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Sample records for hand anthropometric measurements

  1. Relation between index finger width and hand width anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Komandur, Sashidharan; Johnson, Peter W; Storch, Richard L; Yost, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Measures of hand and finger anthropometry are very important for designing many hand held devices as well as understanding anthropometric effects on the operation of such devices. Many historical datasets have measured and recorded gross hand dimensions but do not often record the finer dimensions of the hand such as finger anthropometry. Knowing the size and mass of fingers across genders can be critical to the design and operation of hand held devices. In this paper we compare two empirical linear models that predicts index finger width at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (a finger anthropometric measure) based on hand-width (hand anthropometric measure). This will be especially useful for deriving population measures of finger anthropometry from large historical data sets where only gross hand dimensions are available. PMID:19963979

  2. A three-dimensional anthropometric solid model of the hand based on landmark measurements.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Matthew S; Barr, Alan B; Kasemsontitum, Boontariga; Rempel, David M

    2008-04-01

    Hand anthropometry data are largely based on measurements of the hand in an outstretched hand posture and are, therefore, difficult to apply to tool gripping hand postures. The purpose of this project was to develop a representative, scalable hand model to be used with 3-D software drawing packages to aid in the ergonomic design of hand tools. Landmarks (66) on the palmar surface of the right hand of 100 subjects were digitised in four functional hand postures and, from these, 3-D surface models of a mean, 25th and 75th% hand were developed. The root mean square differences in hand length between the hand model and the digitised data for the 25th, 50th and 75th percentile hand were 11.4, 3.2 and 8.9 mm, respectively. The corresponding values for hand breadth were 2.0, 0.4 and 1.4 mm. There was good agreement between distances on the digitised hand and the hand model. The application of this research includes improved ergonomic hand tool design through the use of hand anthropometry reference values developed from the general population using grasping hand postures. PMID:18357538

  3. The relationship between hand anthropometrics, total grip strength and individual finger force for various handle shapes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Kim, Dae-Min

    2015-01-01

    The design and shape of hand tool handles are critical factors for preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) caused by the use of hand tools. We explored how these factors are related to total force and individual finger force in males and females with various hand anthropometrics. Using the MFFM system, we assessed four indices of anthropometry, and measured total force and individual finger force on various handle designs and shapes. Both total force and individual finger force were significant according to gender and handle shape. Total grip strength to the handle shape indicated the greatest strength with D shape and the least with A shape. From the regression analysis of hand anthropometric indices, the value of R was respectably high at 0.608-0.696. The current study examined the gender and handle shape factors affecting grip strength based on the force measurements from various handle types, in terms of influence on different hand anthropometric indices. PMID:26323777

  4. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

  5. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-10-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802

  6. [Anthropometric proportion parameter of hand-face verification].

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, N

    1990-01-01

    By studying the criteria used in the pictorial art field, the Author obtained an anthropometric parameter. This appears to be a procedure to investigate and verify the ideal pattern as well as to calculate the vertical ratios and relationships of the face in different ages. The Pantaleoni's parameter shows the correspondence between Sn-Gn skin measurement and the interphalangeal flexion plica pf2-pf5. It is a parameter of verticality which changes depending on age, from youth to senility, and can be used in different dentistry areas. In orthognathia it allows to draw a borderline between true orthognathia and pre-surgical orthodontics; moreover it allows to detect if abnormal occlusion involves either maxillary or jaw-bone. PMID:2074883

  7. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  8. Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, B; Armstrong, T J; Goldstein, S A

    1992-03-01

    The major goal of this investigation was to collect statistically-based anthropometry describing the kinematics of the human hand and to model this anthropometry as a function of external hand measurements, so that it may be predicted noninvasively. Joint centres were anatomically estimated as the centre of curvature of the head of the bone proximal to the given joint. Joint centres determined using Reuleaux's method for PIP and DIP were within 1.4 mm of this anatomical estimate. Models using bone length as the independent variable explain more than 97% of the variability in the anatomically estimated joint centre position along the mid-line of the bone. Models for estimating the lengths of the kinematic segments using external hand length as the independent variable account for between 49 and 99% of the variability in segment length. Models for estimating the axial location of the finger MCP and thumb CMC joints with respect to the distal wrist crease using external hand length as the independent variable account for between 82 and 96% of the variability in these locations. Models for estimating the radio-ulnar location of the finger MCP and thumb CMC joints with respect to the long axis of the third metacarpal using external hand breadth as the independent variable account for between 30 and 74% of the variability in these locations. PMID:1572336

  9. An association of dominant hand grip strength with some anthropometric variables in Indian collegiate population.

    PubMed

    Koley, Shyamal; Singh, Arvinder Pal

    2009-03-01

    The present study deals with the correlations of dominant hand grip strength and 12 anthropometric variables, namely, height, weight, BMI, upper arm length, forearm length, total arm length, hand breadth, hand length, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, biceps skinfold and triceps skinfold in randomly selected 303 unrelated, normal, healthy students (151 males and 152 females) aged 18-25 years of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The findings of the present study indicate a strong association of dominant right hand grip strength with all the anthropometric variables, except biceps skinfold in male students and with height (r = 0.200), weight (r = 0.275), BMI (p = 0.217), total arm length (p = 0.218) and upper arm circumference (r = 0.199) in female students. Statistically significant positive correlations were also found between dominant left hand grip strength and height (r = 0.275), weight (p = 0.537), BMI (p = 0.472), hand breadth (p = 0.464), upper arm circumference (r = 0.570), forearm circumference (p = 0.464) and triceps skinfold (p = 0.343) only in male students, but no such association was found between grip strength of left hand dominant female students with any of the twelve anthropometric variables. It may be concluded that hand dominance, especially of the right hand, has some close association with the anthropometric variables related to upper extremities. PMID:19462672

  10. Estimation of stature from diversified hand anthropometric dimensions from Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jee, Soo-Chan; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2015-10-01

    The anthropometric method has served as a useful tool in reducing the amount of time and effort in confirmation of identity. This study is based on a sample of 321 people (167 males and 154 females) from South Korea. Twenty-nine variables including lengths, breadths, thickness, and circumference of their hands and wrists were measured. The body dimension data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To find the relationship between the various parts of the hand and height, Pearson correlation coefficients for the parts were compared. Further, the single regression and determination coefficient of a regression estimation equation (R(2)) and standard error of estimate (S.E.E) were calculated to compare prediction reliability. Hand length was found to be the variable with the highest correlation to stature in both males (r=0.628) and females (r=0.534). For male subjects, hand length (R(2)=0.398) and palm length (R(2)=0.358) proved to be the greatest determining factors for the regression equation. For both males and females, an R-square value of 0.643 was obtained with an estimation error of 5.719cm by using the derived multiple regressions. In this study single and multiple regression equations were derived for accurate estimation of stature and hand length was found to be the most relevant predictor of stature. PMID:26344451

  11. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  12. The Effect of Hand Dimensions, Hand Shape and Some Anthropometric Characteristics on Handgrip Strength in Male Grip Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=?0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with handgrip strength in grip athletes, but not in non-athletes, except for forearm circumference (r=0.406, p=0.010). The results showed that handgrip strength and some of the hand dimensions may be different in athletes who have handgrip movements with an object or opponent in comparison to non-athletes. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between handgrip strength and most of the hand dimensions in grip athletes. Therefore, these can be used in talent identification in handgrip-related sports and in clinical settings as well. PMID:23486361

  13. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  14. An image-based approach to obtaining anthropometric measurements for inertia modeling.

    PubMed

    Gittoes, Marianne J R; Bezodis, Ian N; Wilson, Cassie

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate an image-based method of obtaining anthropometric measurements for accurate subject-specific inertia parameter determination using Yeadon's (1990) inertia model. Ninety-five anthropometric measurements were obtained directly from five athletic performers and indirectly from digitization of subject-specific whole-body still images. The direct and image-based measurements were used as input into Yeadon's (1990) inertia model. The overall absolute error in predicted whole-body mass achieved using the image-based approach (2.87%) compared well to that achieved using the direct measurements (2.10%). The inclusion of image-based anthropometric measurements obtained from extremity (hand and feet) images was not found to consistently improve model accuracy achieved using whole-body images only. The presented method provides a successful alternative to direct measurement for obtaining anthropometric measurements required for customized inertia modeling. The noninvasive image-based approach is benefited by the potential for obtaining subject-specific measurements from large samples of subjects and elite athletic performers for whom time-consuming data collections may be undesirable. PMID:19827477

  15. Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Joseph J.; McGuine, Timothy A.; Leverson, Glen; Best, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine possible anthropometric and performance sex differences in a population of high school basketball players. Design and Setting: Measurements were collected during the first week of basketball practice before the 1995-1996 season. Varsity basketball players from 4 high schools were tested on a battery of measures chosen to detect possible anthropometric and performance sex differences. Subjects: Fifty-four female and sixty-one male subjects, from varsity basketball teams at high schools enrolled in the athletic training outreach program at the University of Wisconsin Hospital Sports Medicine Center in Madison, WI, volunteered to take part in this study. Measurements: We took anthropometric measurements on each of the 115 subjects. These included height, weight, body composition, ankle range of motion, and medial longitudinal arch type in weightbearing. Performance measures included the vertical jump, 22.86-m (25-yd) shuttle run, 18.29-m (20-yd) sprint, and single-limb balance time. Results: We compared anthropometric and performance characteristics using a 2-sample t test. The only exception to this was for medial longitudinal arch type, where the 2 groups were compared using a 2-tailed Fisher's exact test. The male subjects were significantly taller and heavier, while the females had a significantly higher percentage of body fat. There were no significant differences found for ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, but the females had significantly more inversion and eversion range of motion. Analysis of medial longitudinal arch type found females to have a higher percentage of pronated arches and males to have a higher percentage of supinated arches. Performance testing revealed that the males were able to jump significantly higher and run the 22.86-m (25-yard) shuttle run and 18.29-m (20-yard) sprint significantly faster than the female subjects. There was no significant difference between the groups for single-limb balance time. Conclusions: We found significant anthropometric and performance sex differences in a cohort of high school basketball players. Further study of these measures is necessary to determine if these differences can predict the risk for ankle injuries in this particular population. PMID:16558515

  16. Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters. PMID:23378952

  17. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 3.5 years). The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.0001)). A three variable model was also found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and plantar contact area minus the toe region (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region. PMID:19863799

  18. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  19. A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

  20. Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception

    PubMed Central

    Tehard, Bertrand; Van Liere, Marti J.; Com Nougu, Catherine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity of self-reported values for current anthropometric measurements and factors related to misreporting. Design E3N, a prospective cohort study of cancer risk factors conducted in France, part of the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer. E3N comprises 100,000 women, born between 1925 and 1950, followed with self-administered questionnaires sent every 18 to 24 months starting in 1990. Subjects 152 women for the validation study of self-reported anthropometric measurements and 91,815 women selected to evaluate factors affecting misreporting of body silhouette. Statistical analysis Paired t tests, Pearson and Spearman correlations were applied to evaluate the validity of self-reported measures, and analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to assess the factors influencing misreporting silhouette. Results The correlation coefficients between self- and external measurements were very high. All but sitting height (r=0.56) were more than 0.80, with weight and bust (nipples) measurements correlation coefficients attaining 0.94. The correlation between body mass index (BMI), measured by the technician and the self-reported silhouette, was 0.78. Small height was always associated with misclassification. Specific factors related to a more favorable perception of body silhouette were being overweight, small height, younger age and a lower level of education. These women were also more frequently unmarried, more physically active and had had a slender body shape during adolescence. Results denoting a less favorable perception of body shape were reversed. Conclusion/Applications Self-reported measurements (made with or without help) are valid measures in epidemiological studies. Body silhouettes are simple and useful indicators of body mass index. However they should be interpreted with caution in certain instances, especially for overweight subjects. PMID:12487540

  1. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  2. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  3. The Anthropometric Measurement of Schober's Test in Normal Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yong-Ren; Luo, Jin-Fan; Liu, Ming-Li; Lu, Fung-Jou; Wang, Soo-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of lower back mobility is essential in the assessment of lower back pain including ankylosing spondylitis. Original Schober's test (OST) and modified Schober's test (MST) are popularly conducted in daily rheumatology and orthopedics clinical practices. To our knowledge, this report is the only anthropometric reference study in a normal oriental population. The OST declined with age from 5.0 cm in the youngest (20–30 years old) to 3.1 cm in the aged (70–80 years old) male subjects and from 3.6 cm to 2.4 cm in the female subjects. The male OST was significantly more than the female OST. There was a good correlation between OST and MST in each of the three age groups of both sexes. PMID:26273601

  4. Measuring the Reliability of Sagittal Facial Anthropometric Measurements Under Soft Tissue Displacement Using a Modified Ruler

    PubMed Central

    Mojtahedzadeh, Faramarz; Alizadeh, Saeed; Riazi, Bahareh; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Despite the current use of radiography for quantifying sagittal skeletal measurements, it is an unsuitable way for screening or epidemiologic purposes. Although not fully approved, anthropometric measurements have been suggested as a substitute, and considering displacement of soft tissues, could possibly lead to more consistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of anthropometric anteroposterior facial measurements under soft tissue compression using a special ruler. Material and Methods: Anthropometric measurements were done with a specifically designed sliding ruler twice on 36 adult patients with a 14 day lag between two measurements. The ruler measured the distance between the external acoustic meatus and the nasion (Na), subnasal (Sn) point and the soft tissue pogonion (Pog). The soft tissue was displaced during measurements only to the extent that the underlying hard tissue resistance was felt subjectively by each assessor. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for both inter- and intra- rater measurements using SPSS software. Results: All measurements had inter- and intrarater agreements above 0.9, with only a few parameters having lower bound confidence intervals below 0.9, but more than 0.8. Conclusion: Sagittal facial anthropometric measurements under soft tissue displacement using the specific ruler are valid and reliable and could possibly aid orthodontists in chairside craniofacial assessments. PMID:23724216

  5. Consistency and accuracy of measurement of lower-limb amputee anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    Geil, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    Lower-limb amputees often exhibit large fluctuation in residual-limb shape, necessitating careful observation and anthropometric measurement for prosthetists to ensure socket fit. Anthropometric measurement may become more important as an outcome measure indicating success in rehabilitation. This study investigated the accuracy and reliability of seven prosthetic anthropometric measurement devices as used by a group of eight prosthetic-orthotic practitioners and a group of five prosthetic-orthotic students to measure six common anthropometric dimensions on three foam positive models of transtibial amputee residual limbs. Two of the models were identical, enabling assessment of individual repeatability. Some clinically significant errors were noted in the results; however, the general variability in measurements was not clinically significant. Students were slightly more consistent than practitioners; students were more consistent with linear measurements, while practitioners were more consistent with circumferential measures. The results further demonstrated that the VAPC measurement device used in the study was both inaccurate and unreliable. PMID:15944877

  6. Classification of hard core and petty criminals using anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Girdhar G; Asthana, Akash; Maurya, Amit

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the somatometric measurements among hard core criminals, petty criminals and community people. Using standard anthropometric procedures, somatometric dimensions were studied on 250 subjects each from the three groups: (i) experimental (hard core criminal) group, (ii) control-I (petty criminal) group, and (iii) control-II (community people) group. Univariate analysis of variance was used for making comparisons of somatometric measurements between these groups in the univariate case. Quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) was used to develop a model based on measurements that classifies the cases into groups. The study revealed that the somatometric measurements such as morphological total facial height (p < 0.01), physiognomic total facial height (p = 0.015), nasal length (p = 0.001), height of lower face (p = 0.001), nasal depth (p = 0.002), sitting height vertex (p = 0.011), bigonial breadth (p < 0.001), maximum head breadth (p = 0.001), morphological upper facial height (p < 0.001), and physiognomic ear breadth (p = 0.039) were significantly different between the three groups. Morphological upper facial height, physiognomic total facial height, nasal length and height of lower face could be used as identifying factors for hard core criminals. Morphological total facial height, physiognomic upper facial height, physiognomic ear breadth, and sitting height were found different significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control-II group. The QDA provided an overall 72.4% correct classification of cases and 74.5%, 69.6%, and 72.9% correct classification for the experimental, control-I and control-II groups, respectively. The blurred distinction of the three groups could be explained by using the QDA model. PMID:21068476

  7. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (? = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (? = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  8. Sonographic Measurement of the Umbilical Cord and Its Vessels and Their Relation with Fetal Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Sheida; Kalantari, Mojgan; Shahriari, Mona; Shakiba, Madjid

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been established that presence of lean umbilical cord with reduced Wharton’s jelly in sonographic scans is a fetal marker for risk of small for gestational age at birth. With improvement of ultrasound techniques, more studies have been investigating the alterations of the umbilical cord on pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: To determine the reference ranges of the umbilical cord area during pregnancy and to find out the association between umbilical cord morphometry and fetal anthropometric measurements. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on a study population of 278 low-risk pregnant women between 15 and 41 weeks of gestational age. Fetal anthropometric measurements including biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were calculated. The measurements of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and circumference of the umbilical cord, vein and arteries were done on an adjacent plane to the insertion of umbilical cord into the fetus’s abdomen. The mean and standard deviation of the CSA of the umbilical cord and the 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th percentiles of it were calculated for each gestational age. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between the measures of the cord and fetal anthropometric measurements. Polynomial regression analysis was performed for curves. Results: The values of the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and Wharton’s jelly (WJ) increase consistently until 30 weeks of gestation, after which they reach a plateau. There was a significant correlation between anthropometric measurements and umbilical cord measurements especially with the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and WJ. The regression equation for the umbilical cord CSA according to gestational age up to 30 weeks was y = -0.2159 x2 + 23.828x-325.59 (R2 = 0.6334) and for the WJ area according to gestational age up to 30 weeks, it was y = -0.2124 x 2 +17.613x-221.66 (R2 = 0.4979). Conclusion: Reference ranges for umbilical cord CSA have been generated. The CSA of the umbilical cord and other components of it increase as a function of gestational age. These measurements correlate with fetal size. PMID:26528384

  9. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  10. Thyroid Volume and Its Relation to Anthropometric Measures in a Healthy Cuban Population

    PubMed Central

    Turcios, Silvia; Lence-Anta, Juan J.; Santana, Jose-Luis; Pereda, Celia M.; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Rodriguez, Regla; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Rubino, Carole; Ortiz, Rosa M.; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the thyroid volume in healthy adults by ultrasound and to correlate this volume with some anthropometric measures and other differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors. Study Design Thyroid volume and anthropometric measures were recorded in a sample of 100 healthy adults, including 21 men and 79 women aged 18-50 years, living in a non-iodine-deficient area of Havana city. Results The average thyroid volume was 6.6 ± 0.26 ml; it was higher in men (7.3 ml) than in women (6.4 ml; p = 0.15). In the univariate analysis, thyroid volume was correlated with all anthropometric measures, but in the multivariate analysis, body surface area was found to be the only significant anthropometric parameter. Thyroid volume was also higher in current or former smokers and in persons with blood group AB or B. Conclusion Specific reference values of thyroid volume as a function of body surface area could be used for evaluating thyroid volume in clinical practice. The relation between body surface area and thyroid volume is coherent with what is known about the relation of thyroid volume to thyroid cancer risk, but the same is not true about the relation between thyroid volume and smoking habit. PMID:25960963

  11. Standards for selected anthropometric measurements in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, M G; Meaney, F J

    1991-10-01

    We report standards (95th, 50th, and 5th centiles) in Prader-Willi syndrome for weight, height, sitting height, head circumference, head length, head breadth, hand length, middle finger length, palm length, hand breadth, foot length, foot breadth, triceps skinfold, and subscapular skinfold. For comparison with Prader-Willi syndrome standardized curves, normal control data from the literature were plotted similarly and standard curves were produced. We encourage the use of these standards with the examination of patients who have Prader-Willi syndrome and in the comparison of the patient who has Prader-Willi syndrome with other similarly affected individuals. The standards may also be useful for assisting in the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome, particularly in younger individuals. PMID:1896298

  12. Upper-body anthropometric and strength measures and their relationship to start time in elite luge athletes.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Brett W; Hartman, Jason E; Kilgore, J Lon; Hartman, Michael J; Kaus, John M

    2011-10-01

    Start time has been shown to be a significant predictor of overall performance in the sport of luge. The starting motion in luge has been described as an explosive upper-body movement that requires significant technique and skill to perfect. This study aims to investigate upper-body factors that may relate to start time in luge. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study as part of their normal off-season training. Each subject had a minimum of 3 years' experience in the sport of luge, and at the time was a member of a U.S. Luge National Team. Subjects completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press (BP), prone row (PR), and weighted pull-up (WP). Anthropometric distances were taken measuring finger-tip span (FS), biacromial breadth (BB), acromio-radial length, acromio-olecranon length (AO), hand length, and sitting cervical height. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based on which U.S. Luge National team they were currently a member of, Senior National (SN, n = 13) and Junior National (JN, n = 9). A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed several significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships between upper-body variables and start time among the groups. The BP and PR 1RM were shown to have a significant relationship in both groups. Among the anthropometric variables, AO was also significant in both groups. The WP, FS, BB, and height were all shown to have a significant relationship with start time in the SN group, but not in the JN group. These results suggest that as luge athletes become more efficient in the starting technique, outside factors such as upper-body strength and anthropometric measures play a larger role in performance. PMID:21873904

  13. Correlation between morphometry of the suprascapular notch and anthropometric measurements of the scapula.

    PubMed

    Polguj, M; J?drzejewski, K S; Podgrski, M; Topol, M

    2011-05-01

    The concept of the study was to find the correlation between the morphometry of the suprascapular notch and basic anthropometric measurements of the human scapula. The measurements of the human scapulae included: morphological length and width, maximal width and length projection of scapular spine, length of acromion, and maximal length of the coracoid process. The glenoid cavity was measured in two perpendicular directions to evaluate its width and length. The width-length scapular and glenoid cavity indexes were calculated for every bone. In addition to standard anthropometric measurements two other measurements were defined and evaluated for every suprascapular notch: maximal depth (MD) and superior transverse diameter (STD). The superior transverse suprascapular ligament was completely ossified in 7% of cases. Ten (11.6%) scapulae had a discrete notch. In the studied material, in 21 (24.4%) scapulae the MD was longer than the STD. Two (2.3%) scapulae had equal maximal depth and superior transverse diameter. In 47 (57.7%) scapulae the superior transverse diameter was longer than the maximal depth. There was no statistically significant difference between anthropometric measurements in the group with higher MD and the group with higher STD. The maximal depth of the suprascapular notch negatively correlated with the scapular width-length index. The maximal depth of the scapular notch correlated with the morphological length of the scapulae. PMID:21630232

  14. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  15. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires

  16. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  17. Percentile Curves for Anthropometric Measures for Canadian Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kuhle, Stefan; Maguire, Bryan; Ata, Nicole; Hamilton, David

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess a child's weight status but it does not provide information about the distribution of body fat. Since the disease risks associated with obesity are related to the amount and distribution of body fat, measures that assess visceral or subcutaneous fat, such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), or skinfolds thickness may be more suitable. The objective of this study was to develop percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and sum of 5 skinfolds (SF5) in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The analysis used data from 4115 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age that participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 were measured using standardized procedures. Age- and sex-specific centiles were calculated using the LMS method and the percentiles that intersect the adult cutpoints for BMI, WC, and WHtR at age 18 years were determined. Percentile curves for all measures showed an upward shift compared to curves from the pre-obesity epidemic era. The adult cutoffs for overweight and obesity corresponded to the 72nd and 91st percentile, respectively, for both sexes. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The percentile curves presented are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive as associations with cardiovascular disease markers or outcomes were not assessed. PMID:26176769

  18. Environmental factors associated with preschool obesity. III. Dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Crawford, P B; Hankin, J H; Huenemann, R L

    1978-06-01

    This longitudinal study of children from six months to six years of age showed differences by age, sex, and race in dietary intakes, eating patterns, and anthropometric measurements. Except for calories and iron at all ages and calcium between two and four years, most children consumed at least two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary protein was consistently high at all ages. There was no apparent relationship between the use and need for vitamin or mineral supplements. At six years of age, most children ate five meals or snacks per day. Television commercials, children accompanying mothers to grocery stores, and the publicized relationships of dietary fat and cholesterol to coronary disease influenced food practices of families. Anthropometric measurements revealed that boys were consistently taller and heavier than girls. However, at all ages, even at six months, girls had higher skinfold values than boys. These data on dietary intakes, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements will be correlated with obesity indexes at each age in subsequent papers. PMID:670612

  19. Anthropometric measurements to design total knee prostheses for the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S V; Ranawat, C S; Aroojis, A; Laud, N S

    2000-01-01

    An anthropometric computed tomography scan study was undertaken to design femoral components in 86 knees (47 osteoarthritic Indians-21 men, 26 women) who matched standards suggested by the Indian Council of Medical Research, 1990. Patients were classified into 3 random groups based on anteroposterior diameter (<55 mm, 55-59 mm, >59 mm). Most Indian men (86.8%) could have the femoral component satisfactorily replaced by available designs. A statistically significant number of women (60.4%, P < .001) had femoral anteroposterior diameters smaller than the smallest available (55 mm) femoral component. Splaying in mediolateral dimension (> 10 mm) in a given anteroposterior size was noted in all 3 groups. This pilot study representative of the Indian population can be used to manufacture prosthetic inventories suitable for most of the Asian-Pacific population having smaller anthropometric measurements than Western populations. PMID:10654467

  20. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometric measures in infancy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Srensen, Thorkild I A; Olsen, Jrn

    2010-12-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent chemicals that may affect growth early in life. The authors estimated the associations between maternal plasma levels of PFOS and PFOA and infants' weight, length, and body mass index development during the first year of life. Fourteen hundred women were randomly selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort among those who provided blood samples early in pregnancy and gave birth to liveborn singletons between 1996 and 2002. Weight and length information at 5 and 12 months of age was available for 1,010 children. Multiple linear regression models were used for analyses, and maternal PFOS and PFOA concentrations (ng/mL) were inversely related to children's weight in the first year of life: adjusted regression coefficients: 0.8 g (95% confidence interval(CI): 4.2, 2.6) at 5 months and 5.8 g (95% CI:10.4, 1.2) at 12 months for perfluorooctanesulfonate(PFOS); 9.4 g (95% CI: 28.6, 9.9) at 5 months and 19.0 g (95% CI: 44.9, 6.8) at 12 months for perfluorooctanoate(PFOA) [corrected]. A similar pattern was observed for body mass index measurements, and no associations with length were found. After sex stratification, the inverse associations with weight and body mass index were more pronounced in boys, and no clear association was seen for girls. PMID:20940176

  1. Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

  2. Longitudinal association of anthropometric measures of adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Heo, Moonseong; Van Horn, Linda V.; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Getaneh, Asqual; Ard, Jamy; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Waring, Molly E.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Smoller, Sylvia Wassertheil; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Some studies suggest that anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity may be superior to body mass index for the prediction of cardiometabolic risk factors; however, most studies have been cross-sectional. Our aim was to prospectively examine the association of change in body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), and waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR) with change in markers of cardiometabolic risk in a population of postmenopausal women. Methods We used a subsample of participants in the Womens Health Initiative aged 50 to 79 at entry with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements obtained at multiple time points over 12.8 years of follow-up (N = 2,672). The blood samples were used to measure blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides at baseline, and at years 1, 3, and 6. We conducted mixed-effects linear regression analyses to examine associations at baseline and longitudinal associations between change in anthropometric measures and change in cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for covariates. Results In longitudinal analyses, change in BMI, WC, and WCHtR robustly predicted change in cardiometabolic risk, whereas change in WHR did not. The strongest associations were seen for change in triglycerides, glucose, and HDL-C (inverse association). Conclusion Increase in BMI, WC, and WCHtR strongly predicted increases in serum triglycerides and glucose, and reduced HDL-C. WC and WCHtR were superior to BMI in predicting serum glucose, HDL-C, and triglycerides. WCHtR was superior to WC only in predicting serum glucose. BMI, WC, and WCHtR were all superior to WHR. PMID:25453348

  3. Comparison of a novel surface laser scanning anthropometric technique to traditional methods for facial parameter measurements.

    PubMed

    Joe, Paula S; Ito, Yasushi; Shih, Alan M; Oestenstad, Riedar K; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning techniques could be used to collect accurate anthropometric measurements, compared with traditional methods. The use of an alternative 3D method would allow for quick collection of data that could be used to change the parameters used for facepiece design, improving fit and protection for a wider variety of faces. In our study, 10 facial dimensions were collected using both the traditional calipers and tape method and a Konica-Minolta Vivid9i laser scanner. Scans were combined using RapidForm XOR software to create a single complete facial geometry of the subject as a triangulated surface with an associated texture image from which to obtain measurements. A paired t-test was performed on subject means in each measurement by method. Nine subjects were used in this study: five males (one African-American and four Caucasian females) and four females displaying a range of facial dimensions. Five measurements showed significant differences (p<0.05), with most accounted for by subject movements or amended by scanning technique modifications. Laser scanning measurements showed high precision and accuracy when compared with traditional methods. Significant differences found can be very small changes in measurements and are unlikely to present a practical difference. The laser scanning technique demonstrated reliable and quick anthropometric data collection for use in future projects in redesigning respirators. PMID:22214207

  4. Association between anthropometric measures of obesity and subclinical atherosclerosis in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wenzhen; Parvez, Faruque; Wu, Fen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measures such as waist-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-height-ratio (WHtR), waist circumference, Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and upper thigh circumference, have been linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, their relationships with subclinical atherosclerosis are unclear. Studies in normal-weight populations, especially in Asian countries where leanness is prevalent, are lacking. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the associations of WHR, WHtR, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index (BMI), MUAC and upper thigh circumference with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) among 562 middle-aged participants free of CVD in rural Bangladesh. Results After adjusting for age and sex, WHR and waist circumference but not BMI showed a positive significant association with cIMT. In multivariate analysis, each standard deviation (SD) increase of WHR (0.08) or WHtR (0.07) was associated with an 8.96 μm (95% CI, 1.12–16.81) or 11.45 μm (95%CI, 0.86–22.04) difference in cIMT, respectively, after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, education level, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). The associations of WHR and WHtR with cIMT were independent of the influence of other anthropometric measures. The associations of other anthropometric measures and cIMT were not apparent. Conclusions In our relatively lean, healthy Asian population, WHR and WHtR appear to be better predictors of early atherosclerosis than other common surrogates of adiposity. PMID:24401245

  5. Impact of anthropometric measures and serum leptin on severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, N A; Montasser, I F; Bioumy, E E; Saad, W E

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of obesity, determined by different anthropometric measures, on clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD and the relation between serum leptin and clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD in Egyptian patients. The study was carried out at Ain Shams University Hospitals and Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. A total of 60 patients with clinically and endoscopically evident gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were enrolled in this study as well as 20 healthy subjects matched for age and gender serving as the control group. Patients were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) into two groups: group 1 (n = 30): overweight and obese (BMI ? 25 and/or waist-to-height ratio [WHtR] ? 0.5) and group 2 (n = 30): normal weight (BMI ? 18 to < 25 and/or WHtR ? 0.4 to < 0.5). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, anthropometric measures, and symptom severity score questionnaire were done for all patients. Serum leptin hormone was assessed for patients and control groups.The evidence revealed statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of different anthropometric measures (P < 0.00) except the height (P < 0.9), abdominal fat depot equations (P < 0.00), endoscopic findings according to Los Angeles classification (P < 0.001), symptom severity score (P < 0.00), and serum leptin hormone (43.96 23.50 in group 1 vs. 7.5133 8.18294 in group 2 and 6.98 5.90 in the control group) (P = 0.00). Obesity in general and central (abdominal) obesity specifically has significant impact on clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD. Increased leptin hormone level is associated with clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD. Future trial on larger number of patients is emphasized. PMID:25168182

  6. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Mesana, M I; Cardon, G; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Góźdź, M; Socha, P; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Koletzko, B V; Duvinage, K; Androutsos, O; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A

    2014-08-01

    The ToyBox-study aims to develop and test an innovative and evidence-based obesity prevention programme for preschoolers in six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain. In multicentre studies, anthropometric measurements using standardized procedures that minimize errors in the data collection are essential to maximize reliability of measurements. The aim of this paper is to describe the standardization process and reliability (intra- and inter-observer) of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) measurements in preschoolers. All technical procedures and devices were standardized and centralized training was given to the fieldworkers. At least seven children per country participated in the intra- and inter-observer reliability testing. Intra-observer technical error ranged from 0.00 to 0.03 kg for weight and from 0.07 to 0.20 cm for height, with the overall reliability being above 99%. A second training was organized for WC due to low reliability observed in the first training. Intra-observer technical error for WC ranged from 0.12 to 0.71 cm during the first training and from 0.05 to 1.11 cm during the second training, and reliability above 92% was achieved. Epidemiological surveys need standardized procedures and training of researchers to reduce measurement error. In the ToyBox-study, very good intra- and-inter-observer agreement was achieved for all anthropometric measurements performed. PMID:25047381

  7. Choosing the Best Newborn Anthropometric Measure Associated With the Risks and Outcomes of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Lei, XiaoPing; Zhang, YongJun; Fang, Fang; Wu, Ting; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with various prenatal risks and postnatal adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to choose the most sensitive newborn anthropometric measure, which is closely associated with IUGR-related risks and outcomes, to substitute IUGR after delivery. Data were obtained from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multicenter prospective cohort study in the United States from 1959 to 1976. Maternal heavy smoking and severe hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, neonatal polycythemia and hypothermia, low intelligence quotient (<70) at age 7 years were chosen as IUGR-related risks and outcomes. Eight anthropometric measures at birth were tested by logistic regression model. Birth weight-to-head circumference (W/HC) had the largest odds ratio (OR) for neonatal polycythemia (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.0), severe hypertensive disorders (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.2), and maternal heavy smoking (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.7-2.1) during pregnancy. It also had the highest summary OR (9.3). Thus, W/HC may be a good measure for IUGR. PMID:25854788

  8. Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí-Parana, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey, carried out in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 279 girls) from 6th to 9th grade, aged 10 to 14 years, from public and private schools of Paranavaí - PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity through a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis, the U Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise for body composition control and weight reduction. PMID:25623726

  9. Anthropometric sourcebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

  10. Prediction of quadruple hamstring graft diameter for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by anthropometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Naiyer; Ranjan, Rahul; Ahmed, Sohail; Sabir, Aamir B; Jilani, Latif Z; Qureshi, Owais A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The literature is scanty regarding the anthropometric predictors on the diameter of quadruple hamstring graft obtained in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in Indian population. Minimum diameter of the graft for ACL reconstruction should be >7 mm to preclude failure. The objective of this study was to assess the prediction of the hamstring graft diameter by several anthropometric parameters including age, thigh circumference, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: 46 consecutive patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction by the same surgeon using quadruple hamstring grafts were evaluated. The age, thigh circumference of the normal side, height, weight and BMI were recorded preoperatively and Pearson correlation was done using these parameters with graft diameter measured intraoperatively. Regression analysis in a stepwise manner was undertaken to assess the influence of individual anthropometric parameters on the graft diameter. Results: There were 44 males and 2 females. Mean age was 29.4 years, mean height was 172.6 cm, mean weight was 70.9 kg, mean BMI was 23.8 kg/m2, mean thigh circumference was 47.1 cm and mean graft diameter was 7.9 mm. There was a positive correlation individually between the thigh circumference and graft diameter obtained (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46), and between the height and graft diameter (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46). On the regression analysis thigh circumference and height were found to be significant predictors of graft diameter giving the following equation: Graft diameter (mm) = 0. 079 height (cm) +0.068 thigh circumference (cm) −9.031. Conclusion: Preoperatively using the above equation if graft diameter came out to be <7 mm then alternate options of graft material must be kept in mind in order to prevent failure. PMID:26955176

  11. Relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among adolescent National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, south India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Pentapati K.; Suresh, Gowtham; Chenna, Deepika; Chenna, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, India. Materials and Methods: Demographic information like age, sex, and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures like weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference, and dental caries were recorded as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (P = 0.049 and 0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI, and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09, and 1.02, respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (Height, weight, and BMI) and dental caries. Conclusion: There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group. PMID:23633856

  12. Anthropometric measures at multiple times throughout life and prostate cancer diagnosis, metastasis and death

    PubMed Central

    Gerdtsson, A.; Poon, B.Y.; Thorek, D.L.J.; Mucci, L.A.; Evans, M.J.; Scardino, P.T.; Abrahamsson, P.A.; Nilsson, P.; Manjer, J.; Bjartell, A.; Malm, J.; Vickers, A.; Freedland, S.J.; Lilja, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and anthropometrics (i.e. body measurements) were based on single measurements or obtained over limited time spans. Objective To study the association between anthropometrics measured at multiple time-points in life and their relation to later diagnosis, metastasis or death from PCa. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study includes 27,167 Swedish men enrolled in two population-based projects during 1974 – 96. PCa diagnosis up to Dec. 31st 2006, disease information, gestation time, anthropometrics at birth, military conscript testing, and adulthood were collected. 1355 PCa-cases were matched with 5271 controls. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Univariate conditional logistic regression was used to determine whether clinical diagnosis, metastasis, or PCa death were associated with low birth weight (weight < 2500 g), Small for Gestational Age, or with weight, length or BMI at birth, adolescence (age 16–22), or early middle age (age 44–50). Results and Limitation Apart from weight at adolescence, which was associated with an increased risk of PCa diagnosis (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.05 (1.01–1.09; P = 0.026)), pre-adulthood measurements were not associated with any PCa endpoint. Adulthood parameters were not associated with diagnosis. In contrast, weight and BMI at early middle age were significantly associated with metastasis (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.13 (1.06–1.20; P<0.0001) and (OR (95%) 1.09 (1.05–1.14; P<0.0001) and death (OR per 5 kg (95%) 1.11 (1.03–1.19; P=0.005) and (OR (95%) 1.08 (1.03–1.13; P=0.003), respectively. It remains unclear whether these results apply to men of non-Caucasian origin, in populations with active PCa screening programs, or in countries without socialized health-care. Conclusions The analyses of these large data sets demonstrate significant effects of body characteristics (with links to metabolic syndrome) when measured at early middle age are associated with PCa disease severity, metastatic progression and outcome. Conversely, measurements at birth or adolescence are not associated with PCa prevalence or outcome, Patient Summary Increased weight and BMI in adults is associated with a higher risk of PCa metastasis and death. PMID:25794458

  13. Agreement between cranial and facial classification through clinical observation and anthropometric measurement among envigado school children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the agreement between cranial and facial classification obtained by clinical observation and anthropometric measurements among school children from the municipality of Envigado, Colombia. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among 8-15-year-old children. Initially, an indirect clinical observation was made to determine the skull pattern (dolichocephalic, mesocephalic or brachycephalic), based on visual equivalence of right eurion- left eurion and glabella-opisthocranion anthropometric points, as well as the facial type (leptoprosopic, mesoprosopic and euryprosopic), according to the left and right zygomatic, nasion and gnation points. Following, a direct measurement was conducted with an anthropometer using the same landmarks for cranial width and length, as well as for facial width and height. Subsequently, both the facial index [euryprosopic (?80.9%), mesoprosopic (between 81% - 93%) and leptoprosopic (?93.1%)] and the cranial index [dolichocephalic (index???75.9%), mesocephalic (between 76% - 81%), and brachycephalic (?81.1%)] were determined. Concordance between the indices obtained was calculated by direct and indirect measurement using the Kappa statistic. Results A total of 313 students were enrolled; 172 (55%) were female and 141 (45%) male. The agreement between the direct and indirect facial index measurements was 0.189 (95% CI 0.117-0261), and the cranial index was 0.388 (95% CI 0.304-0.473), indicating poor concordance. Conclusions No agreement was observed between direct measurements conducted with an anthropometer and indirect measurements via visual evaluation. Therefore, the indirect visual classification method is not appropriate to calculate the cranial and facial indices. PMID:24886038

  14. Association between various anthropometric measures of obesity and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kommuri, Naga V A; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Veeranna, Vikas; Kollepara, Sri Lakshmi S; Ramesh, Krithi; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Afonso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Central obesity is a known cardiovascular risk factor and measures of visceral obesity are known to predict atherosclerosis. This study sought to explore the association between various anthropometric measures and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (MoSCA) among low risk healthy individuals. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a population-based study of Caucasian (38%), Afro-American (28%), Chinese (22%) and Hispanic (12%) subjects, aged 45-84 years, free from clinical cardiovascular disease. We performed a post hoc analysis of the limited access dataset of MESA subjects to evaluate the association between carotid intima media thickness and coronary artery calcium score (CACS), as MoSCA and various measures of obesity. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, ethnicity and C-reactive protein were performed. Each unit increase in waist-hip ratio was strongly associated with increase in both common and internal carotid intima media thickness (beta: 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 to 0.18, p < 0.001 and beta: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.43, p = 0.021, respectively). Measures of central obesity were superior to body mass index as demonstrated by their consistent association with each category of CACS when compared to the reference category (CACS = 0). Compared to body mass index, measures of visceral obesity were significantly associated with MoSCA in this multiethnic healthy population. Waist-hip ratio seems to be more consistent in its association with various MoSCA compared to other anthropometric measures. PMID:26559851

  15. Adaptive Staircase Measurement of Hand Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Sexton, Brandon M.; Kurtz, Karl; Liu, Yang; Block, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers often need to measure proprioception (position sense), for example to monitor the progress of disease, to identify the cause of movement or balance problems, or to ascertain the effects of an intervention. While researchers can use sophisticated equipment to estimate proprioceptive acuity with good precision, clinicians lack this option and must rely on the subjective and imprecise methods currently available in the clinic. Here we describe a novel technique that applies psychometric adaptive staircase procedures to hand proprioception with a simple tablet-style apparatus that could easily be adapted for the clinic. We report test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the adaptive staircase method vs. two other methods that are commonly used in clinical settings: passive motion direction discrimination (PMDD) and matching. As a first step, we focus on healthy adults. Subjects ages 18–82 had their proprioception measured with each of the three techniques, at the metacarpophalangeal joint in the second finger of the right hand. A subset completed a second session in which the measures were repeated, to assess test-retest reliability. Another subset had the measurements done by two different testers to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed using stepwise regression on age and activity level, and correlations calculated across the three methods. Results suggest that of the three methods, the adaptive staircase method yields the best test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity. The adaptive staircase method may prove to be a valuable clinical tool where more accurate assessment of proprioception is needed. PMID:26274824

  16. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. PMID:25810218

  17. Waist related anthropometric measures - simple and useful predictors of coronary artery disease in women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sharanjit; Sharma, Anand; Singh, Harinder Jot

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the waist related anthropometric measures like waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. Methods: The study included 88 women aged 40-80 years. Waist circumference, hip circumference, height, weight, age, and other covariates were collected by questionnaire. The primary endpoint was incident coronary heart disease that was reported by physician. The data was analyzed statistically using ?2-test for quantitative data and student t-test. The significance of the results as determined in 95.0% confidence interval. Results: The mean age was 59.07 11.53 in the study group and 54.36 10.84 in the control group. The waist circumference in the study group was higher (95.443 11.187) than the control group (74.886 6.672) (p < 0.001). The mean waist to hip ratio (WHR) was 0.96 0.08 in the study group and 0.78 0.06 in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.62 0.07 in the study group and 0.48 0.04 in the control group (p < 0.001). Waist derived measures were superior to BMI in predicting CAD. The unadjusted AUC (95% Confidence Interval) was 0.008 (0.006-0.095) for WHtR, 0.001 (0.00 0.002) for waist hip ratio, and 1 (0.323-1.766) for body mass index. Conclusion: Waist related anthropometric measures are important predictors as CAD risk factors among middle-aged and older women, as compared to BMI. PMID:25755843

  18. Anthropometric Measurements and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Sun, Ling; Wen, Yi Feng; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2-18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended. PMID:26567204

  19. An intensive Alpine climbing expedition and its influence on some anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of an intensive 4 week Alpine climbing expedition on percentage body fat, absolute body fat and lean body mass was investigated in 14 adult male students. Anthropometric measures were taken on two occasions during the training period prior to the expedition, twice during the expedition and finally eight weeks after the expedition had returned home. There was a 3% reduction in percentage body fat between the first testing occasion and the fourth taken towards the end of the expedition. Over the same interval there was a mean reduction of 2.6 kg in absolute body fat and a reduction in lean body mass of 2.47 kg. All three criterion mean values on the final testing session returned to or exceeded those taken on session one. Images p126-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7407450

  20. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology

  1. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  2. The determination of correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Mahakizadeh, S; -Ghoroghi, F Moghani; Moshkdanian, Gh; Mokhtari, T; Hassanzadeh, G

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of stature is an important issue, which is significantly considered in forensic anthropology. It will be difficult to predict the identification of an individual when only some parts of dead body are discovered following disasters or criminal events. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between stature and upper limb and hand length in Iranian adults to generate regression formulae for stature estimation. Three anthropometric measurements; Stature, Upper Limb Length (ULL) and Hand Length (HL) were taken on subjects, comprising 142 male students (18-25 years) using standard measuring instruments. The data were analysed using SPSS 16. Then linear regression models were used to estimate stature. The results indicated a positive correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements. The correlation coefficient with upper limb length was r= 0.89 & p =0.0001 and with hand length was r= 0.78 & p =0.0001. In conclusion, we found a strong correlation between stature and upper limb and hand length. The regression analysis also showed that the Upper Limb Length give better prediction of stature compared to Hand length measurements. PMID:26795396

  3. Evaluation of the laser scanner as a surface measuring tool and its accuracy compared with direct facial anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Aung, S C; Ngim, R C; Lee, S T

    1995-12-01

    The development of new laser scanning techniques enabling the capture of 3-D images which can be quantitatively assessed permits their use for surface measurements of the face. We used a laser optical surface scanner to study 30 subjects and took 83 facial anthropometric measurements, using 41 identifiable landmarks on the scanned image. These were compared to the standard anthropometric measurements using the same landmarks. Of these, 12 (14.0%) showed a mean difference less than 1.0 mm and were considered highly reliable measurements and 16 (19.0%) with less than 1.5 mm difference were considered reliable. The highly reliable measurements were mainly in the nasal and circumoral regions and the landmarks involved were mainly those in the mid-saggital plane. This indicates that the laser scanner can be a useful tool for rapid facial measurements in selected anatomical parts of the face. Accurate location of landmarks and operator skill are important factors to achieve reliable results. PMID:8548155

  4. Consistency, precision, and accuracy of optical and electromagnetic shape-capturing systems for digital measurement of residual-limb anthropometrics of persons with transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Geil, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing systems have been adapted for specific use in prosthetics, providing practitioners with a means to digitally capture the shape of a patient's limb, modify the socket model using software, and automatically manufacture either a positive model to be used in the fabrication of a socket or the socket itself. The digital shape captured is a three-dimensional (3-D) model from which standard anthropometric measures can be easily obtained. This study recorded six common anthropometric dimensions from CAD shape files of three foam positive models of the residual limbs of persons with transtibial amputations. Two systems were used to obtain 3-D models of the residual limb, a noncontact optical system and a contact-based electromagnetic field system, and both experienced practitioners and prosthetics students conducted measurements. Measurements were consistent; the mean range (difference of maximum and minimum) across all measurements was 0.96 cm. Both systems provided similar results, and both groups used the systems consistently. Students were slightly more consistent than practitioners but not to a clinically significant degree. Results also compared favorably with traditional measurement, with differences versus hand measurements about 5 mm. These results suggest the routine use of digital shape capture for collection of patient volume information. PMID:18247248

  5. Swedish anthropometrics for product and workplace design.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lars; Sperling, Lena; Gard, Gunvor; Ipsen, Staffan; Olivares Vergara, Cindy

    2009-07-01

    The present study describes the anthropometrics of the Swedish workforce, aged 18-65, and compares the measurements with data collected four decades earlier. This anthropometric information is based on measurements of a total of 367 subjects, 105 males and 262 females. Of the 367 subjects, 268 responded to advertisements (Study A) and 99 were randomly selected from a community register (Study B). Subjects were scanned in four positions. Manual measuring equipment was used for hands, feet, head and stature. As differences between significant measurements in Studies A and B were negligible, the data were merged. Anthropometric descriptive statistics of women and men are presented for 43 body dimensions. Participants represent the Swedish population fairly well when compared with national statistics of stature and weight. Comparing new anthropometric data with old shows that the breadth, depth, height, and length measurements of Swedes as well as weight have increased and that Swedish anthropometric homogeneity has decreased. The results indicate that there is a need to update ergonomic recommendations and adjust products and workplaces to the new information. PMID:18977470

  6. Predicting Football Players' Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Using Standard Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jonathan M.; Lambert, Brad S.; Martin, Steven E.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population specific and might not be accurate for football athletes. Objective: To develop multiple regression equations using standard anthropometric measurements to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry %Fat (DEXA%Fat) in collegiate football players. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA football athletes (age ?=? 20 1 years, height ?=? 185.6 6.5cm, mass ?=? 103.1 20.4kg, DEXA%Fat ?=? 19.5 9.1%) participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants had the following measures: (1) body composition testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; (2) skinfold measurements in millimeters, including chest, triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal (SFAB), and thigh; and (3) standard circumference measurements in centimeters, including ankle, calf, thigh, hip (AHIP), waist, umbilical (AUMB), chest, wrist, forearm, arm, and neck. Regression analysis and fit statistics were used to determine the relationship between DEXA%Fat and each skinfold thickness, sum of all skinfold measures (SFSUM), and individual circumference measures. Results: Statistical analysis resulted in the development of 3 equations to predict DEXA%Fat: model 1, (0.178 AHIP) + (0.097 AUMB) + (0.089 SFSUM) ? 19.641; model 2, (0.193 AHIP) + (0.133 AUMB) + (0.371 SFAB) ? 23.0523; and model 3, (0.132 SFSUM) + 3.530. The R2 values were 0.94 for model 1, 0.93 for model 2, and 0.91 for model 3 (for all, P < .001). Conclusions: The equations developed provide an accurate way to assess DEXA%Fat in collegiate football players using standard anthropometric measures so athletic trainers and coaches can monitor these athletes at increased health risk due to increased size. PMID:22892406

  7. Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150

  8. Nutritional assessment and its correlation with anthropometric measurements in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Koor, Behrooz Ebrahimzadeh; Nakhaie, Mohammad Reza; Babaie, Saied

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important problems in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is chronic malnutrition. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition using a subjective global assessment (SGA) in HD patients referred to the Valie ASR Hospital, Arak, Iran. In this descriptive analysis study, 190 HD patients were selected with random sampling. SGA and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed in all patients. Data were analyzed with the Chi-square and t-tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 190 patients studied, 78 patients (41.1%) were male and 112 patients (58.9%) were female. Sixteen patients were detected to have adequate nutritional status (8.4%), 90 (47.4%) had mild malnutrition and 84 patients (44.2%) had moderate malnutrition. We found a significant negative correlation of SGA score with patient's weight (r = -0.147) and patient's body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.238). Also, it correlated significantly with duration of dialysis treatment (years) (r = 0.404). The SGA score showed a significant negative correlation with mid-arm circumference (MAC) (r = - 0.152). No significant correlation was found between SGA score and mid-arm muscle area. Our study showed that >50% of patients on maintenance HD had mild or moderate malnutrition. There was no case of severe malnutrition. Duration of dialysis treatment and some anthropometric indices (weight, BMI and MAC) also showed a significant correlation with SGA score, which are important to determine the nutritional status of HD patients. PMID:26178540

  9. Body Image, Anthropometric Measures, and Eating-Disorder Prevalence in Auxiliary Unit Members

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leeper, James D; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Richardson, Mark; Bishop, Phillip A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Medical professionals have recognized eating disorders and related problems in competitive athletes. Auxiliary members (color guard, dance, majorettes) experience the same appearance-related pressures observed in sports commonly associated with eating disorders. Objective: To estimate eating-disorder prevalence based on associated eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors in female auxiliary members and to compare perceived and ideal body images and anthropometric measurements between at-risk and not–at-risk participants for eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Three universities in the southeastern United States. Patients or Other Participants: Participants (n  =  101, mean age  =  19.2 ± 1.2 years) represented 3 auxiliary units, including color guard (n  =  35), dance line (n  =  47), and majorettes (n  =  19). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants self-reported menstrual history, height, and weight. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body fat percentage, and waist and hip circumferences. We screened for eating-disorder risk behavior with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 and for body dissatisfaction with the Figural Stimuli Survey. Results: Based on the EAT-26, we estimated eating-disorder prevalence among members to measure 29.7% (95% confidence interval  =  20.8%, 38.6%). The EAT-26 results revealed that 21% of participants used purgatives and 14% vomited to control weight or shape. The at-risk group had higher scores on the EAT-26 total (P ≤ .01) and on the dieting (P ≤ .01), oral control (P  =  .02), and bulimia (P  =  .01) subscales. Hip circumference (P  =  .01), self-reported weight (P  =  .03), measured weight (P  =  .04), difference between measured and preferred weights (P  =  .02), and calculated target weight (P  =  .02) were different between the at-risk and not–at-risk groups. Conclusions: Collegiate auxiliary unit members may have an unacceptable prevalence of eating disorders. Our results validate concerns that auxiliary members may exhibit an unacceptable eating-disorder risk, highlighting the need to examine and address unhealthy weight-management behaviors independent of eating-disorder status. PMID:19593425

  10. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

  11. Prenatal DDT Exposure in Relation to Anthropometric and Pubertal Measures in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gladen, Beth C.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Hediger, Mary L.; Katz, Solomon H.; Barr, Dana B.; Davis, Mark D.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2004-01-01

    DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), a pesticide once used widely in agriculture and now limited to public health use, remains a controversial chemical because of a combination of benefits and risks. DDT or its breakdown products are ubiquitous in the environment and in humans. Compounds in the DDT family have endocrine actions and have been associated with reproductive toxicity. A previous study reported associations between prenatal exposure to p,p?-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene] and increased height and weight in adolescent boys. We examined a group with higher exposures to see whether similar associations would occur. Our study group was 304 males born in Philadelphia in the early 1960s who had participated in a previous study. Anthropometric and pubertal measures from one to six visits during their adolescent years were available, as were stored maternal serum samples from pregnancy. We measured p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane], and o,p?-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane] in the maternal serum. Outcomes examined in the boys were height, ratio of sitting height to height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, ratio of subscapular to the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, skeletal age, serum testosterone, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. No associations between prenatal exposure to any of the DDT compounds and any outcome measure were seen. PMID:15579424

  12. Cranio facial anthropometric measurements among Rai and Limbu community of Sunsari District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, O; Bhattacharya, S; Jha, N; Dhungel, S; Jha, C B; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, U

    2009-09-01

    Anthropometry is applied to obtain measurements of living subjects for identifying age, stature, and various dimensions related to particular race or an individual. Population based cross sectional study was carried out in Dharan and its neighbouring areas with the help of departments of Anatomy and Community Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan. This study included 444 healthy people aged 25-50 years belonging to pure race of Rai and Limbu communities. Head length, nasal ergonomics and total stature were measured for each selected individual. Student't' test was applied to identify significance of the variables. Except nasal breadth of Limbu, the results showed a significant variation (p < 0.001) in all parameters between male and female of both the communities. It was also revealed that Limnbu males and females were taller with larger head length, longer nasal length and nasal height. Similarly nasal breadths of Limbu females were broader where as in males, Rai had broader nose than that of the Limnbu. Therefore it was concluded that anthropometric measurements can play significant role in determining the sex and ethnicity of characteristic pure races of national importance. PMID:20334066

  13. Anthropometric measurements of the endoscopic eyebrow lift in the treatment of facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Sugawara, Yasushi; Asato, Hirotaka

    2003-06-01

    Endoscopic eyebrow lift was performed on 51 patients presenting with eyebrow ptosis due to facial paralysis. The resulting anthropometric measurements of eyebrow position were analyzed statistically to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. When preoperative eyebrow differences between the paralyzed and nonparalyzed sides were measured, the average difference at midpoint was 4.4 mm, and at the highest point, 4.6 mm. When the same points were measured postoperatively, the average difference at midpoint was 2.4 mm, and at the highest point, 2.3 mm. The difference in eyebrow height between the paralyzed and nonparalyzed sides correlated positively with age, both preoperatively and postoperatively. However, differences between preoperative and postoperative eyebrow height (which reflects the effectiveness of endoscopic eyebrow lift) at the highest point did not correlate with age and at the midpoint displayed a slightly negative correlation with age. These results suggest that endoscopic eyebrow lift is effective among young patients whose eyebrow ptosis is minor and is relatively ineffective among elderly patients whose eyebrow ptosis is severe. The conventional method of juxta-brow excision is indicated for elderly patients, for whom the operative scar is almost inconspicuous. PMID:12794455

  14. The use of anthropometric proportion indices in the measurement of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Edler, Raymond; Agarwal, Pragati; Wertheim, David; Greenhill, Darrel

    2006-06-01

    This study used anthropometric data in the form of Farkas' proportion indices in order to quantify facial attractiveness, and to relate measured change through surgery, to clinical judgement. Standardized photographs of 15 orthognathic patients were used in album form and rated by 10 experienced clinicians: album 1 for facial attractiveness (before surgery) and album 2 for improvement in facial attractiveness (before and after surgery). Twenty-five proportion indices were selected and linear measurements recorded from the pre- and post-surgical photographs. The corresponding change in indices and in clinicians' scores were compared. The clinicians' assessment of the degree of improvement in facial appearance achieved through surgery, related closely to the scores produced by the change in proportion indices (r = 0.698, P = 0.004). Clinical assessment demonstrated a clear inverse relationship between initial attractiveness rating and the degree of improvement achieved through orthognathic surgery (r = -0.781, P = 0.001). The results showed good repeatability in terms of clinical assessment, photography and digitization. The method would appear to have potential for further development, possibly into a 'facial attractiveness index' for the objectives of quantification of improvement achieved through treatment. PMID:16415084

  15. Anthropometric measures and risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jacob; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Lynch, Henry T; Rosen, Barry; Tung, Nadine; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Karlan, Beth; Foulkes, William D; Ainsworth, Peter; Ghadirian, Parviz; Senter, Leigha; Eisen, Andrea; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2012-06-01

    Studies conducted among women in the general population suggest that various anthropometric measures, including height and weight, may be associated with the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Whether such an association exists among women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation has not been evaluated. Thus, we investigated the association between height, weight, changes in body weight, and BMI, and the risk of developing ovarian cancer among 938 women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. A matched case-control study was conducted in 469 pairs of women carrying a deleterious mutation in either BRCA1 (n = 403 pairs) or BRCA2 (n = 66 pairs). Information about height and weight at ages 18, 30, and 40 was collected from a questionnaire routinely administered to women during the course of genetic counseling. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between these body size measures and the risk of ovarian cancer. Height, weight, and BMI were not associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (P-trend ? 0.15). Also, there was no association between changes in body weight between ages 18-30, or ages 30-40, or ages 18-40 and the risk of ovarian cancer (P-trend ? 0.28). The results from this study suggest that height, weight, or weight gain do not influence the risk of ovarian cancer among carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. PMID:22262156

  16. Anthropometric measurements to design best-fit femoral stem for the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, BR; Ribeiro, Rahul; Malhotra, Rajesh; Bhatnagar, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The standard commercially available marketed prostheses sometimes may not be the best fit to Indian patients because of the large anatomic variation. Orthopedic surgeons always stress the need for a proper implantpatient match in hip joint replacements, in particular, for a cementless femoral stem. The complications of mismatch are aseptic loosening, improper load distribution, and discomfort. The present study was undertaken to compare the differences in dimensions between femurs of elderly Indians and those of populations from other regions in order to solve the problem of a possible geometric mismatch between a selected implant and the hip joint as far as Indian patients are concerned. Materials and Methods: Measurements were made using computer aided design techniques on computed tomography (CT) scanned images of 98 femurs (56 left and 42 right). The software used to convert the CT images into solid models was MIMICS (Materialize, Inc., Leuven, Belgium). The geometrical parameters, viz., the femoral head offset, femoral head center (HC), femoral head diameter, femoral head relative position, position of shaft isthmus, neck-shaft angle, bow angle, femoral neck length, canal flare index, femoral length, and canal width at various locations, were chosen to design best-fit standard femoral stems for cementless insertion. These data were compared with the published data of other countries. Results: A difference of 16.8% was found in the femoral head offset between Indian and Swiss populations, which can affect soft tissue tension and range of motion. At a distance of 20 mm above the lesser trochanter (LT), the anteroposterior (AP) canal width was found to differ by 45.4%, when compared with a French population which can affect the mechanical stability of femoral stem. Femoral dimensions of Indian male and female subjects have also been compared and differences evaluated. At the LT, the aspect ratio (ratio of mediolateral canal width and AP canal width) in case of males (1.198) is approximately13% higher than that of females (1.059). Conclusions: This study indicates a need for redesign of femoral stems. The obtained anthropometric femoral dimensions can be used to design and develop indigenous hip joint prosthesis in India. The results of this study can also be used in forensic anthropometric studies. PMID:22345806

  17. Neck Circumference May Be a Better Alternative to Standard Anthropometric Measures.

    PubMed

    Joshipura, Kaumudi; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco; Vergara, José; Palacios, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates neck circumference as a metabolic risk marker. Overweight/obese, nondiabetic Hispanics, 40-65 years old, who are free of major cardiovascular diseases, were recruited for the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). Baseline exams were completed by 1,206 participants. Partial correlation coefficients (r) and logistic models adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and physical activity were computed. Neck circumference was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.64), BMI (r = 0.66), and body fat % (r = 0.45). Neck circumference, highest (compared to lowest) tertile, had higher association with prediabetes: multivariable OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.71-3.06) compared to waist circumference OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.48-2.66) and other anthropometric measures. Neck circumference showed higher associations with HOMA, low HDL-C, and triglycerides, multivariable OR = 8.42 (95% CI: 5.43-13.06), 2.41 (95% CI: 1.80-3.21), and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03), but weaker associations with hs-CRP and hypertension, OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.66-4.90) and OR = 2.58 (95% CI: 1.90-3.49), compared to waist circumference. AIC for model fit was generally similar for neck or waist circumference. Neck circumference showed similar or better associations with metabolic factors and is more practicable than waist circumference. Hence, neck circumference may be a better alternative to waist circumference. PMID:26981543

  18. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  19. Relationship between pre-season anthropometric and fitness measures and indicators of playing performance in elite junior Australian Rules football.

    PubMed

    Young, Warren B; Pryor, Luke

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the relationships between selected anthropometric and fitness measures with indicators of performance in elite junior Australian football players. During the pre-season, 485 players from the elite Victorian under-18 Australian Rules football competition were tested for height, body mass, hand span, arm length, standing reach, vertical jump, 5 and 20 m sprint times, agility, predicted VO(2max) and sit and reach flexibility. Performance indicators included being selected for the first game of the season and the number of possessions, marks, hitouts, and the number of games where votes were awarded in the first eight games of the season. The top and bottom four teams on the ladder were also compared after eight games. Players were divided into groups on the basis of the above indicators and the groups were compared statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were several significant differences between selected and non-selected players. Players acquiring the most possessions were significantly (p<0.05) shorter (effect size: ES=0.78), with less body mass (ES=0.55) and possessed greater acceleration (ES=0.44-0.56) and endurance (ES=0.51). Body mass was significantly related to the number of marks and height was related to hitouts (p<0.05). Acceleration was the only fitness quality to discriminate between higher and lower vote winners. The players from the top four teams had a significantly greater standing reach (p=0.038, ES=0.53), were heavier (p=0.032, ES=0.55) but not superior in any fitness measure. Generally hand span, agility and flexibility were not related to performance indicators. It was concluded that shorter and lighter players who possess high levels of speed and endurance are more likely to acquire possessions and be awarded votes, however these attributes do not guarantee team success. The small relationships between agility and flexibility to performance might be explained by the choice of tests used to assess these qualities. PMID:16854624

  20. A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurement of interpupillary distance

    PubMed Central

    Ladda, Ruchi; Bhandari, Aruna J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of techniques are being practiced for the evaluation of VDO, but none of them is scientifically more accurate than other. Each method advocated has its own limitations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and interpupillary distance (IPD). Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 dentate subjects comprising of 200 males and 200 females. Anthropometric measurement of VDO was recorded clinically using modified digital vernier caliper. Also, a standardized digital photograph of face was generated from the frontal aspect using a digital camera for the measurement of IPD in millimeters. Correlation between VDO and IPD was studied using Spearmans coefficient. For the execution of regression command and preparation of prediction equations to estimate VDO, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software Version 11.5 was used. Results: VDO and IPD was more in males compared to females. VDO was significantly and positively correlated with IPD only in males whereas females showed a weak correlation. Hence, regression equation was derived only for males. VDO estimation using regression equation for IPD had a standard error of 3.94 in males. Conclusions: Since the variations between VDO and IPD are within the range of 2-4 mm, VDO prediction through this method is reliable and reproducible for male patients. Also, the method is simple, economic, and non invasive; hence it could be recommended for everyday practice to determine vertical dimension of occlusion in case of male patients. Key words:Anthropometry, interpupillary distance, jaw relation, vertical dimension of occlusion. PMID:25593663

  1. Neck Circumference May Be a Better Alternative to Standard Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Joshipura, Kaumudi; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco; Vergara, José; Palacios, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates neck circumference as a metabolic risk marker. Overweight/obese, nondiabetic Hispanics, 40–65 years old, who are free of major cardiovascular diseases, were recruited for the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). Baseline exams were completed by 1,206 participants. Partial correlation coefficients (r) and logistic models adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and physical activity were computed. Neck circumference was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.64), BMI (r = 0.66), and body fat % (r = 0.45). Neck circumference, highest (compared to lowest) tertile, had higher association with prediabetes: multivariable OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.71–3.06) compared to waist circumference OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.48–2.66) and other anthropometric measures. Neck circumference showed higher associations with HOMA, low HDL-C, and triglycerides, multivariable OR = 8.42 (95% CI: 5.43–13.06), 2.41 (95% CI: 1.80–3.21), and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14–2.03), but weaker associations with hs-CRP and hypertension, OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.66–4.90) and OR = 2.58 (95% CI: 1.90–3.49), compared to waist circumference. AIC for model fit was generally similar for neck or waist circumference. Neck circumference showed similar or better associations with metabolic factors and is more practicable than waist circumference. Hence, neck circumference may be a better alternative to waist circumference. PMID:26981543

  2. Association of Change of Anthropometric Measurements With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Medenwald, Daniel; Tiller, Daniel; Herzog, Beatrice; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Müller, Grit; Haerting, Johannes; Kluttig, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to investigate the association of change of anthropometric measurements and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a pooled sample of 2 population-based cohorts. A final sample of 1324 women and 1278 men aged 31 to 83 years from 2 prospective cohorts in Germany, the CARLA (Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle) and the SHIP study (Study of Health in Pomerania), were pooled. The association of change of body weight and waist circumference (WC) with incidence of T2DM was assessed by calculating sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs). We investigated the absolute change of markers of obesity as well as change relative to the baseline value and estimated crude and adjusted HRs. Furthermore, we conducted the analyses stratified by obesity status and age (<60 vs ≥60 years) at baseline. Associations were found for both change of body weight and WC and incidence of T2DM in the crude and adjusted analyses. In the stratified study sample, those participants with a body mass index of <30 kg/m2 at baseline showed considerably lower HRs compared with obese women and men for both weight and WC. In the age-stratified analysis, we still found associations between change of weight and WC and incident T2DM with only marginal differences between the age groups. Our study showed associations of change of weight and WC as markers of obesity with incidence of T2DM. Keeping a healthy and primarily stable weight should be the goal for preventing the development of T2DM. PMID:26313783

  3. Vegetable but not fruit intake during pregnancy is associated with newborn anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Rebagliato, Marisa; Murcia, Mario; Esplugues, Ana; Marco, Alfredo; García de la Hera, Manuela; Vioque, Jesús

    2009-03-01

    We examined the relationship between consumption of fruit and vegetables during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a general population mother-infant cohort in Valencia, Spain. A total of 787 infants born between May 2004 and February 2006 were included. Fruit and vegetable consumption during pregnancy was assessed by a FFQ administered using an in-person interview. We used multiple linear regression to assess associations between fruit and vegetable intake (in quintiles) and birth weight and length adjusted for sex and gestational age, and logistic regression to assess being small for gestational age (SGA) in weight and SGA in length, defined as adjusted birth weight or length below the 10th percentile. A linear relationship was found between vegetable consumption and having a SGA (weight) and SGA (length) baby. Women in the lowest quintile of vegetable intake during the first trimester had a higher odds of having a SGA (weight) baby than women in the highest quintile [odds ratio (OR), 3.7; 95% CI: 1.5-8.9; P-trend < 0.001] and had a higher odds of having an SGA (length) baby in the third trimester (OR, 5.5; 95% CI: 1.7-17.7; P-trend = 0.04) in multivariate analysis. We found a nonmonotonic relationship between adjusted birth weight and length and vegetable consumption during the first trimester; newborns in the 2 lowest quintiles of intake had a significantly lower weight and length than those in the 4th quintile. There was no association between fruit consumption and birth outcomes. Our findings indicate that vegetable consumption throughout pregnancy may have a beneficial effect on fetal growth. PMID:19158218

  4. [Comparison of self-reported anthropometric variables and real measurement data].

    PubMed

    Daz-Garca, J; Gonzlez-Zapata, L I; Estrada-Restrepo, A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate self-reporting of weight, height, and waist circumference, and to compare that perception with the real measurements in college students of the MESPYN cohort--Medellin, Salud Pblica y Nutricin--from the University of Antioquia (UdeA), Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted starting with the first measurement of the MESPYN Cohort 2009-2010. The sample included volunteer students from different academic areas. Self-perception of weight, height, and waist circumference were recorded before the real measurements were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for all the variables, and an alpha of 0.05 was used. The concordance between real measurements and self-referred values was evaluated with the Bland and Altman method. 424 volunteer students were included. The average real weight (kg) in males was 67.4 +/- 10.4 and self-reported: 67.0 +/- 11.0; in females the real value was 55.7 +/- 10.1 and self-reported: 55.0 +/- 9.0. The average real height (m) in males was 1.73 +/- 6.1 and self-reported: 1.73 +/- 6.0; in females the real value was 1.60 +/- 5.9 and self-reported: 1.61 +/- 6.0. In males, the average real waist circumference (cm) was 76.6 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 75.0 +/- 14.0; in females the real value was 69.9 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 70.0 +/- 9.0. Weight ICC: 0.956, 95% CI (0.95; 0.97), (p < 0.01); height ICC: 0.953, 95%IC (0.91; 0.97), (p < 0.01), and waist circumference ICC: 0.593, 95% IC (0.55; 0.65), (p < 0.01). In conclusion, anthropometric nutritional evaluation of UdeA students can be performed with self-reported data for weight and height, but the evaluation of abdominal obesity requires direct measurement of waist circumference. PMID:23610897

  5. Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Coll., CA.

    The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

  6. Relationship between the surrogate anthropometric measures, foot length and chest circumference and birth weight among newborns of Sarlahi, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, LC; Darmstadt, GL; Khatry, SK; LeClerq, SC; Tielsch, JM

    2008-01-01

    Background Classification of infants into low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) or very low birth weight (VLBW, <2000 g) categories is a crucial step in targeting interventions to high-risk infants. Objective To compare the validity of chest circumference and foot length as surrogate anthropometric measures for the identification of LBW and VLBW infants. Subjects and setting Newborn infants (n = 1640) born between March and June 2004 in 30 Village Development Committees of Sarlahi district, Nepal. Design Chest circumference, foot length and weight (SECA 727, precise to 2 g) of newborns were measured within 72 h after birth. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for a range of cutoff points of the anthropometric measures were estimated using the digital scale measurements as the gold standard. Results Among LBW infants (469/1640, 28.6%), chest circumference measures <30.3 cm were 91% sensitive and 83% specific. Similar levels of sensitivity for foot length were achieved only with considerable loss of specificity (<45%). Foot length measurements <6.9 cm were 88% sensitive and 86% specific for the identification of VLBW infants. Conclusion Chest circumference was superior to foot length in classification of infants into birth weight categories. For the identification of VLBW infants, foot length performed well, and may be preferable to chest circumference, as the former measure does not require removal of infant swaddling clothes. In the absence of more precise direct measures of birth weight, chest circumference is recommended over foot length for the identification of LBW infants. Sponsorship The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the Saving Newborn Lives Initiative, Save the Children US and the Office of Heath and Nutrition, United States Agency for International Development (see Acknowledgements). PMID:16885929

  7. Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children. PMID:18996520

  8. Anthropometric and biomechanical field measures of floor and vault ability in 8 to 14 year old talent-selected gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Le Rossignol, Peter

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the anthropometric and physical prerequisites for high difficulty floor tumbling and vaulting. Twenty 8-14 year old female talent-selected gymnasts performed handstand push-offs, and single and multiple jumps on a portable Kistler force plate. The force curves were analysed using Kistler and Excel software to obtain peak displacement, peak take-off force, and power The gymnasts were also assessed for sprinting, with and without vaulting, and standing broad jump performances. Video footage from the vault take-off was analysed using Video Expert II software to obtain the horizontal and vertical take-off velocities. Each gymnast's best vault starting score, three best floor tumbling skills, and anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effect of age (8-10 years, 11-12 years, 13-14 years) on the performance measures and linear regression analysis with performance start score for vault or best floor tumbling score as the outcome variable. The best regression model for indicating vaulting talent had, as predictor variables, resultant velocity at take-off from the board, squat jump power, and average power during the last five jumps in the continuous bent-leg jump series. The best regression model for indicating floor tumbling ability had, as predictor variables, age, vault running velocity, and reduced ground contact time in a handstand push-off. PMID:15552584

  9. Indices of Central and Peripheral Obesity; Anthropometric Measurements and Laboratory Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Aras, Şükrü; Üstünsoy, Seyfettin; Armutçu, Ferah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are serious health problems in the World, including Turkey. Contemporary studies have suggested a meaningful association between insulin resistance (IR), MetS parameters, and thyroid function tests. Aims: We aimed to elucidate the impact of fat distribution on the anthropometric and laboratory parameters, especially indices of MetS, IR and thyroid function, in obese women. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Anthropometric measurements of all participants and biochemical tests in their serum samples were performed. Results: Weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and other parameters of fat distribution were significantly increased in all obese compared to control subjects; but there was no significant difference between central and peripheral obese groups. The central obese group had significantly higher insulin levels, components of MetS, the ratio free triiodothyronine (fT3) to free thyroxin fT4, and fT4 than those of peripheral obese and control groups. Conclusion: Elevated triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels may be associated with increased IR, which in turn is related to MetS. Body fat composition may affect thyroid tests in the obese; the changes in fT3/fT4 could be the consequence of fat distribution. PMID:26740903

  10. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  11. Impact of anthropometric, lifestyle, and body composition variables on ultrasound measurements in school children.

    PubMed

    Dib, Lea; Arabi, Asma; Maalouf, Joyce; Nabulsi, Mona; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2005-04-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement at hand phalanges was demonstrated to be a reliable method to assess skeletal maturation during childhood and adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender, puberty, lifestyle factors, and body composition on QUS parameters and to provide a normative database for QUS in school children in Lebanon. Measurements of phalangeal osteosonography were examined in 256 healthy subjects (132 boys and 124 girls) aged 11-18 years using an ultrasound device. In both genders, amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and bone transmission time (BTT) increased significantly with age and pubertal stages. Girls had higher AD-SoS values than boys between 11 and 15 years of age and at Tanner stages III and IV; however, no differences were detected in the older age groups. AD-SoS and BTT showed a significant positive correlation with age and height in both genders (R = 0.41-0.66, P < 0.01). There was no correlation between physical activity, calcium intake, sun exposure, and any of the QUS parameters in either gender. Weight showed moderate positive correlation with AD-SoS in boys and with BTT in both genders (R = 0.31-0.47, P < 0.01). Lean mass showed significant positive correlation with AD-SoS and BTT (R = 0.2-0.68, P < 0.01) in both genders. Percentage body fat showed significant negative correlation with BTT and AD-SoS in boys (R = -0.25 to -0.37, P < 0.01). In the linear regression analyses, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage fat mass and both AD-SoS and BTT in both genders. In conclusion, QUS parameters of the phalanges in Lebanese children are related to growth variables such as height, age, and puberty in healthy children. The impact and magnitude of body composition variables and lifestyle factors on ultrasonometry derived variables differ from their effect on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry derived parameters. PMID:15784188

  12. Prospective study of the surgical techniques used in primary rhinoplasty on the caucasian nose and comparison of the preoperative and postoperative anthropometric nose measurements.

    PubMed

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, Jos Simo de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective?Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods?A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrnicos, SINPE). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results?There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion?The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  13. NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

  14. Relation of Anthropometric Obesity and Computed Tomography Measured Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Tison, Geoffrey H; Blaha, Michael J; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Szklo, Moyses; Ding, Jingzhong; Budoff, Matthew J

    2015-08-15

    We hypothesized that anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity would have a stronger positive association with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) measured by noncontrast computed tomography versus general measures of obesity. The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis comprised participants aged 45 to 84years free of known cardiovascular disease. We studied 4,088 participants with adequate liver and spleen computed tomography imaging and no previous use of oral steroids, class 3 antiarrhythmics, moderately heavy alcohol use, or cirrhosis. Prevalent NAFLD was defined as a liver:spleen Hounsfield attenuation ratio of <1. Multivariable log-linear regression modeled the association of 4 obesity measures-weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio-with prevalent NAFLD. Receiver-operator curve analysis compared NAFLD discrimination. Median age was 63years, and 55% were women. For each obesity measure, adjusted prevalence ratios for NAFLD were fourfold to fivefold greater in the highest versus the lowest quartile (p <0.001). Waist circumference and BMI had the highest prevalence ratios, and waist circumference had the best discrimination, for NAFLD in the total population, although an abnormal BMI categorized subjects with NAFLD as well if not better than waist circumference. In ethnic-specific analysis, whites and Chinese had the strongest association of obesity and NAFLD compared with other ethnicities. In conclusion, although waist circumference provided the best discrimination for NAFLD, BMI may perform similarly well in clinical settings to screen for NAFLD. PMID:26070222

  15. Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight the high level of nutritional risk in rural dwelling older adults of Asian Indian Origin. Clinicians conducting assessments in this population need to take these measures into account in order to fully account for potential health risks. PMID:21846245

  16. Associations of Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity, Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measures with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jennifer M.; Hensey, Owen; McLoughlin, Brenda; Lyons, Alan; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP. Methods This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD) age 11.3 (0.2) yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥10 min bouts) were calculated. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (β = 0.339, p<0.01), sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (β = 0.250, p<0.05) and total activity (β = 0.238, p<0.05) were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05). Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01), waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001), waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05) after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Conclusions Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is associated with high cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25835955

  17. The CODAtwins project: the cohort description of COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins to study macro-environmental variation in genetic and environmental effects on anthropometric traits

    PubMed Central

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    For over one hundred years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically 1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and 2) to study the effects of birth related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects including both monozygotic and dizygotic twins using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  18. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-08-01

    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  19. Levels of DDT and its metabolites in placenta, maternal and cord blood and their potential influence on neonatal anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam; Alsabbaheen, Ammar; Mohamed, Gamal El Din; Rabbah, Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have shown mixed results for the harmful effects on fetal growth and development. This cross-sectional study was designed to: (1) examine the extent of DDT exposure in 1578 women, aged 28.5±6.0 who delivered between June 2005 and 2006 in the area of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; and (2) assess its influence on neonatal anthropometric measurement of newly born babies. DDT and its metabolites, namely 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDD) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2' bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in cord and maternal serum as well as placenta by Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD). p,p'-DDE was detected in 28.3% of cord and 54.4% of maternal serum, reflecting past exposure, whereas the p,p'-DDT was only found in 0.46% cord and 1.2% maternal samples. As expected the p,p'-DDE cord levels (0.197±0.961μg/L) were 2.8 times lower than the maternal levels (0.551±1.778μg/L), and both were significantly correlated (r=0.517) suggesting its transplacental transfer. The picture was different in placental tissues. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 84% and 99% of placental tissues, with the highest p,p'-DDT in placental tissues (29.62±158.282µg/kg dry wt.) compare to p,p'-DDE (10.167±18.851μg/kg dry wt.). In general, the presence of DDT metabolites in our participants indicates that these chemicals are still relevant despite the fact that they have been banned or restricted in the study area for many years. Our results support the view for an association between low in utero exposure to DDT and the anthropometric development of the fetus leading to a reduction in its head circumference, crown-heel length, birth weight and birth height. Since the reduction in these measures was independent of gestational age and/or preterm births, our findings suggest a detrimental effect of the DDT exposure on fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometric measures are considered as an important tool to detect newborns at higher risk of morbidity and impairment of growth. Efforts should be made to decrease exposure of women of reproductive age and to examine maternal DDT exposure in relation to long-term impact on health. PMID:22192892

  20. A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

  1. Smart mug to measure hand's geometrical mechanical impedance.

    PubMed

    Hondori, Hossein Mousavi; Tech, Ang Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel device, which looks like a mug, has been proposed for measuring the impedance of human hand. The device is designed to have convenient size and light weight similar to an ordinary coffee mug. It contains a 2-axis inertia sensor to monitor vibration and a small motor to carry an eccentric mass (m=100 gr, r=2 cm, rpm=600). The centrifugal force due to the rotating mass applies a dynamic force to the hand that holds the mug. Correlation of the acceleration signals with the perturbing force gives the geometrical mechanical impedance. Experimental results on a healthy subject shows that impedance is posture dependant while it changes with the direction of the applied perturbing force. For nine postures the geometrical impedance is obtained all of which have elliptical shapes. The method can be used for assessment of spasticity and monitoring stability in patients with stroke or similar problems. PMID:22255230

  2. Photographic facial soft tissue analysis of healthy Iranian young adults: anthropometric and angular measurements

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Rajaeih, Shahin; Hassannia, Fatemeh; Tavakolifard, Negah; Fattahi Neisyani, Hamed; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Jalessi, Maryam; Omidian, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Soft tissue profile can be widely different in various populations. Furthermore, this profile can be also continues to change throughout life. However, there are few studies that quantitatively evaluate the soft tissue profile in Iranian population. In order to determine normal reference values of facial parts in our populations, we aimed to measure standards for facial soft tissue parameters in Iranian young population. Methods: The study samples included 155 medical students at the Firouzgar hospital in winter 2011. The soft tissue facial profiles were digitally analyzed using linear measurements and angles made with standardized photographic records, taken in a natural head position, to determine the average soft tissue facial profile for males and females. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between males and females in 21 of our 26 measurements. The most prominent differences between the genders were observed in the measurements taken from the face region. Minimum frontal breadth and supraorbital breadth were larger in males than in females. Except for middle face height measurement, other horizontal and vertical measurements for the face were larger in males than in females, indicating wider and higher faces in men than in women. Some measurements of facial angles are discrepant between the two genders. Conclusion: Due to the specific features of Iranian facial soft tissue values and also observable differences in facial measurements and angles between men and women, the Iranian standard values on facial measurements and angles should be given more attention, especially by plastic and cosmetic surgeons. PMID:25405115

  3. Increase in cognitive eating restraint predicts weight loss and change in other anthropometric measurements in overweight/obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, J Kalina; Metzgar, Catherine J; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Piehowski, Kathryn E; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-04-01

    In modern societies characterized by food abundance, dietary restraint may serve as a factor in the successful control of weight or facilitation of weight loss. This secondary analysis of data examined whether changes in cognitive eating restraint (CER) and disinhibition predicted weight loss in a sample of 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women [mean??SD, age?=?35.9??5.8?y; weight?=?84.4??13.1?kg; body mass index (BMI)?=?31.0??4.3?kg/m(2)]. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) were examined in relation to changes in CER, disinhibition and hunger as measured by the Eating Inventory questionnaire at baseline and week 18 of an 18-week dietary intervention. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of weight loss and changes in other anthropometric variables from baseline to study completion. Increase in CER was found to be the most robust predictor of reduction in weight (P?

  4. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 11.6 up to ± 13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9 cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available. PMID:26654071

  5. Prediction of Resection Weight in Reduction Mammaplasty Based on Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kececi, Yavuz; Sir, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to develop a simple, clinically useful method to accurately predict resection weight in women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Patients and Methods 39 women undergoing breast reduction participated in the study. Sternal notch to nipple distance, nipple to inframammary fold distance (NIMF), medial end point to nipple distance (MN), lateral endpoint to nipple distance (LN), superior border of the breast to nipple distance (SN), breast circumference (BC), and chest circumference (CC) were measured. 5 other predicting variables were also derived; horizontal breast measurement (H) by adding MN to LN, vertical breast measurement (V) by adding NIMF to SN, the product of H and V (H*V), the product of H and NIMF (H*NIMF), and the difference between BC and CC (D). Regression analysis was used to compose a formula for predicting resection weight. Results Among the predicting variables, H*NIMF measurements had the highest correlation coefficient value (Pearson correlation = 0.809) with the resection weight. The following formula was obtained with regression analysis: Predicted resection weight = (1.45 H*NIMF) + (31.5 D) 576. Conclusion Breast resection weights can be accurately predicted by the presented method based on anthropomorphic measurements. PMID:24803886

  6. Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Obsum, Cercilia Angela; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Billedo, Grisellhi; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Rabbah, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this study may be the first to examine the antagonistic role of selenium (Se) on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) and its impact on birth measures. Cd and Se levels were measured in umbilical-cord blood and the placentas of a subsample of 250 healthy mothers who participated between 2005 and 2006 in the project "Prenatal Exposure to Pollutants". The median Cd levels in cord and maternal blood and placental tissue were 0.78?g/l, 0.976?g/l and 0.037?g/g dry wt., respectively. The median levels of Se in cord serum and placental tissue were 65.68?g/l and 1.052?g/g dry wt., respectively. Se was more than 100-fold in molar excess over Cd in both cord serum and placental tissue. The median molar Cd/Se ratios in cord serum and placental tissue were 0.008 and 0.024, respectively, which were much lower than unity. This study suggests that both Cd and Se play a role in the mechanism of oxidative stress, but, the process underlying this mechanism remains unclear. Nevertheless, three biomarkers of oxidative stress had inconsistent relationships with Cd and/or Se in various matrices, perhaps due to potential untested confounders. Our results generally support an association between low in utero exposure to Cd and the anthropometric development of the fetus. Adjusted regression models indicated a negative association of cord blood Cd levels ?0.78?g/l with Apgar 5-min scores and birth height. Maternal Cd levels ?0.976?g/l were associated with a 5.94-fold increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births, which increased to 7.48-fold after excluding preterm births. Placenta weight decreased with increasing placental Cd levels ?0.037?g/g dry wt. (p=0.045), an association that became stronger after excluding preterm births or adjusting for birth weight. Cord Se levels ?65.68?g/l were positively associated with placenta weight (p=0.041) and thickness (p=0.031), an association that remained unchanged after excluding preterm births. Cord Se levels, however, were negatively associated with cephalization index, but only after excluding preterm births (p=0.017). Each birth measure was again modeled as a function of the Cd/Se ratios in cord blood and placenta tissue. Interestingly cord ratios ?0.008 were negatively associated with Apgar-5min score (p=0.047), birth weight (p=0.034) and placenta thickness (p=0.022). After excluding preterm births, only the association with placenta thickness remained significant (p=0.021), while birth weight (p=0.053) was marginally significant. In contrast, cephalization index increased with Cd/Se ratios ?0.008 (p=0.033), an association that became marginally significant after excluding preterm births (p=0.058). For placental Cd/Se ratios ?0.024, only placenta weight was reduced with (p=0.037) and without (p=0.009) the inclusion of preterm births. These findings do not support an antagonistic mechanism between Cd and Se. The role of oxidative mechanisms either induced by Cd exposure or alleviated by Se on these birth anthropometric measures was examined by principal component analysis. Se did not have a clear protective role against Cd-induced adverse effects despite its substantial excess over Cd, and its role in alleviating oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde levels. The results may suggest that the extent of the Se beneficial effects is not governed only by its concentration but also by the chemical forms of Se that interact with various proteins. Consequently, the speciation of Se in such studies is essential for understanding and predicting Se availability for absorption. PMID:25239374

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  12. Estimation of sex from the anthropometric ear measurements of a Sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Omer, Nosyba

    2015-09-01

    The external ear and its prints have multifaceted roles in medico-legal practice, e.g., identification and facial reconstruction. Furthermore, its norms are essential in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies and the design of hearing aids. Body part dimensions vary in different ethnic groups, so the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes are developed using population-specific standards. Sudan lacks comprehensive data about ear norms; moreover, there is a universal rarity in assessing the possibility of sex estimation from ear dimensions using robust statistical techniques. Therefore, this study attempts to establish data for normal adult Sudanese Arabs, assessing the existence of asymmetry and developing a population-specific equation for sex estimation. The study sample comprised 200 healthy Sudanese Arab volunteers (100 males and 100 females) in the age range of 18-30years. The physiognomic ear length and width, lobule length and width, and conchal length and width measurements were obtained by direct anthropometry, using a digital sliding caliper. Moreover, indices and asymmetry were assessed. Data were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All linear dimensions used were sexually dimorphic except lobular lengths. Some of the variables and indices show asymmetry. Ear dimensions showed cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranging between 60.5% and 72%. Hence, the ear measurements cannot be used as an effective tool in the estimation of sex. However, in the absence of other more reliable means, it still can be considered a supportive trait in sex estimation. Further, asymmetry should be considered in identification from the ear measurements. PMID:25813757

  13. Inconsistent associations among anthropometric measurements in elderly Dutch men and women.

    PubMed

    Minten, V K; Lwik, M R; Deurenberg, P; Kok, F J

    1991-11-01

    In a national survey of 515 apparently healthy Dutch elderly people aged 65 through 79 years, interrelationships among weight, height, weight-for-height indexes (especially the Quetelet index), body fatness (assessed by skinfold measurements), and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion were investigated in various age groups. Body weight, body height, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion (absolute and per kilogram body weight) were lower in older age groups. In men the correlation coefficient between weight and body fatness was .54 for the group aged 65 through 69 years and .33 for the group aged 75 through 79 years. In women the correlation between weight and percentage of body fat varied from .52 to .70 among the age groups. In comparison with results reported for younger adults, a lower correlation between the Quetelet index and body fatness was observed (r = .49 in men, r = .64 in women). The correlation of the Quetelet index with both height and urinary creatinine excretion tended to be higher in the older age groups. We concluded that some of the associations found were inconsistent and that there may be some doubt about the adequacy of the Quetelet index as a measure of body fatness among the elderly. However, no convenient alternative weight-for-height index is presently available. Perhaps circumferences are a better option to choose for elderly people. PMID:1939979

  14. Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (?0.4 4.1, ?1.1 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 18, 17 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

  15. Relationship of anthropometric measurements to thyroid nodules in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Zexin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Huo, Liangliang; Huang, Yangmei; Jin, Xingyi; Deng, Jin; Zhu, Sujuan; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have found that overweight and obesity are related to numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer and thyroid volume. This study evaluates the relationship between body size and the presence of thyroid nodules in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 6793 adults and 2410 children who underwent thyroid ultrasonography were recruited in this cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, from March to October, 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics and potential risk factors of thyroid nodules were collected by questionnaire. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Associations of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) with the presence of thyroid nodules were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for potential risk factors, an increased risk of thyroid nodule incidence was associated with height (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.30), weight (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.58), BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) and BSA (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.62) in all adults, but most obviously in women. In children, similar associations were observed between risk of thyroid nodule incidence and weight, BMI and BSA, but not height. BSA was the measurement most significantly associated with thyroid nodules in both adults and children. Conclusions This study identified that the presence of thyroid nodules was positively associated with weight, height, BMI and BSA in both women and girls. It suggests that tall, obese individuals have increased susceptibility to thyroid nodules. Trial registration number: NCT01838629. PMID:26692553

  16. Sound power measurement techniques for powered hand tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmann, Edward L.; Hayden, Charles

    2005-09-01

    As part of a project to reduce noise induced hearing loss in the construction industry, NIOSH developed a database of sound power level measurements of electric powered hand tools typically used in the construction industry. The tool testing jigs and setups specified and illustrated in ANSI S12.15 were modified to accommodate the higher precision ten-microphone arrangement used in ISO 3744. ANSI S12.15 is sometimes vague regarding the tool testing jig design, so test jigs were designed to supplement existing specifications in the standard. In the course of the project, test jigs were designed, techniques were devised to improve repeatability of measurements, to reduce waste materials, to reduce measurement setup time, and to reduce data acquisition time. Several types of tools were tested including circular saws, grinders, screw drivers, drills, jig saws, reciprocating saws, miter saws, hammer drills, belt sanders, and impact wrenches. The test jig designs and measurement techniques may help others to save time, reduce waste material, and improve measurement repeatability. Additionally, a microphone was placed in the nominal hearing zone of the tool operator to acquire a time series to assess other sound metrics.

  17. Variability in Hand Contamination Based on Serial Measurements: Implications for Assessment of Hand-Cleansing Behavior and Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Pavani K.; Jahid, Iqbal; Halder, Amal K.; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M. Sirajul; Granger, Stewart P.; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring hand contamination at critical times, such as eating, can be challenging. We examined whether hand contamination measured at random, such as on arrival (initial), predicts contamination at critical times. Mothers of young children in Bangladesh rinsed both hands in 200 mL of ringer's solution. We compared results of serial samples with respect to fecal coliform counts. Among 39 mothers, the geometric mean of fecal coliforms was 307 colony-forming units (cfu)/100 mL at initial collection and 3,001 cfu/100 mL during critical times (P = 0.0006). There was no correlation between initial and critical time fecal coliform counts (R = 0.13, P = 0.43). The mean difference between initial and critical time counts was 3.5 (standard deviation = 1.4) on the log base-10 scale. Contamination of the same subjects' hands varied substantially within a few hours. Because hand contamination measured at random cannot reliably predict hand contamination at times of potential pathogen transmission, single random hand rinses are not valid proxy measures for handwashing behavior. PMID:21460002

  18. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd.; Hossain, Md. Golam; Kamarul, T.; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant. PMID:24294597

  19. Anthropometric measurements of the human distal femur: a study of the adult Malay population.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd; Hossain, Golam; Kamarul, T; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 3.38?mm and 57.33 3.26?mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 3.52?mm and 64.53 3.07?mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant. PMID:24294597

  20. A study of the anthropometric correlations between upper limb measurements for personal identification in Sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A A

    2014-12-01

    The presence of multiple isolated commingled fleshed limbs or limb parts generates a significant challenge for forensic investigators in wars, mass disasters, and criminal assaults in the process of identification. Although upper limb measurements have been used to establish individual identity in terms of sex and stature with high success, there is a scarcity of data concerning the correlations within upper limb parts. Hence, this study aims to assess the relationships within upper limb parts and develop regression formulae to reconstruct the parts from one another. The study participants were 376 Sudanese adults (187 males and 189 females). The results of this study indicated significant sexual dimorphism for all variables. The results indicated a significant correlation within the upper limb parts. Linear and multiple regression equations were developed to reconstruct the upper limb parts in the presence of a single or multiple dimension(s) from the identical limb. Multiple regression equations generated better reconstructions than simple equations. These results are significant in forensics and orthopedic reconstructive surgery. PMID:25277498

  1. Residential Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Anthropometric Measures at Birth in a Multicenter Cohort in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Ferran; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Fernndez-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Llop, Sabrina; Freire, Carmen; Tardn, Adonina; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi; Iiguez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background: A growing body of research suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution may be harmful to fetal development. We assessed the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in four areas within the Spanish Childrens Health and Environment (INMA) mother and child cohort study. Methods: Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene was estimated for the residence of each woman (n = 2,337) for each trimester and for the entire pregnancy. Outcomes included birth weight, length, and head circumference. The association between residential outdoor air pollution exposure and birth outcomes was assessed with linear regression models controlled for potential confounders. We also performed sensitivity analyses for the subset of women who spent more time at home during pregnancy. Finally, we performed a combined analysis with meta-analysis techniques. Results: In the combined analysis, an increase of 10 g/m3 in NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in birth length of 0.9 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8 to 0.1 mm]. For the subset of women who spent ? 15 hr/day at home, the association was stronger (0.16 mm; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.04). For this same subset of women, a reduction of 22 g in birth weight was associated with each 10-g/m3 increase in NO2 exposure in the second trimester (95% CI, 45.3 to 1.9). We observed no significant relationship between benzene levels and birth outcomes. Conclusions: NO2 exposure was associated with reductions in both length and weight at birth. This association was clearer for the subset of women who spent more time at home. PMID:21429861

  2. A neural network model to predict knee adduction moment during walking based on ground reaction force and anthropometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Favre, Julien; Hayoz, Matthieu; Hledik, Jennifer C. Erhart; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The external knee adduction moment (KAM) is a major variable for the evaluation of knee loading during walking, specifically in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, assessment of the KAM is limited to locations where full motion laboratories are available. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a simple method to predict the KAM using only force plate and anthropometric measurements. Three groups of 28 knees (asymptomatic, mild osteoarthritis, and severe osteoarthritis) were studied. Walking trials were collected at different speeds using a motion capture system and a force plate. The reference KAM was calculated by inverse dynamics. For the prediction, inter subject artificial neural networks were designed using 11 inputs coming from the ground reaction force and the mechanical axis alignment. The predicted KAM curves were similar to the reference curves with median mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.36%BW*Ht and median correlation coefficient of 0.966 over 756 individual trials. When comparing mean group curves, the median MAD was 0.09%BW*Ht and the median correlation coefficient 0.998. The peak values and the angular impulses extracted from the predicted and reference curves were significantly correlated, and the same significant differences were obtained among the three groups when the predicted or when the reference curves were used for 95% of the comparisons. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a simple method using a generic artificial neural network can predict the KAM curve during walking with a high level of significance and provides a practical option for a broader evaluation of the KAM. PMID:22257888

  3. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic difference, discretionary salt use and blood pressures. PMID:22808349

  4. Anthropometric measurements of general and central obesity and the prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Louise G H; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Welborn, Timothy A; Lee, Andy H; Della, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is important to ascertain which anthropometric measurements of obesity, general or central, are better predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. 10-year CVD risk was calculated from the Framingham risk score model, SCORE risk chart for high-risk regions, general CVD and simplified general CVD risk score models. Increase in CVD risk associated with 1 SD increment in each anthropometric measurement above the mean was calculated, and the diagnostic utility of obesity measures in identifying participants with increased likelihood of being above the treatment threshold was assessed. Design Cross-sectional data from the National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Setting Population-based survey in Australia. Participants 4487 women aged 2069?years without heart disease, diabetes or stroke. Outcome measures Anthropometric obesity measures that demonstrated the greatest increase in CVD risk as a result of incremental change, 1 SD above the mean, and obesity measures that had the greatest diagnostic utility in identifying participants above the respective treatment thresholds of various risk score models. Results Waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio had larger effects on increased CVD risk compared with body mass index (BMI). These central obesity measures also had higher sensitivity and specificity in identifying women above and below the 20% treatment threshold than BMI. Central obesity measures also recorded better correlations with CVD risk compared with general obesity measures. WC and WHR were found to be significant and independent predictors of CVD risk, as indicated by the high area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (>0.76), after controlling for BMI in the simplified general CVD risk score model. Conclusions Central obesity measures are better predictors of CVD risk compared with general obesity measures in women. It is equally important to maintain a healthy weight and to prevent central obesity concurrently. PMID:24503301

  5. Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

  6. A new anthropometric phantom for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the human leg using X-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, H.; Jenkins, M.; Lodwick, J.; Bornschein, R.

    2000-02-01

    A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead deposited in bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape of the mid shaft of the adult human leg and is fabricated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to produce materials that exhibit the same density, energy transmission, and calcium content as cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle. The phantom includes a removable tibia fabricated using simulants for cortical bone and bone marrow to which a precise amount of stable lead has been added to cortical bone. The formulations used in fabricating the new anthropometric phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the conventional phantom made from Plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster-of-Paris. The energy spectrum from an x-ray fluorescence measurement of the phantom using a {sup 109}Cd source is indistinguishable from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement of the human leg, demonstrating that the materials used in the phantom exhibit the same radiological properties as human tissue. Likewise, results from x-ray fluorescence measurements of the phantom exhibit the same positional dependency as the human leg and vary by approximately 36% when, for example, the phantom containing 54 ppm of stable lead in the tibia was rotated by only 15 degrees. The detection limit for a 30 min {sup 109}Cd K shell x-ray fluorescence in vivo measurement is approximately 20 ppm determined from a background measurement using the new phantom containing no added lead in the muscle, bone, or bone marrow. The new anthropometric phantom significantly improves in vivo x-ray fluorescence calibration measurements by (1) faithfully reproducing the anatomy of the human leg, (2) having components that exhibit radiological properties similar to that of human tissue, and (3) providing a realistic calibration standard that can be used for in vivo x-ray fluorescence intercomparison measurements.

  7. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

  8. Predicting the throwing velocity of the ball in handball with anthropometric variables and isotonic tests.

    PubMed

    Debanne, Thierry; Laffaye, Guillaume

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the influence of general anthropometric variables, handball-specific anthropometric variables, and upper-limb power and strength on ball-throwing velocity in a standing position (?(ball)), and (2) predict this velocity using multiple regression methods. Forty-two skilled male handball players (age 21.03.0 years; height=1.810.07m; body mass=78.311.3kg) participated in the study. We measured general anthropometric variables (height, body mass, lean mass, body mass index) and handball-specific anthropometric parameters (hand size, arm span). Upper-limb dynamic strength was assessed using a medicine ball (2kg) throwing test, and power using a one-repetition maximum bench-press test. All the variables studied were correlated with ball velocity. Medicine ball throwing performance was the best predictor (r=0.80). General anthropometric variables were better predictors (r=0.55-0.70) than handball-specific anthropometric variables (r=0.35-0.51). The best multiple regression model accounted for 74% of the total variance and included body mass, medicine ball throwing performance, and power output in the 20-kg bench press. The equation formulated could help trainers, athletes, and professionals detect future talent and test athletes' current fitness. PMID:21400345

  9. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  10. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  11. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-01

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (P trend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (P trend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:26620191

  12. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AMONG HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND WITH LIPOATROPHY/LIPOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Lismeia Raimundo; da SILVA, Daniela Cardeal; GONSALEZ, Claudio R.; BATISTA, Felipe G.; FONSECA, Luiz Augusto M.; DUARTE, Alberto J.S.; CASSEB, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has improved and extended the lives of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS around the world. However, this treatment can lead to the development of adverse reactions such as lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome (LLS) and its associated risks. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of self-reported lipodystrophy and nutritional status by anthropometric measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: An observational study of 227 adult patients in the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clnicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of So Paulo (3002 ADEE-HCFMUSP). The sample was divided into three groups; Group 1 = 92 patients on HAART and with self-reported lipodystrophy, Group 2 = 70 patients on HAART without self-reported lipodystrophy and Group 3 = 65 patients not taking HAART. The nutritional status of individuals in the study sample was determined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (% BF). The cardiovascular risk and diseases associated with abdominal obesity were determined by waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). Results: The prevalence of self-reported lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome was 33% among women and 59% among men. Anthropometry showed depletion of fat mass in the evaluation of the triceps (TSF) in the treatment groups with HAART and was statistically independent of gender; for men p = 0.001, and for women p = 0.007. Similar results were found in the measurement of skin folds of the upper and lower body (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). In assessing the nutritional status of groups by BMI and % BF, excess weight and body fat were more prevalent among women compared to men (p = 0.726). The WHR and WC revealed risks for cardiovascular and other diseases associated with abdominal obesity for women on HAART and with self-reported LLS (p = 0.005) and (p = 0.011). Conclusions: Anthropometric measurements were useful in the confirmation of the prevalence of LLS. BMI alone does not appear to be a good parameter for assessing the nutritional status of HIV-infected patients on HAART and with LLS. Other anthropometric measurements are needed to evaluate patients with the lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome. PMID:25923888

  13. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans’ ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans. PMID:26525705

  14. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans' ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans. PMID:26525705

  15. Hand-Held Electronic Gap-Measuring Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, F. E.; Thompson, F. W.; Aragon, L. A.; Harrington, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Repetitive measurements simplified by tool based on LVDT operation. With fingers in open position, Gap-measuring tool rests on digital readout instrument. With fingers inserted in gap, separation alters inductance of linear variable-differential transformer in plastic handle. Originally developed for measuring gaps between surface tiles of Space Shuttle orbiter, tool reduces measurement time from 20 minutes per tile to 2 minutes. Also reduces possibility of damage to tiles during measurement. Tool has potential applications in mass production; helps ensure proper gap dimensions in assembly of refrigerator and car doors and also used to measure dimensions of components and to verify positional accuracy of components during progressive assembly operations.

  16. Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).

    PubMed

    McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

    2008-03-01

    Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001. PMID:18478625

  17. The Flinders Handedness survey (FLANDERS): a brief measure of skilled hand preference.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2013-01-01

    Knowing whether an individual prefers the left or right hand for skilled activities is important to researchers in experimental psychology and neuroscience. The current study reports on a new measure of skilled hand preference derived from the Provins and Cunliffe (1972) handedness inventory. Undergraduates (n = 3324) indicated their lateral preference for their hands, feet, eyes and ears. A measure of hand performance and familial handedness was also obtained. Factor analysis identified ten items that loaded on skilled hand preference and these were included in the new FLANDERS questionnaire. Cluster analysis of the new questionnaire revealed three distinct groups (left-, mixed- & right-handed). The new test showed a strong association with other measures of lateral preference and hand performance. Scores on the test were also related to the sex of the respondent and the hand preference of their parents. The FLANDERS provides a measure of skilled hand preference that is easy to administer and understand and should be useful for experimenters wanting to screen for hand preference. PMID:23498655

  18. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  19. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  20. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  1. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  2. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  3. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality. PMID:22240547

  4. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB city steps.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a 6-month, community-engaged, multicomponent, noncontrolled intervention targeting hypertension risk factors. Descriptive indicators were constructed using two participant adherence measures, education session attendance (ESA) and weekly steps/day pedometer diary submission (PDS), separately and in combination. Analyses, based on data from 269 primarily African American adult participants, included bivariate tests of association and multivariable linear regression to determine significant relationships between seven adherence indicators and health outcome changes, including clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and PA measures. ESA indicators were significantly correlated with four health outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and PA (-.29 ? r ? .23, p < .05). PDS indicators were significantly correlated with PA (r = .27, p < .001). Combination ESA/PDS indicators were significantly correlated with five health outcomes: BMI, percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass, LDL, and PA (r = -.26 to .29, p < .05). Results from the multivariate models indicated that the combination ESA/PDS indicators were the most significant predictors of changes for five outcomes--%BF, fat mass, LDL diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PA--while ESA performed best for BMI only. For DBP, a one-unit increase in the continuous-categorical ESA/PDS indicator resulted in 0.3 mm Hg decrease. Implications for assessing participant adherence in community-based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention research are discussed. PMID:24986913

  5. The effects of symbiotic therapy on anthropometric measures, body composition and blood pressure in patient with metabolic syndrome: a triple blind RCT

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Samira; Shakerhosseini, Rahebeh; Saadat, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which are of the main risk factors of metabolic syndrome, is not only the result of changes in genetic, diet or physical activity, but also an imbalance of micro flora may play an important role. Therefore, alteration of micro flora using pre/probiotic is considered as a new strategy for treatment of metabolic disorders. Methods: The current study is a triple blind randomized controlled trial. 46 patients from both sexes, who fulfilled inclusion criteria, randomly categorized into intervention or placebo group. The intervention and placebo groups consumed 2 probiotic capsules or 2 placebo capsules during 3 months, respectively. Both groups received a weight loss diet, according to their adjusted ideal body weight. Anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and nutritional measurements were done in the beginning, at 6th week, and at the end of the study. T-test and paired-t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 40 patients completed the study. BMI, WC, HC, fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure were reduced in all participants (p< 0.05). Systolic blood pressure in symbiotic group was less than placebo group, significantly (p< 0.05). The trend of weight loss in symbiotic group continued at least for 12 weeks while it was stopped at week 6 in placebo group. Conclusion: Symbiotic supplement with the weight loss diet had synergistic effects on improvement in systolic blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Based on our findings, symbiotic can postpone plateau phase of weight loss and it may prevent resistance to further weight loss. PMID:26478871

  6. Measuring the Moon's orbit using a hand-held camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a way to measure the Moon's distance and orbital eccentricity using a digital camera. The method consists of taking photographs of the Moon and measuring the size of the lunar disk in each picture. On a series of images taken on the same night, the effect of the Earth's size is evident and thus the distance to the Moon can be computed. A larger series of images, covering several weeks, demonstrates that the Moon's orbit is not perfectly circular.

  7. U.S. Truck Driver Anthropometric Study and Multivariate Anthropometric Models for Cab Designs

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jinhua; Hsiao, Hongwei; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Reed, Matthew R.; Jahns, Steven K.; Loczi, Josef; Hardee, H. Lenora; Piamonte, Dominic Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study presents data from a large-scale anthropometric study of U.S. truck drivers and the multivariate anthropometric models developed for the design of next-generation truck cabs. Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. truck driver population is needed for the design of safe and ergonomically efficient truck cabs. Method We collected 35 anthropometric dimensions for 1,950 truck drivers (1,779 males and 171 females) across the continental United States using a sampling plan designed to capture the appropriate ethnic, gender, and age distributions of the truck driver population. Results Truck drivers are heavier than the U.S. general population, with a difference in mean body weight of 13.5 kg for males and 15.4 kg for females. They are also different in physique from the U.S. general population. In addition, the current truck drivers are heavier and different in physique compared to their counterparts of 25 to 30 years ago. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide more accurate anthropometric information for cab designs than do the current U.S. general population data or truck driver data collected 25 to 30 years ago. Multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the current truck driver population on the basis of a set of 12 anthropometric measurements, have been developed to facilitate future cab designs. Application The up-to-date truck driver anthropometric data and multivariate anthropometric models will benefit the design of future truck cabs which, in turn, will help promote the safety and health of the U.S. truck drivers. PMID:23156628

  8. Observed hand cleanliness and other measures of handwashing behavior in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We analyzed data from the baseline assessment of a large intervention project to describe typical handwashing practices in rural Bangladesh, and compare measures of hand cleanliness with household characteristics. Methods We randomly selected 100 villages from 36 districts in rural Bangladesh. Field workers identified 17 eligible households per village using systematic sampling. Field workers conducted 5-hour structured observations in 1000 households, and a cross-sectional assessment in 1692 households that included spot checks, an evaluation of hand cleanliness and a request that residents demonstrate their usual handwashing practices after defecation. Results Although 47% of caregivers reported and 51% demonstrated washing both hands with soap after defecation, in structured observation, only 33% of caregivers and 14% of all persons observed washed both hands with soap after defecation. Less than 1% used soap and water for handwashing before eating and/or feeding a child. More commonly people washed their hands only with water, 23% after defecation and 5% before eating. Spot checks during the cross sectional survey classified 930 caregivers (55%) and 453 children (28%) as having clean appearing hands. In multivariate analysis economic status and water available at handwashing locations were significantly associated with hand cleanliness among both caregivers and children. Conclusions A minority of rural Bangladeshi residents washed both hands with soap at key handwashing times, though rinsing hands with only water was more common. To realize the health benefits of handwashing, efforts to improve handwashing in these communities should target adding soap to current hand rinsing practices. PMID:20828412

  9. Self-Report Measures of Hand Pain Intensity: Current Evidence and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Roco; Jensen, Mark P; Mir, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Successful management of problems related to the hands and upper extremities begins with a comprehensive assessment of the pain experience and related factors. Pain intensity is the domain most commonly assessed, and pain relief is often the primary goal of treatment. Because pain is a private and subjective experience, self-report is considered the gold standard of pain measurement. This article describes and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used self-report scales used to measure hand pain intensity, and gives recommendations to help clinicians select from among the various options for measuring the intensity of hand pain. PMID:26611384

  10. SNCF experience in anthropometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    The lecturer describes the methods and the means to design in relation with anthropometrics datas the driving cab of modern SNCF vehicles such as the SYBIC universal locomotive and the TGV-Atlantique power car vehicle is to operate in the end of the decade.

  11. A Comparison of Anthropometric Measures for Assessing the Association between Body Size and Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain: The HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous work indicates that overweight and obese individuals carry an increased risk of experiencing chronic low back pain (LBP). It is not known, however, how the association with body size depends on the choice of anthropometric measure used. Objective This work compares relationships with LBP for several measures of body size. Different results may indicate underlying mechanisms for the association between body size and risk of LBP. Methods In a cohort study, baseline information was collected in the community-based HUNT2 (1995–1997) and HUNT3 (2006–2008) surveys in Norway. Participants were 10,059 women and 8725 men aged 30–69 years without LBP, and 3883 women and 2662 men with LBP at baseline. Associations with LBP at end of follow-up were assessed by generalized linear modeling, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Relationships between waist-hip-ratio and occurrence of LBP at end of follow-up were weak and non-significant after adjustment for age, education, work status, physical activity, smoking, lipid levels and blood pressure. Positive associations with LBP at end of follow-up were all significant for body weight, BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference after similar adjustment, both in women without and with LBP at baseline, and in men without LBP at baseline. After additional mutual adjustment for anthropometric measures, the magnitude of the association with body weight increased in women without LBP at baseline (RR: 1.130 per standard deviation, 95% CI: 0.995–1.284) and in men (RR: 1.124, 95% CI 0.976–1.294), with other measures showing weak associations only. Conclusion Central adiposity is unlikely to play a major role in the etiology of LBP. Total fat mass may be one common factor underlying the associations observed. The association with body weight remaining after mutual adjustment may reflect mechanical or structural components behind the relationship between overweight or obesity and LBP. PMID:26506618

  12. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  13. Smartphone-based evaluation of parkinsonian hand tremor: quantitative measurements vs clinical assessment scores.

    PubMed

    Kostikis, N; Hristu-Varsakelis, D; Arnaoutoglou, M; Kotsavasiloglou, C

    2014-01-01

    With an ever-growing number of technologically advanced methods for the diagnosis and quantification of movement disorders, comes the need to assess their accuracy and see how they match up with widely used standard clinical assessment tools. This work compares quantitative measurements of hand tremor in twenty-three Parkinson's disease patients, with their clinical scores in the hand tremor components of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which is considered the "gold standard" in the clinical assessment of the disease. Our measurements were obtained using a smartphone-based platform, which processes the phone's accelerometer and gyroscope signals to detect and measure hand tremor. The signal metrics used were mainly based on the magnitude of the acceleration and the rotation rate vectors of the device. Our results suggest relatively strong correlation (r>0.7 and p<;0.01) between the patients' UPDRS hand tremor scores and the signal metrics applied to the measured signals. PMID:25570106

  14. Combined physiological and anthropometrical databases as ergonomic tools.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Küchmeister, Gerd; Jürgens, Hans W

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an ergonomic basis for the integration of female personnel at military workplaces. The results of anthropometrical and physiological measurements of 1337 male and female subjects (aged 18-25 years) are presented. The empirical design included classical and functional body measures of high ergonomic relevance. Additionally, the isometric forearm-flexor and knee-extensor forces of the subjects were tested as representative variables for their physiological suitability. With regard to biometric and strength parameters, the present results clearly show only small overlaps between the sexes. Rating the 5th percentile of the male subjects as an exclusion value, the anthropometrical variables (sitting and standing body height measures, shoulder breadth, hand length and breadth etc.) show that 29% up to 72% of the women do not match this criterion. The situation becomes even worse when strength parameters are taken into consideration: Only 26% (knee extensors) respectively 3% (forearm flexors) of the females generate higher forces than the corresponding 5th percentiles of their male counterparts. The application of the database established in this survey aims at the integration of female personnel at all kinds of military workplaces; our data account for a combination of anthropometrical and physiological variables. In contrast to former systems based on isolated percentile tables, the results of our investigation make multivariate queries possible in optimization processes. This type of combined database is to be considered a useful tool for the evaluation of workplaces and personal equipment, for general ergonomic considerations and for personnel planning purposes to prevent applicants from occupational harm. PMID:17213688

  15. Effects of English admixture and geographic distance on anthropometric variation and genetic structure in 19th-century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H

    1988-05-01

    The analysis of anthropometric data often allows investigation of patterns of genetic structure in historical populations. This paper focuses on interpopulational anthropometric variation in seven populations in Ireland using data collected in the 1890s. The seven populations were located within a 120-km range along the west coast of Ireland and include islands and mainland isolates. Two of the populations (the Aran Islands and Inishbofin) have a known history of English admixture in earlier centuries. Ten anthropometric measures (head length, breadth, and height; nose length and breadth; bizygomatic and bigonial breadth; stature; hand length; and forearm length) on 259 adult Irish males were analyzed following age adjustment. Discriminant and canonical variates analysis were used to determine the degree and pattern of among-group variation. Mahalanobis' distance measure, D2, was computed between each pair of populations and compared to distance measures based on geographic distance and English admixture (a binary measure indicating whether either of a pair of populations had historical indications of admixture). In addition, surname frequencies were used to construct distance measures based on random isonymy. Correlations were computed between distance measures, and their probabilities were derived using the Mantel matrix permutation method. English admixture has the greatest effect on anthropometric variation among these populations, followed by geographic distance. The correlation between anthropometric distance and geographic distance is not significant (r = -0.081, P = .590), but the correlation of admixture and anthropometric distance is significant (r = 0.829, P = .047). When the two admixed populations are removed from the analysis the correlation between geographic and anthropometric distance becomes significant (r = 0.718, P = .025). Isonymy distance shows a significant correlation with geographic distance (r = 0.425, P = .046) but not with admixture distance (r = -0.052, P = .524). The fact that anthropometrics show past patterns of gene flow and surnames do not reflects the greater impact of stochastic processes on surnames, along with the continued extinction of surnames. This study shows that 1) anthropometrics can be extremely useful in assessing population structure and history, 2) differential gene flow into populations can have a major impact on local genetic structure, and 3) microevolutionary processes can have different effects on biological characters and surnames. PMID:3044134

  16. [Craniofacial anthropometric patterns in genetic facial dysmorphism: methodology and applications].

    PubMed

    Guyot, L; Richard, O; Philip, N; Dutour, O

    2002-04-01

    Craniofacial anthropometric has become an important tool in medical genetics. The method is simple, non-invasive, reliable, and inexpensive. To provide reliable measurements, the method must be conducted with a precise procedure by a trained physician. Anthropometric determination of craniofacial morphology is helpful in identifying and describing syndromes associated with classical techniques. Additional studies may involve new approaches to facial morphogenesis. PMID:11997739

  17. Development and evaluation of a precision forearm and hand volumeter and measuring cylinder.

    PubMed

    Boland, R; Adams, R

    1996-01-01

    Water displacement methods are commonly used to measure upper limb swelling. The purpose of this study was to improve upon currently used volumetric equipment and methods by developing a volumetric method that would be reliable, accurate, and sensitive to changes in forearm and hand volume of less than 1%. The first two phases involved measuring a sample of inert objects (bottles), and the next two phases involved measuring a sample of forearms and hands across a range of water temperatures. Data confirmed that the volumetric method could be used reliably and accurately to measure bottle volumes and was able to detect a change of 10 mls (< 1%). The method also reliably measured forearm and hand volumes using the same anatomic landmark to reference depth of immersion in all subjects. Water temperatures across the range of 20 to 32 degrees Celsius were not found to affect the volume of segments measured. PMID:8994010

  18. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  19. An Analysis of Anthropometric Data on Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Hafezi, R; Mirmohammadi, SJ; Mehrparvar, AH; Akbari, H; Akbari, H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric data can be used to identify the physical dimensions of equipment, furniture, etc. The use of furniture that fails to fulfill the anthropometric data of its users has a negative impact on human health. Specific anthropometric dimensions are necessary to design school furniture. Anthropometric data have been measured in many communities especially among schoolchildren. There are different ethnic groups with probably different anthropometric data in Iran, and anthropometric data can change by time, so gathering data about anthropometric dimensions is important. This study was designed to obtain anthropometric dimensions of Iranian children (Fars ethnicity) aged 711 years. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Yazd, Iran, descriptive statistics as well as key percentiles for 17 static anthropometric data of primary school students (1015 males and 1015 females), were measured and compared between boys and girls. Results: The age of the students was between 6 and 11 years. Mean weight was between 21.565.33 kg and 36.639.45 kg in boys and between 20.793.48 kg and 35.889.40 kg in girls. Mean height was between 1187/0253.98 mm and 1420.83 69.39 mm in boys and between 1173.9051.01mm and 1421.2770.82 mm in girls. There was also some difference in other anthropometric data between two genders. Conclusion: Results of this study showed some differences in anthropometric data with other studies. We also observed significant gender differences in some dimensions as well. PMID:23113041

  20. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  1. Complex hand dexterity: a review of biomechanical methods for measuring musical performance

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Cheryl D.; Irvine, Thomas A.; Sims, Jennifer L.; Wang, Yu L.; Su, Alvin W. Y.; Norris, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social, and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation. The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities. PMID:24860531

  2. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required. PMID:18488965

  3. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trieu; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Trinh, Hieu; Fay, Pearse

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM) of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers. PMID:26225976

  4. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Trieu; Pathirana, Pubudu N.; Trinh, Hieu; Fay, Pearse

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM) of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers. PMID:26225976

  5. Adjusting step count recommendations for anthropometric variations in leg length.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Fahs, Christopher A; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo

    2010-09-01

    Recent public health recommendations for step frequency over a given timeframe (steps min(-1)) associated with moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) have been developed. The recommendation suggests 100 steps min(-1). This estimate overlooks the impact of anthropometric differences between individuals, notably leg length, which is related to step frequency. Therefore this study examined the impact of leg length on steps min(-1) associated with MPA. Twenty adults age 20-40 years (age 26.4+/-4.6 years, 9 males) walked over-ground at five walking speeds (0.5m s(-1), 0.75m s(-1), 1.0m s(-1), 1.25m s(-1), and 1.5m s(-1)), lasting 6 min each, while wearing a portable gas analyser. Participants' step frequency (steps min(-1)) for each walking speed was determined using a hand-tally counter. Random effects models were used to predict steps min(-1) from METs and participant anthropometric measures (body mass index and leg length [cm]). Model estimates were used to predict steps min(-1) corresponding to heights ranging from 5ft. to 6ft. 6in. (6 in increments). Overall, 100 steps min(-1) corresponded to expending 3 METs (SEE 3.49 steps min(-1), R(2)=0.68). As leg length increased estimated steps min(-1) decreased by -1.15 steps min(-1) (95CI -2.19 to -0.10 steps min(-1)). Based on leg length for individuals 5ft to 6ft 6in., steps min(-1) ranged from 111 to 85, respectively. Established steps min(-1) cutpoints associated with MPA are general public health guidelines and anthropometric differences in leg length should be accounted for when developing step frequency recommendations for physical activity or weight loss studies that include individuals of varying height. PMID:20096631

  6. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    PubMed Central

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999

  7. The effect of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Kamali, Sara; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. METHODS A total of 40 patients with T2D, 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarium A7 and those in control group consumed 200 ml/day of soy milk for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and BP measurements were performed according to standard protocols. For detecting within-group differences paired-sample t-tests was used and analysis of covariance was used for determining any differences between two groups. (The trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, identifier: IRCT: IRCT201405265062N8). RESULTS In this study, we failed to find any significant changes between probiotic soy milk and soy milk in term of body mass index (26.65 ± 0.68 vs. 26.33 ± 0.74, P = 0.300) and waist to hip ratio (1.49 ± 0.08 vs. 1.54 ± 0.1, P = 0.170). Although soy milk did not have any effect on BP, probiotic soymilk significantly decreased systolic (14.7 ± 0.48 vs. 13.05 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) and diastolic BP (10 ± 0.7 vs. 9.1 ± 1, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION In our study, probiotic soy milk in comparing with soy milk did not have any beneficial effects on anthropometric measures in these patients. We need more clinical trial for confirming the effect of probiotic foods on anthropometric measure in diabetic patients. However, probiotic soy milk decreased systolic and diastolic BP significantly. PMID:26261453

  8. System A amino acid transporter activity in human placental microvillous membrane vesicles in relation to various anthropometric measurements in appropriate and small for gestational age babies.

    PubMed

    Harrington, B; Glazier, J; D'Souza, S; Sibley, C

    1999-06-01

    Fetal growth and development is dependent on the transfer of amino acids from maternal to fetal blood across the microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) and basal plasma membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblast. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of system A amino acid transporter (SysA) activity in MVM to a variety of measurements of size at birth in a group of term small for gestational age (SGA) babies and in a group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies. Mean SysA activities (nmol/mg vesicle protein/30 s +/- SEM) were: SGA, 0.027 +/- 0.004 (n = 25) and AGA, 0.045 +/- 0.005 (n = 24); p = 0.006. Spearman rank correlations were calculated for SGA (n = 19-25) and AGA (n = 21-24) groups for SysA activity against the following anthropometric measurements: abdominal circumference, birth weight, length, midarm circumference (MAC), head circumference, midarm circumference:head circumference ratio, placental weight (PW), placental ratio (placental weight:birth weight), birth weight:length ratio, Ponderal index (birth weight/length3) and triceps and subscapular skin-fold thicknesses (tsft and ssft). In SGA babies, SysA activity was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with subscapular skin-fold thicknesses (r = 0.48), triceps skin-fold thicknesses (r = 0.42), PW (r = 0.42), and placental ratio (r = 0.46). In AGA babies, the only significant correlation was an inverse one with placental ratio (r = -0.50). These data suggest there are differences in the relationship between placental SysA activity and fetal proportion in term AGA compared with SGA babies. PMID:10367770

  9. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

    1992-06-01

    In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation. PMID:1607187

  10. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji )

    1994-04-01

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

  12. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a

  13. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  14. The effect of almonds on anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in overweight and obese females in a weight reduction program: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abazarfard, Zohreh; Salehi, Mousa; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the wholesome benefits of nuts increased consumption of them has been recommended. However, because of nut's high energy density, the role of them in the treatment of overweight and obesity is vague. This current clinical trial study aims to investigate the effects of a balanced hypocaloric almond-enriched diet (AED) (almond group) in comparison to a balanced hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) (nut-free group) on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with body mass index (BMI) >25 for 3-month. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 overweight and obese women were assigned in our 3-month randomized controlled trial. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups regarding a balanced hypocaloric diet with or without almond. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the almond group who consumed 50 g of almonds daily. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements of the participants who completed the study were made prior to and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 100 subjects completed the study. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip circumference ratio, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, total: High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood sugar and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the almond group compared to the nut-free group (P > 0.001). Greater reduction in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P > 0.002) and systolic blood pressure (P > 0.001) and greater increase in HDL-C (P = 0.001) were found in the nut-free group. Conclusion: The balanced hypocaloric AED in comparison to the balanced hypocaloric NFD led to a greater weight-loss and overall better improvements in studied cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:25097630

  15. Anthropometrics and biochemical markers in men.

    PubMed

    Donescu, Oana S; Batti, Michele C; Videman, Tapio; Risteli, Juha; Eyre, David

    2005-01-01

    The relation between anthropometric components and biochemical markers has not been previously studied. To clarify the role of anthropometric factors in bone metabolism in men, 145 randomly selected subjects 40 to 70 yr of age from a population-based cohort were studied. Pearson's r and multiple regression analysis were used to assess the relation between anthropometrics (weight, body mass index [BMI], percentage of body fat, fat-free weight, and fat freeBMI), biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and femoral neck, as well as between BMD and each biochemical marker (serum bone formation marker procollagen amino-terminal propeptide [PINP],urinary bone resorption marker amino-terminal telopeptide [NTx], and the ratio of PINP to NTx. Of the anthropometric factors, fat-free BMI had the highest association with the markers (r = -0.21 to -0.35, p < 0.05) and explained a higher percent of both spine BMD and NTx variance than weight. Body fat did not correlate with the BMD measures. Urinary NTx was a better indicator of current BMD status than PINP or the ratio of PINP to NTx, with the highest association with BMD at the sites tested (r = -0.20 to -0.29). NTx levels were statistically significantly different between men with normal and osteoporotic BMD at the femoral neck. PMID:15908711

  16. Evaluation of an anthropometric shape model of the human scalp.

    PubMed

    Lacko, Danil; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. PMID:25683533

  17. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    PubMed

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance. PMID:25148680

  18. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, B; Armstrong, T J

    1991-08-01

    The goal of this study was to collect anthropometric data that describe the geometry of the surface of the hand and to model this anthropometry as a function of gross external hand measurements. The depth and breadth of each segment of the hand were measured at points that were spaced at approximately equal distances between the joints of the hand. Linear models using hand breadth as the independent variable explained from 12% to 47% of the variation in segment breadths and from 6% to 74% in segment depths. Ellipsoids are used in biomechanical models as an efficient mathematical description of the shape of kinematic segments for use in the determination of contact with other objects. Therefore the primary objectives of this study were to approximate the semiaxis dimensions for these hand segment contact bodies using a linear model of the gross anthropometry and to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons showed that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were largest near the joints. Data collected in this study could be used to create a set of overlapping ellipsoids that would provide a more accurate representation of hand geometry, and this representation could be adapted to biomechanical models that use ellipsoids to define segment geometry. PMID:1955203

  19. Sex determination from hand and foot dimensions in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2011-03-01

    Hands and feet are often recovered from the site of natural as well as man-made disasters because of bomb blasts, train accidents, plane crashes, or mass homicides. This study is intended to establish standards for determination of sex from the dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population. The data for this study comprise 123 men and 123 women aged between 17 and 20 years from the "Rajput" population of Himachal Pradesh in North India. Four anthropometric measurements viz. hand length, hand breadth, foot length, and foot breadth have been taken on both sides of each subject following international anthropometric standards. The hand index (hand breadth/hand length × 100) and the foot index (foot breadth/foot length × 100) were calculated. Sectioning points and regression models are derived for the hand and foot dimensions and the derived indices. The hand and foot dimensions show a higher accuracy in sex determination by sectioning point analysis when compared to hand and foot index. Of the hand and the foot dimensions, hand breadth and foot breadth showed better accuracy in sex determination. Hand index and foot index remain poor sex discriminators in the study. PMID:21281308

  20. The squares test as a measure of hand function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Jeroen; Laton, Jorne; Van Schependom, J; De Deyn, P P; Nagels, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Deterioration of hand function can be important in multiple sclerosis (MS). The standard way of assessing hand function in MS is the 9-hole peg test (9HPT), one of the three components of the MS functional composite measure. In this study we examine the squares test (ST), a test of hand function that is used extensively in handedness research. We evaluated reproducibility of the ST in 49 healthy controls, and both discriminatory power and concurrent validity of the ST in 38 MS patients and 18 age and gender matched controls. The ST proved to be a reliable and easy to administrate paper-and-pencil test of hand function. The ST showed a high and highly significant correlation with the standard 9HPT over a broad range of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and had high discriminatory power, also comparable to the 9HPT. Therefore, the ST is a candidate test for use in composite measures of MS related functional deficits for clinical practice and in clinical trials. PMID:25012012

  1. Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone in patients participating in a low-energy dietary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. Methods The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Results Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (− 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (− 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (− 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (− 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Conclusions Weight loss and improvements in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels occurred after a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. PMID:23997718

  2. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR?=?0.57;95%CI:0.43?0.76;p?0.0001) and men (OR?=?0.67;95%CI: 0.51?0.87;p?=?0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR?=?0.71;95%CI:0.54?0.93;p?=?0.005) and women (OR?=?0.79;95%CI:0.59?1.05;p>0.05) who consume ?1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ?1 portion was associated with obesity (OR?=?1.51;95%CI:1.00?2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR?=?1.65;95%CI:1.08?2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore, confirmatory studies are needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23593300

  3. Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of hand-transmitted vibration converts oscillatory movements to a form in which they can be evaluated with respect to human responses and assessed for their acceptability. This paper presents methods of measurement, evaluation, and assessment currently advocated in standards and other forms of guidance. The degree to which the methods of evaluating different frequencies, directions, and durations of vibration affect the assessment of vibration on different tools is illustrated. With the frequency weighting currently used to allow for the effects of different frequencies there is little need to measure vibration at frequencies as high as 1000 Hz; this has significant implications to the design and evaluation of proposed antivibration devices, including gloves. Without the current frequency weighting, vibration at frequencies greater than 250 Hz can contribute to the magnitude of the vibration, but many common causes of injury from hand-transmitted vibration have their dominant components of vibration below 250 Hz. On many powered tools, although the dominant frequency of vibration is the same before and after frequency weighting, the reported magnitude of vibration is greatly affected by the frequency weighting. On tools with dominant low frequencies, their vibration is rated as being of far greater importance relative to other tools when considering frequency-weighted acceleration than when considering unweighted acceleration. It is shown that the effect of considering three axes of vibration as opposed to one axis has a greater effect on some tools than on others. The uncertainties and assumptions involved in the measurement, evaluation, and assessment of hand-transmitted vibration are reviewed. It is suggested that whereas current decisions on health and welfare should be based on current assessment methods, the measurement and evaluation of hand-transmitted vibration should involve the collection and reporting of data which allow other interpretations in the future. PMID:9072014

  4. In-vivo measurement of phosphorus in bones of the hands: ten years of clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Hatzikonstantinou, Ioannis; Glaros, Dimitrios C.; Yasumura, Seiichi

    1997-02-01

    A facility was constructed for the in vivo measurement of phosphorus in the bones of the human hands. The technique is based on the detection of the delayed (gamma) -rays emitted from 28Al produced via the 31P(n,(alpha) )28Al reaction. The 4-min irradiation by two 241Am-Be sources is followed by a 4-min counting of the induced activity with two Nal(Tl) detectors. The long-term in vivo precision of the measurements was found to be 2.8 percent and the effective dose is 50 (mu) Sv. To date, well over 1000 measurements have been carried out. The amount of phosphorus in hands in healthy adults was correlated with sex, age, height, forearm bone mineral content, bone mineral density in the spine, total body fat free mass and total body cell mass. Moreover, the measurement of phosphorus in the bones of the hands of patients provided answers to a number of clinical problems.

  5. An examination of the handheld adapter approach for measuring hand-transmitted vibration exposure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xueyan S.; Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a handheld adapter equipped with a tri-axial accelerometer is the most convenient and efficient approach for measuring vibration exposure at the hand-tool interface, especially when the adapter is incorporated into a miniature handheld or wrist-strapped dosimeter. To help optimize the adapter approach, the specific aims of this study are to identify and understand the major sources and mechanisms of measurement errors and uncertainties associated with using these adapters, and to explore their improvements. Five representative adapter models were selected and used in the experiment. Five human subjects served as operators in the experiment on a hand-arm vibration test system. The results of this study confirm that many of the handheld adapters can produce substantial overestimations of vibration exposure, and measurement errors can significantly vary with tool, adapter model, mounting position, mounting orientation, and subject. Major problems with this approach include unavoidable influence of the hand dynamic motion on the adapter, unstable attachment, insufficient attachment contact force, and inappropriate adapter structure. However, the results of this study also suggest that measurement errors can be substantially reduced if the design and use of an adapter can be systematically optimized toward minimizing the combined effects of the identified factors. Some potential methods for improving the design and use of the adapters are also proposed and discussed. PMID:26744580

  6. Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not

  7. Measurement of Hand/Handrim Grip Forces in Two Different One Arm Drive Wheelchairs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to explore the total and regional grip forces in the hand when propelling two different manual one arm drive wheelchairs: the Neater Uni-wheelchair (NUW) and a foot steered Action3 wheelchair. Methods. 17 nondisabled users were randomly assigned to each wheelchair to drive around an indoor obstacle course. The Grip, a multiple sensor system taking continuous measurement of handgrip force, was attached to the propelling hand. Total grip force in each region of the hand and total grip force across the whole hand were calculated per user per wheelchair. Results. The Action3 with foot steering only generated significantly greater total grip force in straight running compared to the NUW and also in the fingers and thumb in straight running. Conclusions. The results suggest that the Action3 with foot steering generated greater grip forces which may infer a greater potential for repetitive strain injury in the upper limb. Further work is required to explore whether the difference in grip force is of clinical significance in a disabled population. PMID:25045684

  8. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    PubMed

    Lupin, Carmen; Lpez-Corts, Luis Eduardo; Rodrguez-Bao, Jess

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. PMID:24661995

  9. Genetic drift and anthropometric variation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H

    1991-04-01

    The effect of genetic drift on the genetic structure of seven Irish populations was investigated using anthropometric data collected during the 1890s on 259 adult males. These populations ranged in size from 769 to 3757, were relatively stable over time, and were located within 119 km of one another. Two populations are known to have experienced considerable English admixture. Data on ten anthropometric variables (three body measures and seven craniofacial measures) were adjusted for age and used to compute a relationship (R) matrix. The R matrix was converted into a distance measure and compared with a potential genetic drift distance measure, defined as (1/Ni + 1/Nj), where Ni and Nj are the effective population sizes of groups i and j (derivation of this formula is presented). Distances were rank-transformed, and the correlation between their pairwise elements was computed using matrix permutation methods to assess significance. Under the hypothesis that drift affects anthropometric variation, these correlations are expected to be positive. The correlation between anthropometric distance and potential genetic drift distance is 0.123, which is not significantly different from 0 (P = 0.368). When a multiple regression model is used to adjust for geographic distance and English admixture, the partial correlation (0.369) is significant (p = 0.021). As part of further analysis of the genetic structure of these populations, the same analyses were repeated using a distance matrix derived from surname frequencies. The correlation of surname distance and potential genetic drift distance is 0.164, which is not significant (p = 0.264). When the multiple regression model is applied, the correlation is 0.401, which is borderline significant (p = 0.055). These results show the influence of genetic drift, local migration, and admixture on Irish population structure. PMID:2019408

  10. Movement order and saccade direction affect a common measure of eye-hand coordination in bimanual reaching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cunguo; Ferdoash, Afreen; Snyder, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of visually guided unimanual reaching have established that a saccade usually precedes each reach and that the reaction times (RTs) for the saccade and reach are highly correlated. The correlation of eye and hand RT is commonly taken as a measure of eye-hand coordination and is thought to assist visuospatial guidance of the hand. We asked what happens during a bimanual reach task. As with a unimanual reach, a saccade was executed first. Although latencies were fastest on unimanual trials, eye and hand RT correlation was identical whether just one or both hands reached to a single target. The average correlation was significantly reduced, however, when each hand reached simultaneously to a different target. We considered three factors that might explain the drop. We found that correlation strength depended on which hand reached first and on which hand reached to the same target as the saccade. Surprisingly, these two factors were largely independent, and the identity of the hand, left or right, had little effect. Eye-hand correlation was similar to that seen with unimanual reaching only when the hand that moved to the same target as the saccade was also the first hand to move. Thus both timing as well as spatial pattern are important in determining eye-hand coordination. PMID:24848462

  11. Anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The present work reports on the physical characteristics of the 392 (310 males, 82 females) starters and 270 (216 males, 54 females) finishers of the 2007 Western States Endurance Run, one of the largest 161-km trail runs in North America. Among the starters, mean (and 25th to 75th percentiles) body mass index (BMI) values were 23.2 (21.6 - 24.6) and 20.6 (19.4 - 21.9) kg . m (-2) for the men and women, respectively. Men were significantly taller, heavier and had greater BMI's across all age groups compared with the women. Among the top-5 overall finishers, mean BMI values were 23.2 (range 22.4 - 24.7) for the men and 19.8 (range 17.3 - 21.1) for the women. Average running speed and BMI were negatively correlated for both men (r (2) = 0.11, p < 0.0001) and women (r (2) = 0.10, p = 0.02). From this analysis, it is concluded that those participating in ultramarathon runs can vary widely in physical characteristics with BMI values that would classify some individuals as underweight and others as overweight. BMI varied considerably even among the top finishers, but lower BMI values were associated with faster running times. PMID:18401807

  12. Use of existing standards to measure sound power levels of powered hand tools-necessary revisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Charles S.; Zechmann, Edward

    2005-09-01

    At recent NOISE-CON and Acoustical Society of America meetings, noise rating labeling was discussed as a way of manufacturers providing full disclosure information for their noise emitting products. The first step is to gather sound power level data from these products. Sound power level data should be gathered in accordance with existing ANSI and/or ISO standards. Some standards, such as ANSI 12.15, may not define true operational noise emissions[r1] and thus may provide inaccurate information when that information is used to choose a hearing protection device or used to make a purchasing decision. A number of standards were systematically combined by NIOSH researchers to provide the most accurate information on sound power levels of powered hand tools used in the construction industry. This presentation will detail some of the challenges of existing ANSI 12.15 (and draft ANSI 12.41) to measure sound power levels of electric (and pneumatic) powered hand tools.

  13. Anthropometric characteristics of female smallholder farmers of Uganda - Toward design of labor-saving tools.

    PubMed

    Mugisa, Dana J; Katimbo, Abia; Sempiira, John E; Kisaalita, William S

    2016-05-01

    Sub-Saharan African women on small-acreage farms carry a disproportionately higher labor burden, which is one of the main reasons they are unable to produce for both home and the market and realize higher incomes. Labor-saving interventions such as hand-tools are needed to save time and/or increase productivity in, for example, land preparation for crop and animal agriculture, post-harvest processing, and meeting daily energy and water needs. Development of such tools requires comprehensive and content-specific anthropometric data or body dimensions and existing databases based on Western women may be less relevant. We conducted measurements on 89 women to provide preliminary results toward answering two questions. First, how well existing databases are applicable in the design of hand-tools for sub-Saharan African women. Second, how universal body dimension predictive models are among ethnic groups. Our results show that, body dimensions between Bantu and Nilotic ethnolinguistic groups are different and both are different from American women. These results strongly support the need for establishing anthropometric databases for sub-Saharan African women, toward hand-tool design. PMID:26851477

  14. Exploring the Use of Sensors to Measure Behavioral Interactions: An Experimental Evaluation of Using Hand Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jeroen H. M.; Langdon, Patrick M.; Mayagoitia, Ruth E.; Howard, Newton

    2014-01-01

    Humans appear to be sensitive to relative small changes in their surroundings. These changes are often initially perceived as irrelevant, but they can cause significant changes in behavior. However, how exactly peoples behavior changes is often hard to quantify. A reliable and valid tool is needed in order to address such a question, ideally measuring an important point of interaction, such as the hand. Wearable-body-sensor systems can be used to obtain valuable, behavioral information. These systems are particularly useful for assessing functional interactions that occur between the endpoints of the upper limbs and our surroundings. A new method is explored that consists of computing hand position using a wearable sensor system and validating it against a gold standard reference measurement (optical tracking device). Initial outcomes related well to the gold standard measurements (r?=?0.81) showing an acceptable average root mean square error of 0.09 meters. Subsequently, the use of this approach was further investigated by measuring differences in motor behavior, in response to a changing environment. Three subjects were asked to perform a water pouring task with three slightly different containers. Wavelet analysis was introduced to assess how motor consistency was affected by these small environmental changes. Results showed that the behavioral motor adjustments to a variable environment could be assessed by applying wavelet coherence techniques. Applying these procedures in everyday life, combined with correct research methodologies, can assist in quantifying how environmental changes can cause alterations in our motor behavior. PMID:24516583

  15. 2D and 3D anatomical analyses of hand dimensions for custom-made gloves.

    PubMed

    Yu, A; Yick, K L; Ng, S P; Yip, J

    2013-05-01

    Measuring hand anthropometric data for the development of good-fitting gloves is crucial. In pursuing higher accuracy in hand anthropometric measurements, scanning of hand surfaces with the aids of image analysis system to acquire measurements is an alternative to the manual methods. This study proposes a new hand measuring approach by using 2D and 3D scanning which are evaluated through comparisons of manual measurements. Thirty-three dimensions are measured by using (1) tape and calliper measurement; (2) 2D image analysis; (3) 3D image analysis based on ten captures; and (4) 3D image analysis based on three captures, respectively. Repeated-measures ANOVA, correlation analysis and RMSE are used to examine the results. The hand dimensions obtained from the four methods are highly linearly correlated. Hand data taken from 3D image analysis has no significant difference compared with manual measurements on hand and wrist circumferences, length and breadth dimension, regardless of the number of captures. PMID:23122430

  16. Conceptual design of a device to measure hand swelling in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hysinger, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of pressurized suits for use by astronauts in space, proper fit is an important consideration. One particularly difficult aspect of the suit design is the design of the gloves. If the gloves of the suit do not fit properly, the grip strength of the astronaut can be decreased by as much as fifty percent. These gloves are designed using an iterative process and can cost over 1.5 million dollars. Glove design is further complicated by the way the body behaves in a micro-gravity environment. In a micro-gravity setting, fluid from the lower body tends to move into the upper body. Some of this fluid collects in the hands and causes the hands to swell. Therefore, a pair of gloves that fit well on earth may not fit well when they are used in space. The conceptual design process for a device which can measure the swelling that occurs in the hands in a micro-gravity environment is described. This process involves developing a specifications list and function structure for the device and generating solution variants for each of the sub functions. The solution variants are then filtered, with the variants that violate any of the specifications being discarded. After acceptable solution variants are obtained, they are combined to form design concepts. These design concepts are evaluated against a set of criteria and the design concepts are ranked in order of preference. Through this process, the two most plausible design concepts were an ultrasonic imaging technique and a laser mapping technique. Both of these methods create a three dimensional model of the hand, from which the amount of swelling can be determined. In order to determine which of the two solutions will actually work best, a further analysis will need to be performed.

  17. Impairment in anthropometric parameters and body composition in females with classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gonalves, Ezequiel Moreira; de Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente; de Mello, Maricilda Palandi; Baptista, Maria Tereza Matias; D'Souza-Li, Lilia Freire Rodrigues; Baldin, Alexandre Duarte; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Farias, Edson Santos; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical measurements and body composition of female patients with the classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Twenty-eight girls with CAH were classified according to both hormonal control (well or not well controlled) and the clinical form of the disease (simple virilizing or salt-wasting). In the control group, 112 healthy individuals were included, divided into two subgroups (male and female). Both patients and controls were subdivided by age into three groups according to pubertal stage: < or =10 years (prepubertal), 11-15 years (pubertal), and > or =15 years (postpubertal). Anthropometrical evaluations and bioelectrical impedance were used to obtain the physical measurement and body composition data. The patients with the simple virilizing form presented higher values for BMI, waist, arm fat area, and fat mass percentage. The not well controlled group presented shorter leg length. Values obtained for BMI as well as for arm fat area, brachial circumference, waist, hip, bi-iliac diameter and fat mass percentage were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls, whereas leg length, hand size and the percentages of water and lean mass were lower. Alterations in body composition were observed in all age groups, mainly by increase of fat mass with age. After puberty, impairments in limb measurements (leg, hand and foot) were more evident. Patients with CAH presented differences in anthropometric parameters but mainly in body composition. Hence, more comprehensive and careful anthropometric evaluation during monitoring of patients with CAH is recommended. PMID:19694199

  18. Sampling and analytical method development and hand wipe measurements of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Boeniger, Mark; Neumeister, Charles; Booth-Jones, Angela

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media by first contaminating the hands of a small number of volunteers with UGEO, followed by applying a small amount of corn oil to the palms, and by wiping the skin with a Whatman cellulostic filter paper or a polyester fabric wipe (i.e., Alpha wipes). In summary, using either Whatman or Alpha wipes, the mean recovery of pyrene from the UGEO that was applied to the hands and contained within three consecutive wipes was 69% and 54%, respectively. However, the relative recovery of the first to second wipe was on average 47% and 75% for the two media, respectively. These results indicate that the Alpha wipes were more efficient at recovering pyrene in the first wipe but less efficient overall when all three consecutive samples were included. Even though this sampling was performed in a controlled laboratory environment, the minimum and maximum amount of pyrene recovered in the individual composite samples using either method spanned a range of twofold. Overall, intra-and interpersonal variability, as measured by coefficient of variation, were 22% and 19%, respectively, and were not statistically different by type of media used. This method was used in a pilot field survey to sample the hands of 18 automotive repair technicians and 18 office workers. Detectable amounts of pyrene (>0.2 microg/sample) were found on the hands of 61% and 0% of these two groups, respectively, with the highest measured quantity equal to 1.06 microg. Samples from the upper surfaces of automobile motors were generally low to nondetectable (<0.027 microg/sample), while the median value of 0.047 mkcrlg/50 cm(2)(CV = 160%) and up to 0.640 microg were found on the drip pans. PMID:18464095

  19. Perioral aging--an anthropometric appraisal.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

  20. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  1. Measurement Issues in Anthropometric Measures of Limb Volume Change in Persons at Risk for and Living with Lymphedema: A Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Tidhar, Dorit; Armer, Jane M; Deutscher, Daniel; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Azuri, Josef; Madsen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on measurements of limb volume, based on circumferences taken by physiotherapists using a flexible tape. This study aimed to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements taken by physiotherapists of legs and arms with and without lymphedema and to evaluate whether there is a difference in reliability when measuring a healthy versus a lymphedematous limb. The intra-rater reliability of arm and leg measurements by trained physiotherapist is very high (scaled standard error of measurements (SEMs) for an arm and a leg volume were 0.82% and 0.64%, respectively) and a cut-point of 1% scaled SEM may be recommended as a threshold for acceptable reliability. Physiotherapists can rely on the same error when assessing lymphedematous or healthy limbs. For those who work in teams and share patients, practice is needed in synchronizing the measurements and regularly monitoring their inter-rater reliability. PMID:26437431

  2. Measurement Issues in Anthropometric Measures of Limb Volume Change in Persons at Risk for and Living with Lymphedema: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Tidhar, Dorit; Armer, Jane M.; Deutscher, Daniel; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Azuri, Josef; Madsen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on measurements of limb volume, based on circumferences taken by physiotherapists using a flexible tape. This study aimed to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements taken by physiotherapists of legs and arms with and without lymphedema and to evaluate whether there is a difference in reliability when measuring a healthy versus a lymphedematous limb. The intra-rater reliability of arm and leg measurements by trained physiotherapist were very high (scaled standard error of measurements (SEMs) for an arm and a leg volume were 0.82% and 0.64%, respectively) and a cut-point of 1% scaled SEM may be recommended as a threshold for acceptable reliability. Physiotherapists can rely on the same error when assessing lymphedematous or healthy limbs. For those who work in teams and share patients, practice is needed in synchronizing the measurements and regularly monitoring their inter-rater reliability. PMID:26437431

  3. COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

  4. Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam; Chettle, D. R.; Pejovi?-Mili?, A.; Waker, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 g Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 g g-1 Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 g Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4? detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation was constrained to be less than 150 mSv as opposed to the previously imposed dose equivalent limit of 20 mSv. A maximum beam current, which could be delivered on the lithium target to produce neutrons, was restricted to 500 A. The length of irradiation intervals larger than 10 min, was considered inconvenient and impractical to implement with Mn measurements in humans. To fulfil the requirements for developing a protocol for in vivo bone Mn measurements, a revised estimate of the dose equivalent has been presented here. Beam energy of 1.98 MeV was determined to be optimal to complete the irradiation procedure within 10 min using 500 A beam current. The local dose equivalent given to hand was estimated as 118 mSv, which is lower by a factor of 1.5 compared to that of 2.00 MeV. The optimized beam parameters are expected to improve the currently obtained detection limit of 2.1 g Mn/g Ca to 0.6 g Mn/g Ca. Using this dose equivalent delivered to the central location of the hand, the average dose equivalent to the hand of 74 mSv and an effective dose of approximately 70 Sv will be accompanying the non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone Mn, which is little over the chest radiograph examination dose.

  5. Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Chettle, D R; Pejovi?-Mili?, A; Waker, A J

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 microg Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 microg g(-1) Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 microg Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4pi detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation was constrained to be less than 150 mSv as opposed to the previously imposed dose equivalent limit of 20 mSv. A maximum beam current, which could be delivered on the lithium target to produce neutrons, was restricted to 500 microA. The length of irradiation intervals larger than 10 min, was considered inconvenient and impractical to implement with Mn measurements in humans. To fulfil the requirements for developing a protocol for in vivo bone Mn measurements, a revised estimate of the dose equivalent has been presented here. Beam energy of 1.98 MeV was determined to be optimal to complete the irradiation procedure within 10 min using 500 microA beam current. The local dose equivalent given to hand was estimated as 118 mSv, which is lower by a factor of 1.5 compared to that of 2.00 MeV. The optimized beam parameters are expected to improve the currently obtained detection limit of 2.1 microg Mn/g Ca to 0.6 microg Mn/g Ca. Using this dose equivalent delivered to the central location of the hand, the average dose equivalent to the hand of 74 mSv and an effective dose of approximately 70 microSv will be accompanying the non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone Mn, which is little over the chest radiograph examination dose. PMID:19060358

  6. Effects of Reliability and Global Context on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Sensed Hand Position in Cursor-Control Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Miya K.; Heuer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In a cursor-control task in which the motion of the cursor is rotated randomly relative to the movement of the hand, the sensed directions of hand and cursor are mutually biased. In our previous study, we used implicit and explicit measures of the bias of sensed hand direction toward the direction of the cursor and found different characteristics. The present study serves to explore further differences and commonalities of these measures. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of different relative reliabilities of visual and proprioceptive information on the explicitly and implicitly assessed bias of sensed hand direction. In two conditions, participants made an aiming movement and returned to the start position immediately or after a delay of 6 s during which the cursor was no longer visible. The unimodal proprioceptive information on final hand position in the delayed condition served to increase its relative reliability. As a result, the bias of sensed hand direction toward the direction of the cursor was reduced for the explicit measure, with a complementary increase of the bias of sensed cursor direction, but unchanged for the implicit measure. In Experiment 2, we examined the influence of global context, specifically of the across-trial sequence of judgments of hand and cursor direction. Both explicitly and implicitly assessed biases of sensed hand direction did not significantly differ between the alternated condition (trial-to-trial alternations of judgments of hand and cursor direction) and the blocked condition (judgments of hand or cursor directions in all trials). They both substantially decreased from the alternated to the randomized condition (random sequence of judgments of hand and cursor direction), without a complementary increase of the bias of sensed cursor direction. We conclude that our explicit and implicit measures are equally sensitive to variations of coupling strength as induced by the variation of global context in Experiment 2, but are differently sensitive to variations of the relative reliabilities as induced by our additional unimodal proprioceptive information in Experiment 1. PMID:26793162

  7. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly has a spatial dimension that is highly influenced by the degree of urbanity, which should be taken into consideration in policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26880073

  8. Validity of a simple videogrammetric method to measure the movement of all hand segments for clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Bru, Joaqun L; Jarque-Bou, Nstor J; Vergara, Margarita; Prez-Gonzlez, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Hand movement measurement is important in clinical, ergonomics and biomechanical fields. Videogrammetric techniques allow the measurement of hand movement without interfering with the natural hand behaviour. However, an accurate measurement of the hand movement requires the use of a high number of markers, which limits its applicability for the clinical practice (60 markers would be needed for hand and wrist). In this work, a simple method that uses a reduced number of markers (29), based on a simplified kinematic model of the hand, is proposed and evaluated. A set of experiments have been performed to evaluate the errors associated with the kinematic simplification, together with the evaluation of its accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. The global error attributed to the kinematic simplification was 6.68. The method has small errors in repeatability and reproducibility (3.43 and 4.23, respectively) and shows no statistically significant difference with the use of electronic goniometers. The relevance of the work lies in the ability of measuring all degrees of freedom of the hand with a reduced number of markers without interfering with the natural hand behaviour, which makes it suitable for its use in clinical applications, as well as for ergonomic and biomechanical purposes. PMID:24503512

  9. Anthropometric measurements of the facial framework in adulthood: age-related changes in eight age categories in 600 healthy white North Americans of European ancestry from 16 to 90 years of age.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Leslie G; Eiben, Otto G; Sivkov, Stefan; Tompson, Bryan; Katic, Marko J; Forrest, Christopher R

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional anthropometric study was to determine the age-related changes in the facial framework during adulthood in healthy white North Americans of European ancestry (261 male subjects and 339 female subjects). Five measurements, four horizontal and one vertical, defining the framework were taken from the skin and bony surface of the face in the maturation period (16-20 years) and in 10-year age categories of adulthood (21-90 years). As well, the thickness of the soft-tissue cover between these two anatomical levels was measured. The categories between 21 and 40 years represented early adulthood, those between 41 and 70 years represented middle adulthood, and those between 71 and 90 years represented late adulthood. The forehead width in both sexes increased significantly on the skin and bony surface from the maturation period to early adulthood. In middle adulthood, the changes were significant only sporadically. In late adulthood, the upper and lower jaw showed a harmonious change with age, mostly increasing on both the skin and bony surface. The face width proved to be the most stable measurement and had the thinnest soft-tissue cover. No consistent pattern emerged during adulthood in increases or decreases within the facial framework; however, an unexpected harmony was noted between the values of the measurements in early and late adulthood in both sexes on both the skin and bony surface. The thickness of the soft-tissue cover at the bony landmarks was greatest in the midface, with a moderately decreasing tendency in both sexes. In the lower jaw, the soft tissue showed significant increases in thickness in early adulthood and moderate to large decreases in late adulthood. Anthropometric analysis of the facial framework in adulthood marks only the first step in establishing the morphological changes of the aging face. Quantitative evaluation of changes within the facial framework of the aging population must be carried out in more detail. Increased worldwide migration results in a mixing of people of various racial/ethnic origins and necessitates a general anthropometric analysis of the aging face to provide more reliable guidelines for therapy. PMID:15167252

  10. Hand hygiene practices in a dental teaching center: Measures and improve

    PubMed Central

    Thivichon-Prince, Batrice; Barsotti, Odile; Girard, Raphaele; Morrier, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure the compliance and the quality of HH practices and the knowledge of the healthcare workers of the university dental care center. Materials and Methods: All educators and students present were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each healthcare professional was observed in care situation over a period of 30 min. The knowledge, attitudes and opinions were collected through a questionnaire. Results: Number of healthcare professionals included was 190 (64.4%). Study group consisted of 151 students (74.4%) and 39 educators (42.4%). Out of a total number of expected disinfection of hands (993), 396 were made (39.9%). Educators had a higher compliance rates than students (63.7-35.8%, P = 10?9). Large differences were found between care situations (compliance higher before the first care to a patient and lower during installation of patient in dental X-ray area or at exit of dental X-ray area). Concerning hand rubbing (HR), 36.6% were performed correctly, and the main error was all steps of HR not observed (54.4%), and shorter duration (46.7%). The observance and the quality of HR were associated with better knowledge. Conclusion: This data suggests areas of improvement: (1) A comprehensive intervention including care organization/clinic ergonomics/planning/anticipation of materials needed for care; (2) the development of HH education program should include the educators, since the behavior of students is strongly influenced and formed by their mentor's attitude and behaviors. PMID:25512728

  11. Measuring healthcare worker hand hygiene activity: current practices and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance and providing healthcare workers with feedback regarding their performance are considered integral parts of multidisciplinary hand hygiene improvement programs. Observational surveys conducted by trained personnel are currently considered the "gold standard" method for establishing compliance rates, but they are time-consuming and have a number of shortcomings. Monitoring hand hygiene product consumption is less time-consuming and can provide useful information regarding the frequency of hand hygiene that can be used to give caregivers feedback. Electronic counting devices placed in hand hygiene product dispensers provide detailed information about hand hygiene frequency over time, by unit and during interventions. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems that utilize wireless systems to monitor room entry and exit of healthcare workers and their use of hand hygiene product dispensers can provide individual and unit-based data on compliance with the most common hand hygiene indications. Some systems include badges (tags) that can provide healthcare workers with real-time reminders to clean their hands upon entering and exiting patient rooms. Preliminary studies suggest that use of electronic monitoring systems is associated with increased hand hygiene compliance rates and that such systems may be acceptable to care givers. Although there are many questions remaining about the practicality, accuracy, cost, and long-term impact of electronic monitoring systems on compliance rates, they appear to have considerable promise for improving our efforts to monitor and improve hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers. PMID:21931253

  12. HAND WIPE SUBSAMPLING METHOD FOR USE WITH BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure studies incorporating urinary biomarker measurements are complicated because dermal sampling may intercept or remove the target chemical before it is absorbed. A hand wipe subsampling method has been developed using polyurethane foam-tipped (PUF) swabs to minim...

  13. Immediate effects of positioning devices on the normal and spastic hand measured by electromyography.

    PubMed

    Mathiowetz, V; Bolding, D J; Trombly, C A

    1983-04-01

    There is a continuing controversy in the literature and in clinical practice about whether positioning devices are effective in decreasing spasticity and, if so, which type is most effective. In this study, the immediate effects of a volar resting splint, a finger spreader, a firm cone, and no device were compared on eight normal and four hemiplegic subjects. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure flexor muscle activity of the tested forearm while the subjects squeezed a grasp meter with the contralateral hand and during the following relaxation period. Results showed significantly greater EMG activity for the finger spreader compared to no device in the flexor carpi radialis of normal subjects during the grasping period. Hemiplegic subjects did not show significantly less EMG activity when using positioning devices compared to no device. In fact, the volar splint appeared to increase the EMG activity while the subjects were grasping. PMID:6869487

  14. Estimation of sex from hand and handprint dimensions in a Western Australian population.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Hemy, Naomi; Franklin, Daniel

    2012-09-10

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated that sex can be estimated with a high degree of expected accuracy through the analysis of anthropometric measurements of the hand. Presently, however, the majority of previous related research has been focused on a limited range of global populations. The aim of the present study, therefore, is to evaluate the accuracy of using anthropometric hand measurements for the estimation of sex in a contemporary adult Western Australian population; we also assess if sex can be accurately estimated from the measurement of handprints. The study sample comprises a total of 91 male and 110 female individuals; documented mean age for the males is 38 years (range 19-68) and for the female sample it is 36 years (range 18-63). A total of six linear measurements are taken from each hand and its corresponding print. Measurement data is analysed using basic univariate statistics and a series of direct and stepwise discriminant function analyses are performed to assess the sex classification potential of the hand and handprint variables. All six hand and handprint measurements are sexually dimorphic and sex explains 28.4-61.7% of the sample variance. The breadth and length of the hand contribute most significantly to sex discrimination; cross-validated sex classification accuracies range between 82.6 and 96.5% with a sex bias of ≤5%. We conclude that anthropometric measurements of the hand and handprint can be used to classify sex with a high degree of expected accuracy in a Western Australian population. PMID:22578812

  15. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  16. Reliability of a new hand-held dynamometer in measuring shoulder range of motion and strength.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Angela; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; McNair, Peter; Williams, Maynard

    2011-02-01

    Acceptable reliability is a prerequisite for inclusion of physical examination tests in clinical examinations of the painful shoulder. The aim of this study was to establish the intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of measures of shoulder range of motion (ROM) and muscle force using a new hand-held dynamometer with the ability to standardize overpressure force during passive ROM tests. Forty consecutive subjects with shoulder pain were recruited, and tests were performed by two physiotherapists. Tests included active ROM elevation, passive ROM glenohumeral abduction and external rotation and resisted abduction and external rotation. All tests demonstrated high levels of intraexaminer reliability (ICC 0.85-0.99; LOA 6-24 and 1.1-7.0 kg). Highest levels of interexaminer reliability reliability were observed for measures of active ROM flexion (ICC 0.88-0.95; LOA 14-22). Passive ROM tests demonstrated 'moderate - substantial' interexaminer reliability (ICC 0.45-0.62; LOA 25-34). The ICCs for resisted tests ranged from 0.68 to 0.84, and LOA ranged from 3.2 to 8.5 kg. Active ROM flexion demonstrated high levels of both intra- and interexaminer reliability. Measures of passive ROM and peak isometric force demonstrated acceptable levels of intraexaminer reliability. PMID:20621547

  17. Morphologic outcome of bimaxillary surgeryAn anthropometric appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769

  18. Independence of Data Points in the Measurement of Hand Preferences in Primates: Statistical Problem or Urban Myth?

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of independence of data points or the pooling fallacy has been suggested as a potential problem in the study of handedness in nonhuman primates, particularly as it relates to whether hand use responses should be recorded as individual events or bouts of activity. Here, I argue that there is no evidence that the concept of statistical independence of data points or the pooling fallacy is a problem in the evaluation of population-level handedness in previous studies in nonhuman primates. I further argue these statistical concepts have been misapplied to the characterization of individual hand preferences. Finally, I argue that recording hand use responses as bouts rather than events has no significant effect on reports of hand use in nonhuman primates and, in fact, may unintentionally bias hand use toward the null hypothesis. Several suggestions for improvement in the measurement and statistical determination of individual handedness are offered in the paper. PMID:23460350

  19. Preliminary anthropometric data of medical students for equipment applications.

    PubMed

    Sutjana, I Dewa Putu; Sutajaya, M; Purnawati, Susy; Adiatmika, P; Tunas, K; Suardana, Ery; Swamardika, I B A

    2008-06-01

    Forty-six measurements were measured on 127 medical students (60 males and 67 females) in Indonesia by using the traditional anthropometric methods. The means, standard deviations and, 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were calculated and presented. PMID:19157159

  20. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Multipurpose anthropometric facial anglemeter.

    PubMed

    Venkatadri, G; Farkas, L G; Kooiman, J

    1992-09-01

    We have developed a multipurpose anglemeter for measuring the face that enables us to determine accurately the size of six profile angles by both direct and indirect anthropometry in markedly reduced time. PMID:1513900

  2. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  3. Genetic and environmental effects on the bone development of the hand and wrist in Chinese young twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li Yan; Tan, Ji Bin; Zhao, Jing Lan; Jiang, Fa Chun; Tian, Xiao Cao; Ning, Feng; Wang, Shao Jie; Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zeng Chang; Zhao, Zhong Tang

    2015-03-01

    We assessed genetic and environmental effects on bone development of the hand and wrist, and on key anthropometric measures in Chinese young twins. In total, 139 monozygotic and 95 dizygotic twin pairs aged from 5 to 18 years were recruited. The twin correlations of total hand and wrist scores for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 0.71 and 0.36, respectively. Bivariate model analysis showed moderate genetic correlations only for total skeletal maturity vs. weight and total skeletal maturity vs. waist circumference (r, 0.51 and 0.46, respectively). Our findings demonstrated that genetic factors played important roles in bone development of the hand and wrist in Chinese young twins, and that these genetic effects might be distinct from those influencing anthropometric measures. PMID:25800451

  4. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  5. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  6. Sex identification on the basis of hand and foot measurements in Indo-Mauritian population--a model based approach.

    PubMed

    Jowaheer, Vandna; Agnihotri, Arun Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Identification is the foremost issue in crime investigation. A few studies have been performed so far in order to identify sex on the basis of single foot or hand of the victim. Moreover, these studies provide only crude measures to indicate sex and there exists no concrete methodology to predict sex using the available information. In the present paper, we have developed statistical models to identify sex based on the dimensions of foot and hand. The models containing both length and breadth of hand or foot as independent variables are capable of predicting sex in Indo-Mauritian population with fairly high accuracy as compared to those containing hand or foot indices. PMID:21550567

  7. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  8. An anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population with ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab

    2015-05-01

    This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets. PMID:25683535

  9. Hand Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... the appropriate antibiotic for treatment. CAUSES Atypical Mycobacterial Infections Rarely, a hand infection can be caused by ...

  10. Review and Evaluation of Hand–Arm Coordinate Systems for Measuring Vibration Exposure, Biodynamic Responses, and Hand Forces

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Sinsel, Erik W.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

    2015-01-01

    The hand coordinate systems for measuring vibration exposures and biodynamic responses have been standardized, but they are not actually used in many studies. This contradicts the purpose of the standardization. The objectives of this study were to identify the major sources of this problem, and to help define or identify better coordinate systems for the standardization. This study systematically reviewed the principles and definition methods, and evaluated typical hand coordinate systems. This study confirms that, as accelerometers remain the major technology for vibration measurement, it is reasonable to standardize two types of coordinate systems: a tool-based basicentric (BC) system and an anatomically based biodynamic (BD) system. However, these coordinate systems are not well defined in the current standard. Definition of the standard BC system is confusing, and it can be interpreted differently; as a result, it has been inconsistently applied in various standards and studies. The standard hand BD system is defined using the orientation of the third metacarpal bone. It is neither convenient nor defined based on important biological or biodynamic features. This explains why it is rarely used in practice. To resolve these inconsistencies and deficiencies, we proposed a revised method for defining the realistic handle BC system and an alternative method for defining the hand BD system. A fingertip-based BD system for measuring the principal grip force is also proposed based on an important feature of the grip force confirmed in this study. PMID:26929824

  11. Preschool vegetarian children. Dietary and anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J R; Hutton, C W; Stitt, K R

    1980-04-01

    Three-day dietary intakes were obtained on forty-eight preschool children between two and five years old, who had followed a vegetarian diet since birth. Intakes were calculated for food energy and selected nutrients. In addition, the children were measured for height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and arm circumference. Average dietary intakes of the children compared favorably with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Calcium was the only nutrient consumed in less than optimal amounts. Average intakes of the calculated amino acids were adequate when compared with available information. In general, anthropometric data were below the standards established by HANES findings, the National Center for Health Statistics, and available arm circumference data. PMID:7391470

  12. A palmar pressure sensor for measurement of upper limb weight bearing by the hands during transfers by paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Kunju, Nissan; Ojha, Rajdeep; Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-10-01

    Paraplegic patients have to effect transfer from one seat to another by using their upper limbs. In this process the hands bear almost the entire weight of the body in at least some phases of the transfer. It is desirable to train patients, especially those who are elderly and otherwise weak, to distribute their weight so as to avoid large forces being sustained on any one hand for an extended period. It is also desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive devices like lower limb FES in sharing the load on the hand. This study presents a simple and versatile method of measuring palmar hand force during transfers by paraplegic patients. It is important that this force sensor should not interfere with the grasping and stabilizing properties of the hands and should permit normal transferring. The force sensor comprises an air-filled pouch or pillow that can be placed on any surface. This pneumatic sensor feels like upholstery padding on the surface on which it is placed. The sensor integrates the total pressure applied to the surface of the pouch, thereby obtaining the total force exerted by the palm/hand. The fabrication of the sensor is described, as well as the associated measurement circuit. The static calibration shows that the sensor is linear up to 350?N and the dynamic calibration shows that it has a bandwidth of 13?Hz. The sensor was fabricated using an inflated inelastic airbag attached to a pressure transducer. An automatic offset correction circuit in the preamplifier module ensures that any offset due to initial pressure or sensor drift is removed and the output is zero under no load condition. The key to this sensor arrangement is the ease of fitting it into the intended location without disturbing the existing arrangement for the subject's activities of daily living (ADL). PMID:23964668

  13. Participant adherence indicatiors predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose. To evaluate several adherence indicators, created using 2 measures, separately and in combination, for predicting health outcome changes. Design. Non-experimental with pre-post measures. Setting. Mid-sized city in southern region of United States. Subjects. 269 primarily African-America...

  14. Towards a detailed anthropometric body characterization using the Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana; Barbosa, Filipa; Pereira, Eduardo M; Santos, Márcio Borgonovo; Seixas, Adérito; Vilas-Boas, João; Gabriel, Joaquim; Vardasca, Ricardo

    2016-03-14

    Anthropometry has been widely used in different fields, providing relevant information for medicine, ergonomics and biometric applications. However, the existent solutions present marked disadvantages, reducing the employment of this type of evaluation. Studies have been conducted in order to easily determine anthropometric measures considering data provided by low-cost sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect. In this work, a methodology is proposed and implemented for estimating anthropometric measures considering the information acquired with this sensor. The measures obtained with this method were compared with the ones from a validation system, Qualisys. Comparing the relative errors determined with state-of-art references, for some of the estimated measures, lower errors were verified and a more complete characterization of the whole body structure was achieved. PMID:26599577

  15. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  16. Determination of sex from various hand dimensions of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jee, Soo-Chan; Bahn, Sangwoo; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2015-12-01

    In the case of disasters or crime scenes, forensic anthropometric methods have been utilized as a reliable way to quickly confirm the identification of victims using only a few parts of the body. A total of 321 measurement data (from 167 males and 154 females) were analyzed to investigate the suitability of detailed hand dimensions as discriminators of sex. A total of 29 variables including length, breadth, thickness, and circumference of fingers, palm, and wrist were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. The accuracy of sex indication from the hand dimensions data was found using discriminant analysis. The age effect and interaction effect according to age and sex on hand dimensions were analyzed by ANOVA. The prediction accuracy on a wide age range was also compared. According to the results, the maximum hand circumference showed the highest accuracy of 88.6% for predicting sex for males and 89.6% for females. Although the breadth, circumference, and thickness of hand parts generally showed higher accuracy than the lengths of hand parts in predicting the sex of the participant, the breadth and circumference of some finger joints showed a significant difference according to age and gender. Thus, the dimensions of hand parts which are not affected by age or gender, such as hand length, palm length, hand breadth, and maximum hand thickness, are recommended to be used first in sex determination for a wide age range group. The results suggest that the detailed hand dimensions can also be used to identify sex for better accuracy; however, the aging effects need to be considered in estimating aged suspects. PMID:26597170

  17. Classroom furniture and anthropometric characteristics of Iranian high school students: proposed dimensions based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Bahrampour, Samira

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls, 480 boys), aged 15-18 years. Nine anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, sitting shoulder height, popliteal height, hip breadth, elbow-seat height, buttock-popliteal length, buttock-knee length and thigh clearance) and five dimensions from the existing classroom furniture were measured and then compared together (using match criterion equations) to identify any potential mismatch between them. The results indicated a considerable mismatch between body dimensions of the students and the existing classroom furniture, with seat height (60.9%), seat width (54.7%) and desktop height (51.7%) being the furniture dimensions with a higher level of mismatch. The levels of mismatch varied between the high-school grade levels and between genders, indicating their special requirements and possible problems. The proposed dimensions of the classroom furniture more appropriate for the students were given. This additional information on students' anthropometry can be used by local furniture industries as a starting point for designing more appropriate furniture for school children, or used by schools to aid in furniture selection. PMID:22695080

  18. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-01-01

    The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  20. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation. PMID:21873758

  1. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  2. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  3. Is three-dimensional anthropometric analysis as good as traditional anthropometric analysis in predicting junior rowing performance?

    PubMed

    Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Tim; Petkov, John; Hahn, Allan G

    2012-01-01

    With the use of three-dimensional whole body scanning technology, this study compared the 'traditional' anthropometric model [one-dimensional (1D) measurements] to a 'new' model [1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) measurements] to determine: (1) which model predicted more of the variance in self-reported best 2000-m ergometry rowing performance; and (2) what were the best anthropometric predictors of ergometry performance, for junior rowers competing at the 2007 and 2008 Australian Rowing Championships. Each rower (257 females, 16.3 1.4 years and 243 males, 16.6 1.5 years) completed a performance and demographic questionnaire, had their mass, standing and sitting height physically measured and were landmarked and scanned using the Vitus Smart 3D whole body scanner. Absolute and proportional anthropometric measurements were extracted from the scan files. Partial least squares regression analysis, with anthropometric measurements and age as predictor variables and self-reported best 2000-m ergometer time as the response variable, was used to first compare the two models and then to determine the best performance predictors. The variance explained by each model was similar for both male [76.1% (new) vs. 73.5% (traditional)] and female [72.3% (new) vs. 68.6% (traditional)] rowers. Overall, absolute rather than proportional measurements, and 2D and 3D rather than 1D measurements, were the best predictors of rowing ergometry performance, with whole body volume and surface area, standing height, mass and leg length the strongest individual predictors. PMID:22734897

  4. Anthropometric Study of the Piriformis Muscle and Sciatic Nerve: A Morphological Analysis in a Polish Population.

    PubMed

    Ha?adaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Polguj, Micha?; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Miros?aw

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine relationships between piriformis muscle (PM) and sciatic nerve (SN) with reference to sex and anatomical variations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Deep dissection of the gluteal region was performed on 30 randomized, formalin-fixed human lower limbs of adults of both sexes of the Polish population. Anthropometric measurements were taken and then statistically analyzed. RESULTS The conducted research revealed that, apart from the typical structure of the piriformis muscle, the most common variation was division of the piriformis muscle into two heads, with the common peroneal nerve running between them (20%). The group with anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course displayed greater diversity of morphometric measurement results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter in the male specimens. On the other hand, in the female specimens, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the ischial tuberosity. The shortest distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter measured at the level of the inferior edge of the piriformis was 21 mm, while the shortest distance to the ischial tuberosity was 63 mm. Such correlations should be taken into account during invasive medical procedures performed in the gluteal region. CONCLUSIONS It is possible to distinguish several anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course within the deep gluteal region. The statistically significant correlations between some anthropometric measurements were only present within particular groups of male and female limbs. PMID:26629744

  5. Anthropometric Study of the Piriformis Muscle and Sciatic Nerve: A Morphological Analysis in a Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Polguj, Michał; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine relationships between piriformis muscle (PM) and sciatic nerve (SN) with reference to sex and anatomical variations. Material/Methods Deep dissection of the gluteal region was performed on 30 randomized, formalin-fixed human lower limbs of adults of both sexes of the Polish population. Anthropometric measurements were taken and then statistically analyzed. Results The conducted research revealed that, apart from the typical structure of the piriformis muscle, the most common variation was division of the piriformis muscle into two heads, with the common peroneal nerve running between them (20%). The group with anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course displayed greater diversity of morphometric measurement results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter in the male specimens. On the other hand, in the female specimens, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the ischial tuberosity. The shortest distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter measured at the level of the inferior edge of the piriformis was 21 mm, while the shortest distance to the ischial tuberosity was 63 mm. Such correlations should be taken into account during invasive medical procedures performed in the gluteal region. Conclusions It is possible to distinguish several anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course within the deep gluteal region. The statistically significant correlations between some anthropometric measurements were only present within particular groups of male and female limbs. PMID:26629744

  6. Anthropometric and craniofacial patterns in mentally retarded males with emphasis on the fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, M G; Pratesi, R; Watson, M S; Breg, W R; Singh, D N

    1993-09-01

    Anthropometric and craniofacial profile patterns indicating the percent difference from the overall mean were developed on 34 physical parameters with 31 white, mentally retarded males (23 adults and 8 children) with the fra(X) syndrome matched for age with 31 white, mentally retarded males without a known cause of their retardation. The fra(X) syndrome males consistently showed larger dimensions for all anthropometric variables, with significant differences for height, sitting height, arm span, hand length, middle finger length, hand breadth, foot length, foot breadth, and testicular volume. A craniofacial pattern did emerge between the two groups of mentally retarded males, but with overlap of several variables. Significant differences were noted for head circumference, head breadth, lower face height, bizygomatic diameter, inner canthal distance, ear length and ear width, with the fra(X) syndrome males having larger head dimensions (head circumference, head breadth, head length, face height and lower face height), but smaller measurements for minimal frontal diameter, bizygomatic diameter, bigonial diameter, and inner canthal distance. Several significant correlations were found with the variables for both mentally retarded males with and without the fra(X) syndrome. In a combined anthropometric and craniofacial profile of 19 variables comparing 26 white fra(X) syndrome males (13 with high expression (> 30%) and 13 with low expression (< 30%), but matched for age), a relatively flat profile was observed with no significant differences for any of the variables. Generally, fra(X) syndrome males with increased fragile X chromosome expression have larger amplifications of the CGG trinucleotide repeat of the FMR-1 gene. No physical differences were detectable in our study between fra(X) males with high expression and apparently larger amplifications of the CGG trinucleotide repeats compared with those patients with low expression. Our research illustrates the use of anthropometry in identifying differences between mentally retarded males with or without the fra(X) syndrome and offers a comprehensive approach for screening males for the fra(X) syndrome and selecting those individuals for cytogenetic and/or molecular genetic testing. PMID:8275570

  7. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY UPON FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRICS AND RESPIRATOR FIT TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Raymond J.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups.There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  8. Effect of Pregnancy Upon Facial Anthropometrics and Respirator Fit Testing.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups. There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  9. Impact of age, anthropometric data and body composition on calcaneal bone characteristics, as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in an older German population.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Christiane; Pons-Khnemann, Jrn; Neuhuser-Berthold, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The impact of fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), body mass index (BMI), body mass and body height on calcaneal bone characteristics as measured with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) was investigated in 137 women and 85 men aged 62-92 years, considering age, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and physical activity level (PAL). In regression analyses using various models, in women, age was a negative predictor of speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and stiffness index (SI) and smoking was a negative predictor of SOS; positive predictors of SOS, BUA, and SI were BMI, body mass and FFM. In men, smoking was a negative predictor and BMI, body mass and FFM were positive predictors of BUA and SI. In both sexes, PAL, body height,WHR and FM had no effect on QUS parameters. The influence of BMI on calcaneal bone characteristics in elderly people depends on FFM rather than on FM. PMID:22036641

  10. Associations between Handgrip Strength and Ultrasound-Measured Muscle Thickness of the Hand and Forearm in Young Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Counts, Brittany R; Barnett, Brian E; Dankel, Scott J; Lee, Kofan; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2015-08-01

    It is unknown whether muscle size of intrinsic hand muscles is associated with handgrip strength. To investigate the relationships between handgrip strength and flexor muscle size of the hand and forearm, muscle thickness (MT) of 86 young adults (43 men and 43 women) between the ages of 18 and 34 y was measured by ultrasound. Two MTs (forearm radius and forearm ulna MT) in the anterior forearm, two MTs (lumbrical and dorsal interosseous MT) in the anterior hand and handgrip strength were measured on the right side. Linear regression with part (also referred to as semipartial) correlation coefficients revealed that forearm ulna MT positively correlated with handgrip strength in both men (part = 0.379, p = 0.001) and women (part = 0.268, p = 0.002). Dorsal interosseous MT correlated with handgrip strength in women only (part = 0.289, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that the forearm ulna and dorsal interosseous MTs for women and forearm ulna MTs for men are factors contributing to prediction of handgrip strength in young adults. PMID:25959055

  11. Association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity and hand symptoms reported by operators of power tools.

    PubMed

    Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Brammer, A J; Piercy, J E

    1997-09-01

    An association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and symptoms of reduced manipulative function, as established by responses to a questionnaire, was demonstrated in a population of 81 manual workers from the mining industry (62 power-tool operators and 19 nonusers). Mechanoreceptor-specific vibrotactile thresholds were determined for the slowly adapting type I (SAI) and fast-adapting types I and II (FAI and FAII) receptors at the fingertip of the third digit of each hand. Statistically significant threshold shifts in SAI and/or FAII acuity were found in persons responding affirmatively to questions concerning finger/hand numbness, blanching, and difficulty buttoning clothing. The best predictors of a quantitative change in tactile acuity were questions relating to difficulty manipulating small objects and buttoning clothing, yielding positive predictive values of from 90% to 100% and false positive rates of from 0% to 2.8%. The demonstration of an association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and some symptom reports, obtained by means of a questionnaire, provides the basis for the development of a screening procedure for persons at risk of such disturbances in hand function. PMID:9330148

  12. Physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance

    PubMed Central

    Mermier, C.; Janot, J.; Parker, D.; Swan, J.

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveTo identify the physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance. MethodsForty four climbers (24 men, 20 women) of various skill levels (self reported rating 5.65.13c on the Yosemite decimal scale) and years of experience (0.1044 years) served as subjects. They climbed two routes on separate days to assess climbing performance. The routes (11 and 30 m in distance) were set on two artificial climbing walls and were designed to become progressively more difficult from start to finish. Performance was scored according to the system used in sport climbing competitions where each successive handhold increases by one in point value. Results from each route were combined for a total climbing performance score. Measured variables for each subject included anthropometric (height, weight, leg length, arm span, % body fat), demographic (self reported climbing rating, years of climbing experience, weekly hours of training), and physiological (knee and shoulder extension, knee flexion, grip, and finger pincer strength, bent arm hang, grip endurance, hip and shoulder flexibility, and upper and lower body anaerobic power). These variables were combined into components using a principal components analysis procedure. These components were then used in a simultaneous multiple regression procedure to determine which components best explain the variance in sport rock climbing performance. ResultsThe principal components analysis procedure extracted three components. These were labelled training, anthropometric, and flexibility on the basis of the measured variables that were the most influential in forming each component. The results of the multiple regression procedure indicated that the training component uniquely explained 58.9% of the total variance in climbing performance. The anthropometric and flexibility components explained 0.3% and 1.8% of the total variance in climbing performance respectively. ConclusionsThe variance in climbing performance can be explained by a component consisting of trainable variables. More importantly, the findings do not support the belief that a climber must necessarily possess specific anthropometric characteristics to excel in sport rock climbing. Key Words: rock climbing; strength; muscular endurance; training; anthropometric determinants PMID:11049146

  13. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  14. Dermal transfer of chlorpyrifos residues from residential surfaces: comparison of hand press, hand drag, wipe, and polyurethane foam roller measurements after broadcast and aerosol pesticide applications.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, C; Fenske, R A

    1999-01-01

    Indoor residential pesticide applications present the potential for human exposures, particularly for small children. Personal contact with target and nontarget surfaces can result in transfer of pesticides to the skin, but the magnitude of such transfer is uncertain. This research compared surface sampling techniques [wipe and polyurethane foam (PUF) roller] with the removal ability of human skin following broadcast and total aerosol release applications of Dursban (Dow Elanco, Midland, MI), a residential formulation containing the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Hands were washed immediately after surface contact, following a protocol that included a laboratory-generated adjustment factor to account for incomplete removal of chlorpyrifos from skin. Chlorpyrifos transfer was similar for hand press and hand drag techniques, averaging approximately 1-6 ng/cm2 of carpet contacted. These amounts represented < 1% of the amount of chlorpyrifos deposited on the surfaces 3.5 hr earlier. Chlorpyrifos transfer from carpet to skin was 23-24 times lower than for wipe sampling and 33-36 times lower than for PUF roller sampling (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0006 for broadcast and aerosol applications, respectively). Hand press sampling removed approximately 4.5 times less chlorpyrifos from nontarget furniture surfaces (12 ng/cm2) than did wipe sampling (56 ng/cm2; p = 0.009). Chlorpyrifos residues on carpet were substantially higher after broadcast applications than after aerosol applications, but residues on such nontarget surfaces as furniture were substantially higher for the aerosol application. This study indicates that human skin removes substantially less residue from carpets and furniture than either conventional wipe or PUF roller sampling methods following residential pest control applications of chlorpyrifos. Although this paper focuses on quantifying residue transfer from surface to skin using different surface sampling techniques, no attempt is made to quantify the amount of chlorpyrifos residue that is subsequently absorbed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10339446

  15. Multiplication factor versus regression analysis in stature estimation from hand and foot dimensions.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2012-05-01

    Estimation of stature is an important parameter in identification of human remains in forensic examinations. The present study is aimed to compare the reliability and accuracy of stature estimation and to demonstrate the variability in estimated stature and actual stature using multiplication factor and regression analysis methods. The study is based on a sample of 246 subjects (123 males and 123 females) from North India aged between 17 and 20 years. Four anthropometric measurements; hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth taken on the left side in each subject were included in the study. Stature was measured using standard anthropometric techniques. Multiplication factors were calculated and linear regression models were derived for estimation of stature from hand and foot dimensions. Derived multiplication factors and regression formula were applied to the hand and foot measurements in the study sample. The estimated stature from the multiplication factors and regression analysis was compared with the actual stature to find the error in estimated stature. The results indicate that the range of error in estimation of stature from regression analysis method is less than that of multiplication factor method thus, confirming that the regression analysis method is better than multiplication factor analysis in stature estimation. PMID:22520373

  16. Comparison of the Refractive Measurements with Hand-held Autorefractometer, Table-mounted Autorefractometer and Cycloplegic Retinoscopy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Soner; Çavdarli, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of the hand-held and table-top autorefractokeratometer in measuring refractive errors by comparing them with cycloplegic retinoscopy. Methods Included in the study were 112 eyes of 112 pediatric patients whose mean age was 6.78 ± 2.61 years (range, 2 to 12 years). The refractive errors of all the eyes were measured with and without cycloplegia using a hand held autorefractokeratometer (Retinomax K-plus 3), table top autorefractokeratometer (Canon RK-F1) and performing cycloplegic retinoscopy. The spherical equivalent, cylindrical axis and keratometer values were statistically compared. Results The mean spherical equivalent obtained from the Retinomax K-plus 3 was significantly less hyperopic than that of Canon RK-F1 (p = 0.004) before cycloplegia. When the Bland Altman analysis was performed in comparisons of spherical equivalent values measured with the Retinomax K-plus 3, Canon RK-F1 and cycloplegic retinoscopy, it was seen that almost all of the differences between the measurements remained within the range of ±2 standard deviation. Good agreement was found between Retinomax K-plus 3 and Canon RK-F1 for the Jackson cross-cylinder values at axis 0° and 45°; keratometer values respectively. Conclusions The refractive error components were highly correlated between the two instruments and cycloplegic retinoscopy. PMID:26028946

  17. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Arkenbout, Ewout A.; de Winter, Joost C. F.; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman filter. The Nimble VR and filter output were compared using measurements performed on (1) a wooden hand model placed in various static postures and orientations; and (2) three differently sized human hands during active finger flexions. Precision and accuracy of joint angle estimates as a function of hand posture and orientation were determined. Moreover, in light of possible self-occlusions of the fingers in the Kinect camera images, data completeness was assessed. Results showed that the integration of the Data Glove through the Kalman filter provided for the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the fingers a substantial improvement of 79% in precision, from 2.2 deg to 0.9 deg. Moreover, a moderate improvement of 31% in accuracy (being the mean angular deviation from the true joint angle) was established, from 24 deg to 17 deg. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint was relatively unaffected by the Kalman filter. Moreover, the Data Glove increased data completeness, thus providing a substantial advantage over the sole use of the Nimble VR system. PMID:26694395

  18. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements.

    PubMed

    Arkenbout, Ewout A; de Winter, Joost C F; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman filter. The Nimble VR and filter output were compared using measurements performed on (1) a wooden hand model placed in various static postures and orientations; and (2) three differently sized human hands during active finger flexions. Precision and accuracy of joint angle estimates as a function of hand posture and orientation were determined. Moreover, in light of possible self-occlusions of the fingers in the Kinect camera images, data completeness was assessed. Results showed that the integration of the Data Glove through the Kalman filter provided for the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the fingers a substantial improvement of 79% in precision, from 2.2 deg to 0.9 deg. Moreover, a moderate improvement of 31% in accuracy (being the mean angular deviation from the true joint angle) was established, from 24 deg to 17 deg. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint was relatively unaffected by the Kalman filter. Moreover, the Data Glove increased data completeness, thus providing a substantial advantage over the sole use of the Nimble VR system. PMID:26694395

  19. Anthropometric correlates with strength performance among resistance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected anthropometric dimensions and strength performance in resistance trained athletes. Fifty-eight college football players were measured following the completion of a 10-week resistance training program for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press, squat, and dead lift and for 11 anthropometric dimensions. Results indicated that the highest relationships existed between estimates of regional muscle mass (arm circumference, arm muscle cross-sectional area, and thigh circumference) and lifting performance. Multiple regression analysis selected arm size and %fat as variables common to the prediction of all three lifts. The fewer joints and muscle groups involved in a lift, the greater the predictive accuracy from structural dimensions. It was concluded that body structure and conformation make significant contributions to maximum strength performance in highly trained strength athletes. PMID:8412051

  20. Young swimmers' classification based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mrio J; Goncalves, Jos; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, Antnio J

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F=53.680; P<.001), followed by the dv (F=28.506; P<.001), CDa (F=21.025; P<.001), S (F=6.297; P<.01) and v (F=5.375; P=.01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers' profiles. PMID:24043707

  1. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ??0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ??0.3?kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i.?e., anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer. PMID:26258817

  2. A low cost method to measure finger flexion in individuals with reduced hand and finger range of motion.

    PubMed

    Simone, L K; Elovic, E; Kalambur, U; Kamper, D

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate a custom sensor glove that will be used to measure real-time finger flexion in individuals having a wide range of hand and finger function. A feasibility study of a low-cost prototype sensor glove has been performed in order to explore several specific requirements, including glove donning (ease of donning in individuals with moderate to severe restriction in hand motion), and glove comfort and durability (for up to 24 hours of continuous data collection). Results show that commercially available passive-resistive flex sensors contained in Lycra/Nylon sleeves can be used to collect real-time flexion data of each finger over extended periods of time. The individual sensor sleeves are securely attached to the back of each finger. This "sensor glove" demonstrates that data can be collected comfortably over an extended period of time while individuals perform daily activities away from the clinical site. Future work will investigate the repeatability of sensor glove measurements and the development of the wearable data recorder. PMID:17271382

  3. An in situ hand calibration method using a pseudo-observation scheme for low-end inertial measurement units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang

    2012-10-01

    MEMS chips have become ideal candidates for various applications since they are small sized, light weight, have low power consumption and are extremely low cost and reliable. However, the performance of MEMS sensors, especially their biases and scale factors, is highly dependent on environmental conditions such as temperature. Thus a quick and convenient calibration is needed to be conducted by users in field without any external equipment or any expert knowledge of calibration. A novel and efficient in situ hand calibration method is presented to meet these demands in this paper. The algorithm of the proposed calibration method makes use of the navigation algorithm of the loosely-coupled GPS/INS integrated systems, but replaces the GPS observations with a kind of pseudo-observations, which can be stated as follows: if an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was rotating approximately around its measurement center, the range of its position and its linear velocity both would be within a limited scope. Using a Kalman filtering algorithm, the biases and scale factors of both accelerometer triad and gyroscope triad can be calibrated together within a short period (about 30 s), requiring only motions by hands. Real test results show that the proposed method is suitable for most consumer grade MEMS IMUs due to its zero cost, easy operation and sufficient accuracy.

  4. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are. PMID:11441457

  5. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stggl, R; Mller, E; Stggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. PMID:24894129

  6. Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.

    PubMed

    Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

  7. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  8. Chapped hands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wind Avoid washing hands with hot water Limit hand washing as much as possible while maintaining good hygiene Try to keep the air in your home humid Use mild soaps or non-soap cleansers Use ... on your hands regularly, especially if you live in a dry ...

  9. Claw hand

    MedlinePLUS

    Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. ... Someone can be born with claw hand (congenital), or they can develop it because of certain disorders, such as nerve injury.

  10. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  11. A hand-ergonomics training kit: development and evaluation of a package to support improved awareness and critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Garmer, Karin; Sperling, Lena; Forsberg, Anette

    2002-01-01

    A need for a hand-ergonomics training kit has been identified to increase critical thinking concerning choice of hand tools. This study deals with the design, use and evaluation of a hand-ergonomics training kit for use in ergonomics training programmes. The effects on awareness of hand ergonomics among training course participants have been evaluated by means of a questionnaire and interviews at a car production plant in Sweden. The evaluation was carried out about one and a half years after training with the hand-ergonomics training kit. The training kit consists of a guide to practical exercises, equipment for measuring hand size and strength, examples of hand tools for use in practical exercises, equipment for testing and evaluating the hand tools and checklists and judgement forms for qualitative evaluation. In addition, the kit contains relevant scientifically based reference reports on hand ergonomics. The evaluation showed that the practical exercises with the hand-ergonomic training kit had, to a remarkable extent, increased individuals' awareness of anthropometric differences and of the importance of ergonomically well-designed hand tools. After the practical exercises with the training kit, communication within the plant when choosing hand tools seems to be based on objective criteria to a higher degree, however, the results indicate that this communication could be further improved. PMID:11827137

  12. Reliability of measurements of knee extensor muscle strength using a pull-type hand-held dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Terumi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities of measurements of knee extensor muscle strength using a pull-type hand-held dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects] Fifty-four healthy adults (35 males; average age, 23?years) participated in this study. [Methods] Knee extensor muscle strength of each leg was measured three times using the HHD. To examine the intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities, measurements were performed by two examiners, a physical therapist and a physical therapy student. [Results] The intra-examiner reliabilities, ICC (1, 1) and ICC (1, 3) ranged from 0.940.99. The inter-examiner reliabilities, ICC (2, 1) and ICC (3, 1) ranged from 0.900.92 for the right leg, and 0.88?0.90 for the left leg. Neither constant nor proportional errors were found by Bland-Altman analysis. [Conclusion] Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities were acceptable, indicating that muscle strength can be measured with the pull-type HHD without dependence on skill of measurement. Pain was not caused by measurements with the pull-type HHD. PMID:25931771

  13. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

    2012-05-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs. PMID:22505243

  14. Vestibulo-Ocular Responses to Vertical Translation using a Hand-Operated Chair as a Field Measure of Otolith Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Campbell, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Prather, L.; Clement, G.

    2016-01-01

    The translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (tVOR) is an important otolith-mediated response to stabilize gaze during natural locomotion. One goal of this study was to develop a measure of the tVOR using a simple hand-operated chair that provided passive vertical motion. Binocular eye movements were recorded with a tight-fitting video mask in ten healthy subjects. Vertical motion was provided by a modified spring-powered chair (swopper.com) at approximately 2 Hz (+/- 2 cm displacement) to approximate the head motion during walking. Linear acceleration was measured with wireless inertial sensors (Xsens) mounted on the head and torso. Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed near (0.5m) and far (approximately 4m) targets, and then imagined these targets in darkness. Subjects also provided perceptual estimates of target distances. Consistent with the kinematic properties shown in previous studies, the tVOR gain was greater with near targets, and greater with vision than in darkness. We conclude that this portable chair system can provide a field measure of otolith-ocular function at frequencies sufficient to elicit a robust tVOR.

  15. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  16. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential. PMID:15463979

  17. Head-and-face anthropometric survey of Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Du, Lili; Zhuang, Ziqing; Guan, Hongyu; Xing, Jingcai; Tang, Xianzhi; Wang, Limin; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Yuewei; Su, Wenjin; Benson, Stacey; Gallagher, Sean; Viscusi, Dennis; Chen, Weihong

    2008-11-01

    Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been completely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006. A total of 3000 subjects (2026 males and 974 females) between the ages of 18 and 66 years old was measured using traditional techniques. Nineteen facial dimensions, height, weight, neck circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured. A stratified sampling plan of three age strata and two gender strata was implemented. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the possible effects of gender, age, occupation and body size on facial dimensions. The regression coefficients for gender indicated that for all anthropometric dimensions, males had significantly larger measurements than females. As body mass index increased, dimensions measured increased significantly. Construction workers and miners had significantly smaller measurements than individuals employed in healthcare or manufacturing for a majority of dimensions. Five representative indexes of facial dimension (face length, face width, nose protrusion, bigonial breadth and nasal root breadth) were selected based on correlation and cluster analysis of all dimensions. Through comparison with the facial dimensions of American subjects, this study indicated that Chinese civilian workers have shorter face length, smaller nose protrusion, larger face width and longer lip length. PMID:18765398

  18. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  19. Estimation of stature using hand and foot dimensions in Slovak adults.

    PubMed

    Uhrová, Petra; Beňuš, Radoslav; Masnicová, Soňa; Obertová, Zuzana; Kramárová, Daniela; Kyselicová, Klaudia; Dörnhöferová, Michaela; Bodoriková, Silvia; Neščáková, Eva

    2015-03-01

    Hand and foot dimensions used for stature estimation help to formulate a biological profile in the process of personal identification. Morphological variability of hands and feet shows the importance of generating population-specific equations to estimate stature. The stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 250 young Slovak males and females, aged 18-24 years, were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test for sex and bilateral differences. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for assessing relationship between stature and hand/foot parameters, and subsequently linear regression analysis was used to estimate stature. The results revealed significant sex differences in hand and foot dimensions as well as in stature (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between stature and all measurements in both sexes (p<0.01). The highest correlation coefficient was found for foot length in males (r=0.71) as well as in females (r=0.63). Regression equations were computed separately for each sex. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ±4.6 to ±6.1cm. The results of this study indicate that hand and foot dimension can be used to estimate stature for Slovak for the purpose of forensic field. The regression equations can be of use for stature estimation particularly in cases of dismembered bodies. PMID:25459368

  20. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ? 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ? 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 8.6, forwards = 80.9 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 0.08, forwards = 3.14 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 0.18, forwards = 1.51 0.17 kgkg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players. PMID:23942164

  1. Pain and Hand Function.

    PubMed

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas. PMID:26611383

  2. The value of middle phalangeal hair as an anthropometric marker: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Westlund, N; Oinonen, K A; Mazmanian, D; Bird, J L

    2015-08-01

    Middle phalangeal hair (MPH) is a trait frequently examined in anthropological studies throughout the 20th century. MPH is found on the back of the middle segment of the fingers, excluding the thumb. Typically, researchers examined the presence and absence of hair in various populations, and described it in terms of age, ancestry, and sex. Recently MPH has been examined as a potential anthropometric indicator of: androgen levels, androgen-related side effects in women, gene homozygosity, and disease resistance. Given the potential value of this marker, the present paper provides a comprehensive overview of MPH and its associated characteristics (i.e., ethnicity, sex, age, and hormonal variations) and presents new data on the reliability of MPH assessment. Findings suggest that ethnicity, sex, and age need to be controlled in any studies examining MPH and its relationship with other variables. Two measures of MPH (i.e., presence/absence of MPH and actual hair count) are both acceptable to use in MPH assessment; and the use of a hand lens to examine MPH provides high reliability when MPH is assessed by expert raters. However, researchers should avoid participant self-assessment. Future avenues for research are suggested (e.g., measurement issues and studies on hormonal correlates in women). MPH could be useful in research or for clinical purposes as a possible non-invasive indicator of hormone levels or hormonal sensitivity, or of predisposition toward androgen-related or gene-homozygosity-related health issues or behaviors. PMID:25882043

  3. Hand Washing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... hands clean: Use warm water (not cold or hot). Use whatever soap you like. Antibacterial soaps are ...

  4. Hand Washing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... En Espaol Making a Change Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... hands clean: Use warm water (not cold or hot). Use whatever soap you like. Antibacterial soaps are ...

  5. Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; Lpez-Milln, Francisco; Soto-Flix, Selene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use. PMID:22317567

  6. Evaluation of Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Güven, Mehmet; Kılınç, Faruk; Kara, Ali Veysel; Yilmaz, Zülfükar; Kırbaş, Gökhan; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal; Yılmaz Aydın, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods. A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ≥30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements of the patients were recorded and blood samples were drawn for laboratory analysis. A 24-hour urine sample was also collected from each subject for measurement of 24-hour cortisol excretion. Patients were divided equally into 2 groups according to polysomnography results: control group with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (n = 25) and OSA group with an AHI ≥5 (n = 25). Results. Neck and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, late-night serum cortisol, morning serum cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were significantly higher in OSA patients compared to control subjects. Newly diagnosed DM was more frequent in patients with OSA than control subjects (32% versus 8%, p = 0.034). There was a significant positive correlation between AHI and neck circumference, glucose, and late-night serum cortisol. Conclusions. Our study indicates that increased waist and neck circumferences constitute a risk for OSA regardless of obesity status. In addition, OSA has adverse effects on endocrine function and glucose metabolism. PMID:26257957

  7. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  8. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  9. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, MAntonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients. Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ2. AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups. Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients. PMID:26222840

  10. [Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan].

    PubMed

    Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043

  11. The Influence of Anthropometric, Kinematic and Energetic Variables and Gender on Swimming Performance in Youth Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Jorge E; Garrido, Nuno D; Marques, Mrio C; Silva, Antnio J; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the: (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 12 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 12 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics. PMID:24511356

  12. Facial symmetry in robust anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Image analysis methods commonly used in forensic anthropology do not have desirable robustness properties, which can be ensured by robust statistical methods. In this paper, the face localization in images is carried out by detecting symmetric areas in the images. Symmetry is measured between two neighboring rectangular areas in the images using a new robust correlation coefficient, which down-weights regions in the face violating the symmetry. Raw images of faces without usual preliminary transformations are considered. The robust correlation coefficient based on the least weighted squares regression yields very promising results also in the localization of such faces, which are not entirely symmetric. Standard methods of statistical machine learning are applied for comparison. The robust correlation analysis can be applicable to other problems of forensic anthropology. PMID:22150845

  13. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT AND HAND GRIP STRENGTH OF CANDIDATES FOR SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    SILVEIRA, Thalita Morgana Guimares; de SOUSA, Juliana Barbosa; STRINGHINI, Maria Luiza Ferreira; FREITAS, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; MELO, Paulla Guimares

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of nutritional status in clinical practice must be done with simple, reliable, low cost and easy performance methods. The power of handshake is recognized as a useful tool to evaluate muscle strength, and therefore, it is suggested that can detect malnutrition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status by subjective global assessment and power of handshake preoperatively in patients going to gastrointestinal surgeries and to compare the diagnosis obtained by subjective global assessment with traditional anthropometric methods and power of handshake. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients for surgery in the gastrointestinal tract and related organs. Socioeconomic and anthropometric data, applied to subjective global assessment and checked the power of handshake, were collected. The force was obtained by the average of three measurements of the dominant and non-dominant hand and thus compared with reference values ??of the population by sex and age, for the classification of nutritional risk. Results The sample consisted of 40 patients, 24-83 years, and most women (52.5%) housewives (37,5%) and diagnosed with cancer (45%). According to subjective global assessment, 37.5% were classified as moderately malnourished; 15% were underweight by BMI measurements; 25% had arm circumference at risk for malnutrition (hand (left). Conclusion A significant association was observed for the diagnosis of nutritional subjective assessment with anthropometric methods and strength of the handshake only at the non-dominant limb. PMID:25004287

  14. Geographical and temporal changes of anthropometric traits in historical Yemen.

    PubMed

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Milia, Nicola; Coppa, Alfredo; Rufo, Fabrizio; Sanna, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates secular changes of anthropometric variables among four geographic groups in historical Yemen, to evaluate possible regional differences in the evolution of living standards. Nineteen somatic and cephalic measures collected by Coon in 1939, and 8 anthropometric indices in 1244 Yemenite adult males were analyzed. The individuals were divided into 10-year age groups. Within-group variations were tested by One-way ANCOVA (age as covariate). ANCOVA (controlling for age), and Forward stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate and represent regional differences. ANCOVA and discriminant analysis confirmed and enhanced previous findings. At the time, the Yemenite population presented high intergroup heterogeneity. The highest mean values of height at all ages were found in the "mountain" region, which is characterized by very fertile soils and where, nowadays, most of the cereals and pulses are grown and where most livestock is raised. Within-group variations were limited and generally inconsistent in all geographic regions and concern vertical dimensions, but mean values of height never differed. The prolonged internal isolation of these groups resulted in significant regional morphometric differentiation. The main evidence comes from height which suggests that socioeconomic factors have played a role. Nevertheless, the possible better living conditions experienced by the "mountain" group, with the highest mean values of stature in all periods, did not allow the secular trend to take place in that region, too. PMID:26456121

  15. Anthropometric variation and the population history of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H; Crawford, M H

    1995-01-01

    Genetic variation among human populations can reflect a combination of contemporary patterns of gene flow and genetic drift as well as long-term population relationships due to population history. We examine the likely impact of past history and contemporary structure on the patterns of anthropometric variation among 31 counties in Ireland (made up of the two nations of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). Data for 17 anthropometric measures and parent-offspring migration on 7,214 adult Irish males were taken from the large data set originally collected by Dupertuis and Dawson in the mid-1930s (Hooton et al., 1955). Patterns of genetic similarity among 31 counties were assessed using R matrix methods that allow estimation of minimum genetic distances. These distances were compared to distances reflecting history, geography, and migration using matrix permutation methods. The results indicate that among-group variation in Ireland reflects past population history to a much greater extent than contemporary patterns of migration and population size. The midland counties are distinct from other populations, and their history suggests greater genetic input from early Viking invasions. A second major pattern in biological variation is a longitudinal gradient separating western and eastern counties. This gradient appears related to patterns of early settlement and/or a concentration in the east of later immigrants, particularly from England. Comparison of regional means with published data for several other European nations confirms these hypotheses. PMID:7726293

  16. Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed. PMID:24893195

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  18. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to Assess Motor Imagery: A Study of Practice Effects in Repeated Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the

  19. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emily L.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45–88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44–81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature—and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them. PMID:26097455

  20. Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. Materials and Methods: One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Results: Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Conclusions: Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high school baseball pitchers. PMID:25883777

  1. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  2. Validation of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relying on self-reported anthropometric data is often the only feasible way of studying large populations. In this context, there are no studies assessing the validity of anthropometrics in a mostly vegetarian population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Methods We selected a representative sample of 911 participants of AHS-2, a cohort of over 96,000 adult Adventists in the USA and Canada. Then we compared their measured weight and height with those self-reported at baseline. We calculated the validity of the anthropometrics as continuous variables, and as categorical variables for the definition of obesity. Results On average, participants underestimated their weight by 0.20 kg, and overestimated their height by 1.57 cm resulting in underestimation of body mass index (BMI) by 0.61 kg/m2. The agreement between self-reported and measured BMI (as a continuous variable), as estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient, was 0.97. The sensitivity of self-reported BMI to detect obesity was 0.81, the specificity 0.97, the predictive positive value 0.93, the predictive negative value 0.92, and the Kappa index 0.81. The percentage of absolute agreement for each category of BMI (normoweight, overweight, and obese) was 83.4%. After multivariate analyses, predictors of differences between self-reported and measured BMI were obesity, soy consumption and the type of dietary pattern. Conclusions Self-reported anthropometric data showed high validity in a representative subsample of the AHS-2 being valid enough to be used in epidemiological studies, although it can lead to some underestimation of obesity. PMID:21466678

  3. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in vitro measurements reported in the literature and therefore allows for a quantitative intersubject comparison, even if to a limited extent. The features of the developed technique such as its simplicity, rapidity, accuracy, robustness, noninvasive nature, and very effective use of radiation doses, present the technique as a viable diagnostic tool available for trial in a clinical environment.

  4. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. PMID:4027491

  5. [Some anthropometric facial characteristics in children of Prokuplje].

    PubMed

    Ivanovi?, S; Jovanovi?, D; Kozarov, J; Kozarov, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors investigated anthropometrically the facial growth in 7 to 14 years old school children from Prokuplje. The analysis included about 3500 children of both sexes (boys-1953), and girls-1823). This paper presents the results of the following facial diameters: facial height (N-Gn), bizygomatic (Zy-Zy) and bigonial distance (Go-Go), and gonial angle. It was observed that facial dimensions investigated increased gradually in all age groups and both sexes. In the late childhood growth of the facial diameters showed some decrease. The facial height and bigonial diameter increased almost equally in both sexes. The sexual dimorphism was registered in favour of the male sex up to 10 years. It was also established that is more expressed for the facial height and bigonial distance. Finally, children from Prokuplje showed lower values in some investigated measurements compared with their contemporaries from other localities in the Nis area. PMID:2638167

  6. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. Images p100-a p100-b PMID:4027491

  7. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Is Not Related to Any Physical Fitness Component in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Van Aken, Katrijn; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13,518 y) was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance) was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index) are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.9250.019) was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9,2% (flexibility) and 33,9% (static strength) of variance. Conclusion Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls. PMID:23565167

  8. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  9. Hand preference, performance abilities, and hand selection in children

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioral assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge. PMID:24600414

  10. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radams Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Verssimo; do Rgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  11. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  12. Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

    1989-01-01

    Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits using the measurement of skin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jab?o?ski, S?awomir; Rzepkowska-Misiak, Beata; Piskorz, ?ukasz; Brocki, Marian; Wcis?o, Szymon; Smigielski, Jacek; Kordiak, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating beyond the needs of thermoregulation. It is disease which mostly affects young people, often carrying a considerable amount of socio-economic implications. Thoracic sympathectomy is now considered to be the "gold standard" in the treatment of idiopathic hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits. Aim Assessment of early effectiveness of thoracic sympathectomy using skin resistance measurements performed before surgery and in the postoperative period. Material and methods A group of 20 patients with idiopathic excessive sweating of hands and the armpit was enrolled in the study. Patients underwent two-stage thoracic sympathectomy with resection of Th2-Th4 ganglions. The skin resistance measurements were made at six previously designated points on the day of surgery and the first day after the operation. Results In all operated patients we obtained complete remission of symptoms on the first day after the surgery. Inhibition of sweating was confirmed using the standard starch iodine (Minor) test. At all measurement points we obtained a statistically significant increase of skin resistance, assuming p < 0.05. To check whether there is a statistically significant difference in the results before and after surgery we used sequence pairs Wilcoxon test. Conclusions Thoracic sympathectomy is an effective curative treatment for primary hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits. Statistically significant increase of skin resistance in all cases is a good method of assessing the effectiveness of the above surgery in the early postoperative period. PMID:23256019

  14. Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players

    PubMed Central

    Jawis, M; Singh, R; Singh, H; Yassin, M; Khanna, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Anthropometric and physiological profiles of national sepak takraw players were determined. Methods: Thirty nine players, specialising in the three playing positions (tekong/server, feeder, and killer/spiker) were divided into three age categories of under 15 (U15), under 18 (U18), and under 23 (U23) years of age. Height, weight, percent body fat (%bf), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max), range of motion (ROM), back and leg strength, and heart rate, for the estimation of oxygen consumption during matches, were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA for independent measurements and data are presented as meanstandard deviation. Results: The U23 players were significantly taller and heavier with significantly better ROM of the neck, trunk, and ankle joints and back and leg strength than the U15 players. No significant difference was found in %bf between the three age categories. Mean maximum heart rate during exercise was significantly higher in the U15 group when compared to the U18 and U23 groups (p<0.05). Mean Vo2max was similar between the three groups. Estimated oxygen consumption during matches was 69.1%, 68.5%, and 56.4% of Vo2max in the killer, tekong, and the feeder groups, respectively. Conclusions: The mean height, body weight, and cardiopulmonary capacities of the players were within the Malaysian population norms, but were somewhat lower than those of players of other court games from other countries. %bf was also lower in these players. This study provides the much needed anthropometric and physiological data of sepak takraw players for further development of this sport. PMID:16244191

  15. Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

  16. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  17. Relationship between balance performance in the elderly and some anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, A A; Gbiri, C A

    2008-12-01

    Ability to maintain either static or dynamic balance has been found to be influenced by many factors such as height and weight in the elderly. The relationship between other anthropometric variables and balance performance among elderly Nigerians has not been widely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between these other anthropometric variables and balance performance among old individuals aged >60 years in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post facto design and involved two hundred and three apparently healthy (103 males and 100 females) elderly participants with ages between 60 years and 74 years, selected using multiple step-wise sampling techniques from churches, mosques and market place within Ibadan. They were without history of neurological problem, postural hypotension, orthopeadic conditions or injury to the back and/or upper and lower extremities within the past one year. Selected anthropometric variables were measured, Sharpened Romberg Test (SRT) and Functional Reach Test (FRT) was used to assess static balance and dynamic balance respectively. All data were summarized using range, mean and standard deviation. Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the physical characteristics, anthropometric variables and performance on each of the two balance tests. The results showed that there were low but significant positive correlations between performance on FRT and each of height, weight, trunk length, foot length, shoulder girth and hip girth. (p<0.05). There was low significant and positive correlation between SRT with eyes closed and arm length, foot length and shoulder girth. (p<0.05) and there was low but significant positive correlation between SRT with eyes opened and shoulder girth and foot length (P<0.05). Anthropometric variables affect balance performances in apparently healthy elderly. PMID:19301708

  18. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  19. [Measuring grip strength of the hand with a sensor glove by gripping with submaximal and maximal strength].

    PubMed

    Mentzel, M; Hofmann, F; Ebinger, T; Gülke, J; Kinzl, L; Wachter, N J

    2001-01-01

    Grip strength measurements with the aid of dynamometers are dependent on the cooperation and motivation of the individual examined. Recognising a simulated loss of grip is a hitherto unresolved problem. With a sensor glove developed at the Berlin University of Technology, the force distribution pattern of any form of grip can be captured via ten pressure sensors and evaluated by computer. In five subjects, the force distribution patterns at submaximum and maximum force of five different grips were determined in three successive measurements each. The data were recorded in force-time diagrams. For each act of grasping, the measurements produced a curve with near-constant measuring signals within a defined period (plateau). The difference in the plateau heights of successive grips and the structures of the individual plateaux (oscillation, standard deviation) were used as distinguishing criteria. The dynamics of the measuring signals showed statistically significant differences between grips with submaximum and maximum force (p < 0.0001). PMID:11258035

  20. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  1. Kinematics and force analysis of a robot hand based on an artificial biological control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man Guen

    An artificial biological control scheme (ABCS) is used to study the kinematics and statics of a multifingered hand with a view to developing an efficient control scheme for grasping. The ABCS is based on observation of human grasping, intuitively taking it as the optimum model for robotic grasping. A final chapter proposes several grasping measures to be applied to the design and control of a robot hand. The ABCS leads to the definition of two modes of the grasping action: natural grasping (NG), which is the human motion to grasp the object without any special task command, and forced grasping (FG), which is the motion with a specific task. The grasping direction line (GDL) is defined to determine the position and orientation of the object in the hand. The kinematic model of a redundant robot arm and hand is developed by reconstructing the human upper extremity and using anthropometric measurement data. The inverse kinematic analyses of various types of precision and power grasping are studied by replacing the three-link with one virtual link and using the GDL. The static force analysis for grasping with fingertips is studied by applying the ABCS. A measure of grasping stability, that maintains the positions of contacts as well as the configurations of the redundant fingers, is derived. The grasping stability measure (GSM), a measure of how well the hand maintains grasping under the existence of external disturbance, is derived by the torque vector of the hand calculated from the external force applied to the object. The grasping manipulability measure (GMM), a measure of how well the hand manipulates the object for the task, is derived by the joint velocity vector of the hand calculated from the object velocity. The grasping performance measure (GPM) is defined by the sum of the directional components of the GSM and the GMM. Finally, a planar redundant hand with two fingers is examined in order to study the various postures of the hand performing pinch grasping by applying the GSM and the GMM.

  2. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    PubMed Central

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Backus, Sherry I.; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Hypothesis Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n = 12), rectus (n = 27) and planus (n = 22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Results Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 1037% of the model variance (adjusted R2) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R2 increased to 4577% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 747% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 1664% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p < 0.05), supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Discussion and conclusion Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. PMID:23107624

  3. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-10-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (?) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  4. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (?) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  5. Better health data with a portable microcomputer at the periphery: an anthropometric survey in Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, P.; Dupret, A.; Cutting, W. A. M.

    1987-01-01

    A portable microcomputer was programmed to record anthropometric nutritional data from children aged under 7 years in either a clinic or a population survey situation. An alarm sounds when the anthropometric measurements of a child are below a predetermined value; an immediate check thus avoids the need for subsequent data cleaning and discarding of doubtful information. Data cut-off points in the computer can be adjusted to suit the survey or service needs of the situation. A print-out at the end of the clinic session provides immediate feedback for the staff and a record of the nutritional status of the group. In Cape Verde, 14 670 children attending clinics were surveyed; 26% were identified as stunted, 3% as wasted, and 1% as stunted and wasted. While a portable microcomputer can improve precision, speed and motivation, nutrition surveys still depend on accurate scales, careful measurements and competent staff. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3322601

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics of Hospitalised Elderly Women: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Belbraouet, Slimane; Chau, Nearkasen; Tebi, Ambroise; Debry, Grard

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric status of 451 hospitalised female patients aged 70 or over, at their admission to hospital, in reference to 77 healthy women of the same age. The most frequent diseases were circulatory diseases (40.8%), mental disorders (29.9%), respiratory diseases (12.4%), endocrine and metabolic diseases (11.5%), osteomuscular diseases (8.4%), and traumatisms (6.9%). The differences were significantly high for mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), weight, weight/height, and body mass index (BMI). The patients with cancers, blood diseases, mental disorders, respiratory disease, digestive diseases, or traumatisms had the lowest values. All the indicators correlated in a similarly negative way with age. The decreased TSF was more pronounced among subjects with respiratory diseases. Measurement of anthropometric indicators, TSF in particular, should be part of preventive measures aimed at reducing malnutrition and its consequences in a hospital setting. PMID:21845147

  7. High resolution MRI evaluation of meniscal volume and anthropometric correlations.

    PubMed

    Narvy, Steven J; Asami, Danny K; Solomon, Thomas C; Burke, Wendy S; Colletti, Patrick M; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to digitally determine meniscal volumes, and compare them with linear and surface area anthropometric measurements to evaluate these measurements for meniscal allograft sizing. Eighteen subjects (10 male and 8 female; mean age 37.5 years) underwent 3.0 T knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant leg. The following morphometric measurements were evaluated: medial meniscal volume (MMV), lateral meniscal volume (LMV), tibial plateau width (TPW), width of the femoral condyles (WFC), and tibial plateau surface area (TPSA). MMV and LMV were compared to TPW, WFC, and TPSA. Meniscal volume and TPW were correlated to height and body-mass index (BMI) and stratified by gender. Statistical analysis included coefficient of determination (r(2)) between MRI-based MMV, LMV, TPW, TPSA, WFC, height, BMI, and gender. Significance was set at the P = 0.05 level. The mean MMV was 2275 mm(3) and the mean LMV was 2102 mm(3). TPW correlated well with meniscal volumes (r(2) > 0.62). WFC and TPSA correlated with meniscal volumes in the range of 0.40 < r(2) < 0.61. Height, BMI, and gender correlated poorly with total meniscal volume and TPW with values of r(2) < 0.44. Medial and lateral menisci have statistically similar volumes. TPW had the greatest utility for volumetric meniscal sizing. MRI-based TPW can be considered as a statistically accurate measurement for determining meniscal volumes and meniscal size. PMID:26118625

  8. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  9. Measurements of bovine albumin as a model system for the development of a hand-held ellipsometer for ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miran Baygi, M. H.; Payne, P. A.

    2000-06-01

    Scattering ellipsometry is a measurement technique that can extract the characteristics of particles with relative ease. For some while, we have been interested in the use of scattering ellipsometry to examine the particles in the anterior chamber of the human eye. These particles are globular proteins, typically some 6 or 7 nm in diameter and measurements conducted at a wavelength of 670 nm confirm this. Particles or particle aggregates much greater in size will give rise to characteristic patterns in the ellipsometric results and analysis of these patterns could lead to a complete description of the physical properties of such particles. Examples of measurements of this nature made on latex particles are included. The results obtained from the measurements described confirm that bovine serum albumin is suitable as a calibrant for a scattering ellipsometer.

  10. International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Leslie G; Katic, Marko J; Forrest, Christopher R; Alt, Kurt W; Bagic, Ivana; Baltadjiev, Georgi; Cunha, Eugenia; Cvicelov, Marta; Davies, Scott; Erasmus, Ilse; Gillett-Netting, Rhonda; Hajnis, Karel; Kemkes-Grottenthaler, Arianne; Khomyakova, Irena; Kumi, Ashizava; Kgamphe, J Stranger; Kayo-daigo, Nakamura; Le, Thuy; Malinowski, Andrzej; Negasheva, Marina; Manolis, Sotiris; Ogetrk, Murat; Parvizrad, Ramin; Rsing, Friedrich; Sahu, Paresh; Sforza, Chiarella; Sivkov, Stefan; Sultanova, Nigar; Tomazo-Ravnik, Tatjana; Tth, Gbor; Uzun, Ahmet; Yahia, Eman

    2005-07-01

    When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various races/ethnic groups were discovered. To treat congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in members of these groups successfully, surgeons require access to craniofacial databases based on accurate anthropometric measurements. Normative data of facial measurements are indispensable to precise determination of the degree of deviations from the normal. The set of anthropometric measurements of the face in the population studied was gathered by an international team of scientists. Investigators in the country of the given ethnic group, experienced and/or specially trained in anthropometric methods, carried out the measurements. The normal range in each resultant database was then established, providing valuable information about major facial characteristics. Comparison of the ethnic groups' databases with the established norms of the North America whites (NAW) offered the most suitable way to select a method for successful treatment. The study group consisted of 1470 healthy subjects (18 to 30 years), 750 males and 720 females. The largest group (780 subjects, 53.1%) came from Europe, all of them Caucasians. Three were drawn from the Middle-East (180 subjects, 12.2%), five from Asia (300 subjects, 20.4%) and four from peoples of African origin (210 subjects, 14.3%). Their morphological characteristics were determined by 14 anthropometric measurements, 10 of them used already by classic facial artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Drer, complemented by four measurements from the nasal, labio-oral and ear regions. In the regions with single measurements, identical values to NAW in forehead height, mouth width, and ear height were found in 99.7% in both sexes, while in those with multiple measurements, vertical measurements revealed a higher frequency of identical values than horizontal ones. The orbital regions exhibited the greatest variations in identical and contrasting measurements in comparison to NAW. Nose heights and widths contrasted sharply: in relation to NAW the nose was very or extremely significantly wide in both sexes of Asian and Black ethnic groups. Among Caucasians, nose height significantly differed from NAW in three ethnic groups, with one shorter and two greater. In the Middle Eastern groups nose width was identical to those of NAW but the height was significantly greater. The present study, conducted by investigators working separately across the world and with small samples of the population, is clearly preliminary in nature and extent. Yet it may fulfill its mission if medical and anthropological investigators continue the work of establishing normative data of the face. These data are urgently needed by medical professionals but have been lacking up till now in western and northern Europe, Asia, and Africa. PMID:16077306

  11. 71 FR 18103 - NIOSH Pilot Study of Truck Driver Anthropometric and Workspace Dimensions; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-04-10

    ... SERVICES Centers of Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Pilot Study of Truck Driver Anthropometric and... Meeting on the NIOSH Pilot Study of Truck Driver Anthropometric and Workspace Dimensions. Meeting Date and... anthropometric and workspace data. This possible large-scale study will establish an anthropometric and...

  12. Predictive importance of anthropometric and training data in recreational male Ironman triathletes and marathon runners: comment on the study by Gianoli, et al. (2012).

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes

    2013-04-01

    Anthropometric and training data have been reported as statistically significant predictors of race performance in endurance events. However, it is well established that physiological characteristics, i.e., maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the use of a high percentage of VO2max during sustained exercise, and work efficiency are predominant predictors of performance in those events. Thus, the essential issue is whether the anthropometric and training data give additional predictive power beyond these other measures. PMID:24032337

  13. Hand eczema: an update.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli; Srinivas, C R

    2012-01-01

    Eczema, the commonest disorders afflicting the hands, is also the commonest occupational skin disease (OSD). In the dermatology outpatient departments, only the severe cases are diagnosed since patients rarely report with early hand dermatitis. Mild forms are picked up only during occupational screening. Hand eczema (HE) can evolve into a chronic condition with persistent disease even after avoiding contact with the incriminated allergen / irritant. The important risk factors for hand eczema are atopy (especially the presence of dermatitis), wet work, and contact allergy. The higher prevalence in women as compared to men in most studies is related to environmental factors and is mainly applicable to younger women in their twenties. Preventive measures play a very important role in therapy as they enable the affected individuals to retain their employment and livelihood. This article reviews established preventive and therapeutic options and newer drugs like alitretinoin in hand eczema with a mention on the etiology and morphology. Identifying the etiological factors is of paramount importance as avoiding or minimizing these factors play an important role in treatment. PMID:22960812

  14. The relationship between anthropometric parameters and bone mineral density in an Iranian referral population.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Akbar; Larijani, Bagher; Khashayar, Patricia; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Fakhari, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common health concern in both developed and developing countries. In this study the association between anthropometric measures and osteoporosis was investigated in 3630 males and females visiting BMD clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran, a teaching hospital and referral center for osteoporosis affiliated to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Anthropometric measurements obtained and also Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement was done using a Lunar DPXMD densitometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS with Chi-square and ANOVA with post-hoc tests. Results showed that the weight, BMI and age had the strongest correlation with the BMD values in the studied people. While age is negatively correlated with BMD in all the studied people, a positive association was noted between weight, height and BMI and BMD parameters (P<0.01). It was concluded that certain anthropometric parameters (BMI and weight) can considerably affect one's risk of developing osteoporosis. Further research on the effect of these variables on the association of weight and BMD is needed. PMID:25135258

  15. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  16. Anthropometric comparison of cyclists from different events.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, J P; Bird, S R; White, J A

    1989-01-01

    An anthropometric analysis was conducted upon 36 competitive male cyclists (mean age 23.4 years) who had been competing on average for 8.2 years. Cyclists were allocated to one of four groups; sprint, pursuit, road and time trial according to their competitive strengths. The sample included cyclists who were classified as category 1, 2, 3 or professional (British Cycling Federation and Professional Cycling Association). The sprint cyclists were significantly shorter and more mesomorphic than the other three groups (p less than 0.05). The time trialists were the tallest, most ectomorphic group, having the longest legs (p less than 0.01), the highest leg length/height ratio (p less than 0.05) and the greatest bitrochanteric width (p less than 0.05). The pursuit and road cyclists were found to have similar physiques, which were located between those of the sprinters and time trialists. The biomechanical implications of these differences in physique may be related to the high rate of pedal revolutions required by sprinters and the higher gear ratios used by time trialists. PMID:2730997

  17. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  18. Estimation of sex from the upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    Sex estimation is the first biological attribute needed for personal identification from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts in medical-legal autopsies. Populations have different sizes and proportions that affect the anthropometric assessment of sex. Relatively few published works assess the accuracy of sex estimation from soft tissue measurements of upper limb parts, except for the hand and its components, but these studies involve a limited range of global populations. The current study aimed to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper limb measurements and the accuracy of using these measurements for sex estimation in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, and hand breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured by international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who composed the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The ulnar length, wrist breadth and hand breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Forearm dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than hand dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78.5% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 77.5% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:24237816

  19. Proper hand washing (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ...

  20. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  1. Anthropometric, flexibility, strength-power, and sport-specific correlates in elite fencing.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Charilaos; Kostaki, Emmanuela; Vagenas, George

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated selected structural correlates of fencing performance. 33 elite fencers were tested on (a) selected anthropometric, flexibility, and strength-power related parameters, and (b) specific lower extremity functional fencing tests. Multiple regression showed that drop jump and thigh cross-sectional area were best predictors of lunge time and distance of squat jump on the shuttle test. When the two performance variables were expressed per Lean Body Mass, lunge time was significantly predicted only by the performance on the arm-driven counter-movement jump, while time on the shuttle test was best predicted by three noncollinear significant predictors: squat jump performance, thigh circumference, and percent body fat. Lunge time and time on the shuttle test were predicted by explosive power, while none of the nontrainable anthropometric measures or years of training seemed to be important in performance of fencing-related skills. PMID:20865989

  2. TME17/473: Web-Based Visualization and Processing of Anthropometric Data

    PubMed Central

    Lesn, P; Vejvalka, J; Krsnianov, H

    1999-01-01

    Introduction Body height and body weight are the most common anthropometric values that are observed in children by their parents. Basic anthropometric measurements are also a common and natural part of routine medical check-ups in infants, children and adolescents. Although commonly taken, this data is not always correctly interpreted: cases when anthropometric data might have served for an earlier diagnosis of e.g. an endocrine disorder still occur. To facilitate utilization of this data, a software module was developed that visualizes the data and also provides a basic interpretation of the curves obtained. This software module consists of the knowledge base which was written at the auxological department of 2nd Medical Faculty and its interpreter. This platform independent module is offered to software developers for integration into their GP systems. Methods To demonstrate the functions of the module offered to software developers and also to allow patient (and parent) growth self-assessment, the module that visualizes and interprets children's anthropometric data is ported into a WWW interface. Each pro-band is assigned a unique (and anonymous) ID, so that new data can be added in the course of time. Various anthropometric parameters can be followed - so that the system can serve not only parents to assess their children's growth, but also can help the practitioner to visualize and evaluate more intrinsic relations in children's development. Results The service is just being launched at the web site of the 2nd Medical Faculty of Charles University - so the most important result of the project is the function of the system itself, that allows for further refinements of the project. The WWW interface also allows extensive testing of the module and demonstration of the module's capabilities to the software developers, GPs and other potential users. Discussion During the future project development will be necessary to refine various components that surround the WWW portation of the core anthropometric module as the user interface, security issues, data storage etc.. We believe that the project will be found useful by parents and GPs, and we hope that it will also bring us interesting data for further analyses. We believe that this specialized software module developed by experts and integrated into the GP software systems will be a big step towards improvement of the computer assisted growth diagnosis.

  3. Patterns of hand variation--new data on a Sardinian sample.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Roberto; Marini, Elisabetta; Cabras, Stefano; Scalas, Giuliana; Floris, Giovanni

    2007-03-01

    This study is an analysis of the patterns of variation of the human hand, particularly the metric characters of palm, fingers and distal phalanges. Anthropometric measurements were performed on 146 Sardinian men and women, aged 21 to 31 years. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics (paired Student's t test, analysis of variance), and Principal Components Analysis. The results indicate that size factors are the principal source of variation. A residual adimensional component of variability is related to diversification between the fingers as a whole and the distal phalanges, and between the thumb and the other fingers. Sexual dimorphism is evident. Men present greater dimensions and greater relative length of the thumb with respect to the other fingers than women. PMID:17598419

  4. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and atopic dermatits were studied and compared. In healthy volunteers increased baseline TEWL and increased light reflection from the skin, interpreted as "fair" skin, was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to SLS. Hand eczema patients were found to have fairer and thinner skin than matched controls. Increased susceptibility to SLS was found only in patients with acute eczema. Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased baseline TEWL as well as increased skin susceptibility as compared to controls. Skin susceptibility is thus influenced by individual- as well as environment-related factors. Knowledge of determinants of skin susceptibility may be useful for the identification of high-risk subjects for development of irritant contact dermatitis, and may help to prevent the formation of the disease. PMID:1636360

  5. The Dependency of Vitamin D Status on Anthropometric Data

    PubMed Central

    DATTA, Subinay; PAL, Mrinal; DE, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypovitaminosis D appears to parallel several cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. However, previous findings cannot be considered conclusive, since the association may have been confounded by different anthropometric variables that were not accounted for. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between important explanatory variables and circulation levels of vitamin D. Methods: A total of 553 individuals attending the metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic of the Burdwan district of India were selected from 1289 people by simple random sampling, and information regarding relevant variables and their blood was obtained. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH) D level and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were measured. Associations between different explanatory variables and circulatory 25(OH) D were analysed in linear regression models. Results: Of the population studied, 53% had insufficient vitamin D levels, while approximately 9% were vitamin D deficient. Variables that significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels were obesity, current smoking, forced expiratory volume 1 and depression Conclusion: Lower serum levels of vitamin D were associated with different variables that should be explored in several diseases before a conclusion of hypovitaminosis D is drawn. PMID:25246836

  6. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  7. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.

    PubMed

    Boubacar Manassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  8. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a before and after intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  9. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

  10. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (T(c)) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured T(c) of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 wm(-2) walk for 90 min; data2: 32C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378??32 wm(-2) for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1). PMID:21573821

  11. Effects of a preseason intervention on anthropometric characteristics of semiprofessional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2011-02-01

    A player's physique and body composition can substantially influence performance in a rugby league; however, there is limited evidence about the impact of training on the anthropometric profile of rugby league players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a preseason training program on the anthropometric characteristics of semiprofessional players. Fifty-seven semiprofessional rugby league players (29 backs and 28 forwards) completed a range of anthropometric tests including stature, body mass, girths, breadths, lengths, and 9 skinfold sites at the beginning (late October) and end (mid February) of a 14-week preseason. with use of Lifesize software, values were calculated for fat mass, muscle mass, percent body fat, and somatotype. Analysis of change was conducted separately for forwards and backs. Over the preseason, both backs (p < 0.01) and forwards (p < 0.001) reduced fat mass, increased muscle mass (backs [p < 0.001]; forwards [p < 0.001]), and key upper-body girth measurements. Between group analyses indicated that forwards experienced significantly greater reductions in some skinfold sites (triceps [p < 0.05], subscapular [p < 0.05], abdominals [p < 0.05]), fat mass (p < 0.05) and overall percent body fat than backs (p < 0.05). These players were predominantly endomorphic-mesomorphs. A preseason training program that included testing and feedback, education, and a combination of resistance, speed, and cardiorespiratory training and resulted in considerable anthropometric improvements by semiprofessional players. Rugby league conditioning staff at a semiprofessional level should consider the value of a comprehensive structured and periodized preseason training program and aim to educate players about strategies to achieve body composition goals. PMID:20386485

  12. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players.

    PubMed Central

    Quarrie, K L; Handcock, P; Waller, A E; Chalmers, D J; Toomey, M J; Wilson, B D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before the competitive rugby season. A battery of six physical performance assessments was completed after the anthropometry. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in these variables between field positions and grades. RESULTS: Significant differences between forwards and backs on anthropometric and physical performance variables were apparent at all grades assessed. In terms of anthropometric characteristics, forwards of a given grade were generally taller, possessed greater body mass, and were more endomorphic and less ectomorphic than backs of the same grade. The backs tended to perform better on physical performance measures than forwards, being more aerobically fit, faster, more agile, and possessing a higher degree of muscular endurance. Differences in anthropometry and physical performance attributes were also apparent between players from the various grades. The players at higher levels were generally larger, and performed better on tests of physical performance than the players at lower levels. These differences were found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The greater body mass of the forwards allows them to obtain greater momentum than the backs when sprinting. The ability to obtain greater momentum is important in the body contact phases of the game. Forwards may compromise their aerobic fitness and speed to some extent in order to maintain a high body mass. The anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players appear to reflect the demands placed on them by the sport. PMID:8808542

  13. Anthropometric Profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of Indian Judo Players

    PubMed Central

    Katralli, Jayasudha; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Judo is a complex sport where different anthropological parameters determine performance. Judo, as a sport is not well known in India. There is evident lack of data concerning the anthropological determinants of judo players. This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of judokas. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on 31 judo players. Anthropometric profile was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index, body circumferences at seven sites, seven site skin fold thickness and body fat percentage as per standard accepted protocol. Special Judo Fitness Test a specific test to evaluate the judo athlete's physical condition was applied. Statistical analysis done using Student's unpaired t test and correlation by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Out of 31 judo players 20 had ?5 yrs of judo practice (A group) and 11 >5 yrs of judo (B group). Anthropometric findings of both the judo groups were the same. Body fat has negative correlation (r =-0.690, P<0.05) with performance in SJFT. Observations during and after special judo fitness test were also similar. Conclusions Long term training has a minimal effect on anthropometry. Judo athletes of similar age when submitted to the same training type tend to show equal performance in the game and fitness levels after certain years of training. We also confirm existence of negative correlation between body fat and performance. PMID:22942997

  14. Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623

  15. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  16. Effect of Forward and Backward Locomotion Training on Anaerobic Performance and Anthropometrical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Alghamdi, Mansour S; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 2.54?years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10 inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition. PMID:25540487

  17. The relationship between anthropometric indicators and walking distance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Hsu, Min-Fang; Kuo, Han-Pin; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Li-Fei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a major issue affecting many people with COPD. Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) is a widely used indicator of exercise capacity in patients with COPD. The process is strenuous and time-consuming, especially for patients who have muscle wasting. Anthropometric indicators that reflect body lean mass, such as body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), and calf circumference (CC), may have value in predicting exercise intolerance. Purpose This study attempted to determine the abilities of simple anthropometric indicators including BMI, MAC, and CC in reflecting the exercise intolerance of COPD patients. Methods We recruited 136 nonhospitalized ambulatory COPD patients without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. Each subject’s BMI, MAC, and CC were measured, and they were examined with pulmonary function tests and a 6-minute walk test. Results Among the three anthropometric indicators examined, CC showed the strongest correlation with the 6MWD, followed by MAC and BMI. CC was also strongly associated with functional capacity, followed by MAC, according to the receiver operating characteristic curves. CC and MAC, but not BMI, were significantly associated with exercise intolerance according to logistic regression models that controlled for potential confounders. Conclusion Among the three variables examined, CC and walking distance may have the strongest association in COPD patients. CC may have value in serving as an adjunct to 6MWD in evaluating exercise intolerance of patients with COPD. PMID:26392760

  18. A hand-held device to measure oxygen uptake: performance characteristics, patient selection and the propagation of its measurement error into fick cardiac output determinations.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Albert P; Terpolilli, Beth M; Steinke, John M

    2007-03-01

    Measured oxygen consumption rates (VO2) are being used less frequently for direct Fick cardiac output determinations during cardiac catheterization because the instruments that measure VO2 are usually cumbersome, expensive and difficult to use. A small, inexpensive VO2 device recently became available. Therefore, the aims of this report are: (1) to delineate the advantages and limitations that would affect its use during cardiac catheterization; (2) to define the patient population in which its use would be safe and effective; and (3) to estimate the accuracy of cardiac output determinations based on its VO2 measurements. The MedGem is a fist-size device that measures VO2 as a patient breathes through it using either a facemask or mouthpiece. We evaluated it by measuring the external deadspace it imposes on the patient, by measuring the time required for each measurement, by determining its precision from repeated measurements on healthy volunteers and animals, and by developing a statistical model that calculates cardiac output error as a function of the random errors in the measurements of arterial and venous oxygen concentrations and VO2. Our experience indicates the MedGem is easy to operate and can be used for a wide spectrum of patients at rest including children with the ventilatory capacity to compensate for the added deadspace. Cardiac output determinations made with the MedGem's measurements of oxygen uptake are clinically acceptable if the oximeter used to measure oxygen in arterial and mixed venous blood is also sufficiently accurate. Our statistical model illustrates strategies to minimize cardiac output error. PMID:17341778

  19. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  20. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In

  1. [Comparison of 2 anthropometric methods for the estimation of frame size in Venezuelan adults].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1999-12-01

    The frame size improves the interpretation of the body mass in adult and its incorporation is very useful in the assessment of nutritional status. This study compared two of the anthropometric methods used to classify individuals according to frame size: Grant method (height (cm)/wrist circumference (cm)) and Frame index 2 (elbow breadth (mm)/height (cm) x 100) in order to identify coincidence, concordance and divergence between then. Data from two hundred and forty nine apparently healthy individuals, between the ages of 22 and 63, belonging to "Health Project: Administration employees of the Simón Bolívar University" were included. Results showed significant differences between the two methods, not only in the proportion of classified individuals in each frame size category, but also when contrasted the same method using one or another body hemispheres. When studying both methods, the divergence in frame size identification varied between 19% and 55% with a low concordance (k = < or = 0.40). Grant method, compared to Frame index 2 showed a greater association with the variables and indicators of total body mass and body fat; in the other hand, Frame index 2 revealed a lesser correlation with such variables and indicators specially in female (r = 0.17 with fat percentage). These results clearly show the differences that could be created in the frame size identification of an individual of group of individuals if different criteria are used; this could also lead to a wrong anthropometric diagnosis. PMID:10883299

  2. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  3. Anthropometric Procedures for Protective Equipment Sizing and Design

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. Background While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product designs. Methods For this study, 100 farm tractor operators, 3,718 respirator users, 951 firefighters, and 816 civilian workers participated in four studies on the design of tractor roll-over protective structures (ROPS), respirator test panels, fire truck cabs, and fall-arrest harnesses, respectively. Their anthropometry and participant-equipment interfaces were evaluated. Results Study 1 showed a need to extend the 90-cm vertical clearance for tractor ROPS in the current industrial standards to 98.3 to 101.3 cm. Study 2 indicated that current respirator test panel would have excluded 10% of the male firefighter population; a systematic adjustment to the boundaries of test panel cells was suggested. Study 3 provided 24 principal component analysis-based firefighter body models to facilitate fire truck cab design. Study 4 developed an improved gender-based fall-arrest harness sizing scheme to supplant the current unisex system. Conclusions This article presented four anthropometric approaches and a six-step design paradigm for ROPS, respirator test panel, fire truck cab, and fall-arrest harness applications, which demonstrated anthropometric theories and practices for defining protective equipment fit and sizing schemes. Applications The study provided a basis for equipment designers, standards writers, and industry manufacturers to advance anthropometric applications for product design and improve product efficacy. PMID:23516791

  4. Ergonomic Evaluation of Biomechanical Hand Function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for tendon and joint force analysis. EMG is used on hand muscles associated with hand functions and with signal-processing technology. PMID:25830064

  5. A carpet-weaver's chair based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nader; Bazrafshan, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Ergonomic design of chairs has been well studied by ergonomists. Chair design based on anthropometric data analysis is recommended. Weavers in carpet-weaving workshops use chairs with backrests and armrests. An anthropometric survey was carried out among weavers in Tabriz, Iran, to design a flexible chair and to improve its comfort on the basis of design dimensions. This study focused on the design dimensions of a chair for weavers and its recommended dimensions. The developed chair needs to be tested for its effects on weavers' posture and comfort. PMID:24321633

  6. The Importance of Hand Appearance as a Patient-Reported Outcome in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Rehim, Shady A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Hand appearance is meaningful to patients because hands are an essential part of human interactions, communication, and social integration. Recent literature indicates that hand aesthetics is an important, measurable patient-reported outcome. In hand surgery, several outcome instruments exist that accurately measure functional outcomes, but aesthetics is often overlooked or imprecisely measured. This makes comparison of disease burden and effectiveness of therapies, as they pertain to aesthetics, difficult. This special topic article outlines the aesthetic features of the hand, how literature is evaluating the appearance of the hand in outcomes research, and proposes a novel approach to assessing hand aesthetics. PMID:26893977

  7. The Rubber Hand Illusion: feeling of ownership and proprioceptive drift do not go hand in hand.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Marieke; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2011-01-01

    In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms) to measure perceived finger location. Measurements were made by projecting a probe dot into the field of view (using a semi-transparent mirror) and asking participants if the dot is to the left or to the right of their invisible hand (Experiment 1) or to adjust the position of the dot to that of their invisible hand (Experiment 2). We varied both the measurement frequency (every 10 s, 40 s, 120 s) and the mode of stroking (synchronous, asynchronous, just vision). Surprisingly, with frequent measurements, proprioceptive drift occurs not only in the synchronous stroking condition but also in the two control conditions (asynchronous stroking, just vision). Proprioceptive drift in the synchronous stroking condition is never higher than in the just vision condition. Only continuous exposure to asynchronous stroking prevents proprioceptive drift and thus replicates the differences in drift reported in the literature. By contrast, complementary subjective ratings (questionnaire) show that the feeling of ownership requires synchronous stroking and is not present in the asynchronous stroking condition. Thus, subjective ratings and drift are dissociated. We conclude that different mechanisms of multisensory integration are responsible for proprioceptive drift and the feeling of ownership. Proprioceptive drift relies on visuoproprioceptive integration alone, a process that is inhibited by asynchronous stroking, the most common control condition in Rubber Hand Illusion experiments. This dissociation implies that conclusions about feelings of ownership cannot be drawn from measuring proprioceptive drift alone. PMID:21738756

  8. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

  9. Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166190 cm and aged 2042 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition super body category. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.66.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 23.77 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

  10. Anthropometric dimensions do not enhance one repetition maximum prediction from the NFL-225 test in college football players.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Jerry L; Jacques, Jeff A; Ware, John S; Chapman, Paul P; Bemben, Michael G; Ward, Tom E; Slovak, Joseph P

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of anthropometric dimensions to improving the accuracy of repetitions-to-fatigue (RTF) using an absolute load of 225 lbs to predict 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press performance in college football players. Sixty-one players from an NCAA Division II team were evaluated for 1RM bench press performance, RTF using an absolute load of 225 lbs, and measured (5 skinfolds, 2 skeletal length, and 2 muscle circumferences). Anthropometric dimensions (percent fat, lean body mass, and arm cross-sectional areas) were derived at the conclusion of 8 weeks of heavy resistance training during the off-season. None of the anthropometric dimensions made a significant additional contribution to RTF (r = 0.96, SEE = 12.3 lbs) for predicting 1RM. Of the currently available NFL-225 prediction equations found in the literature nonsignificantly underestimated 1RM from RTF by an average of 1.1 lbs (+/-12.7 lbs), whereas 5 other RTF equations significantly overpredicted by 3.5-9.0 lbs (+/-12.2-14.1 lbs). Anthropometric dimensions neither reduced the error associated with prediction of 1RM bench press using the NFL-225 test in college football players nor do they explain why some players are significantly over- or underpredicted when using muscle endurance repetitions. PMID:15320656

  11. Individual rights over public good? The future of anthropometric monitoring of school children in the fight against obesity.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Joanne M; Achat, Helen M

    2009-02-01

    Available evidence indicates that rates of childhood overweight and obesity have been increasing over the past two decades, but inconsistencies between study methods moderate the strength of this evidence. Concomitant health problems and associated costs make it imperative that primary prevention initiatives are introduced to combat the obesity epidemic. Fundamental to informed action is anthropometric monitoring, which if properly implemented will identify changes over time in specific populations to inform policies, practices and services aimed at prevention and treatment. Sample representativeness is essential for valid trend and prevalence data, but efforts to obtain population-based anthropometric data from school children with the required written parental consent have been thwarted by low participation rates. Notable improvements in participation rates when utilising opt-out consent, in which participation is assumed unless otherwise indicated, are evident from local as well as international studies. Opt-out consent can facilitate anthropometric monitoring, delivering a more informed, best-value-for-money response to the obesity epidemic. Health and education ethics committees need to acknowledge the benefits of opt-out consent for "low-risk" anthropometric measurement, which ultimately upholds the individual's rights. PMID:19203312

  12. Anthropometrics to Identify Overweight Children at Most Risk for the Development of Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Labyak, Corinne A.; Janicke, David M.; Lim, Crystal S.; Colee, James; Mathews, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric that correlates more strongly with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic disease risk in adults compared with body mass index (BMI). However, little research has evaluated this measurement in children. Objective To evaluate SAD as a measure of cardiometabolic risk compared with other anthropometrics in overweight/obese children. Methods This study was a cross-sectional subset analysis of 8- to 12-year-old overweight/ obese children. SAD was compared to BMI, waist circumference (WC), BMI z-score, and percent body fat to determine which measurement was most closely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. A total cardiometabolic risk score comprising all biochemical markers and blood pressure was also compared to these same anthropometrics. Results Overweight/obese children (n = 145, mean age 10 1.4 years, mean BMI percentile 97.9 0.02) were included in the analysis. SAD correlated with the greatest number of biochemical markers/blood pressure values including triglycerides (r = .18, P = .03), HgbA1c (r = .21, P = .01), and systolic blood pressure (r = .38, P < .0001). SAD was more strongly correlated to total risk score (r = .25, P = .002) than WC (r = .22, P = .006), BMI (r = .17, P = .04), BMI-z (r = .18, P = .03), and percent body fat (r = .18, P = .03). Conclusion This is the first study to evaluate SAD in overweight/obese American children as a marker of cardiometabolic disease risk. The results suggest a slightly stronger correlation between SAD and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese children; however, all correlations were weak. As this was a pilot study, additional research is needed prior to recommending the use of this measurement in clinical practice. PMID:25485038

  13. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Fryar, Cheryl D; Gu, Qiuping; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-10-01

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2007-2010, adding to results published previously from the years 1960-2006. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 20,015 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population. PMID:25204692

  14. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 20032006.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Margaret A; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L; Flegal, Katherine M

    2008-10-22

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2003-2006, adding to results published previously from 1960-2002. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 19,593 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population . PMID:25585443

  15. Prediction of kinematic and kinetic performance in a drop vertical jump with individual anthropometric factors in adolescent female athletes: implications for cadaveric investigations.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range <0.01-0.95). However, none of the anthropometric relationships accounted for clinical variance or provided substantive univariate accuracy needed for clinical prediction algorithms (r(2) < 0.20). Mass and BMI demonstrated models that were significant (p < 0.05) and predictive (r(2) > 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions. PMID:25266933

  16. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group

  17. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  18. Anthropometric Correlates of Total Body Fat, Abdominal Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in a Biracial Sample of Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Barreira, Tiago V.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Smith, Steven R.; Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between anthropometric measurements and total body fat, abdominal adipose tissue, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large biracial sample. Patients and Methods This study is limited to cross-sectional analyses of data from participants attending a baseline visit between January 26, 1996, and February 1, 2011. The sample included 2037 individuals aged 18 to 69 years: 488 African American women (24%), 686 white women (34%), 196 African American men (9%), and 667 white men (33%). Anthropometry included weight; hip circumference; waist circumference; waist-hip, waist-height, and weight-height ratios; body adiposity index; and body mass index. Body fat and percentage of fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by computed tomography. Bivariate correlations, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used, and analyses were stratified by sex and race. Results In each sex-by-race group, all anthropometric measures were highly correlated with percentage of fat, fat mass, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and moderately correlated with visceral adipose tissue, with the exception of the waist-hip ratio. The odds of having an elevated cardiometabolic risk were increased more than 2-fold per SD increase for most anthropometric variables, and the areas under the curve for each anthropometric measure were significantly greater than 0.5. Conclusion Several common anthropometric measures were moderately to highly correlated with total body fat, abdominal fat, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of women and men. This comprehensive analysis provides evidence of the linkage between simple anthropometric measurements and the purported pathways between adiposity and health. PMID:22560524

  19. Anthropometric measures at different ages and endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Maso, L Dal; Tavani, A; Zucchetto, A; Montella, M; Ferraroni, M; Negri, E; Polesel, J; Decarli, A; Talamini, R; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI), but the influence of BMI history and of different types of obesity is uncertain. Ethods: M A case–control study was carried out in Italy including 454 cases and 908 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-hormone-related conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariate logistic and spline regression models. Results: The OR for BMI >30 at diagnosis compared with 20 to <25 kg m−2 was 4.08 (95% CI: 2.90–5.74). The association for BMI was monotonic with a possible steeper increase for BMI above 28. Conversely, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) showed a bell shaped curve with increased OR (2.10; 95% CI: 1.43–3.09) in the intermediate tertile only. After stratification by BMI at diagnosis, history of weight loss and BMI at age 30 did not influence endometrial cancer risk. History of obesity in middle age had a weak and not significant adverse effect among obese women (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 0.52–4.96). Conclusion: The predominant importance of recent weight compared to lifetime history, justifies encouraging weight reduction in women at any age. PMID:21386846

  20. Anthropometric measurements by ethnicity in Colombia, 1965-1990.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Karina; Meisel, Adolfo

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed the evolution of height in Colombia of cohorts born in the period 1965-1990 by ethnic groups. We found that Afro-Colombian men and women were the tallest: 6cm taller than indigenous people and 2cm taller than the rest of the population. We also found that the height gap between Afro-Colombians and others decreased during the period under study by 0.7cm for both men and women. While improvements were noticeable among the Afro-Colombians and those who chose not to be classified by ethnicity, in the case of the indigenous population only female cohorts registered an average-height increase of 1.5cm. Moreover, we found that indigenous Colombians were more likely than other ethnic groups to experience an increase in biological well-being as a consequence of an improvement in their socio-economic status, thereby reducing the average-stature gap between them and the rest of the population by 2.1 and 3.6cm for men and women, respectively. PMID:23602686

  1. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beraldo, Rebeca Antunes; Meliscki, Gabriela Cristina; Silva, Bruna Ramos; Navarro, Anderson Marliere; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Schmidt, André; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART. Methods It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HP), thigh circumference (TC) and calculated body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to thigh ratio (WTR). There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III) to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity. Results WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05), triglycerides (only males, p<0.001), HDL cholesterol (p<0.05), LDL cholesterol (p<005) and fasting glycemic (p<005). WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs): 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively), while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females), respectively, in this population. Conclusions The central adiposity measure (WC) had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical practice routinely to prevent cardiovascular complications in HIV patients. PMID:26919174

  2. Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Christine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraff; Hurtado, Johann G. G. Melcherts; Mocellin, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective:?To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods:?This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n?=?201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). Results:?None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion:?Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients. PMID:25991972

  3. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  4. An approach to precise nitrogen management using hand-held crop sensor measurements and winter wheat yield mapping in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Quebrajo, Luca; Prez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 481 kg ha(-1) and 0.67 0.04 nm nm(-1) (field 1) and 3221 531 kg ha(-1) and 0.68 0.05 nm nm(-1) (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with r(xy) = 0.64 and p < 10(-4) in field 1 and r(xy) = 0.78 and p < 10(-4) in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  5. [Costs of hand emergencies].

    PubMed

    Raimbeau, G

    2003-10-01

    In France at the present time, there is no comprehensive registry of hand injuries. Three types of occurrences; motor vehicle accidents, work accidents, and accidents incident to activities of daily living, are covered by different types of insurance. It is the individual insurance companies, payers of the indemnification, who maintain registries of these accidents. Statistics on work accidents are very detailed and consistent, but they are oriented toward risk management. The aggregate cost of traumatic injuries to the hand is not known. Only large financial institutions are equipped to determine appropriate preventive measures and to establish premium rates based on loss experience. In 2001, hand injuries accounted for 27% of work accidents causing loss of work of at least 1 day. About 29.8% of these work accidents caused permanent partial impairment. About 17.7% of total days lost and 18.2% of the total costs of permanent impairment were due to hand injuries. In the system of compensation for work accidents, there is a major difference in the cost according to the severity of the impairment. If the permanent impairment is equal to or less than 9%, a lump sum payment is made, but if the permanent impairment is over 9%, the worker receives regular payments for the rest of his life. In 2000, the average cost of a work injury with partial permanent impairment of over 9% was [symbol: see text] 85,405, while the average cost of a lump sum settlement was only [symbol: see text] 1479, a ratio of 57 to 1. The compensation costs represent 80% of the cost of work accidents, while the cost of treatment, including all providers and institutions, makes up only 20% of the cost. Compensation for sequelae of accidents in the course of daily life is new for the insurance companies, although these accidents are frequent and often cause significant repercussions in the professional lives of victims because of the loss of hand function. Provision of optimal treatment for these traumatic injuries from the very first moment is the best strategy for the third party payers. Better results of treatment not only reduce the costs of compensation for permanent partial impairment, but also greatly diminish the psychological impact on the injured worker. In the future, the management of the costs of these work injuries will become a priority. Pressure from consumers, which is growing, will favor this trend through the intermediary of private insurance companies. PMID:14653022

  6. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental

  7. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  8. Tracking variability: recent anthropometric data for croatian population and comparison with other world populations.

    PubMed

    Bubas, Marija; Milosevi?, Milan; Deli?-Brkljaci?, Diana; Zahariev-Vuksini?, Katarina

    2012-06-01

    The variability that exists within the populations of individual countries and the variability that exists between the populations of different countries are both of interest in practical application. For these reasons, a comparison is made in this work between certain anthropometric variables of our sample of Croatian population and anthropometric variables that are available for other human populations in the world of the same or a similar age. The total sample was 1,372 subjects aged from 23 to 59 years old. For the purpose of comparison, data were taken from the study "International Data on Anthropometry" which provides an overview of anthropometric variables for many world populations, as well as data from Rudan's research that was carried out on Croatian population in the late seventies of the last century. Mean value, standard deviation and coefficient of variation have been calculated for every measured parameter. A comparison between the two research samples of Croatian population fairly displays up going trend, for body mass and other bodily dimensions, formed in three decades of difference. Mean value for body height in Rudan's sample is 161.0 cm, and for Bubas's sample in this research was 170.6 cm, both values state for Croatian population but with difference of more than 30 years. Human biologists use term "secular trend" to describe alterations in the measurable characteristics of a population of humans that occur over a century. Accordingly, in adult age, the rate of gain, concerning body height, is 10 to 30 mm per decade. The changes in body proportions during recent decades are less marked than those in body size, but the relationships between stature and weight within one national group have changed significantly. PMID:22856249

  9. Anthropometric Indices in Adults: Which Is the Best Indicator to Identify Alanine Aminotransferase Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the correlations between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and a new body index, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in Chinese adults. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China in 2012–2013, and 11,331 adults were included in our final analysis. Results: BMI, WC, HC, WHtR, WHR and ABSI were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels. Spearman rank test showed that WHtR (r = 0.346 for men, r = 0.282 for women, both p < 0.001) had the highest correlation coefficient for ALT level, whereas ABSI showed the lowest, and the correlation coefficient of each measure was higher in men than that in women. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of each anthropometric measure, the multivariate logistic model presented that WHtR had the superiority of identifying the presence of elevated ALT (OR 4.38; 95% CI 3.15–6.08 for men, OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.91–6.33 for women, both p < 0.001), and the ABSI was the poorest predictor in men (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.93–3.27, p < 0.001). No association was observed for ABSI in women. Conclusions: Our results indicated that BMI, WC, HC, WHtR and WHR were able to determine elevated ALT presence, while ABSI was not capable. WHtR and to some extent BMI were the best body indices, for predicting the ALT levels in this population. Nevertheless, the predictive ability of ABSI as a novel body index was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices. PMID:26901214

  10. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  11. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thrse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GCMS and HPLCMS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 210 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans. PMID:20161525

  12. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors.

    PubMed

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thrse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke.Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m(3) Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde.We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans. PMID:20161525

  13. [Hand and endocrine diseases].

    PubMed

    Wmeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amlie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. PMID:24148694

  14. Waaler revisited: The anthropometrics of mortality.

    PubMed

    Koch, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although many studies have been written about the relationship between BMI and human height on the one hand and mortality on the other, the issue of socio-economic status as confounding variable has been at times less emphasized. This study analyzes the influence of education and income on the relationship between BMI and mortality and between height and mortality. It is based on data collected between 1963 and 1975 by the Norwegian National Health Screening Service. 1.7 million subjects were recorded. The Norwegian statistics bureau linked these data to the national death records and to socio-economic information. We apply Cox proportional hazards regressions in order to determine whether adding income and education as covariates affects the relations among BMI, height, and mortality. Previous findings and insights are either not present or ambiguous. We conclude that the omission of SES does not significantly bias the effect of BMI on most causes of death, with one exception: type 2 diabetes mellitus, where the effect of BMI is substantially lower for both adults and adolescents when adjusted for education. PMID:20466603

  15. Sensory interaction and descriptions of fabric hand.

    PubMed

    Burns, L D; Chandler, J; Brown, D M; Cameron, B; Dallas, M J

    1995-08-01

    82 subjects who viewed and felt fabrics (sensory interaction group) used different categories of terms to describe fabric hand than did 38 subjects who only felt the fabrics. Therefore, the methods used to measure fabric hand that isolate the senses may not accurately assess the way in which subjects describe fabric hand in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:8532445

  16. Maternal anthropometrics in pregnancy are associated with left ventricular mass in infancy. The generation R study.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, J J Miranda; VAN Osch-Gevers, Lennie; Verburg, Bero O; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Helbing, Willem; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and early life factors may permanently affect left ventricular growth and development in the offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of maternal anthropometrics during pregnancy with left ventricular mass (LVM) in infancy. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onwards. Maternal anthropometrics were obtained in early (gestational age <18 wk), mid- (gestational age 18-25 wk), and late (gestational age >25 wk) pregnancy. Echocardiographic follow-up measurements were performed in 791 infants aged 6 wk and 6 mo. We found no associations of maternal height, weight, or body mass index (BMI) measured in early, mid-, and late pregnancy with longitudinally measured left ventricular mass (LVM) from 6 wk to 6 mo. Maternal weight gain until late pregnancy was associated with an increased growth of LVM from 6 wk to 6 mo [difference 0.46 g per week for the highest tertile of weight gain compared with the lowest tertile (p value <0.05)]. We concluded that maternal weight gain until late pregnancy is associated with larger LVM at the age of 6 mo, suggesting that maternal health status during pregnancy may have permanent consequences for LVM in their children. Further studies are needed to identify the underlying causal mechanisms and the long-term consequences. PMID:18043515

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60C for 30 seconds, ?110C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 1.55C) than males (10.12 1.86C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  18. Anthropometric comparison of the idealized youth and hideous old man of Leonardo's profile drawings.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Heo, Won Young; Jeong, Ji Myeong; Hwang, Se Won

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the old and ugly with the young and beautiful in Leonardo's profile drawings using soft tissue anthropometry.Thirty-one of Leonardo's profile drawings and portraits of the lateral view were collected and scanned. Among the 29, 9 young and 20 hideous old man scans had a measurable nasion-subnasale (n-sn) distance, and 49 anthropometric items (43 distances and 6 angles) were used for measurement as relative distances to the n-sn distance.The measured distances or angles did not differ significantly between the young and old in the 39 anthropometric items. However, the remaining 10 items were statistically significant. The young group had a significantly greater (P < 0.05) upper face height (n-stomion [sto]), nasolabial angle, and upper lip height (sn-sto) compared with the old group. However, the supraorbital depth (glabella-tragion), mandible height (sto-gnathion), nasal bridge height (n-pronasale), cutaneous lower lip height (labiale inferius-sublabiale), ear length (superaurale-subaurale), Rickett line-upper lip distance, and facial inclination were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the old group compared with the young group.The difference of soft tissue cephalometric results between the young and old subjects can be the index in rejuvenating surgeries. PMID:25340691

  19. Factors that influence bone mass of healthy children and adolescents measured by quantitative ultrasound at the hand phalanges: a systematic review☆

    PubMed Central

    Krahenbühl, Tathyane; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the main factors that influence bone mass in children and teenagers assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the phalanges. Data source: A systematic literature review was performed according to the PRISMA method with searches in databases Pubmed/Medline, SciELO and Bireme for the period 2001-2012, in English and Portuguese languages, using the keywords: children, teenagers, adolescent, ultrasound finger phalanges, quantitative ultrasound of phalanges, phalangeal quantitative ultrasound. Data synthesis: 21 articles were included. Girls had, in QUS, Amplitude Dependent Speed of Sound (AD-SoS) values higher than boys during pubertal development. The values of the parameters of QUS of the phalanges and dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) increased with the increase of the maturational stage. Anthropometric variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass showed positive correlations with the values of QUS of the phalanges. Physical activity has also been shown to be positively associated with increased bone mass. Factors such as ethnicity, genetics, caloric intake and socioeconomic profile have not yet shown a conclusive relationship and need a larger number of studies. Conclusions: QUS of the phalanges is a method used to evaluate the progressive acquisition of bone mass during growth and maturation of individuals in school phase, by monitoring changes that occur with increasing age and pubertal stage. There were mainly positive influences variables of sex, maturity, height, weight and BMI, with similar data when compared to the gold standard method, the DXA. PMID:25479860

  20. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

  1. Anthropometric reference data for elderly Swedes and its disease-related pattern

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidou, N N; Pihlsgård, M; Elmståhl, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60–99 years, from a population study ‘Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations. Results: Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8 kg/m2 (men) and 27.2±8.1 kg/m2 (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4 mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8 kg/m2 and SST: 21±9.2 mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9 kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9 kg/m2, TST=19.2±1.3 mm. Conclusion: New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion. PMID:25990690

  2. Auditing hand hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824

  3. Maternal overweight/obesity characteristics and child anthropometric status in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    John, Collins; Ichikawa, Tomo; Abdu, Halima; Ocheke, Isaac; Diala, Udochukwu; Modise-Letsatsi, Virginia; Wada, Takayuki; Okolo, Seline; Yamamoto, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and its relationship with childhood anthropometric status in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Maternal and child anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard WHO methods. Child anthropometric Z scores were obtained from WHO Anthroplus while BMI of mothers were also determined. Totally, 262 mother-child pairs were recruited. Results: Mean maternal age and mean child age were 30.8 6.3 yrs (15-47 yrs) and 22.3 18.7 months (3-72 months). Prevalence of maternal underweight, overweight and obesity was 4.2% (11/262), 29.4% (77/262) and 25.9% (68/262), respectively. Child overweight/obesity was 5.4% (14/262), severe under-nutrition 5.7% (15/262). Mean maternal BMI was higher in the older, more educated and higher socioeconomic status (SES). Child mean birth-weight, weight-for-age Z-score and BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ) were higher among mothers with BMI ? 25 kg/m2. All large-for-age babies were in mothers with maternal BMI ? 25 kg/m2. Childhood over-nutrition was more common in maternal BMI of ?25 kg/m2. Overall, BAZ was directly related with maternal BMI, maternal age and birth-weight, although it was inversely related with maternal BM I ? 25 kg/m2. Conclusion: Higher BMI is seen in educated and higher SES mothers and this impact on childhood anthropometry. PMID:26759505

  4. General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Kondri?, Miran; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Konti?, Dean; Sekuli?, Damir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the worlds best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

  5. Fitness and Anthropometric Profiles of International vs. National Judo Medalists in Half-Heavyweight Category.

    PubMed

    Drid, Patrik; Casals, Cristina; Mekic, Amel; Radjo, Izet; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric and fitness profiles of European half-heavyweight judokas by success in competition. For this purpose, we compared 5 international medalists (elite) with 5 national medalists (subelite). All male judokas won at least 1 medal in the half-heavyweight category during the previous 2 years. The testing in this cross-sectional study was performed during 4 days. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with body mass, height, skinfold, and limb circumference measures, and the body fat percentage was estimated by manual bioimpedance. The physical fitness evaluation consisted in peak torques for thigh and shoulder muscles, handgrip strength, high and long jumps, medicine ball throw, pull-ups, deadlift, bench press, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. The statistical analysis by the Student's t test showed significant differences for forearm and upper-arm circumferences, peak torques, pull-ups, bench press, deadlift, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. Our results showed that elite judokas have a superior fitness profile than subelite athletes from the half-heavyweight category. Moreover, elite judokas seem to have a higher arm muscle mass than subelite athletes but a similar body fat percentage. This study could be of interest for judo coaches with athletes competing in the half-heavyweight category, as some tests that discriminate by judo success for this specific weight category are described. Few studies analyze anthropometric and fitness profiles in half-heavyweight male judokas, so additionally our results can be used as a reference for coaches, athletes, and scientists. PMID:25647645

  6. Compact Telerobot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosheim, Mark; Trechsel, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Anthropomorphic telerobotic hand contains actuators, joints, sensors, and complex wiring harnesses. Glove protects interior components of hand from dirt and damage. Imitates motions of human fingers and wrist in lifelike and dexterous way. Incorporates pitch/yaw joints in wrist and head knuckles. Hand modular; so fingers removable, interchangeable units. Feature simplifies servicing and maintenance, which must be done frequently in such complex mechanism.

  7. A Show of Hands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an assignment where students draw a self-portrait of their hands after studying the structure of their hands to create a credible gesture. Expounds that the students focused on a technique called "geometricizing" to achieve the plains and angles of their hands and could choose the paper surface and medium themselves. (CMK)

  8. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  9. Neck Circumference, along with Other Anthropometric Indices, Has an Independent and Additional Contribution in Predicting Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bi-xia; Zhu, Ming-fan; Wu, Ting; Zhou, Jing-ya; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhou, Rui-fen; Wang, Li-jun; Chen, Yu-ming; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88) recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed. Results The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1) of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99) for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74) for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05) but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05). A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values. Conclusions Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures. PMID:25679378

  10. Anthropometric definitions of dysmorphic facial signs.

    PubMed

    Stengel-Rutkowski, S; Schimanek, P; Wernheimer, A

    1984-01-01

    A photoanthropometric method is presented, which enables an objective definition of facial structures. It may support the clinical description of patients with dysmorphic syndromes. Eighteen parameters were studied. The measuring points were elected on the base of anthropological criteria. The measurements were related to reference values in the same face. The obtained indices were compared to an age related control group of 100 normal children between 0 and 12 years. Values below the 3rd and above the 97th percentile were considered as dysmorphisms. The results give information on the frequency and age dependency of different dysmorphic signs. PMID:6469242

  11. Flight deck design and pilot selection: anthropometric considerations.

    PubMed

    Buckle, P W; David, G C; Kimber, A C

    1990-12-01

    Safe and successful operation of flight displays and controls is, in part, dependent on the anthropometric characteristics of the pilots with respect to the design of a particular aircraft. This paper describes the approach required to optimise this fit and provides guidelines for both those responsible for design and those who select pilot recruits. The major results reported are those for a British population, although the aircraft considered (Boeing 737-200, 747, 757 and Lockheed TriStar) are used by airlines throughout the world. The study shows that limitations in design considerably reduce the pool of potential recruits with the appropriate anthropometric characteristics. The selection criteria, based on functional seated eye height, might exclude 73% of the British, 19-65-year-old female population and 13% of the male population. PMID:2285396

  12. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  13. Hand shaping using hapsis resembles visually guided hand shaping.

    PubMed

    Karl, Jenni M; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Doan, Jon B; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-05-01

    The reach-to-grasp movement is composed of a number of movement elements including hand transport, hand shaping, and grasping. These movement elements are featured in grasping when it is guided by vision, when it is guided by haptic input from the non-reaching hand or other body parts, and when it is guided by off-line perceptual (remembered) knowledge. An unanswered question is how is the reach-to-grasp movement achieved when all information about the target must be acquired by the grasping hand? The answer to this question was obtained by asking participants to reach for three randomly presented food items that varied in size: an orange slice, a small round donut ball, or a blueberry. In order to constrain the grasping pattern, participants were asked to pick up an item with the intention of placing it in the mouth. Thus, in the unsighted condition, participants did not know which item they were reaching for until they made haptic contact with it. Hand transport, shaping, and grasping were examined using frame-by-frame video analysis and linear kinematics. These measures showed that in unsighted reaching, hand transport first served to establish haptic contact between either the second or third digit and the target. After haptic identification of the target, the hand and/or grasping digits adjusted their trajectory, reshaped, and reoriented for grasping. A comparison of haptically guided grasping and visually guided grasping indicated that the two were very similar. This similarity is discussed in relation to contemporary ideas concerning the neural mechanisms that guide hand use. PMID:22437961

  14. Biomechanics of the hand.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Scott F M; Saracevic, Caitlin E; Kakinoki, Ryosuke

    2013-11-01

    By understanding the biomechanical motions that allow the hand to function effectively and how patients used the hand before their injury, the surgeon can best determine which surgical method is most suited to prevent permanent loss of function and significant impairment. The objective of this article is to discuss the biomechanics of the hand and, particularly, to assess the range of biomechanical motions that account for most of the hand functions and to determine the value of each function and which specific surgical procedures best restore the optimum function of the hand. PMID:24209947

  15. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  16. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of rugby union football players.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, C W

    1997-06-01

    Rugby union enjoys worldwide popularity, but there is a lack of comprehensive research into the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of its players and the demands of the game, particularly at the elite level. One of the possible explanations for this is that the sport has previously been primarily concerned with the aspects of skill related to the game, rather than the physical and physiological requirements. However, with the increased physiological demands being placed on the elite players (using the British Isles as an example), with the recent introduction of professionalism, regional championships, the World Cup and major tours, information about the demands of the game and the assessment of, and methods of improving, the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of its players, are of paramount importance. Match analysis has indicated that rugby is an interval or intermittent sport and players must be able to perform a large number of intensive efforts of 5 to 15 seconds' duration with less than 40 seconds' recovery between each bout of high intensity activity. These observations, together with the metabolic responses during the game, give some insight into its physiological demands and are a prerequisite in the development and prescription of training programmes by coaches in preparing individual players for competition. The results from studies reporting the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of rugby union players observed that these individuals had unique anthropometric and physiological attributes which depended on positional role and the playing standard. These have important implications for team selection and highlight the necessity for individualised training programmes and fitness attainment targets. PMID:9219321

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  18. Longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Darrall-Jones, Josh; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 years) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of preseason over a 6-year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (Under 16-17, n = 35; Under 17-18, n = 44; Under 18-19, n = 35; Under 19-20, n = 16). A subset of 15 players were assessed for long-term changes over 4 years (Under 16-19). Anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, 10-m momentum, vertical jump, yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat, bench press, and prone row) assessments were collected. Paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant annual (e.g., body mass, U16 = 76.4 8.4, U17 = 81.3 8.3 kg; p < 0.001, d = 0.59) and long-term (e.g., vertical jump, Under 16 = 44.1 3.8, Under 19 = 52.1 5.3 cm; p < 0.001, d = 1.74) changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics. Greater percentage changes were identified between the Under 16-17 age categories compared with the other ages (e.g., 1RM squat, U16-17 = 22.5 19.5 vs. U18-19 = 4.8 6.4%). Findings demonstrate the annual and long-term development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy rugby league players establishing greater changes occur at younger ages upon the commencement of a structured training program within an academy. Coaches should understand the long-term development of physical characteristics and use longitudinal methods for monitoring and evaluating player performance and development. PMID:25474341

  19. Anthropometric, body composition and performance variables of young elite female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Bale, P

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the physique and body composition of young female basketball players and to examine these variables in relation to their playing position. Eighteen members of the under seventeen England Basketball squad were measured on twenty different anthropometric sites from which somatotype and body composition were calculated. Four performance measures, vertical jump, anaerobic power, right and left grip strength and laterality were also measured. The variables of the basketball players grouped according to playing position were then compared statistically using ANOVA. Centres had the largest measures of physique and body composition followed by the forwards and then the guards. These differences were significant, particularly between the centres and the guards. The centres were much taller, had longer limb lengths, hip widths and were more muscular. PMID:1753723

  20. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. METHOD We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = −0.563; P = <0.001), BMI (r = −0.448; P = <0.001), MAMC (r = −0.506; P = <.0001), TSF (r = −0.483; P = <.0002), and BSF (r = −0.508; P = <0.0001). Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. CONCLUSION Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status. PMID:26327781

  1. Intraoperative knee anthropometrics: correlation with cartilage wear.

    PubMed

    Rooney, N; Fitzpatrick, D P; Beverland, D E

    2006-08-01

    Accurate knee morphology is of value in determining the correct sizing of prosthetic implants. Intraoperative measurement of key linear dimensional variables was carried out on 196 Caucasian knees (osteoarthritic patients: 68 male and 128 female). Of the 196 knees measured, 70 had extensive cartilage degeneration. Statistical analysis was carried out on this large sample size of data. Summary statistics and correlation coefficients between variables were determined and compared between subgroups. Male knees were on average larger than female knees. Higher correlation was found between variables for males than between variables for females. Overall, the patellar dimensions were seen to correlate least well with other anatomical variables. High correlation between femoral variables supports current femoral sizing procedure, although routine patellar resection practices are called into question. Average values for the 70 knees with extensive cartilage degeneration were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than their counterparts for the other 126 knees. For a measurement not containing cartilage, such as femoral epicondylar width, this difference cannot be accounted for by the loss of cartilage owing to wear. This suggests that, for similar height and weight, a naturally narrower femoral epicondylar width may be associated with severe osteoarthritis. PMID:16961186

  2. Three-dimensional anthropometric techniques applied to the fabrication of burn masks and the quantification of wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitestone, Jennifer J.; Geisen, Glen R.; McQuiston, Barbara K.

    1997-03-01

    Anthropometric surveys conducted by the military provide comprehensive human body measurement data that are human interface requirements for successful mission performance of weapon systems, including cockpits, protective equipment, and clothing. The application of human body dimensions to model humans and human-machine performance begins with engineering anthropometry. There are two critical elements to engineering anthropometry: data acquisition and data analysis. First, the human body is captured dimensionally with either traditional anthropometric tools, such as calipers and tape measures, or with advanced image acquisition systems, such as a laser scanner. Next, numerous statistical analysis tools, such as multivariate modeling and feature envelopes, are used to effectively transition these data for design and evaluation of equipment and work environments. Recently, Air Force technology transfer allowed researchers at the Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to work with the Dayton, Ohio area medical community in assessing the rate of wound healing and improving the fit of total contract burn masks. This paper describes the successful application of CARD Lab engineering anthropometry to two medically oriented human interface problems.

  3. GENDER FEATURES OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC, CEPHALOMETRIC AND BIOIMPEDANCE PARAMETERS IN THE STUDENTS OF YAKUTIA.

    PubMed

    Guryeva, A B; Alekseyeva, V A; Petrova, P G

    2015-01-01

    To establish the anthropo-ecological portrait of the current population of Yakutia, it is necessary to study the regularities of the variability of physical status in different gender groups and develop regional standards of the physical development of different age-sex groups of the population with regard to the peculiarities of the environment. The aim of this study is to do research on the gender features of anthropometric, cephalometric and bioimpedance parameters in the students of Yakut ethnicity. The measures of 228 Yakut girls and 168 Yakut youths born and permanently resident in Yakutia were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were performed using the method of V.V. Bunak (1941), somatotyping--using the Rees-Eysenck index (1945). Head type was determined by the cephalic index, face type--by the upper facial index. Bioelectrical impedance analysis with the use of ABC--01 Medass analyzer was performed to estimate body composition. Adipose tissue mass (AM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), lean mass (LM), active cell mass (ACM) and phase angle (PA) were determined. Obtained material was processed by the method of variation statistics with the use of SPSS 17.0 software package. Overall measures of the soma of the examined groups have gender features of body organization that are expressed in the significantly higher values of all measured parameters in the youths of Yakutia. In our study, the sexual dimorphism in the distribution of somatotypes by the Rees-Eysenck index has not been identified. The analysis of cephalometric measures has revealed reliably higher parameters of absolute head sizes in the youths. Gender differences in the distribution of head and face types have not been found in the examined ethno-age group. Significantly larger absolute amount of AM has been established in the girls. The measures of SMM, ACM and LM are reliably higher in the youths. The values of active and reactive tissue resistance are reliably higher in the girls. Gender features of the anthropometric, cephalometric and bioimpedance parameters of the students have been established. The conducted study presents the anthropo-ecological image of this age-sex group of the population of Yakutia. PMID:26887124

  4. Metalworking fluid hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Saori; Shiomi, Yuko; Yokota, Kozo

    2002-07-01

    In a household appliance plant, several rinse-free lubricating fluids have been used instead of neat mineral oils since 1994: mixtures of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons with 9 to 14 carbons per molecule. As such they denature keratin, irritate and defat the skin, and remove water from it. Work gloves have been worn over plastic gloves and separate, reusable, cotton inner gloves have been added to absorb sweat since skin problems were first recognized in 1994. All 74 males (mean +/- SD, 38.8 +/- 8.0 years) who work with the fluids were interviewed and given cutaneous examinations when indicated. While 4 cases of severe dermatitis and 31 cases of mild dermatitis were identified, 28 individuals gave a history of similar problems since the use of lubricating fluids. Their symptoms were typical of primary skin irritation. The hands were the commonly affected region (63 of 63 cases: 100%), followed by the thighs (15.9%) and trunk (11.1%). The work-related skin symptoms identified were less common in workers who immediately removed the liquid with soap and water, when it is spilled on the hands, than in those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (7/23 (30.4%) vs. 28/51 (54.9%), p=0.051 by chi-square test). Since skin contact with metalworking fluids (MWF) is often unavoidable, good personal hygiene is important in minimizing potential adverse health effects. Health education thus remains the most important preventive measure against irritant contact dermatitis among workers handling MWFs. PMID:12141380

  5. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity. PMID:19239175

  6. Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LRLN - 2.6926 LRCPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  7. ANTHROPOMETRIC DETERMINANTS OF ROWING ERGOMETER PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICALLY INACTIVE COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Choszcz, DJ; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR 0.1130 LR2 0.0589 LN2 + 29.2157 CPI2 + 0.1370 LRLN - 2.6926 LRCPI 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  8. Effectiveness of a home-based exercise program on anthropometric and metabolic changes among school cooks.

    PubMed

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Souza, Amanda Moura; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and metabolic changes after low intensity home-based exercise. In the school year of 2007, 95 school cooks in the city of Niteroi (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: home-based exercise (n = 47) or control group (n = 48). The home-based exercise program was performed three times a week, during 40 minutes at moderate intensity. Anthropometric variables were collected at the baseline and after 4 and 8 months, whereas biochemical and individual food intake were measured at the baseline and after 8 months. Energy expenditure was evaluated only at the baseline. The home-based exercise group exhibited a greater weight loss (-0.9 vs. -0.2; p = 0.05) in comparison with controls during the follow-up and the same pattern was found for BMI (-0.1 vs. +0.1; p = 0.07), although without statistical significance. Exercise showed no effects on waist circumference, lipid profile and glucose. In conclusion, greater weight loss was observed in the group that performed low intensity home-based exercise and this strategy can assist in body weight control even without alterations in terms of lipids and glucose. PMID:26691817

  9. Grasping-Force Sensor For Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheinman, Victor D.; Bejczy, Antal K.; Primus, Howard K.

    1991-01-01

    Grasping-force sensor designed for use on robot hand including interdigitating claws required to remain in alignment. Sensor integral part of grasping claw assembly on robot hand. Base frames deflect elastically, partly in manner of cantilever beam and partly in manner of parallelogram linkage. Strain gauges measure grasping forces by measuring deflections. Operator feels initial contact between claws and object and modifies motions of robot arm, hand and claws accordingly.

  10. Improved "Smart" Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F.; Vigh, Zoltan; Bejczy, Antal; Ohm, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Improved version of developmental "smart" robot hand equipped with bidirectional, wide-band optical-fiber link for transmission of digitized strain-gauge force- and torque-sensor signals from hand and for transmission of command signals to motor drive unit on hand. Collection of sensor data speeded hundredfold. Higher data-collection speed makes possible to perform advanced processing of sensor data in host processor.

  11. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  12. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  13. Hand grip strength and associated factors in non-institutionalised men and women 50 years and older in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence, predictors and gender differences in hand grip strength of older adults in Africa. This study aims to investigate social and health differences in hand grip strength among older adults in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 men and women aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and anthropometric measurements. Linear multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the association of social factors, health variables and grip strength. Results The mean overall hand grip strength was 37.9 kgs for men (mean age 61.1years, SD?=?9.1) and 31.5 kgs for women (mean age 62.0years, SD?=?9.7). In multivariate analysis among men, greater height, not being underweight and lower functional disability was associated with greater grip strength, and among women, greater height, better cognitive functioning, and lower functional disability were associated with greater grip strength. Conclusions Greater height and lower functional disability were found for both older South African men and women to be significantly associated with grip strength. PMID:24393403

  14. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The measurements will be useful as standard reference data for forensic practices and as material data for future studies in this field. PMID:26341158

  15. Management of Chronic Hand Eczema.

    PubMed

    de Len, F J; Berbegal, L; Silvestre, J F

    2015-09-01

    Management of hand eczema is complex because of the broad range of different pathogeneses, courses, and prognoses. Furthermore, the efficacy of most available treatments is not well established and the more severe forms can have a major impact on the patient's quality of life. Patient education, preventive measures, and the use of emollients are the mainstays in the management of hand eczema. High-potency topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, with calcineurin inhibitors used for maintenance. Phototherapy or systemic treatments are indicated in patients who do not respond to topical treatments. Switching from topical treatments should not be delayed to avoid sensitizations, time off work, and a negative impact on quality of life. Alitretinoin is the only oral treatment approved for use in chronic hand eczema. PMID:26005193

  16. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  17. Anthropometric trends and the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in a Lithuanian urban population aged 45–64 years

    PubMed Central

    Luksiene, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Bernotiene, Gailute; Peasey, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate trends in anthropometric indexes from 1992 to 2008 and to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in relation to anthropometric indexes (body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio). Methods: Data from the three surveys (1992–2008) are presented. A random sample of 5147 subjects aged 45–64 years was selected for statistical analysis. During follow-up there were 141 deaths from cardiovascular disease (excluding those with cardiovascular disease at entry). Cox’s regression was used to estimate the associations between anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular disease mortality. Results: During a 17-year period among men, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2) increased from 18.4% to 32.1% (p<0.001) and a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.9) from 59.3% to 72.9% (p<0.001). The risk profile of obesity did not change in women, but prevalence of a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.85) increased from 25.9% to 41.5% (p<0.001). Multivariable-adjusted Cox’s regression models showed that body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio were associated with cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men (hazard ratios 1.40, 1.45, 1.49, 1.46 respectively (p<0.01)). Conclusions: Our data indicate that anthropometric measures such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio and waist:height ratio are good indicators of cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men aged 45–64 years. PMID:26261188

  18. Relationship of Speed, Agility, Neuromuscular Power, and Selected Anthropometrical Variables and Performance Results of Male and Female Junior Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Munivrana, Goran; Filipčić, Aleš; Filipčić, Tjaša

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyses the relation between the selected speed, agility, and neuromuscular power test items. The sample of subjects consisted of 154 male and 152 female young tennis players. Using six motor and three anthropometrical tests we investigate differences between males and females and between two age categories. Finally, we analyzed the relation between motor and anthropometrical tests and a player's tennis performance. The correlation between the two agility test items and 5-m sprint is very large in male players, while only moderate with 20-m sprint in female category. Male tennis players have higher correlations between speed test items and neuromuscular test items. The speed test item (5-m sprint) has large correlation with a player's tennis performance. One-way analysis of variance results indicated that young male tennis players performed significantly better than females in all motor test items. Significant differences between genders have not been revealed only in the body mass index. Differences between the males aged 18& under and 16& under have been noted as significant in all test items, except the vertical jump, while differences between the females have been noted as significant in three anthropometrical tests, quarter jump, and the fan-drill test. Regression analyses have shown that the system of prediction variables explains a relatively small part of variance (46%--males and 40%--females). In both genders, it has been revealed that test items measuring speed significantly influence a player's tennis performance. PMID:26434018

  19. Determination of key dimensions for a glove sizing system by analyzing the relationships between hand dimensions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ochae; Jung, Kihyo; You, Heecheon; Kim, Hee-Eun

    2009-07-01

    The present study identified key dimensions for the development of a glove sizing system by analyzing the relationships between hand dimensions and demonstrated the construction process of glove sizing systems based on the selected key dimensions. Three hand dimensions (HL: hand length; HC: hand circumference; HB: hand breadth) were selected as the candidates of glove key dimensions by surveying the literature and industry practices of glove sizing systems. Of the key dimension candidates, HL and HC were selected by examining the results of correlation and multiple regression analyses on the 1988 US Army hand anthropometric data. A cross-tabulation of HL and HC with an interval length of 1.3 cm was constructed for each gender and the corresponding lengths and circumferences of cells covering more than 2% of the population were used to provide glove sizing parameters. It was identified that the glove sizing system for males is different from that for females and has more size categories. PMID:18799156

  20. Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images.

    PubMed

    Davis, Josh P; Valentine, Tim; Davis, Robert E

    2010-07-15

    Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and profile images of young males meeting a similar description. The system produces 37 linear and 25 angular measurements across the two viewpoints. A series of 64 analyses were conducted to examine whether separate novel probe facial images of target individuals whose face dimensions were already stored within the database would be correctly identified as the same person. Identification verification was found to be unreliable unless multiple distance and angular measurements from both profile and full-face images were included in an analysis. PMID:20570069

  1. Anthropometric and Physical Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English regional academy rugby union players by age category (under 16s, under 18s and under 21s). Data were collected on 67 academy players at the beginning of the preseason period and comprised anthropometric (height, body mass, and sum of 8 skinfolds) and physical (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, acceleration, velocity, and momentum; agility 505; vertical jump; Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1; 30-15 intermittent fitness test; absolute and relative 3 repetition maximum front squat, split squat, bench press, prone row, and chin; and isometric mid-thigh pull). One-way analysis of variance demonstrated significant increases across the 3 age categories (p ? 0.05) for height (e.g., 16s = 178.8 7.1; 18s = 183.5 7.2; 21s = 186.7 6.61 cm), body mass (e.g., 16s = 79.4 12.8; 18s = 88.3 11.9; 21s = 98.3 10.4 kg), countermovement jump height and peak power, sprint momentum, velocity, and acceleration; absolute, relative, and isometric (e.g., 16s = 2,157.9 309.9; 18s = 2,561.3 339.4; 21s = 3,104.5 354.0 N) strength. Momentum, maximal speed, and the ability to maintain acceleration were all discriminating factors between age categories, suggesting that these variables may be more important to monitor rather than sprint times. These findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across age categories and provide comparative data for English Academy Rugby Union players. PMID:25647656

  2. [Study of somatic sex maturation based on various anthropometric indicators].

    PubMed

    Kornetov, N A

    1989-01-01

    Clinico-anthropometric investigation was performed in 840 schizophrenic patients and 135 patients with other mental disorders. Somatic sex differentiation was assessed using the Tanner index, biacromial and bicristal diameters. Body-building deviations towards non-differentiated adolescent-type patterns were observed only in schizophrenic patients with multiple regional morphologic dysplasias. This could be repeatedly confirmed in three samples of schizophrenic patients observed in different regions of this country. The retardation in the somatic sex differentiation is supposedly related to constitutional-biological features of the disease independent on the speciaficity of schizophrenic process. PMID:2781929

  3. Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesak, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

  4. Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of kenyan distance runners.

    PubMed

    Kong, Pui W; de Heer, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m(- 2)), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg(-1), knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg(-1)) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60(o)/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120(o)/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180(o)/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports. PMID:24149957

  5. Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. PMID:25479849

  6. Animal Bites of the Hand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... del pulgar Dedo en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... del pulgar Dedo en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  7. Relation between the Sensory and Anthropometric Variables in the Quiet Standing Postural Control: Is the Inverted Pendulum Important for the Static Balance Control?

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica C.; Mochizuki, Luis; Silva Luna, Natália Mariana; Ayama, Sérgio; Canonica, Alexandra Carolina; Greve, Júlia M. D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the sensory and anthropometric variables in the quiet standing. Methods. One hundred individuals (50 men, 50 women; 20–40 years old) participated in this study. For all participants, the body composition (fat tissue, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density) and body mass, height, trunk-head length, lower limb length, and upper limb length were measured. The center of pressure was measured during the quiet standing posture, the eyes opened and closed with a force platform. Correlation and regression analysis were run to analyze the relation among body composition, anthropometric data, and postural sway. Results. The correlation analysis showed low relation between postural sway and anthropometric variables. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that the height explained 12% of the mediolateral displacement and 11% of the center of pressure area. The length of the trunk head explained 6% of displacement in the anteroposterior postural sway. During eyes closed condition, the support basis and height explained 18% of mediolateral postural sway. Conclusion. The postural control depends on body composition and dimension. This relation is mediated by the sensory information. The height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural sway. PMID:26539550

  8. Relation between the Sensory and Anthropometric Variables in the Quiet Standing Postural Control: Is the Inverted Pendulum Important for the Static Balance Control?

    PubMed

    Alonso, Anglica C; Mochizuki, Luis; Silva Luna, Natlia Mariana; Ayama, Srgio; Canonica, Alexandra Carolina; Greve, Jlia M D A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the sensory and anthropometric variables in the quiet standing. Methods. One hundred individuals (50 men, 50 women; 20-40 years old) participated in this study. For all participants, the body composition (fat tissue, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density) and body mass, height, trunk-head length, lower limb length, and upper limb length were measured. The center of pressure was measured during the quiet standing posture, the eyes opened and closed with a force platform. Correlation and regression analysis were run to analyze the relation among body composition, anthropometric data, and postural sway. Results. The correlation analysis showed low relation between postural sway and anthropometric variables. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that the height explained 12% of the mediolateral displacement and 11% of the center of pressure area. The length of the trunk head explained 6% of displacement in the anteroposterior postural sway. During eyes closed condition, the support basis and height explained 18% of mediolateral postural sway. Conclusion. The postural control depends on body composition and dimension. This relation is mediated by the sensory information. The height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural sway. PMID:26539550

  9. Facial and Hand Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pomahac, Bohdan; Gobble, Ryan M.; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients suffering from limb loss or severe facial disfigurement. To date, 72 hand and 19 facial transplantations have been performed worldwide. VCA in hand and facial transplantation is a complex procedure requiring a multidisciplinary team approach and extensive surgical planning. Despite good functional outcome, courses after hand and facial transplantation have been complicated by skin rejection. Long-term immunosuppression remains a necessity in VCA for allograft survival. To widen the scope of these quality-of-life-improving procedures, minimization of immunosuppression to limit risks and side effects is needed. PMID:24478387

  10. "Fever in the Hand"

    PubMed

    Silber

    1996-10-01

    A 14-year-old female adolescent was being treated for malnutrition secondary to anorexia nervosa. She complained of severe "shooting" pain, swelling, and color and temperature changes in her left (dominant) hand. She had recently suffered a fall during a hockey game and pounded on the table during a "temper tantrum." On exam, the left hand was cyanotic, edematous, and cold, with severe hyperesthesia. A bone scan showed marked reduction in flow to the left hand. She underwent eight sympathetic ganglion blocks resulting in transitory Horner's syndrome. Favorable plethysmographic changes occurred and her recovery was complete. Her eventual diagnosis was reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. PMID:10360004

  11. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was 470.28+7.10waist circumference91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was 172.37+8.57waist circumference62.65gender450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was 96.76+11.48central obesity depth5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio18.59gender (R=71.7%). R significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  12. The Rubber Hand Illusion Revisited: Visuotactile Integration and Self-Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked, while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked, may cause the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body, to "feel like it's my hand." A behavioral measure of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a drift of the perceived position of one's own hand toward the rubber hand. The authors investigated (a) the

  13. Human and Animal Fecal Contamination of Community Water Sources, Stored Drinking Water and Hands in Rural India Measured with Validated Microbial Source Tracking Assays.

    PubMed

    Schriewer, Alexander; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    We examined pathways of exposure to fecal contamination of human and animal origin in 24 villages in Odisha, India. In a cross-sectional study during the monsoon season, fecal exposure via community water sources (N = 123) and in the home (N = 137) was assessed using human- and nonhuman-associated Bacteroidales microbial source tracking (MST) markers and fecal coliforms (FCs). Detection rates and marker concentrations were examined to pinpoint pathways of human fecal exposure in the public and domestic domains of disease transmission in study communities. Human fecal markers were detected much more frequently in the domestic domain (45% of households) than in public domain sources (8% of ponds; 4% of groundwater drinking sources). Animal fecal markers were widely detected in both domains (74% of ponds, 96% of households, 10% of groundwater drinking sources), indicating ubiquitous risks of exposure to animal feces and zoonotic pathogens. This study confirms an often suggested contamination link from hands to stored water in the home in developing countries separately for mothers' and children's hands and both human and animal fecal contamination. In contrast to MST markers, FCs provided a poor metric to assess risks of exposure to fecal contamination of human origin in this rural setting. PMID:26149868

  14. Human and Animal Fecal Contamination of Community Water Sources, Stored Drinking Water and Hands in Rural India Measured with Validated Microbial Source Tracking Assays

    PubMed Central

    Schriewer, Alexander; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R.; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined pathways of exposure to fecal contamination of human and animal origin in 24 villages in Odisha, India. In a cross-sectional study during the monsoon season, fecal exposure via community water sources (N = 123) and in the home (N = 137) was assessed using human- and nonhuman-associated Bacteroidales microbial source tracking (MST) markers and fecal coliforms (FCs). Detection rates and marker concentrations were examined to pinpoint pathways of human fecal exposure in the public and domestic domains of disease transmission in study communities. Human fecal markers were detected much more frequently in the domestic domain (45% of households) than in public domain sources (8% of ponds; 4% of groundwater drinking sources). Animal fecal markers were widely detected in both domains (74% of ponds, 96% of households, 10% of groundwater drinking sources), indicating ubiquitous risks of exposure to animal feces and zoonotic pathogens. This study confirms an often suggested contamination link from hands to stored water in the home in developing countries separately for mothers' and children's hands and both human and animal fecal contamination. In contrast to MST markers, FCs provided a poor metric to assess risks of exposure to fecal contamination of human origin in this rural setting. PMID:26149868

  15. A Myoelectric Hand Splint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Frances; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Development of a myoelectrically controlled hand splint permitting ambulating mobility of the user is discussed. The role of occupational therapy in the research and design of the device and the training of the patient are emphasized. (Authors)

  16. [Preoperative hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, B E; Johnsen, R L

    1994-11-30

    At Telemark Central Hospital we decided to change the procedure for preoperative disinfection of the hands in order to improve antimicrobial efficacy and to minimize skin problems for the personnel. Previously, preoperative disinfection of hands was performed by scrubbing the hand with a detergent containing chlorohexidine (Hibiscrub) which often caused dryness, fissures and dermatitis. In the recent years it has been amply shown that alcoholic solutions have a very good and immediate antibacterial effect on the skin flora, while chlorohexidine has a prolonged effect. In this paper we describe our new procedures for preoperative disinfection of hands and the necessary planning and preparation we undertook to obtain acceptance for these procedures among the personnel. PMID:7998055

  17. Bruising Hands and Arms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Bruising Hands And Arms Share | Bruising on the ...

  18. Hand Biometric Recognition Based on Fused Hand Geometry and Vascular Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%. PMID:23449119

  19. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n?=?129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n?=?129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.9210.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.9240.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.96.4 cm vs 155.46.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.97.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.512.41 kg/m2 vs 19.051.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.21.1 y vs 14.51.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples, the present study cannot discriminate sedentary girls from world-class female gymnasts by means of the left hand 2D:4D ratio. PMID:22768268

  20. Physical fitness indices and anthropometrics profiles in schoolchildren with sickle cell trait/disease.

    PubMed

    Moheeb, Hisham; Wali, Yasser A; El-Sayed, Mahmoud S

    2007-02-01

    The current studies aimed at determining physical fitness indices and anthropometrics profiles of school children with sickle cell trait (SCT) and sickle cell disease (SCD). Male school children (150) comprising 3 Groups participated in the studies. Group 1 has 50 normal healthy controls, while Groups 2 and 3 each has 50 children who were suffering from SCT and SCD, respectively. Anthropometrics measurement and parameters of physical fitness were assessed in all subjects. All children were also subjected to a 5-min running exercise test on a flat motorized treadmill at speed corresponding to 5 km/hr. Throughout the test, heart rate was monitored and recorded during exercise and for 10-min during recovery. Blood lactate was measured before and 5 min following the completion of test. The mean values of lean body mass and height were lower in the SCD children (P < 0.05) compared with the healthy subjects and SCT individuals. Children with SCD exhibited a higher mean value (P < 0.05) for percent body fat and fat mass than the normal healthy subjects and SCT individuals. Although all groups tolerated well the treadmill exercise protocol, the SCD group exhibited higher (P < 0.05) mean values of heart rate during exercise than those observed in the SCT and normal control children. In addition, SCD children showed higher serum lactate values before and after treadmill exercise compared to the other groups. Children with SCD exhibit high level of adiposity; low level of fitness and their exercise performance appears to be physiologically more stressful as indicated by heart rate and blood lactate concentration responses. PMID:16986131

  1. Sex-specific effects of maternal anthropometrics on body composition at birth

    PubMed Central

    Otierney-ginn, Perrie; Presley, Ms. Larraine; Minium, Ms. Judi; Hauguel deMouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess if maternal factors associated with fetal lean and fat mass differ between sexes. Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort delivering via scheduled Cesarean from 20042013. Maternal blood was collected prior to surgery for metabolic parameters. Placental weight and neonatal anthropometrics were measured within 48 hrs. Anthropometric differences between sexes were assessed with Students t-test. Multiple stepwise regression analysis assessed the relationship between independent maternal variables and neonatal lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM) or percent (%) fat as dependent variables in males and females combined and separately. Results We analyzed 360 women with normal glucose tolerance and wide range of pregravid body mass index (BMI, 1664 kg/m2) and their offspring (N=194 males and 166 females). Males had more FM (mean difference 40 18 g, P=0.03) and LBM (mean difference 158 34 g, P<0.0001) than females. Percent body fat and measured maternal variables did not differ between sexes. In both sexes, placental weight had the strongest correlation with both neonatal LBM and FM, accounting for 2039% of the variance. In males, maternal height, BMI and weight gain were significant predictors of both lean and fat mass. In females, plasma interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein were respectively independently associated with percent body fat and lean body mass. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the body composition and inflammatory environment of the mother modulate the metabolic fitness of neonates, as predicted by fat and lean mass, in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24858203

  2. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54 % women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3 % in men and 4·0 % in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity. PMID:26597049

  3. Anthropometric and Biochemical Assessment of Nutritional Status in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    ?lhan, ?nci Ergrhan; Sar?, Neriman; Ye?il, ?ule; Eren, Tuba; Tay?ld?z, Nurdan

    2015-01-01

    Children are at greater risk for malnutrition due to increased needs of nutrients to obtain appropriate growth, and they exhibit elevated substrate needs due to cancer and its treatment. This study aimed to report anthropometric and biochemical evaluation of nutritional status in children with cancer at initial presentation and during treatment. A prospective, controlled study was performed in the pediatric oncology department of a tertiary care center. Control group consisted of the siblings of patients. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, serum lipids, trace minerals, C-reactive protein (CRP), and vitamins were compared in patients and controls at initial presentation and at 6th month after the onset of treatment. According to weight for height, the frequency of malnutrition was 16% at initial presentation and 22% at 6th month. Triceps skinfold thickness was significantly thinner in patients than controls at both measurements. Patients had lower levels of prealbumin, albumin, iron, folate, zinc, and vitamin C and higher levels of ferritin, vitamin B12, and copper. Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients at initial presentation and seemed to be correlated with copper levels. Compared with other patients, malnourished patients had significantly higher levels of vitamin B12 at 6th month. Results of the current study demonstrate that trace minerals, vitamins, and anthropometric measures may yield important clues for nutritional status and disease activity in pediatric oncology patients. However, validation and updating these potential markers warrant further trials on larger series. PMID:26237587

  4. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337

  5. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Galy, O; Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.44.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.94.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.730.05 and 1.800.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.45.9 and 45.24.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.470.58 and 11.010.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337

  6. Prediction of stature using hand dimensions.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Arun Kumar; Agnihotri, Smriti; Jeebun, Nilima; Googoolye, Krishna

    2008-11-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to find out possible correlations between hand dimensions and stature using linear and curvilinear regression models for both genders. The study was conducted amongst 250 medical students (125 male and 125 female) aged 18-30 years. Each student has been studied for measurements of stature, hand length and hand breadth. To explain stature, all the explanatory variables like age, sex, hand length (right and left) and hand breadth (right and left) were included for model generation using SPSS. A general linear regression model was found to be best explanatory in both males and females, however, amongst the curvilinear models; the exponential model emerged as the 'best' in explaining stature of the individual. Left hand length alone explained very significantly (P<0.001). PMID:18926497

  7. Mechanical hands illustrated

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, I.; Sadamoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the field of robotics, considerable effort is devoted to the development of effective multiple prehension manipulator systems. Most of these efforts have been directed toward attempts to duplicate certain functions of the human hand for industrial and medical applications. The human hand is an intricate and complex system capable of a multitude of sensory and actuation functions. It has approximately 20 degrees of freedom controlled by a large number of muscles compared to only 7 degrees of freedom for the arm and wrist. Since the primary function of a mechanical hand is to grasp or pinch different objects, not all the degrees of freedom are necessary for every robot or prosthetic device. Most practical tasks for manipulators have their special requirements and constraints which influence the design of their end effector. Consequently various hand configurations have to be designed to effectively provide the required functions for a particular application without additional complexity. The control of these functions is accomplished by suitable actuators. Miniature touch and pressure sensors which can be as small as 3 mm in size are used to control the grip. This book discusses the knowledge base in the field of robotics. It provides an excellent compilation of photographs, scaled drawings, and source material for a wide variety of mechanical hands for the user to choose from.

  8. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  9. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Bandini, L G; Dietz, W H

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out. PMID:3655163

  10. Clinical assay of N-duopropenide alcohol solution on hand application in newborn and pediatric intensive care units: control of an outbreak of multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a newborn intensive care unit with this measure.

    PubMed

    Herruzo-Cabrera, R; Garcia-Caballero, J; Martin-Moreno, J M; Graciani-Perez-Regadera, M A; Perez-Rodriguez, J

    2001-06-01

    Outbreaks of gram-negative colonization (generally by antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria) are common in newborn intensive care units (NICUs), and control methods are not always effective. We studied the effectiveness of an alcohol solution of N-duopropenide (NDP) in vivo (germicidal effect on flora of teams in the NICU and the pediatric intensive care unit vs handwashing with nonantiseptic soap) and its effect on the control of a multiresistant (MR) Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in our NICU that had persisted for 13 months, despite the use of classic control measures. For educational purposes, we also performed 4 prevalence studies of microbial hand flora in NICU staff (two before and two after introducing NDP). The alcohol solution of NDP was highly germicidal in vivo, destroying microorganisms better than classic handwashing on the hands of 69 health care staff of our NICU and PICU. The flora in both units was reduced from an average of 63% to an average of 95%. Application of this disinfectant to the hands of health care workers after handling newborns helped to eliminate the MR Klebsiella strain in our NICU, (relative risk compared with the period preceding use of the disinfectant: 8.6, with 95% confidence intervals, 4.8-145.5). Four prevalence studies of hand microbial contamination, before and after NDP introduction in the NICU, showed a significant reduction of enterobacteriaceae, mainly MR K pneumoniae, in health care workers. In conclusion, NDP in alcohol was very effective in vivo. It proved to be a useful complementary measure to handwashing and reduced exogenous microorganism transmission in a unit with a heavy patient-care workload. PMID:11391278

  11. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    PubMed

    Lorette, Grard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  12. Portable hand hold device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  13. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  14. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    MedlinePLUS

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... from its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  15. Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Koropanovski, Nenad; Berjan, Bobana; Bozic, Predrag R.; Pazin, Nemanja; Sanader, Aleksandra; Jovanovic, Srecko; Jaric, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility (“T”- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors. PMID:23486746

  16. Interrelationships between strength, anthropometrics, and strongman performance in novice strongman athletes.

    PubMed

    Winwood, Paul W; Keogh, Justin W L; Harris, Nigel K

    2012-02-01

    The sport of strongman is relatively new; hence, specific research investigating this sport is currently very limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between anthropometric dimensions and maximal isoinertial strength to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Twenty-three semiprofessional rugby union players with considerable resistance training and some strongman training experience (age 22.0 2.4 years, weight 102.6 10.8 kg, height 184.6 6.5 cm) were assessed for anthropometry (height, body composition, and girth measurements), maximal isoinertial performance (bench press, squat, deadlift, and power clean), and strongman performance (tire flip, log clean, and press, truck pull, and farmer's walk). The magnitudes of the relationships were determined using Pearson correlation coefficients, and interpreted qualitatively according to Hopkins (90% confidence limits ?0.37). The highest relationship observed was between system force (body mass + squat 1-repetition maximum) and overall strongman performance (r = 0.87). Clear moderate to very large relationships existed between performance in all strongman events and the squat (r = 0.61-0.85), indicating the importance of maximal squat strength for strongman competitors. Flexed arm girth and calf girth were the strongest anthropometric correlates of overall strongman performance (r = 0.79 and 0.70, respectively). The results of this study suggest that body structure and common gymnasium-based exercise strength are meaningfully related to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Future research should investigate these relationships using more experienced strongman athletes and determine the relationships between changes in anthropometry, isoinertial strength, and strongman performance to determine the role of anthropometry and isoinertial strength in the sport of strongman. PMID:22233785

  17. Associations between anthropometric characteristics, physical activity, and breast cancer risk in a Canadian cohort.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Kirsh, Victoria A; Soskolne, Colin L; Kreiger, Nancy; Bruce, Erin; Ho, Thi; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-06-01

    Obesity, physical inactivity, and sedentary behavior, concomitants of the modern environment, are potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factors. This study investigated the association of anthropometric measurements, physical activity and sedentary behavior, with the risk of incident, invasive breast cancer using a prospective cohort of women enrolled in the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle and Health. Using a case-cohort design, an age-stratified subcohort of 3,320 women was created from 39,532 female participants who returned completed self-administered lifestyle and dietary questionnaires at baseline. A total of 1,097 incident breast cancer cases were identified from the entire cohort via linkage to the Canadian Cancer Registry. Cox regression models, modified to account for the case-cohort design, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between anthropometric characteristics, physical activity, and the risk of breast cancer. Weight gain as an adult was positively associated with risk of post-menopausal breast cancer, with a 6% increase in risk for every 5kg gained since age 20 (HR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11). Women who exercised more than 30.9 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week had a 21% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women who exercised less than 3 MET hours per week (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.62-1.00), most evident in pre-menopausal women (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.90). As obesity reaches epidemic proportions and sedentary lifestyles have become more prevalent in modern populations, programs targeting adult weight gain and promoting physical activity may be beneficial with respect to reducing breast cancer morbidity. PMID:24781974

  18. Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jrgensen, T; Wright, C M

    2007-01-01

    Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with significant undernutrition, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 26 and 611?months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456

  19. Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory nutritional markers of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Prevalence and diagnostic use.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Björn; Phillips, Mary E; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2015-01-01