 10- to 16-year-old male soccer players. Methods One hundred and thirty-two participants were divided into three age groups, 10–12 years (mean 10.8±0.50), 13–14 years (mean 13.9±0.50), and 15–16 years (mean 15.5±0.24), with assessment of 20 m sprint with 10 m split time and agility performance related to body height and body mass within groups. Results In the 10- to 12-year-olds, there were no significant correlations between height, weight, and the performance variables, except for body mass, which was correlated to 10–20 m sprint (r=0.30). In the 13- to 14-year-olds, body height was significantly correlated with 10 m sprint (r=0.50) and 20 m sprint (r=0.52), as well as 10–20 m sprint (r=0.50) and agility performance (r=0.28). In the 15- to 16-year-old group, body height was correlated to 20 m (r=0.38) and 10–20 m (r=0.45) sprint. Body mass was significantly correlated to 10 m spring (r=0.35) in the 13- to 14-year-olds, as well as 20 m (r=0.33) and 10–20 m (r=0.35) sprint in the 15- to 16-year-olds. Conclusion Height and body mass were significantly correlated with sprint performance in 13- to 16-year-old male soccer players. However, the 10- to 12-year-olds showed no significant relationship between sprint performance and anthropometrics, except for a small correlation in 10–20 m sprint. This may be attributed to maturation, with large differences in body height and body mass due to different patterns in the growth spurt. The agility performance related to anthropometrics was insignificant apart from a moderate correlation in the 13- to 14-year-olds. PMID:26604842

  11. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George

    2013-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  12. Local Flaps of The Hand

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A local flap consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue that is harvested from a site nearby a given defect while maintaining its intrinsic blood supply. When a soft tissue defect of the hand is not amenable to primary closure or skin grafting, local skin flaps can be a used as a reliable source of soft tissue replacement that replaces like with like. Flaps are categorized based on their composition, method of transfer, flap design and blood supply, yet flap circulation is considered the most critical factor for the flap survival. This article reviews the classification of local skin flaps of the hand and offers a practical reconstructive approach for several soft tissue defects of the hand and digits. PMID:24731606

  13. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Changes in Anthropometric Variables in Adult Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg; Kalle-Uhlmann, Tamara; Arregui, Maria; Buijsse, Brian; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials provide conflicting results on the effects of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on changes in body weight. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to changes in anthropometric measures. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to July 2015 for prospective studies reporting on habitual fruit and/or vegetable consumption in relation to changes in body weight or waist circumference or to risk of weight gain/overweight/obesity in adults. Random-effects meta-analysis was applied to pool results across studies. Findings Seventeen cohort studies (from 20 reports) including 563,277 participants met our inclusion criteria. Higher intake of fruits was inversely associated with weight change (decrease) (beta-coefficient per 100-g increment, -13.68 g/year; 95% CI, -22.97 to -4.40). No significant changes could be observed for combined fruit and vegetable consumption or vegetable consumption. Increased intake of fruits was inversely associated with changes (decrease) in waist circumference (beta: -0.04 cm/year; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.02). Comparing the highest combined fruit & vegetable, fruit, and vegetable intake categories were associated with a 9%, 17%, and 17% reduced risk of adiposity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.91, 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99), (OR: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99), and (OR: 0.83, 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.99), respectively. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed several inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and prospective improvements in anthropometric parameters, and risk of adiposity. The present meta-analysis seems to be limited by low study quality. Nevertheless, when combined with evolutionary nutrition and epidemiological modeling studies, these findings have public health relevance and support all initiatives to increase fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:26474158

  15. Does Twice-weekly Cabergoline Improve Anthropometrical and Biochemical Profiles in Prediabetes? A Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Navid; Esmaily, Hadi; Abbasinazari, Mohammad; Tohidi, Maryam; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Hadaegh, Farzad; Tolabi, Maryam; Kalantar- Hormozi, Maryam; Dibaj, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic signaling is one of the regulatory pathways being investigated for its implication in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cabergoline on biochemical and anthropometric parameters in prediabetes stage (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance). In this double blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study, 27 prediabetic adults were randomized to receive 0.25-mg cabergoline twice weekly for two weeks, followed by 0.5 mg twice weekly for next 14 weeks (n = 13) or placebo (n = 14). All subjects were advised to follow a 500 kcal-deficit energy diet. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance, glycated hemoglobin (A1c), fasting, and 2-h insulin were measured at baseline and at 16-week follow-up. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) 2 was calculated to estimate steady-state beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance. Our results showed significant reductions in fasting (P = 0.004) and 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.01) after treatment, and significant improvements in beta-cell function (P = 0.03) and insulin resistance (P = 0.04) in the cabergoline group. The trend of non-significant A1c changes was decreasing in the cabergoline group versus an increasing trend in the placebo group. All anthropometric parameters were similar between the two groups. Our results revealed that twice-weekly cabergoline could improve glucose metabolism in prediabetes stage. Larger studies of longer duration are warranted to investigate the effect of cabergoline in preventing progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26185508

  16. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... does since most hitters are right-handed. In basketball and other sports, a left-handed player can ... change in strategy. For instance, a left-handed basketball player will dribble with his or her left ...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910...Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements...and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when employees'...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910...Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements...and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when employees'...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910...Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements...and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when employees'...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910...Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements...and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when employees'...