Sample records for hand anthropometric measurements

  1. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

  2. Anthropometric measurements in the elderly: age and gender differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egle Perissinotto; Claudia Pisent; Giuseppe Sergi; Francesco Grigoletto; Giuliano Enzi

    2002-01-01

    In clinical practice and epidemiological surveys, anthropometric measurements represent an important component of nutritional assessment in the elderly. The anthropometric standards derived from adult populations may not be appropriate for the elderly because of body composition changes occurring during ageing. Specific anthropometric reference data for the elderly are necessary. In the present study we investigated anthropometric characteristics and their relationship

  3. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  4. Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRYAN BUCHHOLZ; THOMAS J. ARMSTRONG; STEVEN A. GOLDSTEIN

    1992-01-01

    The major goal of this investigation was to collect statistically-based anthropometry describing the kinematics of the human hand and to model this anthropometry as a function of external hand measurements, so that it may be predicted noninvasively. Joint centres were anatomically estimated as the centre of curvature of the head of the bone proximal to the given joint. Joint centres

  5. Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception. B. Tehard1 , M Objective: To examine the validity of self-reported values for current anthropometric measurements in 1990. Subjects: 152 women for the validation study of self-reported anthropometric measurements and 91

  6. Correlations of Handgrip Strength with Selected Hand-Arm-Anthropometric Variables in Indian Inter-university Female Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Shyamal; Pal Kaur, Satinder

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with some hand and arm anthropometric variables in 101 randomly selected Indian inter-university female volleyball players aged 18-25 years (mean age 20.52±1.40) from six Indian universities. Methods Three anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, BMI, two hand anthropometric variables, viz. right and left hand width and length, four arm anthropometric variables, i.e. upper arm length, lower arm length, upper extremity length, upper arm circumference and dominant right and non-dominant handgrip strength were measured among Indian inter-university female volleyball players by standard anthropometric techniques. Results The findings of the present study indicated that Indian female volleyball players had higher mean values in eleven variables and lesser mean values in two variables than their control counterparts, showing significant differences (P<0.032-0.001) in height (t=2.63), weight (t=8.66), left hand width (t=2.10), left and right hand length (t=9.99 and 10.40 respectively), right upper arm length (t=8.48), right forearm length (t=5.41), dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) handgrip strength (t=9.37 and 6.76 respectively). In female volleyball players, dominant handgrip strength had significantly positive correlations (P=0.01) with all the variables studied. Conclusion It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in Indian inter-university female volleyball players. PMID:22375242

  7. Anthropometric Breast Measurement: A Study of 385 Turkish Female Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilek K. Av?ar; Ahmet C. Ayg?t; Erol Benlier; Hüsamettin Top; O?uz Ta?k?nalp

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements and proportions of the human body have made a significant contribution to the science of aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery.Objective: The present study was performed to measure anthropometric breast values in Turkish female students and compare them with those of women in other nations.Methods: The study included 385 female undergraduate student volunteers between the ages of 18

  8. Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study between various anthropometric characteristics and breast cancer. Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort.87) might possibly be confined to obese women. Among postmenopausal women, all anthropometric measurements

  9. Some anthropometric measurements in South Indian School boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Singh; K. Meenakshi

    1969-01-01

    Summary  Anthropometric measurements comprising height, weight, sitting height, arm span, horizontal, vertical and circumferential\\u000a chest dimensions, taken in 255 school boys from a lower middle class urban population were statistically analysed. The data\\u000a have been tabulated, and the interrelationships between the various measurements examined and discussed.

  10. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  11. Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters. PMID:23378952

  12. A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

  13. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; ?uri?, Goran; Selthofer-Relati?, Kristina; Radi?, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10?mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  14. Harmonization of anthropometric measurements for a multicenter nutrition survey in Spanish adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A Moreno; María Joyanes; María Isabel Mesana; Marcela González-Gross; Carlos M Gil; Antonio Sarría; Angel Gutierrez; Marta Garaulet; Raúl Perez-Prieto; Manuel Bueno; Ascensión Marcos

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveAlthough the need for accurate anthropometric measurement has been repeatedly stressed, reports on growth and physical measurements in human populations rarely include estimates of measurement error. We describe the standardization process and reliability of anthropometric measurements carried out in a pilot study.

  15. A new approach to estimate anthropometric measurements by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dursun Kaya; A. Samet Hasiloglu; Mahmut Bayramoglu; Hakki Yesilyurt; A. Fahri Ozok

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen anthropometric measurements were taken in standing and sitting positions, from 387 subjects between 15 and 17 years old. “Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)” was used to estimate anthropometric measurements as an alternative to stepwise regression analysis. Six outputs (shoulder width, hip width, knee height, buttock-popliteal height, popliteal height, and height) were selected for estimation purpose. The results showed that

  16. Optimal treatment of replicate measurements in anthropometric studies.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Bosch, Ronald J

    2014-11-26

    Abstract Background: Anthropometric studies often include replicates of each measurement to decrease error. The optimal method to combine these measurements is uncertain. Aim: To identify the optimal method to combine replicate measures for analysis. Methods: The authors carried out 10?000 Monte Carlo simulations to explore the effect of six approaches to combine replicate measurements in a hypothetical two-group intervention study (n?=?100 per arm) in which the outcome, infant length at age 1 year, was measured two or three times. One group had a true value with a normal distribution N (mean?=?76, SD?=?2.4?cm). Statistical power was estimated to detect a 1?cm difference between the groups, based on a t-test. Results: Under a realistic scenario with a measurement error distribution N (0, 0.8), highest power was reached by use of the mean and the median of pairwise averages. However, when a portion of the data (?2%) were contaminated by greater error (e.g. due to data entry), the median of three measurements outperformed all other methods while the mean had the lowest performance. Conclusion: Obtaining three rather than two measures and using the median of the three replicates is a safe and robust approach to combine participants' raw data values for use in subsequent analyses. PMID:25426678

  17. Quantifying positional plagiocephaly: reliability and validity of anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Patricia A; Steinbok, Paul

    2006-05-01

    The treatment of positional plagiocephaly is controversial. A confounding factor is the lack of a proven clinically viable measure to quantify severity and change in plagiocephaly. The use of anthropometric measurements is one proposed method. In this study, the reliability and validity for this method of measurement were investigated. Two clinicians independently recorded caliper measurements of cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) for infants referred for plagiocephaly or torticollis, and an unbiased observer recorded visual analysis scores during the same visit. CVA scores were assigned into three predetermined severity categories (normal CVA < 3 mm, mild/moderate CVA 12 mm). CVA measurements and visual analysis scores were recorded for 71 and 54 infants, respectively. Intrarater reliability was established (kappa = 0.98, kappa = 0.99), but inter-rater reliability was not (kappa = 0.42). In addition, the inter-rater reliability for the severity categories based upon these measures was poor (kappa = 0.28) and failed to correlate to the visual analysis (kappa = 0.31). Development of a stable and meaningful measurement system for the extent of plagiocephaly is needed to allow scientific studies of the natural history of plagiocephaly and effectiveness of interventions. PMID:16770174

  18. Evaluation of the laser scanner as a surface measuring tool and its accuracy compared with direct facial anthropometric measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Aung; R. C. K. Ngim; S. T. Lee

    1995-01-01

    The development of new laser scanning techniques enabling the capture of 3-D images which can be quantitatively assessed permits their use for surface measurements of the face. We used a laser optical surface scanner to study 30 subjects and took 83 facial anthropometric measurements, using 41 identifiable landmarks on the scanned image. These were compared to the standard anthropometric measurements

  19. Classification of hard core and petty criminals using anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Girdhar G; Asthana, Akash; Maurya, Amit

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the somatometric measurements among hard core criminals, petty criminals and community people. Using standard anthropometric procedures, somatometric dimensions were studied on 250 subjects each from the three groups: (i) experimental (hard core criminal) group, (ii) control-I (petty criminal) group, and (iii) control-II (community people) group. Univariate analysis of variance was used for making comparisons of somatometric measurements between these groups in the univariate case. Quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) was used to develop a model based on measurements that classifies the cases into groups. The study revealed that the somatometric measurements such as morphological total facial height (p < 0.01), physiognomic total facial height (p = 0.015), nasal length (p = 0.001), height of lower face (p = 0.001), nasal depth (p = 0.002), sitting height vertex (p = 0.011), bigonial breadth (p < 0.001), maximum head breadth (p = 0.001), morphological upper facial height (p < 0.001), and physiognomic ear breadth (p = 0.039) were significantly different between the three groups. Morphological upper facial height, physiognomic total facial height, nasal length and height of lower face could be used as identifying factors for hard core criminals. Morphological total facial height, physiognomic upper facial height, physiognomic ear breadth, and sitting height were found different significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control-II group. The QDA provided an overall 72.4% correct classification of cases and 74.5%, 69.6%, and 72.9% correct classification for the experimental, control-I and control-II groups, respectively. The blurred distinction of the three groups could be explained by using the QDA model. PMID:21068476

  20. Mismatch between classroom furniture and anthropometric measures in Chilean schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. Castellucci; P. M. Arezes; C. A. Viviani

    2010-01-01

    Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical–functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of

  1. Anthropometric Measures and Risk of Death in Children With End-Stage Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig S. Wong; Debbie S. Gipson; Daniel L. Gillen; Scott Emerson; Thomas Koepsell; Donald J. Sherrard; Sandra L. Watkins; Catherine Stehman-Breen

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the association between anthropometric measurements and death among pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using data from the Pediatric Growth and Development Special Study (PGDSS) from the US Renal Data System. Height, growth velocity, and body mass index (BMI) were used for the analysis of 1,949 patients in the PGDSS. To standardize these measurements, SD scores (SDSs)

  2. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements in Lung Function in Patients With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Beitollah; Hosseini, Seyyedeh Zahra; Sharifi, Akbar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is commonly regarded as a risk factor for asthma development, poor asthma control, and poor response to asthma therapy. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 85 asthmatics (37 male and 48 female) participated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and anthropometric parameters were measured for each patient. Results: Mean age and median duration were 43.9 ± 10.61 and 6 (3–14) years, respectively. Among anthropometric parameters, only waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) indicated significant correlation with PFTs in both sex (P < 0.05). There were negative associations between waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR with PFTs only in overweight and obese women (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Some anthropometric parameters affected lung function, and it seems that gender differentially contributes to this effect. PMID:26124947

  3. Body measurement techniques : Comparing 3D body-scanning and anthropometric methods for apparel applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla P. Simmons; Cynthia L. Istook

    2003-01-01

    With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non-contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the measurements should be established so that standardization of the data capture can be realized. The purpose of this study was to compare body-scanning measurement extraction methods and terminology with traditional anthropometric methods. A total of

  4. Predicting intra-abdominal fatness from anthropometric measures: the influence of stature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TS Han; G McNeill; JC Seidell; MEJ Lean

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20–51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19–85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra-abdominal fat volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Aberdeen and cross-sectional areas at L4-L5 level by computerised

  5. Anthropometric measures as a predictor of cephalopelvic disproportion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Ann Burgess

    1996-01-01

    This study compared three body measurements, height, hip width (bitrochanteric) and foot length, in 120 Hispanic women who had their first birth by cesarean section (N = 60) or by spontaneous vaginal delivery (N = 60). The objective of the study was to see if there were differences in these measurements that could be useful in predicting cephalopelvic disproportion. Data

  6. Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Despr; Marie-Christine Pouliot; Angelo Tremblay; Claude Bouchard

    ABSTRACI' Equations have been developed for the pre- diction of deep abdominal adipose-tissue (AT) accumulation from anthropometric measurements in a sample of 1 10 men. An equation including the waist circumference and age could predict 74% of the variance in the amount of deep abdominal AT with an SEE of29.6 cm2 (29.2% ofthe mean deep abdominal AT value), whereas another

  7. Reliability and validity of hand hygiene measures.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Linda; Lesh, Kim; Doell, Lynda; Ward, Sandra K

    2007-01-01

    Hand hygiene is undoubtedly the most important strategy in combating the increasing incidence and debilitating effects of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare. Research on effective approaches for increasing compliance with hand hygiene is imperative, but the first step is to identify how to reliably and validly measure hand hygiene. This article examines publications between the years 1990 and 2006 that address measures of hand hygiene. The findings indicate that further research is needed to identify reliable and valid measures of hand hygiene. PMID:17849676

  8. Normative findings for periocular anthropometric measurements among Chinese young adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions. PMID:23957005

  9. The Evolutionary Significance of Anthropometric Variables on the ‘Dark Triad’ of Personality: Psychometrically Measured Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. 

    E-print Network

    Ponce, Carmen

    2012-11-28

    ) this study will incorporate this into the investigation of the ‘dark triad’ of personality: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. The study aims to assess associations between the ‘dark triad’ and various anthropometric measurements indicative...

  10. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  11. Percentile Curves for Anthropometric Measures for Canadian Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kuhle, Stefan; Maguire, Bryan; Ata, Nicole; Hamilton, David

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess a child's weight status but it does not provide information about the distribution of body fat. Since the disease risks associated with obesity are related to the amount and distribution of body fat, measures that assess visceral or subcutaneous fat, such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), or skinfolds thickness may be more suitable. The objective of this study was to develop percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and sum of 5 skinfolds (SF5) in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The analysis used data from 4115 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age that participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 were measured using standardized procedures. Age- and sex-specific centiles were calculated using the LMS method and the percentiles that intersect the adult cutpoints for BMI, WC, and WHtR at age 18 years were determined. Percentile curves for all measures showed an upward shift compared to curves from the pre-obesity epidemic era. The adult cutoffs for overweight and obesity corresponded to the 72nd and 91st percentile, respectively, for both sexes. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The percentile curves presented are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive as associations with cardiovascular disease markers or outcomes were not assessed. PMID:26176769

  12. Anthropometric sourcebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

  13. Temporal changes in anthropometric measurements of idealized females and young women in general.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585

  14. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  15. Is it possible to derive a reliable estimate of human visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from simple anthropometric measurements?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzo Bonora; Rocco Micciolo; Abraham A. Ghiatas; Jack L. Lancaster; Abdalmajed Alyassin; Michele Muggeo; Ralph A. Defronzo

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to generate equations predicting visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue (AT) from simple anthropometric measurements. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure VAT and SAT cross-sectional areas at the level of L4 in 49 subjects (19 men and 30 women) with a large range of age and body mass index (BMI).

  16. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer. PMID:25810218

  17. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Luna, Natália Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fábio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

  18. EARLY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF BODY MASS INDEX AND OBESITY AMONG OLDER WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study consisting of 18,109 healthy women who participated in the Swedish Mammography Cohort aged ...

  19. EARLY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF BODY MASS INDEX AND OBESITY AMONG OLDER WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study including 18,109 healthy women aged 49-83 y who participated in the Swedish Mammography Coh...

  20. Impact of anthropometric, lifestyle, and body composition variables on ultrasound measurements in school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lea Dib; Asma Arabia; Joyce Maalouf; Mona Nabulsi

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement at hand phalanges was demonstrated to be a reliable method to assess skeletal maturation during childhood and adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender, puberty, lifestyle factors, and body composition on QUS parameters and to provide a normative database for QUS in school children in Lebanon. Measurements of phalangeal

  1. Improved Method for Individualization of Head-Related Transfer Functions on Horizontal Plane Using Reduced Number of Anthropometric Measurements

    E-print Network

    Hugeng, W Wahab

    2010-01-01

    An important problem to be solved in modeling head-related impulse responses (HRIRs) is how to individualize HRIRs so that they are suitable for a listener. We modeled the entire magnitude head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), in frequency domain, for sound sources on horizontal plane of 37 subjects using principal components analysis (PCA). The individual magnitude HRTFs could be modeled adequately well by a linear combination of only ten orthonormal basis functions. The goal of this research was to establish multiple linear regression (MLR) between weights of basis functions obtained from PCA and fewer anthropometric measurements in order to individualize a given listener's HRTFs with his or her own anthropomety. We proposed here an improved individualization method based on MLR of weights of basis functions by utilizing 8 chosen out of 27 anthropometric measurements. Our objective experiments' results show a superior performance than that of our previous work on individualizing minimum phase HRIRs and a...

  2. The relative influence of physical fitness, acclimatization state, anthropometric measures and gender on individual reactions to heat stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Havenith; Henk van Middendorp

    1990-01-01

    Summary  An experiment was set up to quantify the relative influence of fitness, acclimatization, gender and anthropometric measures on physiological responses to heat stress. For this purpose, 12 male and 12 female subjects were exposed to a neutral [ambient temperature (T\\u000aa) 21°C, relative humidity (r.h. 50%)], a warm, humid (T\\u000aa 34°C, r.h. 80%) and a hot, dry (T\\u000aa

  3. Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study in the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2014-12-15

    Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290

  4. Relation of anthropometric and dynamometric variables to serious postoperative complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M Klidjian; K J Foster; R M Kammerling; A Cooper; S J Karran

    1980-01-01

    Prediction of serious postoperative complications by using standard anthropometric and biochemical nutritional variables was attempted in 225 patients admitted for major abdominal surgery. In 102 of the patients hand-grip dynamometry was also measured, and this proved the most sensitive test, predicting complications in 48 of the 55 patients (87%) who developed them (p < 0.001). Arm muscle circumference and forearm

  5. Association of diet and anthropometric measures as cardiovascular modifiable risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya; Banerjee, Swasti; Sengupta, Tridip Kumar; Behera, Anugya Aparajita; Manjareeka, Magna; Mishra, Jayanti

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular accidents are the major cause of death in the developing world, accounting for nearly 40% of deaths in adult men and women. Developed countries have already brought this under control, whereas India has to take a giant leap. Diet plays a pivotal role among the various modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The sole objective of this study is to point at nutrition as being the main modulator of different anthropometric parameters and directly or indirectly has a tremendous impact on the blood pressure levels even during young age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 223 young adults, the pattern of food habits and level of physical activity were determined from self-reported questionnaires, while blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. The subjects were grouped as normotensives and prehypertensives and also were compared according to their BMI and other parameters. Results: Statistically significant, greater association of weight followed by WC with the prehypertensive levels of blood pressure compared to other parameters was seen. The subjects detected as prehypertensives had predilection for salty, fried, oily, sweet, and fast food; BMI >25 kg/m2; and WC and WHR in high risk-categories per World Health Organization standards. More than 69% of subjects had high WHR, whereas only 9% of total subjects exercised regularly. Conclusions: Central obesity is associated with sedentary life and high intake of calories, leading to hypertension with advancing age. Early detection, awareness, and primary prevention would help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24353140

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as determinants of various anthropometric measures of birth outcome.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Alsabbahen, Ammar; Shinwari, Neptune; Billedo, Grisellhi; Mashhour, Abdullah; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Mohamed, Gamal El Din; Rabbah, Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are known to induce oxidative stress. There have been several reports about the link between PAH exposure and complications in pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was conducted to: (1) measure the levels of benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Ch), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBahA) in placentas and maternal and -umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery from 1578 women between June 2005 and 2006 in the area of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; (2) assess their influence on various anthropometric measures of birth outcome taking into consideration the carcinogenic properties of these PAHs; and (3) determine the degree of PAH-related oxidative DNA damage and birth outcome. Among the five tested PAHs, only BaP was carcinogenic; therefore, the levels of the other four probable or possible carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, Ch, BaF, and DBahA) were summed as ?4-PAHs. Levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) were determined in maternal urine samples as a biomarker of PAH internal dose. Urinary cotinine (COT) was measured as an index of smoking. The following markers of oxidative stress were selected: malondialdehyde (MDA) in cord (C-MDA) and maternal (M-MDA) serum and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in maternal urine. None of the tested PAHs was found in maternal or cord blood. However, all five PAH compounds were detected in placentas; Ch was the highest (6.582 ?g/kg dry wt.), and BaA was the lowest (0.236 ?g/kg dry wt.). The mean concentration of urinary 1-HP found in this study was 0.216 ± 0.856 ?g/g Cr. After adjusting for gestational age and other confounding variables, regression models revealed an inverse relationship between placental weight, cord length and placental BaP. A similar trend was observed between cord length and ?4-PAHs in placental tissues. Urinary 1-HP, though, cannot be used as an unequivocal biomarker of PAH exposure, but it can be an appropriate indicator of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The data demonstrate that ETS exposure (as measured by urinary COT) may adversely affect birth outcome as shown by reduced head circumference, birth weight, and birth length, as well as increased cephalization index. The positive relationship between 8-OHdG levels and 1-HP in urine provides evidence of an oxidative stress mechanism. Although this study provides no direct evidence of an association between PAH exposure and DNA damage, increased oxidative stress in the form of lipid peroxidation significantly affected various birth measures. Therefore, there is a need for studies regarding PAH exposure and its associated biological effects to determine the extent of potential fetal damage as well as possible long-term effects, such as cancer. PMID:23314068

  7. Reliability and stability of anthropometric and performance measures in highly-trained young soccer players: effect of age and maturation.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess both short-term reliability and long-term stability of anthropometric and physical performance measures in highly-trained young soccer players in relation to age and maturation. Data were collected on 80 players from an academy (U13-U18, pre- (n = 14), circum- (n = 32) and post- (n = 34) estimated peak height velocity, PHV). For the reliability analysis, anthropometric and performance tests were repeated twice within a month. For the stability analysis, these tests were repeated 12 times over a 4-year period in 10 players. Absolute reliability was assessed with the typical error of measurement, expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Relative reliability and long-term stability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There was no clear age or maturation effect on either the CVs or ICCs: e.g., Post-PHV vs. Pre-PHV: effect size = -0.37 (90% confidence limits (CL):-1.6;0.9), with chances of greater/similar/lower values of 20/20/60%. For the long-term stability analysis, ICCs varied from 0.66 (0.50;0.80) to 0.96 (0.93;0.98) for 10-m sprint time and body mass, respectively. The short-term reliability of anthropometry and physical performance measures is unlikely to be affected by age or maturation. However, some of these measures are unstable throughout adolescence, which questions their usefulness in a talent identification perspective. PMID:23656211

  8. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Deborah R; Mielke, Michelle M; Tien, Phyllis C; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. One thousand six hundred ninety participants (1,196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Among HIV+ women, BMI?anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV-infected women. PMID:24338243

  9. CHEN, ROBERTSON, CIPOLLA: BODY SHAPES FROM SINGLE VIEW MEASUREMENTS 1 A Practical System for Modelling Body

    E-print Network

    Cipolla, Roberto

    to conveniently extract anthropometric measurements from a single photo, while using readily available scene cues effort for segmentation. Measurement-based systems, on the other hand, use anthropometric measurements (e with silhouettes, anthropometric measurements are relatively invariant to articulation changes (e.g. arm pose

  10. Measurement of baseball glove and hand dynamics

    E-print Network

    LaCrosse, Brian A

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus was developed that provides a dynamic representation of the hand-glove interaction inside a baseball glove during catching situations. Until recent history, baseball manufacturers relied primarily upon player ...

  11. The effects of palmar feedback in 200mm Reticle Standard Mechanical Interface (SMIF) Pod handles with respect to hand pressure distribution and user preference

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Pisces Shenique

    2001-01-01

    hand length and hand breadth: Y = (Hand Length) x (Hand Breadth). A hand was considered small when Y& 24, medium at 24 & Y & 30, and large when Y & 30. This definition was developed by referencing anthropometric data from Kroemer et al. (1994... investigator took various anthropometric measurements including stature, hand length, and handbreadth. To balance any difference between the first and second presentation of treatments, the subjects received the treatments in alternating order. One...

  12. Anthropometric measurements for the prediction of the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study on adolescents and young adults from southern india

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Vasan; N Thomas; S Christopher; F S Geethanjali; T V Paul; C B Sanjeevi

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine which anthropometric measurement correlates best with the metabolic abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults.DesignCross-sectional study.SettingSchools, high schools and universities.Participants1359 adolescents and young adults aged 14–25 years.Main outcome measuresAnthropometric predictors of metabolic abnormalities as classified by International Diabetes Federation definition.ResultsThe waist circumference (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.43: p?0.01) and the abdominal skin

  13. Measurement and device design of left-handed metamaterials

    E-print Network

    Thomas Zachary M. (Zachary Michael)

    2005-01-01

    The properties of a variety of left-handed metamaterial (LHM) structures are analyzed and measured to verify consistent behavior between theory an measurements. The structures are simulated using a commercial software ...

  14. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on hand wipes: estimating exposure from hand-to-mouth contact.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Kelly, Shannon M; Allen, Joseph G; Mcclean, Michael D; Webster, Thomas F

    2008-05-01

    Estimates of exposure to the flame-retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust are very poor due to limited knowledge about dust ingestion. This study was undertaken to determine if PBDEs could be measured on hand wipes, and if so, to determine the distribution of levels present on the skin surface area to provide preliminary exposure estimates from hand-to-mouth contact. Hand wipes were collected from 33 individuals residing in the United States using sterile gauze pads soaked in isopropyl alcohol. The total PBDE residue collected on the wipes ranged from 2.60 to 1982 ng, with a median value of 130 ng, or normalized to hand surface area, a concentration of 135 pg/cm2. The fully brominated congener, BDE 209, was also detected and ranged from < DL to 270 ng with a median value of 26 ng. Congener patterns observed on the wipes were similar to patterns observed in house dust samples, consisting of congeners associated with the PentaBDE and DecaBDE mixtures, suggesting that the source of PBDEs to the hands may be dust particles. However, PBDE hand residues may also be a result of direct contact with PBDE-laden products, leading to adsorption to the skin surface oils. Repeated wipe sampling from three individuals suggests that sigmaPBDE levels on the hand may be relatively consistent for some individuals but not for others. Furthermore, levels of sigmaPBDEs were greater on the bottom of the hands relative to the top of the hands. Using these values we have calculated potential human exposure from hand-to-mouth contact. The median exposure estimates for children and adults are 1380 and 154 ng/day, respectively, whereas the 95th percentile exposure estimates were 6090 and 677 ng/day, respectively. These estimates are greater than dietary intake rates and suggest hand-to-mouth contact may be a key exposure route for PBDEs. PMID:18522114

  15. Effects of maternal alcohol intake and smoking on neonatal electroencephalogram and anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Chernick, V; Childiaeva, R; Ioffe, S

    1983-05-01

    Anthropometric data and computerized electroencaphalogram analysis during quiet, indeterminate, and active sleep were obtained from infants of mothers of four groups: (1) heavy drinking mothers (greater than 2 ounces of alcohol per day); (2) nondrinking mothers; (3) smoking, nondrinking mothers; (4) nonsmoking, nondrinking mothers. Infants in groups 1 and 2 were matched as closely as possible for postconceptional age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Infants in groups 3 and 4 were matched similarly. Infants of alcoholic mothers had a significantly lower birth weight, length, and head circumference than those from the matched control group. Infants of smoking mothers had lower birth weights and lengths than infants of nonsmoking mothers, but head circumference was identical. Hypersynchrony of the electroencephalogram was seen only in "alcoholic" infants, and power spectral density analysis revealed that the average integrated power was significantly increased in quiet, active, and indeterminate sleep. The greatest increase in electroencephalogram power (212%) was seen in active sleep, and this analysis clearly separated 15 of 17 alcohol-exposed infants from the control infants. These data suggest that alcohol has a specific toxic effect on the fetal brain that is not linked with smoking habits. The neonatal electroencephalogram is affected even in the absence of dysmorphology and thus may be the most sensitive indicator of fetal alcohol toxicity. PMID:6846423

  16. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 ? 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 ? 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  17. Modeling transitions in body composition: the approach to steady state for anthropometric measures and physiological functions in the Minnesota human starvation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L Hargrove; Grete Heinz; Otto Heinz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether the changes in several anthropometric and functional measures during caloric restriction combined with walking and treadmill exercise would fit a simple model of approach to steady state (a plateau) that can be solved using spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel®). We hypothesized that transitions in waist girth and several body compartments would fit a simple exponential model

  18. Modeling transitions in body composition: the approach to steady state for anthropometric measures and physiological functions in the Minnesota human starvation study

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, James L; Heinz, Grete; Heinz, Otto

    2008-01-01

    Background This study evaluated whether the changes in several anthropometric and functional measures during caloric restriction combined with walking and treadmill exercise would fit a simple model of approach to steady state (a plateau) that can be solved using spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel®). We hypothesized that transitions in waist girth and several body compartments would fit a simple exponential model that approaches a stable steady-state. Methods The model (an equation) was applied to outcomes reported in the Minnesota starvation experiment using Microsoft Excel's Solver® function to derive rate parameters (k) and projected steady state values. However, data for most end-points were available only at t = 0, 12 and 24 weeks of caloric restriction. Therefore, we derived 2 new equations that enable model solutions to be calculated from 3 equally spaced data points. Results For the group of male subjects in the Minnesota study, body mass declined with a first order rate constant of about 0.079 wk-1. The fractional rate of loss of fat free mass, which includes components that remained almost constant during starvation, was 0.064 wk-1, compared to a rate of loss of fat mass of 0.103 wk-1. The rate of loss of abdominal fat, as exemplified by the change in the waist girth, was 0.213 wk-1. On average, 0.77 kg was lost per cm of waist girth. Other girths showed rates of loss between 0.085 and 0.131 wk-1. Resting energy expenditure (REE) declined at 0.131 wk-1. Changes in heart volume, hand strength, work capacity and N excretion showed rates of loss in the same range. The group of 32 subjects was close to steady state or had already reached steady state for the variables under consideration at the end of semi-starvation. Conclusion When energy intake is changed to new, relatively constant levels, while physical activity is maintained, changes in several anthropometric and physiological measures can be modeled as an exponential approach to steady state using software that is widely available. The 3 point method for parameter estimation provides a criterion for testing whether change in a variable can be usefully modelled with exponential kinetics within the time range for which data are available. PMID:18840293

  19. Case-control study of anthropometric measures and testicular cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Paoli, Donatella; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Gandini, Loredana

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is poorly understood. Recent epidemiological findings suggest that, TGCT risk is determined very early in life, although the available data are still conflicting. The rapid growth of the testes during puberty may be another period of vulnerability. Body size has received increasing attention as possible risk factor for TC. To clarify the relation of body size and its anthropometric variables to TGCT risk, the authors analyzed data from 272 cases and 382 controls with regard to height (cm), weight (Kg), and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Overall, participants in the highest quartile of height were more likely to be diagnosed with TGCTs than participants in the lowest quartile of height, OR 2.22 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.25–3.93; adjusted; ptrend = 0.033). Moreover, histological seminoma subgroup was significantly associated with tallness, very tall men (>182 cm) having a seminoma TGCT risk of OR = 2.44 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.19–4.97; adjusted; ptrend = 0.011). There was also a significant inverse association of TGCT with increasing BMI (ptrend = 0.001; age-adjusted analysis) and this association was equally present in both histological subgroups. These preliminary results indicate that testicular cancer (TC) is inversely associated with BMI and positively associated with height, in particular with seminoma subtype. Several studies have reported similar findings on body size. As adult height is largely determined by high-calorie intake in childhood and influenced by hormonal factors at puberty, increased attention to postnatal exposures in this interval may help elucidate the etiology of TGCTs. PMID:23189072

  20. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Bangsbo, J; Franks, A

    2000-09-01

    This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer players have to adapt to the physical demands of the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess a reasonably high level within all areas. This explains why there are marked individual differences in anthropometric and physiological characteristics among top players. Various measurements have been used to evaluate specific aspects of the physical performance of both youth and adult soccer players. The positional role of a player is related to his or her physiological capacity. Thus, midfield players and full-backs have the highest maximal oxygen intakes ( > 60 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and perform best in intermittent exercise tests. On the other hand, midfield players tend to have the lowest muscle strength. Although these distinctions are evident in adult and elite youth players, their existence must be interpreted circumspectly in talent identification and development programmes. A range of relevant anthropometric and physiological factors can be considered which are subject to strong genetic influences (e.g. stature and maximal oxygen intake) or are largely environmentally determined and susceptible to training effects. Consequently, fitness profiling can generate a useful database against which talented groups may be compared. No single method allows for a representative assessment of a player's physical capabilities for soccer. We conclude that anthropometric and physiological criteria do have a role as part of a holistic monitoring of talented young players. PMID:11043893

  1. The location of two-hand trip devices on full revolution mechanical power presses with regard to operator safety

    E-print Network

    Masters, Randall Wayne

    1973-01-01

    - ments was obtained and analyzed to determine hand-path distances. The subjects in this research were classified into groups according to a combined anthropometric measure of standing shoulder height plus arm reach to observe the effects... of this research were: (1) the relationship between dis- tance of hand travel and movement time was highly positive; ( 2) the combined anthropometric measure of standi. ng shoulder height plus arm reach was a poor pre- dictor of one's ability to make rapid hand...

  2. Hand transmitted vibration measurement using experimentally simulated hand-arm rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Rahul; Johnson, Marty; Muract, Jorge; Burdisso, Ricardo

    2005-09-01

    Hand transmitted vibration (HTV) is one of the most common hazards faced by workers in the construction industry. A major source of HTV is hand held percussion tools, such as pneumatically driven chipping hammers and rock drills. This paper presents a new approach to measuring the vibration from these tools using a mechanically simulated hand arm model to which the tools are attached. The simulated hand-arm model has been designed to have similar dynamic characteristics to that of a human hand-arm system. This approach addresses the issue of repeatability as HTV measurements suffer from variability between cases and from user to user. Different percussion tools ranging from a small chipping hammer to a rock drill, from two major construction equipment manufacturing companies, were used to conduct the vibration tests. The goals of these tests were to measure the vibration levels and to determine the most dominant modes of vibration. Comprehensive data analyses of the tests results are presented. Further, the paper discusses potential vibration control methods and expected performance levels.

  3. Levels of DDT and its metabolites in placenta, maternal and cord blood and their potential influence on neonatal anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam; Alsabbaheen, Ammar; Mohamed, Gamal El Din; Rabbah, Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have shown mixed results for the harmful effects on fetal growth and development. This cross-sectional study was designed to: (1) examine the extent of DDT exposure in 1578 women, aged 28.5±6.0 who delivered between June 2005 and 2006 in the area of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; and (2) assess its influence on neonatal anthropometric measurement of newly born babies. DDT and its metabolites, namely 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDD) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2' bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in cord and maternal serum as well as placenta by Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD). p,p'-DDE was detected in 28.3% of cord and 54.4% of maternal serum, reflecting past exposure, whereas the p,p'-DDT was only found in 0.46% cord and 1.2% maternal samples. As expected the p,p'-DDE cord levels (0.197±0.961?g/L) were 2.8 times lower than the maternal levels (0.551±1.778?g/L), and both were significantly correlated (r=0.517) suggesting its transplacental transfer. The picture was different in placental tissues. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 84% and 99% of placental tissues, with the highest p,p'-DDT in placental tissues (29.62±158.282µg/kg dry wt.) compare to p,p'-DDE (10.167±18.851?g/kg dry wt.). In general, the presence of DDT metabolites in our participants indicates that these chemicals are still relevant despite the fact that they have been banned or restricted in the study area for many years. Our results support the view for an association between low in utero exposure to DDT and the anthropometric development of the fetus leading to a reduction in its head circumference, crown-heel length, birth weight and birth height. Since the reduction in these measures was independent of gestational age and/or preterm births, our findings suggest a detrimental effect of the DDT exposure on fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometric measures are considered as an important tool to detect newborns at higher risk of morbidity and impairment of growth. Efforts should be made to decrease exposure of women of reproductive age and to examine maternal DDT exposure in relation to long-term impact on health. PMID:22192892

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 55, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 91 A 3-D Anthropometric-Muscle-Based Active

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    Anthropometric-Muscle-Based Active Appearance Model Marius D. Cordea and Emil M. Petriu, Fellow, IEEE Abstract and statistically based anthropometrical controls to model different facial-types. The 3-D anthropometric

  5. Two short questionnaires on leisure-time physical activity compared with serum lipids, anthropometric measurements and aerobic power in a suburban population from Oslo, Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidsel Graff-Iversen; Sigmund Alfred Anderssen; Ingar Morten Holme; Anne Karen Jenum; Truls Raastad

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to indirectly validate two short postal questionnaires measuring leisure-time physical activity (LPA) by comparing\\u000a the answers with serum lipids and anthropometric measurements. Methods All inhabitants aged 31–67 years in two suburban, multicultural areas of Oslo, Norway were invited to “Romsås in Motion”,\\u000a a community intervention survey, in 2000. Of those, 2950 participants (48%) met and were re-invited in

  6. Photographic facial soft tissue analysis of healthy Iranian young adults: anthropometric and angular measurements

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Rajaeih, Shahin; Hassannia, Fatemeh; Tavakolifard, Negah; Fattahi Neisyani, Hamed; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Jalessi, Maryam; Omidian, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Soft tissue profile can be widely different in various populations. Furthermore, this profile can be also continues to change throughout life. However, there are few studies that quantitatively evaluate the soft tissue profile in Iranian population. In order to determine normal reference values of facial parts in our populations, we aimed to measure standards for facial soft tissue parameters in Iranian young population. Methods: The study samples included 155 medical students at the Firouzgar hospital in winter 2011. The soft tissue facial profiles were digitally analyzed using linear measurements and angles made with standardized photographic records, taken in a natural head position, to determine the average soft tissue facial profile for males and females. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between males and females in 21 of our 26 measurements. The most prominent differences between the genders were observed in the measurements taken from the face region. Minimum frontal breadth and supraorbital breadth were larger in males than in females. Except for middle face height measurement, other horizontal and vertical measurements for the face were larger in males than in females, indicating wider and higher faces in men than in women. Some measurements of facial angles are discrepant between the two genders. Conclusion: Due to the specific features of Iranian facial soft tissue values and also observable differences in facial measurements and angles between men and women, the Iranian standard values on facial measurements and angles should be given more attention, especially by plastic and cosmetic surgeons. PMID:25405115

  7. Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Obsum, Cercilia Angela; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Billedo, Grisellhi; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Rabbah, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this study may be the first to examine the antagonistic role of selenium (Se) on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) and its impact on birth measures. Cd and Se levels were measured in umbilical-cord blood and the placentas of a subsample of 250 healthy mothers who participated between 2005 and 2006 in the project "Prenatal Exposure to Pollutants". The median Cd levels in cord and maternal blood and placental tissue were 0.78?g/l, 0.976?g/l and 0.037?g/g dry wt., respectively. The median levels of Se in cord serum and placental tissue were 65.68?g/l and 1.052?g/g dry wt., respectively. Se was more than 100-fold in molar excess over Cd in both cord serum and placental tissue. The median molar Cd/Se ratios in cord serum and placental tissue were 0.008 and 0.024, respectively, which were much lower than unity. This study suggests that both Cd and Se play a role in the mechanism of oxidative stress, but, the process underlying this mechanism remains unclear. Nevertheless, three biomarkers of oxidative stress had inconsistent relationships with Cd and/or Se in various matrices, perhaps due to potential untested confounders. Our results generally support an association between low in utero exposure to Cd and the anthropometric development of the fetus. Adjusted regression models indicated a negative association of cord blood Cd levels ?0.78?g/l with Apgar 5-min scores and birth height. Maternal Cd levels ?0.976?g/l were associated with a 5.94-fold increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births, which increased to 7.48-fold after excluding preterm births. Placenta weight decreased with increasing placental Cd levels ?0.037?g/g dry wt. (p=0.045), an association that became stronger after excluding preterm births or adjusting for birth weight. Cord Se levels ?65.68?g/l were positively associated with placenta weight (p=0.041) and thickness (p=0.031), an association that remained unchanged after excluding preterm births. Cord Se levels, however, were negatively associated with cephalization index, but only after excluding preterm births (p=0.017). Each birth measure was again modeled as a function of the Cd/Se ratios in cord blood and placenta tissue. Interestingly cord ratios ?0.008 were negatively associated with Apgar-5min score (p=0.047), birth weight (p=0.034) and placenta thickness (p=0.022). After excluding preterm births, only the association with placenta thickness remained significant (p=0.021), while birth weight (p=0.053) was marginally significant. In contrast, cephalization index increased with Cd/Se ratios ?0.008 (p=0.033), an association that became marginally significant after excluding preterm births (p=0.058). For placental Cd/Se ratios ?0.024, only placenta weight was reduced with (p=0.037) and without (p=0.009) the inclusion of preterm births. These findings do not support an antagonistic mechanism between Cd and Se. The role of oxidative mechanisms either induced by Cd exposure or alleviated by Se on these birth anthropometric measures was examined by principal component analysis. Se did not have a clear protective role against Cd-induced adverse effects despite its substantial excess over Cd, and its role in alleviating oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde levels. The results may suggest that the extent of the Se beneficial effects is not governed only by its concentration but also by the chemical forms of Se that interact with various proteins. Consequently, the speciation of Se in such studies is essential for understanding and predicting Se availability for absorption. PMID:25239374

  8. An anthropometric study of relationships between the clival angle and craniofacial measurements in adult human skulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Guyot; O. Richard; P. Adalian; C. Bartoli; O. Dutour; G. Leonetti

    2006-01-01

    Stating background  The clival angle, between the ethmoidal plane and the clival plane, measures the cranial base angulation. Relations between\\u000a cranial base angulation and facial patterns have been discussed and present contradictory evidence. The aim of this study\\u000a is to determine whether correlations could be found between the clival angle and craniofacial measurements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study was carried out on a sample

  9. Anthropometric measurement of muscle mass: revised equations for calculating bone-free arm muscle area13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B Heymsfield; Janet Smith; Victoria Stevens; Daniel W Nixon

    Arm muscle area (AMA, cm2) is currently calculated from triceps skinfold thickness (TSF. cm), and midarm circumference (MAC, cm). In assessing the accuracy of the current equation by comparison to AMA measured by computerized axial tomography, error in each of the four approximations made was found to result in a 20 to 25% overestimate of AMA. Two correctible error sources

  10. Point of maximum width: a new measure for anthropometric outcomes in patients with sagittal synostosis.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Noopur; Shah, Manjool; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B; Naidoo, Sybill D; Woo, Albert S

    2014-07-01

    The esthetic success of sagittal synostosis reconstruction is measured by cephalic index (CI). This limited measure does not fully account for the abnormal head shape in sagittal synostosis. In this retrospective study, we investigate a new objective measure, point of maximum width (PMW) of the skull from a vertex view, to determine where the head is widest for children with sagittal synostosis as compared with normal controls. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of 27 children with sagittal synostosis and 14 postoperative CT scans at least 8 months after surgery were obtained. Normal CT scans were matched for age, sex, and race. Three-dimensional renderings were standardized for orientation. Mean (SE) PMW in patients with sagittal synostosis was 53% (1%) compared with 57% (1%) in controls (P < 0.001). Mean (SE) CI in patients with sagittal synostosis was 66.8% (0.8%) compared with 83.3% (1.0%) in controls (P < 0.001). The correlation between PMW and CI was weak in both controls (r2 = 0.002, P = 0.824) and uncorrected cases (r2 = 0.083, P = 0.145). After surgical correction, both CI and PMW significantly improved. Mean (SE) PMW in patients after surgical release of sagittal synostosis was 58% (1%) compared with 58% (1%) in controls (P = 0.986). The PMW is not a surrogate for CI but is a novel, valid measure of skull shape, which aids in quantifying the widest region of the skull. It is significantly more anterior in children with sagittal synostosis and exhibits a consistent posterior shift along the cranium after surgery, showing no difference compared with healthy children. PMID:25006901

  11. POINT OF MAXIMUM WIDTH: A NEW MEASURE FOR ANTHROPOMETRIC OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH SAGITTAL SYNOSTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Noopur; Shah, Manjool; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B; Naidoo, Sybill D; Woo, Albert S

    2014-01-01

    The aesthetic success of sagittal synostosis reconstruction is measured by cephalic index (CI). This limited measure does not fully account for the abnormal head shape in sagittal synostosis. In this retrospective study, we investigate a new objective measure, point of maximum width (PMW) of the skull from a vertex view, to determine where the head is widest for children with sagittal synostosis as compared to normal controls. Preoperative CT scans of 27 children with sagittal synostosis and 14 postoperative CT scans at least 8 months after surgery were obtained. Normal CT scans were matched for age, gender, and race. Three-dimensional renderings were standardized for orientation. Average PMW in patients with sagittal synostosis was 53% ± 1% compared to 57% ± 1% in controls (p<0.001). Average CI in patients with sagittal synostosis was 66.8% ± 0.8% compared to 83.3% ± 1.0% in controls (p<0.001). The correlation between PMW and CI was weak in both controls (R2=0.002, p=0.824) and uncorrected cases (R2=0.083, p=0.145). After surgical correction, both CI and PMW significantly improved. Average PMW in patients after surgical release of sagittal synostosis was 58% ± 1% compared to 58% ± 1% in controls (p=0.986). PMW is not a surrogate for CI but is a novel, valid measure of skull shape, which aids in quantifying the widest region of the skull. PMW is significantly more anterior in children with sagittal synostosis and exhibits a consistent posterior shift along the cranium after surgery, showing no difference compared to healthy children. PMID:25006901

  12. Varying positions and anthropometric measurement of supraorbital and supratrochlear canal/foramen in adult human skulls.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Shrestha, S; Singh, M

    2013-06-01

    The supratrochlear and supraorbital notches and foramina have been studied in 312 adult skulls of known age and sex. Out of them, in males 49.4% had bilateral supraorbital notches and 13.5% had bilateral foramina, 18.91% had a notch on one side and a foramen on the other side. Bilateral supratrochlear notch was present in 5.4% skulls, 9.65% skulls had bilateral supratrochlear canals and 8.49% had unilateral supratrochlear foramina/ notch on one or the other side. In females, 32% had bilateral supraorbital foramina and 30.18% had bilateral supraorbital notches. 37.7% had unilateral foramen/notch. Supratrochlear canal was present in 13.2% skulls on one or the other side. Bilateral notch was present in 2 skulls (3.77%) only. There was a significant difference between the frequency of supraorbital foramina and notches in males whereas there was no significant difference between the two in females. The distances of the notches/foramina from the midline and also from the temporal crest were measured. The distance of the supraorbital and supratrochlear foramen from the supraorbital rim was measured. There was no significant difference between the two genders. Knowledge of the anatomy of the region is important for those doing forehead and brow lift surgery in order to avoid injuring the neurovascular bundles passing through these notches and foramina, hence the gender wise present study. The methods of study and clinical relevance are discussed. PMID:24696934

  13. A neural network model to predict knee adduction moment during walking based on ground reaction force and anthropometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Favre, Julien; Hayoz, Matthieu; Hledik, Jennifer C. Erhart; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The external knee adduction moment (KAM) is a major variable for the evaluation of knee loading during walking, specifically in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, assessment of the KAM is limited to locations where full motion laboratories are available. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a simple method to predict the KAM using only force plate and anthropometric measurements. Three groups of 28 knees (asymptomatic, mild osteoarthritis, and severe osteoarthritis) were studied. Walking trials were collected at different speeds using a motion capture system and a force plate. The reference KAM was calculated by inverse dynamics. For the prediction, inter subject artificial neural networks were designed using 11 inputs coming from the ground reaction force and the mechanical axis alignment. The predicted KAM curves were similar to the reference curves with median mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.36%BW*Ht and median correlation coefficient of 0.966 over 756 individual trials. When comparing mean group curves, the median MAD was 0.09%BW*Ht and the median correlation coefficient 0.998. The peak values and the angular impulses extracted from the predicted and reference curves were significantly correlated, and the same significant differences were obtained among the three groups when the predicted or when the reference curves were used for 95% of the comparisons. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a simple method using a generic artificial neural network can predict the KAM curve during walking with a high level of significance and provides a practical option for a broader evaluation of the KAM. PMID:22257888

  14. Measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-08-01

    Incorporating evidence-based medicine into practice is now an expectation for hand surgeons. Hand surgeons need to be able to assess associated benefits, risks, cost, and applicability of a treatment option when providing care to their patients. Using a clinical example, this article takes the reader through the three-step approach when using a publication from the medical literature on therapy. The focus of this article is primarily the second and third steps, which involve measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness. PMID:25066847

  15. Optimal brassiere wire based on the 3D anthropometric measurements of under breast curve.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Hong, Kyunghi

    2007-05-01

    It has been difficult to quantify the fit of brassiere wire to the natural nude under breast line due to the difficulty of obtaining women's nude under breast line in 3D image. The objectives of this study are firstly to design the ergonomic brassiere wire that should fit to the curve of under breast and thorax and secondly to apply the 3D measurement of human body structure to the product design and evaluation using phase shifting moiré topography. Eight brassiere wires were evaluated and key factors of comfortable wires were selected depending on the types of women's under breast those are considered as backbones of the brassiere structure. Twenty-one middle-aged women participated in the subjective wear test, and 17 volunteers of them continued to participate in the 3D image recording. 3D morphological data of the breast before and after wearing experimental brassiere was examined by phase shifting moiré topography. As results, it was found that the fitting of the global average radius of curvature of wire to that of the body line of the under breast curve was an important variable for the design of wires. Conventional shape of brassiere wire was suitable to the majority of the subjects. However, for those who have skewed under breast lines, the wire of larger global average radius of curvature along the inner part of the under breast line was rated higher in terms of wear comfort and appearance. The recommended magnitude of the torsional rigidity of the brassiere wire was about 0.015 N/mm2mm. The observation on women's under breast curve and their comfortable breast wire as discussed in this paper would provide with comfortable and stable fit for women in special needs such as soldiers, athletes and actress. PMID:16828050

  16. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  17. A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

  18. The discrimination of dyslipidaemia using anthropometric measures in ethnically diverse populations of the Asia-Pacific Region: the Obesity in Asia Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Barzi, F; Woodward, M; Czernichow, S; Lee, C M Y; Kang, J H; Janus, E; Lear, S; Patel, A; Caterson, I; Patel, J; Lam, T H; Suriyawongpaisal, P; Huxley, R

    2010-02-01

    Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is only detectable through blood testing, which may not be feasible in resource-poor settings. As dyslipidaemia is commonly associated with excess weight, it may be possible to identify individuals with adverse lipid profiles using simple anthropometric measures. A total of 222 975 individuals from 18 studies were included as part of the Obesity in Asia Collaboration. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between measures of body size and dyslipidaemia. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist : hip ratio (WHR) and waist : height ratio were continuously associated with the lipid variables studied, but the relationships were consistently stronger for triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The associations were similar between Asians and non-Asians, and no single anthropometric measure was superior at discriminating those individuals at increased risk of dyslipidaemia. WHR cut-points of 0.8 in women and 0.9 in men were applicable across both Asians and non-Asians for the discrimination of individuals with any form of dyslipidaemia. Measurement of central obesity may help to identify those individuals at increased risk of dyslipidaemia. WHR cut-points of 0.8 for women and 0.9 for men are optimal for discriminating those individuals likely to have adverse lipid profiles and in need of further clinical assessment. PMID:19493299

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in 225.7002-3...Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in 225.7002-3...Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in 225.7002-3...Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in 225.7002-3...Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section...Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in 225.7002-3...Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or...

  4. Associations between birth and one year anthropometric measurements and IGF2 and IGF2R genetic variants in African American and Caucasian American infants

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Adriana C.; Overcash, Francine; Murphy, Susan K.; Murtha, Amy P.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Forman, Michele R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Skaar, David; Jirtle, Randy L.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) genetic variants have been inconsistently associated with low birth weight and birth length in Caucasian and Asian infants, however few studies have included African Americans (AA). Generalized linear models and logistic regression models were used to examine associations between IGF2R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs629849 and rs8191754, and IGF2 SNP rs680 and infant anthropometric measurements, in a racially diverse birth cohort in Durham County, North Carolina. Caucasian American (CA) carriers of the IGF2R SNP rs629849 were heavier (P = 0.02) and longer (P = 0.003) at birth, however body size at age 1 yr was similar to that of AA. Birth length significantly differed between carriers and non-carriers of the IGF2 rs680 variant in both AA (P = 0.04) and CA infants (P = 0.03). Both AA and CA carriers were 1 cm shorter at birth compared to non-carriers. We found no evidence for an association between rs8191754 and infant anthropometric measurements. Associations between SNPs andone year weight gain were only observed for rs680; CA infant carriers of rs680 variants weighed less than non-carriers at year one (P = 0.03); however, no associations were found in AA infants at year one. Larger studies using ancestral markers are required to disentangle these associations.

  5. Age at menarche of university students in Bangladesh: secular trends and association with adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Golam; Islam, Saima; Aik, Saw; Zaman, Tunku Kamarul; Lestrel, Pete E

    2010-09-01

    Age at menarche has been shown to be an important indicator for diseases such as breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The aim of the present study was to document secular trends in age at menarche and their association with anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors in university students in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 995 students from Rajshahi University using a stratified sampling technique between July 2004 and May 2005. Trends in age at menarche were examined by linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the association of age at menarche with adult anthropometric measures and various socio-demographic factors. The mean and median age of menarche were 13.12+/-1.16 and 13.17 years, respectively, with an increasing tendency among birth-year cohorts from 1979 to 1986. Menarcheal age was negatively associated with BMI (p<0.01), but positively associated with height (p<0.05). Early menarche was especially pronounced among students from urban environments, Muslims and those with better educated mothers. Increasing age at menarche may be explained by improved nutritional status among Bangladeshi populations. Early menarche was associated with residence location at adolescence, religion and mother's education. PMID:20529410

  6. Daily physical activity in low-risk extremely low birth weight preterm infants: positive impact on bone mineral density and anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Emine; Tosun, Öznur; Bayat, Meral; Korkmaz, Zübeyde; Halis, Hülya; Güne?, Tamer

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in bone mineral density and anthropometric indices of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants undergoing daily physical activity. Twenty-eight low-risk ELBW preterm infants (intervention group = 14, control group = 14) with a birth weight of under 1000 g and gestational age of 26-32 weeks were recruited. Preterm infants in the control group were provided with standard nursing care, whereas those in the intervention group received a daily physical activity programme in addition to standard nursing care during the study. Before and after the study, anthropometric indices and tibial speed of sound (SOS) values were measured. In this study, the tibial SOS values were found to be increased in the intervention group (+111.14 m/s) (p = 0.001) and decreased in the control group (-58.21 m/s) (p = 0.030). The increase in percentage of body weight, height, and tibial length of infants in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (respectively; p = 0.002, p = 0,015, p < 0.001). A daily physical activity programme increased body weight, height, tibial length, and SOS values of the tibia in ELBW preterm infants. PMID:24866926

  7. Sound power measurement techniques for powered hand tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmann, Edward L.; Hayden, Charles

    2005-09-01

    As part of a project to reduce noise induced hearing loss in the construction industry, NIOSH developed a database of sound power level measurements of electric powered hand tools typically used in the construction industry. The tool testing jigs and setups specified and illustrated in ANSI S12.15 were modified to accommodate the higher precision ten-microphone arrangement used in ISO 3744. ANSI S12.15 is sometimes vague regarding the tool testing jig design, so test jigs were designed to supplement existing specifications in the standard. In the course of the project, test jigs were designed, techniques were devised to improve repeatability of measurements, to reduce waste materials, to reduce measurement setup time, and to reduce data acquisition time. Several types of tools were tested including circular saws, grinders, screw drivers, drills, jig saws, reciprocating saws, miter saws, hammer drills, belt sanders, and impact wrenches. The test jig designs and measurement techniques may help others to save time, reduce waste material, and improve measurement repeatability. Additionally, a microphone was placed in the nominal hearing zone of the tool operator to acquire a time series to assess other sound metrics.

  8. Effect of physical activity intervention based on a pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures of women after childbirth. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 66 women who had given birth 6 weeks to 6 months prior were randomly assigned to receive either a 12 week tailored program encouraging increased walking using a pedometer (intervention group, n = 32) or routine postpartum care (control group, n = 34). During the 12-week study period, each woman in the intervention group wore a pedometer and recorded her daily step count. The women were advised to increase their steps by 500 per week until they achieved the first target of 5000 steps per day and then continued to increase it to minimum of 10,000 steps per day by the end of 12th week. Assessed outcomes included anthropometric measures, physical activity level, and energy expenditure per week. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Wilcoxon, covariance analysis, and the general linear model repeated measures procedure as appropriate. Results After 12 weeks, women in the intervention group had significantly increased their physical activity and energy expenditure per week (4394 vs. 1651 calorie, p < 0.001). Significant differences between-group in weight (P = 0.001), Body Mass Index (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.001), hip circumference (P = 0.032) and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.02) were presented after the intervention. The intervention group significantly increased their mean daily step count over the study period (from 3249 before, to 9960 after the intervention, p < 0.001). Conclusion A physical activity intervention based on pedometer is an effective means to increase physical activity; reducing retention of weight gained during pregnancy and can improve anthropometric measures in postpartum women. Trial registration ISRCTN: IRCT201105026362N1 PMID:22176722

  9. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations...7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations...7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  11. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations...7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  12. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations...7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  13. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations...7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

  14. Development of an Optimization Method for Determining Human Hand Link Lengths Based on Surface Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaopeng Yang; Kihyo Jung

    Determining internal hand link lengths accurately is necessary in hand modeling for the application of ergonomic design and evaluation in virtual environment. Misconceived or cursory estimation of hand link lengths is however not rare in literature or practice. This article describes an optimization method for deriving hand link lengths from measured surface maker data. The method employs an optimization routine

  15. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged. PMID:23167700

  16. (appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational Techniques

    E-print Network

    DeCarlo, Doug

    (appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements, the science dedicated to the measurement of the human face. Anthropometric studies like [11, 12] report statis

  17. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality. PMID:22240547

  18. Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

  19. An anthropometric face model using variational techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone

    1998-01-01

    We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints

  20. Directly measured second hand smoke exposure and asthma health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, M; Klein, J; Hammond, S; Koren, G; Lactao, G; Iribarren, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Because they have chronic airway inflammation, adults with asthma could have symptomatic exacerbation after exposure to second hand smoke (SHS). Surprisingly, data on the effects of SHS exposure in adults with asthma are quite limited. Most previous epidemiological studies used self-reported SHS exposure which could be biased by inaccurate reporting. In a prospective cohort study of adult non-smokers recently admitted to hospital for asthma, the impact of SHS exposure on asthma health outcomes was examined. Methods: Recent SHS exposure during the previous 7 days was directly measured using a personal nicotine badge (n = 189) and exposure during the previous 3 months was estimated using hair nicotine and cotinine levels (n = 138). Asthma severity and health status were ascertained during telephone interviews, and subsequent admission to hospital for asthma was determined from computerised utilisation databases. Results: Most of the adults with asthma were exposed to SHS, with estimates ranging from 60% to 83% depending on the time frame and methodology. The highest level of recent SHS exposure, as measured by the personal nicotine badge, was related to greater asthma severity (mean score increment for highest tertile of nicotine level 1.56 points; 95% CI 0.18 to 2.95), controlling for sociodemographic covariates and previous smoking history. Moreover, the second and third tertiles of hair nicotine exposure during the previous month were associated with a greater baseline prospective risk of hospital admission for asthma (HR 3.73; 95% CI 1.04 to 13.30 and HR 3.61; 95% CI 1.0 to 12.9, respectively). Conclusions: Directly measured SHS exposure appears to be associated with poorer asthma outcomes. In public health terms, these results support efforts to prohibit smoking in public places. PMID:16192366

  1. DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric

    E-print Network

    Juan, Alfons

    DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric Data B. Nácher, S foot anthropometric measures or by analyzing 3D foot shapes [7] [8]. 3D foot shape models form another anthropometric measures had the greatest relevance for shoe fitting, and by Mochimaru et al [8], Luximon et al

  2. Short-term assessment of training of medical students in the use of alcohol-based hand rub using fluorescent-labeled hand rub and skin hydration measurements.

    PubMed

    Hautemanière, Alexis; Diguio, Nathalie; Daval, Marie Cécile; Hunter, Paul R; Hartemann, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated 2 measurements of the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rub application: skin hydration and percentage of skin area covered by fluorescent-labeled hand rub. The use of fluorescent-labeled hand rub is an effective and rapid way to assess the effectiveness of hand rub application and correlates well with the effectiveness of hand hygiene technique, as evaluated by microbial counts on the hands. Measurement of skin hydration also is correlated with effectiveness of coverage and is useful in demonstrating that alcohol-based hand rub does not dehydrate the skin. PMID:19059677

  3. Anthropometric growth study of normal human auricle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tayyar Kalcioglu; M. Cem Miman; Yuksel Toplu; Cengiz Yakinci; Orhan Ozturan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal the anthropometric growth of auricula from birth to the age of 18 years and to bring out the dynamics of ear growth. Material and methods: A total of 1552 children in 50 groups were evaluated. Six surface measurements were performed directly on the right auricle of the subjects: the length from

  4. A hand-held optical sensor for dissolved oxygen measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Xiao; Yuanyao Mo; Martin M. F. Choi

    2003-01-01

    A hand-held dissolved oxygen optical sensor based on solid-state electronics and highly oxygen-sensitive luminescence material has been developed. Oxygen-sensitive dye absorbed on silica gel particles was dispersed in a 0.2 mm homogenous silicone rubber film (optode membrane) and coated on a 580 nm long-pass filter. The O2-sensitive dye was excited by an ultra-bright blue light-emitting diode and the emission intensity

  5. The Flinders Handedness survey (FLANDERS): a brief measure of skilled hand preference.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2013-01-01

    Knowing whether an individual prefers the left or right hand for skilled activities is important to researchers in experimental psychology and neuroscience. The current study reports on a new measure of skilled hand preference derived from the Provins and Cunliffe (1972) handedness inventory. Undergraduates (n = 3324) indicated their lateral preference for their hands, feet, eyes and ears. A measure of hand performance and familial handedness was also obtained. Factor analysis identified ten items that loaded on skilled hand preference and these were included in the new FLANDERS questionnaire. Cluster analysis of the new questionnaire revealed three distinct groups (left-, mixed- & right-handed). The new test showed a strong association with other measures of lateral preference and hand performance. Scores on the test were also related to the sex of the respondent and the hand preference of their parents. The FLANDERS provides a measure of skilled hand preference that is easy to administer and understand and should be useful for experimenters wanting to screen for hand preference. PMID:23498655

  6. Anthropometric 3D Face Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalini Gupta; Mia K. Markey; Alan C. Bovik

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel anthropometric three dimensional (Anthroface 3D) face recognition algorithm, which is based on a systematically\\u000a selected set of discriminatory structural characteristics of the human face derived from the existing scientific literature\\u000a on facial anthropometry. We propose a novel technique for automatically detecting 10 anthropometric facial fiducial points\\u000a that are associated with these discriminatory anthropometric features. We isolate

  7. Asians have lower body mass index (BMI) but higher percent body fat than do whites: comparisons of anthropometric measurements?3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Wang; John C Thornton; Mary Russell; Santiago Burastero; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N Pierson Jr

    We studied the correlations between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (fat%) measured by dual- photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 445 white and 242 Asian adults aged 18-94 y. In addition, comparisons in six circumferences and eight skinfold-thickness measurements between whites and Asians were made to explain the discrepancies. Although Asians had lower BMI, they were fatter than whites

  8. Isometric Instructions: Measure the length from your elbow to your hand where you grip the handle.

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    Isometric Instructions: Part 1: Measure the length from your elbow to your hand where you grip the handle. You will also need to measure the length from your shoulder to your elbow. Part 2: 1. Sit at edge

  9. Hand-Held Electronic Gap-Measuring Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, F. E.; Thompson, F. W.; Aragon, L. A.; Harrington, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Repetitive measurements simplified by tool based on LVDT operation. With fingers in open position, Gap-measuring tool rests on digital readout instrument. With fingers inserted in gap, separation alters inductance of linear variable-differential transformer in plastic handle. Originally developed for measuring gaps between surface tiles of Space Shuttle orbiter, tool reduces measurement time from 20 minutes per tile to 2 minutes. Also reduces possibility of damage to tiles during measurement. Tool has potential applications in mass production; helps ensure proper gap dimensions in assembly of refrigerator and car doors and also used to measure dimensions of components and to verify positional accuracy of components during progressive assembly operations.

  10. Anthropometrics do not influence dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement of fat in normal to obese adults: a comparison with in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNA).

    PubMed

    Marcus, M A; Wang, J; Thornton, J C; Ma, R; Burastero, S; Pierson, R N

    1997-03-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is now a commonly used method for the determination of bone mineral status and body composition in humans. The purposes of this study were to compare fat mass by in vitro neutron activation analysis (FMIVNA) with that by DXA (FMDXA) in an anthropometrically heterogeneous sample of healthy adult men (n = 33) and women (n = 36) (19 < or = BMI < or = 39), and to determine whether differences in fat mass estimates between the two methods (delta FM) were attributable to subject anthropometry as defined by several circumference (waist, iliac crest, thigh) and skinfold thickness (umbilical, suprailiac, abdominal) measurements. No significant differences between FMDXA and FMIVNA were observed in men (p = 0.46) or women (p = 0.09). The two methods were very highly correlated in both sexes (women r2 = 0.97, p < 0.001, men r2 = 0.91, p < 0.001), although the regression line for men was significantly different from the line of identity (p = 0.043). These results suggest modest trends toward underestimation of FMDXA in men when FMIVNA < 18 kg, and overestimation in men when FMIVNA > 18 kg. delta FM (IVNA-DXA) was not significantly related to any combination of skinfold thickness and circumferences in either gender. Age explained 27% of the variance in delta FM for the men (p = 0.008). Furthermore, delta FM was not significantly related to inter-method disparity in total-body bone mineral measurements in men or women (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates strong correlation in fat measurements between IVNA and DXA in men and women ranging from normal to markedly obese. Correction for subject anthropometry does not significantly improve this relationship. PMID:9112247

  11. Anthropometric and performance measures for the development of a talent detection and identification model in youth handball

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Mohamed; Roel Vaeyens; Stijn Matthys; Marc Multael; Johan Lefevre; Matthieu Lenoir; Renaat Philippaerts

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this study examined in which basic morphological and fitness measures Under-14 (n = 34) and Under-16 (n = 47) male youth handball players differ from reference samples of the same age (n = 430 and n = 570, respectively). To help develop a talent identification model, the second part of the study investigated which specific morphological and performance measures describe differences between elite (n = 18)

  12. CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

  13. The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and Features of Electromyography Signal for Human anthropometric variables to calibrate EMG recognition system automatically/semi-automatically is proposed EMG signals and twelve related anthropometric variables. The strong and significant associations

  14. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  16. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

  17. Functional assessment of the hand: reproducibility, acceptability, and utility of a new system for measuring strength.

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, P; Howe, A; Wright, V

    1987-01-01

    A new system for measuring strength of the hand using a torsion dynamometer linked to a microprocessor is described. The system permits analysis of timed squeezes of both grip and pinch and is adjustable to all sizes of hand and degrees of hand deformity. Results obtained with the system were found to be reproducible, and the rigid device was acceptable to a group of patients with arthritic hands. In rheumatoid arthritis there is a marked reduction in maximum grip and pinch strength, together with a prolongation of the time taken to reach this maximum, and increased fatigue. The limitations of grip strength as a measure of function of the hand are discussed. Images PMID:3579383

  18. Outcome measurements in hand and upper limb surgery.

    PubMed

    Dubert, T

    2014-09-01

    Of marginal importance only 20 years ago, outcome measurement has become one of the most widely published topics in medical literature. The concept of global health is described by the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Today, the surgeon's perspective is no longer sufficient to evaluate global health condition of a patient. The patient cannot be reduced to an organ. Outcome measurement must take into consideration body structures and function (symptoms, organ function) as reviewed by a professional, the individual's functional health status in terms of activity and evaluated by the patient himself, and his participation in his social environment. These principles are now being applied to our specialty and it is essential to know them to be able to collect, analyze and publish valid results. This review article defines the rules for using clinical outcome tools, provides the most widely used clinical and self-evaluation forms for our specialty as well as instructions for their use. Global outcome is usually obtained by arithmetic addition of scores; which is a simple but questionable method. The sieving and radar charts can be used for a more comprehensible representation showing areas of relative strength and relative weakness on a graph, as well as depicting general overall performance. The reliability of data is also affected by declaration of conflicts of interest, negligence or fraud. The level of evidence is questionable as long as a data verification system is not implemented. PMID:24993591

  19. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI?25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR?=?0.57;95%CI:0.43?0.76;p?0.0001) and men (OR?=?0.67;95%CI: 0.51?0.87;p?=?0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR?=?0.71;95%CI:0.54?0.93;p?=?0.005) and women (OR?=?0.79;95%CI:0.59?1.05;p>0.05) who consume ?1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ?1 portion was associated with obesity (OR?=?1.51;95%CI:1.00?2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR?=?1.65;95%CI:1.08?2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore, confirmatory studies are needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23593300

  20. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required. PMID:18488965

  1. Craniofacial anthropometric analysis in Down's syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Bagi?, Ivana; Verzak, Zeljko

    2003-01-01

    Past investigations of Down's syndrome (DS) have indicated that there are marked abnormalities in the craniofacial morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the craniofacial anthropometric variables which discriminate DS group from healthy population and also to observe the changes occurring with growth. Using noninvasive method of craniofacial anthropometry, craniofacial pattern profile (CFPP) analysis (from twenty-five anthropometric measurements per person) was performed in 104 DS individuals and 365 healthy controls, aged seven to fifty-seven and divided into four age ranges. Z-scores were calculated for each variable and the variations in the craniofacial region have been identified by multivariate discriminative analysis. The results showed that three variables (head length (g-op), head circumference (OFC) and outer canthal distance (ex-ex) were responsible for 85.68% variability (p < 0.001). The analysis of z-scores showed that the majority of variables were in subnormal (under -2 SD) and normal range (from -2SD to +2SD), but none of them was in the supernormal range (over the +2SD). Some craniofacial characteristics are age-related. On the basis of craniofacial anthropometric traits it was possible to separate even 91.35% of DS patients from the healthy population. It could be concluded that these findings demonstrate the usefulness of application of CFPP in defining abnormal craniofacial dimensions in DS individuals. PMID:12971167

  2. Perioral aging--an anthropometric appraisal.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

  3. COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

  4. Grading body fatness from limited anthropometric data1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex F. Roche; Roger M. Siervogel; Paul Webb

    Measurements relevant to body fatness are made commonly in clinical settings. However, associations between these measurements and body fatness are poorly known and procedures are needed to facilitate the interpretation of these measurements. Consequently, data from 405 white children and adults aged 6 to 49 yr were used to calculate correlations between selected anthropometric measurements and estimates of percentage body

  5. Hand-held radiometer red and photographic infrared spectral measurements of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1978-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared radiance data, collected under a variety of conditions at weekly intervals throughout the growing season using a hand-held radiometer, were used to monitor crop growth and development. The vegetation index transformation was used to effectively compensate for the different irradiational conditions encountered during the study period. These data, plotted against time, compared the different crops measured by comparing their green leaf biomass dynamics. This approach, based entirely upon spectral inputs, closely monitors crop growth and development and indicates the promise of ground-based hand-held radiometer measurements of crops.

  6. An analysis of biomechanical and anthropometric parameters on classroom furniture design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin Tuna; Kenan Melemez

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the necessary anthropometric measurements of classroom furniture used in Turkish higher education were carried out. The static anthropometric measurements of 13 dimensions from 1049 students were obtained while they are standing and sitting. The data obtained was analyzed to determine the limit values to be used in classroom and laboratory design. The dimensions of school desks and

  7. Hand shape classification using DTW and LCSS as similarity measures for vision-based gesture recognition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kuzmanic; V. Zanchi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an approach to classify hand shapes into different classes according to the similarity measures between features is proposed. We show how to use an Exploratory Data Analysis to extract novel, single feature of hand from images. Based on the obtained curve-like shape of the feature, hands are classified into one of 21 possible classes of Croatian sign

  8. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  9. Morphologic outcome of bimaxillary surgery–An anthropometric appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769

  10. The squares test as a measure of hand function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Jeroen; Laton, Jorne; Van Schependom, J; De Deyn, P P; Nagels, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Deterioration of hand function can be important in multiple sclerosis (MS). The standard way of assessing hand function in MS is the 9-hole peg test (9HPT), one of the three components of the MS functional composite measure. In this study we examine the squares test (ST), a test of hand function that is used extensively in handedness research. We evaluated reproducibility of the ST in 49 healthy controls, and both discriminatory power and concurrent validity of the ST in 38 MS patients and 18 age and gender matched controls. The ST proved to be a reliable and easy to administrate paper-and-pencil test of hand function. The ST showed a high and highly significant correlation with the standard 9HPT over a broad range of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and had high discriminatory power, also comparable to the 9HPT. Therefore, the ST is a candidate test for use in composite measures of MS related functional deficits for clinical practice and in clinical trials. PMID:25012012

  11. Prediction of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or albuminuria using simple anthropometric indexes in Hong Kong Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GTC Ko; JCN Chan; CS Cockram; J Woo; Gary TC Ko

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is important to determine what values of simple anthropometric measurements are associated with the presence of adverse cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes or hypertension to provide an indication for further detailed investigations. In this analysis, we aimed to assess which anthropometric cutoff values are best at predicting the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria in Hong

  12. Anthropometric variability, equipment usability and musculoskeletal pain in a group of nurses in the Western Cape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Botha; R. S. Bridger

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the anthropometry and anthropometric fit of a group of nurses in Western Cape private hospitals. Anthropometric variables were measured using a sample of nurses and a correlation matrix generated. All nurses were given a questionnaire concerned with operational problems in the work environment and musculoskeletal pain. The nurses reported numerous problems in the working environment, including lumbar

  13. New portable hand-held radiation instruments for measurements and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held radiation monitors are often used to search pedestrians and motor vehicles for special nuclear material (SNM) as part of a physical protection plan for nuclear materials. Recently, the Los Alamos Advanced Nuclear Technology group has commercialized an improved hand-held monitor that can be used for both physical-protection monitoring and verification measurements in nuclear material control and waste management. The new monitoring instruments are smaller and lighter; operate much longer on a battery charge; are available with NaI(Tl) or neutron and gamma-ray sensitive plastic scintillation detectors; and are less expensive than other comparable instruments. They also have a second operating mode for making precise measurements over counting times as long as 99 s. This mode permits making basic verification measurements that may be needed before transporting nuclear material or waste outside protected areas. Improved verification measurements can be made with a second new hand-held instrument that has a stabilized detector and three separate gamma-ray energy windows to obtain spectral information for SNM quantity, enrichment, or material-type verification.

  14. HandGrip Muscle Strength, Lean Body Mass, and Plasma Proteins as Markers of Nutritional Status in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Close to Start of Dialysis Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olof Heimbürger; Abdul Rashid Qureshi; William S. Blaner; Lars Berglund; Peter Stenvinkel

    2000-01-01

    We studied 115 patients (69 men, 46 women) with chronic renal failure (CRF) aged younger than 70 years close to the start of dialysis therapy to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and study the relationship between various nutritional parameters in these patients. Nutritional status was classified by means of subjective global assessment. Anthropometric measurements (AMs) were performed, and hand-grip strength

  15. Measurement of Hand/Handrim Grip Forces in Two Different One Arm Drive Wheelchairs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to explore the total and regional grip forces in the hand when propelling two different manual one arm drive wheelchairs: the Neater Uni-wheelchair (NUW) and a foot steered Action3 wheelchair. Methods. 17 nondisabled users were randomly assigned to each wheelchair to drive around an indoor obstacle course. The Grip, a multiple sensor system taking continuous measurement of handgrip force, was attached to the propelling hand. Total grip force in each region of the hand and total grip force across the whole hand were calculated per user per wheelchair. Results. The Action3 with foot steering only generated significantly greater total grip force in straight running compared to the NUW and also in the fingers and thumb in straight running. Conclusions. The results suggest that the Action3 with foot steering generated greater grip forces which may infer a greater potential for repetitive strain injury in the upper limb. Further work is required to explore whether the difference in grip force is of clinical significance in a disabled population. PMID:25045684

  16. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  17. Use of existing standards to measure sound power levels of powered hand tools-necessary revisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Charles S.; Zechmann, Edward

    2005-09-01

    At recent NOISE-CON and Acoustical Society of America meetings, noise rating labeling was discussed as a way of manufacturers providing full disclosure information for their noise emitting products. The first step is to gather sound power level data from these products. Sound power level data should be gathered in accordance with existing ANSI and/or ISO standards. Some standards, such as ANSI 12.15, may not define true operational noise emissions[r1] and thus may provide inaccurate information when that information is used to choose a hearing protection device or used to make a purchasing decision. A number of standards were systematically combined by NIOSH researchers to provide the most accurate information on sound power levels of powered hand tools used in the construction industry. This presentation will detail some of the challenges of existing ANSI 12.15 (and draft ANSI 12.41) to measure sound power levels of electric (and pneumatic) powered hand tools.

  18. Genetic and environmental effects on the bone development of the hand and wrist in chinese young twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li Yan; Tan, Ji Bin; Zhao, Jing Lan; Jiang, Fa Chun; Tian, Xiao Cao; Ning, Feng; Wang, Shao Jie; Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zeng Chang; Zhao, Zhong Tang

    2015-03-01

    We assessed genetic and environmental effects on bone development of the hand and wrist, and on key anthropometric measures in Chinese young twins. In total, 139 monozygotic and 95 dizygotic twin pairs aged from 5 to 18 years were recruited. The twin correlations of total hand and wrist scores for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 0.71 and 0.36, respectively. Bivariate model analysis showed moderate genetic correlations only for total skeletal maturity vs. weight and total skeletal maturity vs. waist circumference (r, 0.51 and 0.46, respectively). Our findings demonstrated that genetic factors played important roles in bone development of the hand and wrist in Chinese young twins, and that these genetic effects might be distinct from those influencing anthropometric measures. PMID:25800451

  19. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Virendra C.; Parale, G. P.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Patil, Harsha V.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ?45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21584164

  20. Clinical associations of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement of hand bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. DEVLIN; J. LHJLEY; A. HUISSOON; R. HOLDER; R. REECE; P. PERKINS; P. EMERY

    1996-01-01

    SUMMARY Hand bone mineral density (BMD) measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has potential as a marker of progression in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined a DXA methodology and studied in a cross-sectional manner 202 patients with RA. Hand BMD correlated inversely with age and was higher in males. Hand BMD correlated with lumbar and femoral sites. In females,

  1. Sampling and analytical method development and hand wipe measurements of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Boeniger, Mark; Neumeister, Charles; Booth-Jones, Angela

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media by first contaminating the hands of a small number of volunteers with UGEO, followed by applying a small amount of corn oil to the palms, and by wiping the skin with a Whatman cellulostic filter paper or a polyester fabric wipe (i.e., Alpha wipes). In summary, using either Whatman or Alpha wipes, the mean recovery of pyrene from the UGEO that was applied to the hands and contained within three consecutive wipes was 69% and 54%, respectively. However, the relative recovery of the first to second wipe was on average 47% and 75% for the two media, respectively. These results indicate that the Alpha wipes were more efficient at recovering pyrene in the first wipe but less efficient overall when all three consecutive samples were included. Even though this sampling was performed in a controlled laboratory environment, the minimum and maximum amount of pyrene recovered in the individual composite samples using either method spanned a range of twofold. Overall, intra-and interpersonal variability, as measured by coefficient of variation, were 22% and 19%, respectively, and were not statistically different by type of media used. This method was used in a pilot field survey to sample the hands of 18 automotive repair technicians and 18 office workers. Detectable amounts of pyrene (>0.2 microg/sample) were found on the hands of 61% and 0% of these two groups, respectively, with the highest measured quantity equal to 1.06 microg. Samples from the upper surfaces of automobile motors were generally low to nondetectable (<0.027 microg/sample), while the median value of 0.047 mkcrlg/50 cm(2)(CV = 160%) and up to 0.640 microg were found on the drip pans. PMID:18464095

  2. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  3. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  4. STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Wen

    STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION M. Zhang, R, Australia ABSTRACT This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence information, along with all anthropometric parameters, is intro- duced in the multiple linear regression

  5. [Nicolò Paganini: Devil's violinist because of abnormal hands?--New investigations using a bronze cast from the right hand].

    PubMed

    Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new measurements of a bronze cast from the right hand of the famous Italian violin virtuoso Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840). These are compared to anthropometric standard values. In addition, detailed dorsal and palmar views of the cast are shown. With a middle finger length of 75 mm, the palm width is 60 mm and the hand length 152 mm, which is significantly below the 5% percentile of today's standard values. Also the finger length index (0.55), the ratio of finger length to palm length (0.98) and the ratio of finger length to palm width (1.25) are significantly above normal limits. Hence, Paganini had abnormal hand measurements with a very small palm and relatively "long" fingers. This remarkable constellation, among others, could have been advantageous for his amazing skills as a violinist. PMID:25004620

  6. Intradiscal pressure together with anthropometric data – a data set for the validation of models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Wilke; Peter Neef; Barbara Hinz; Helmut Seidel; Lutz Claes

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To provide a database of intradiscal pressure measurements together with anthropometric data as basis for the validation of models that predict spinal loads.Design. Intradiscal pressure was measured in a non-degenerated L4-5 disc of a volunteer. The anthropometric characteristics of this subject were extensively determined.Background. Since it is usually impossible to quantify the load in the spine directly, it is

  7. Anthropometric, physiological and performance characteristics of elite team-handball players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anis Chaouachi; Matt Brughelli; Gregory Levin; Nahla Ben Brahim Boudhina; John Cronin; Karim Chamari

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide anthropometric, physiological, and performance characteristics of an elite international handball team. Twenty-one elite handball players were tested and categorized according to their playing positions (goalkeepers, backs, pivots, and wings). Testing consisted of anthropometric and physiological measures of height, body mass, percentage body fat and endurance ([Vdot]O2max), performance measures of speed (5, 10,

  8. Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual

  9. Anthropometric estimation of maternal body composition in late gestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larraine Huston Presley; William W Wong; Noreen M Roman; Saeid B Amini; Patrick M Catalano

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To construct a model to estimate maternal body composition in late gestation using anthropometric measurements.Methods: Twenty healthy pregnant women at 30 weeks’ gestation had estimates of body composition using hydrodensitometry, with corrections for residual lung volume, and total body water using H218O (development group). Total body water was estimated from 18O abundances measured by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Maternal age,

  10. Hand to Hand

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, Susanna E; Graboys, Thomas B

    2002-01-01

    Examination of the hands has the potential to transform the encounter between physician and patient. Taking the hands conveys a sense of warmth and connectedness and is a means to communicate the physician's mindfulness. The hands can focus the examination on the individual patient as a complete human being, and not merely a disease or a collection of symptoms. The hands provide readily accessible information that may not be available through other evaluations, and they offer clues to a patient's physical and mental health. Commonplace observations, such as those revealed in the hands, can unravel medical mysteries and provide profound clinical insights.

  11. VAT=TAAT-SAAT: Innovative Anthropometric Model to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue Without Resort to CT-Scan or DXA

    PubMed Central

    Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Hypothesis Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. Design and Methods BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m?2. Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Results Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C ? 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI ? 92.713; R2 = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C ? 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age ? 213.65; R2 = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R2 = 76%; Men: R2 = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Conclusion Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France). PMID:23404678

  12. Anthropometric indexes in the prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in a Mexican population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Berber; R Gómez-Santos; G Fanghänel; L Sánchez-Reyes

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine values of simple anthropometric measurements which are associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia and to assess anthropometric cut-off values for predicting the likelihood of these chronic conditions in a Mexican population.DESIGN AND SETTING: The data were obtained from PRIT (Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in General Hospital Workers) surveys from 1994

  13. Participant adherence indicatiors predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose. To evaluate several adherence indicators, created using 2 measures, separately and in combination, for predicting health outcome changes. Design. Non-experimental with pre-post measures. Setting. Mid-sized city in southern region of United States. Subjects. 269 primarily African-America...

  14. Markerless motion capture and measurement of hand kinematics: validation and application to home-based upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Cheryl D; Robinson, Rebecca; Malpass, Adam J; Bogle, Tristan P; Dell, Thomas A; Harris, Chris; Demain, Sara H

    2013-08-01

    Dynamic movements of the hand, fingers, and thumb are difficult to measure due to the versatility and complexity of movement inherent in function. An innovative approach to measuring hand kinematics is proposed and validated. The proposed system utilizes the Microsoft Kinect and goes beyond gesture recognition to develop a validated measurement technique of finger kinematics. The proposed system adopted landmark definition (validated through ground truth estimation against assessors) and grip classification algorithms, including kinematic definitions (validated against a laboratory-based motion capture system). The results of the validation show 78% accuracy when identifying specific markerless landmarks. In addition, comparative data with a previously validated kinematic measurement technique show accuracy of MCP ± 10° (average absolute error (AAE) = 2.4°), PIP ± 12° (AAE = 4.8°), and DIP ± 11° (AAE = 4.8°). These results are notably better than clinically based alternative manual measurement techniques. The ability to measure hand movements, and therefore functional dexterity, without interfering with underlying composite movements, is the paramount objective to any bespoke measurement system. The proposed system is the first validated markerless measurement system using the Microsoft Kinect that is capable of measuring finger joint kinematics. It is suitable for home-based motion capture for the hand and, therefore, achieves this objective. PMID:23475333

  15. Hand to hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna E. Bedell; Thomas B. Graboys

    2002-01-01

    Examination of the hands has the potential to transform the encounter between physician and patient. Taking the hands conveys\\u000a a sense of warmth and connectedness and is a means to communicate the physician’s mindfulness. The hands can focus the examination\\u000a on the individual patient as a complete human being, and not merely a disease or a collection of symptoms. The

  16. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  17. Anthropometric Variation Among Bering Sea Natives

    E-print Network

    Justice, Anne E; Rubicz, Rohina C; Chittoor, Greetha; Jantz, Richard; Crawford, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that anthropometrics can be used to study microevolutionary forces acting on humans. We examine the use of morphological traits in reconstructing the population history of Aleuts and Eskimos of the Bering Sea. From 1979...

  18. Sex identification on the basis of hand and foot measurements in Indo-Mauritian population--a model based approach.

    PubMed

    Jowaheer, Vandna; Agnihotri, Arun Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Identification is the foremost issue in crime investigation. A few studies have been performed so far in order to identify sex on the basis of single foot or hand of the victim. Moreover, these studies provide only crude measures to indicate sex and there exists no concrete methodology to predict sex using the available information. In the present paper, we have developed statistical models to identify sex based on the dimensions of foot and hand. The models containing both length and breadth of hand or foot as independent variables are capable of predicting sex in Indo-Mauritian population with fairly high accuracy as compared to those containing hand or foot indices. PMID:21550567

  19. A knowledge based anthropometric data associate

    E-print Network

    Reitmeyer, Peter B.

    1989-01-01

    A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. REII'MEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989... Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. ~YER Approved as to style and content by: Newton C. Ellis (Chair of Committee) Dick B. Simmons (Member) Waym . Johnston ( ember) G...

  20. Anthropometric evaluation of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mamansari, D U; Salokhe, V M; Intaranont, K

    1994-06-01

    For the design of farm machinery, body dimension data is essential. There are little such anthropometric data available on agricultural laborers from developing countries. This research, therefore, aimed to collect anthropometric data of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand. Forty-four physical dimensions of both 50 men and 50 women agricultural laborers were measured. These laborers were selected randomly from two provinces in the central plains of Thailand. The average body dimensions, standard deviation and 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were determined. No significant difference was observed in most of the body dimensions of men and women laborers in different age groups used in this study. Body dimensions of length were in constant proportion to stature. The body dimensions of Thai laborers obtained in this study were also compared with the data of body dimensions from some Asian as well as Western countries. PMID:7844358

  1. Comparison of three anthropometric techniques for tooth selection.

    PubMed

    Lucas, B L; Bernardino-Júnior, R; Lopes-Júnior, I; Gonçalves, L C; Gomes, V L

    2012-06-01

    The absence of a reliable method to assess the proper dimension of artificial teeth can lead to errors that reduce aesthetic outcomes of the dental treatment. Previous studies indicate facial anthropometric parameters as guides to estimate the width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Nasal width, distance between the medialis angles of the eyes and mouth width were measured in young subjects Brazilian as well as the width of their six maxillary anterior teeth. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's (p < or = 0.05). The distance between the medialis angles of the eyes is a reliable anthropometric method to indicate the width of artificial teeth similar to the natural extracted. PMID:22852522

  2. Bundling hand hygiene interventions and measurement to decrease health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Pincock, Ted; Bernstein, Paul; Warthman, Shawn; Holst, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Proper performance of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs). With increasing awareness of the cost and societal impact caused by HAIs has come the realization that hand hygiene improvement initiatives are crucial to reducing the burden of HAIs. Multimodal strategies have emerged as the best approach to improving hand hygiene compliance. These strategies use a variety of intervention components intended to address obstacles to complying with good hand hygiene practices, and to reinforce behavioral change. Although research has substantiated the effectiveness of the multimodal design, challenges remain in promoting widespread adoption and implementation of a coordinated approach. This article reviews elements of a multimodal approach to improve hand hygiene and advocates the use of a "bundled" strategy. Eight key components of this bundle are proposed as a cohesive program to enable the deployment of synergistic, coordinated efforts to promote good hand hygiene practice. A consistent, bundled methodology implemented at multiple study centers would standardize processes and allow comparison of outcomes, validation of the methodology, and benchmarking. Most important, a bundled approach can lead to sustained infection reduction. PMID:22546269

  3. Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.

    PubMed

    Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

  4. Measurement of forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography: Influence of hand blood flow during sustained and intermittent isometric exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole A. Williams; Alexander R. Lind

    1979-01-01

    Summary  The requirement for using an arterial occlusion cuff at the wrist when measuring forearm blood flows by plethysmography was tested on a total of 8 subjects at rest and during and after sustained and intermittent isometric exercise. The contribution of the venous effluent from the hand to the forearm flow during exercise was challenged by immersing the arm in water

  5. A new force measurement device for evaluating finger extension function in the healthy and rheumatoid arthritic hand.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, S; Nilsdotter, A; Sollerman, C; Baerveldt, A-J; Hilliges, M

    2008-01-01

    Although often neglected, finger extension force is of great importance for developing grip strength. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a new finger extension force measurement device (EX-it) based on the biomechanics of the hand. Measurement accuracy and test-retest reliability were analysed. The device allows measurements on single fingers as well as all the fingers (excluding the thumb) of both healthy and deformed hands. The coefficient of variation in the device was 1.8% of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. This study also provides reference values for finger extension force in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant differences were found in extension strength between healthy subject and RA patients (men, p < 0.05 and women, p < 0.001). EX-it provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and can be used to evaluate the outcome of therapeutic interventions after hand trauma or disease. PMID:18776605

  6. Development of an intervention to reduce transmission of respiratory infections and pandemic flu: measuring and predicting hand-washing intentions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This was an exploratory pilot study forming part of a programme of work to develop and trial an effective web-based intervention to reduce the risk of transmission of respiratory infections by promoting hand washing and other preventive behaviours in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. The main purpose of this study was to confirm that the behavioural determinants we had identified from theory were related as predicted to intentions and to establish the validity of our measures of behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 84) completed a self-report web-delivered questionnaire measuring intentions to engage in hand washing and the hypothesised behavioural determinants of intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory. In a factorial 2 × 2 design, half of the participants were first randomised to receive messages about potential negative consequences of pandemic flu (the "high-threat" condition) and half were assigned to receive "coping" messages describing the rationale and effectiveness of hand washing for reducing the risk of infection. A substantial proportion of variance in intentions was explained by measures of attitudes (instrumental and affective), social norms (descriptive and injunctive), perceived behavioural control (especially, access to hand gel) and perceived risk (in particular, the likelihood of catching pandemic flu). Our measures of intentions were sensitive to between-group differences, and although our design did not permit causal inference (particularly in view of selective dropout among those required to read most web pages), the pattern of differences was in the expected direction, that is, hand-washing intentions tended to be stronger in those receiving the high-threat message and coping messages. This study provided encouraging confirmation that our intervention development was proceeding correctly. Measures of intentions proved sensitive to group differences, and the behavioural determinants included in the study explained a substantial proportion of the variance in intentions. The study also provided useful indications that our high-threat message might increase hand-washing intentions, that providing hand gel might be beneficial and that it would be necessary to actively manage the risk of selective dropout in the intervention group. PMID:21644184

  7. A palmar pressure sensor for measurement of upper limb weight bearing by the hands during transfers by paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Kunju, Nissan; Ojha, Rajdeep; Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-10-01

    Paraplegic patients have to effect transfer from one seat to another by using their upper limbs. In this process the hands bear almost the entire weight of the body in at least some phases of the transfer. It is desirable to train patients, especially those who are elderly and otherwise weak, to distribute their weight so as to avoid large forces being sustained on any one hand for an extended period. It is also desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive devices like lower limb FES in sharing the load on the hand. This study presents a simple and versatile method of measuring palmar hand force during transfers by paraplegic patients. It is important that this force sensor should not interfere with the grasping and stabilizing properties of the hands and should permit normal transferring. The force sensor comprises an air-filled pouch or pillow that can be placed on any surface. This pneumatic sensor feels like upholstery padding on the surface on which it is placed. The sensor integrates the total pressure applied to the surface of the pouch, thereby obtaining the total force exerted by the palm/hand. The fabrication of the sensor is described, as well as the associated measurement circuit. The static calibration shows that the sensor is linear up to 350?N and the dynamic calibration shows that it has a bandwidth of 13?Hz. The sensor was fabricated using an inflated inelastic airbag attached to a pressure transducer. An automatic offset correction circuit in the preamplifier module ensures that any offset due to initial pressure or sensor drift is removed and the output is zero under no load condition. The key to this sensor arrangement is the ease of fitting it into the intended location without disturbing the existing arrangement for the subject's activities of daily living (ADL). PMID:23964668

  8. Sampling and Analytical Method Development and Hand Wipe Measurements of Dermal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Boeniger; Charles Neumeister; Angela Booth-Jones

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media

  9. Changes in brain activity during motor learning measured with PET: effects of hand of performance and practice.

    PubMed

    van Mier, H; Tempel, L W; Perlmutter, J S; Raichle, M E; Petersen, S E

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess brain activity measured during continuous performance of design tracing tasks. Three issues were addressed: identification of brain areas involved in performing maze and square tracing tasks, investigation of differences and similarities in these areas related to dominant and nondominant hand performance, and most importantly, examination of the effects of practice in these areas. A total of 32 normal, right-handed subjects were instructed to move a pen with the dominant right hand (16 subjects) or nondominant left hand (16 subjects) continuously through cut-out maze and square patterns with their eyes closed during a 40-s positron emission tomography (PET) scan to measure regional blood flow. There were six conditions: 1) holding the pen on a writing tablet without moving it (rest condition); 2) tracing a maze without practice; 3) tracing the same maze after 10 min of practice; 4) tracing a novel maze; and tracing an easily learned square design at 5) high or 6) low speed. To identify brain areas generally related to continuous tracing, data analyses were performed on the combined data acquired during the five tracing scans minus rest conditions. Areas activated included: primary and secondary motor areas, somatosensory, parietal, and inferior frontal cortex, thalamus, and several cerebellar regions. Then comparisons were made between right- and left-hand performance. There were no significant differences in performance. As for brain activations, only primary motor cortex and anterior cerebellum showed activations that switched with hand of performance. All other areas, with the exception of the midbrain, showed activations that were common for both right- and left-hand performance. These areas were further analyzed for significant conditional effects. We found patterns of activation related to velocity in the contralateral primary motor cortex, related to unskilled performance in right premotor and parietal areas and left cerebellum, related to skilled performance in supplementary motor area (SMA), and related to the level of capacity at which subjects were performing in left premotor cortex, ipsilateral anterior cerebellum, right posterior cerebellum and right dentate nucleus. These findings demonstrate two important principles: 1) practice produces a shift in activity from one set of areas to a different area and 2) practice-related activations appeared in the same hemisphere regardless of the hand used, suggesting that some of the areas related to maze learning must code information at an abstract level that is distinct from the motor performance of the task itself. PMID:9772270

  10. High-Precision Measurement of the 19Ne Half-Life and Implications for Right-Handed Weak Currents

    E-print Network

    S. Triambak; P. Finlay; C. S. Sumithrarachchi; G. Hackman; G. C. Ball; P. E. Garrett; C. E. Svensson; D. S. Cross; A. B. Garnsworthy; R. Kshetri; J. N. Orce; M. R. Pearson; E. R. Tardiff; H. Al-Falou; R. A. E. Austin; R. Churchman; M. K. Djongolov; R. D'Entremont; C. Kierans; L. Milovanovic; S. O'Hagan; S. Reeve; S. K. L. Sjue; S. J. Williams

    2012-06-26

    We report a precise determination of the 19Ne half-life to be $T_{1/2} = 17.262 \\pm 0.007$ s. This result disagrees with the most recent precision measurements and is important for placing bounds on predicted right-handed interactions that are absent in the current Standard Model. We are able to identify and disentangle two competing systematic effects that influence the accuracy of such measurements. Our findings prompt a reassessment of results from previous high-precision lifetime measurements that used similar equipment and methods.

  11. [Nutritional profile of the Xukuru-Kariri indigenous people in the state of Minas Gerais in accordance with different anthropometric and body composition indicators].

    PubMed

    Simões, Bárbara dos Santos; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Pena, João Luiz; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of indigenous Xukuru-Kariri villagers in the state of Minas Gerais between seven and seventy-eight years of age in accordance with the different anthropometric and body composition indicator. The measurements were: weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%). The sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric indices were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 58 individuals was evaluated, of which 56.9% (n =33) were male and 43.1% (n =25) were female. Specificity was greater than sensitivity in all indices. It was seen that 29% of individuals were classified as having excess body fat as assessed by BMI and hand-to-hand bioimpedance and 50% of subjects had high body fat in relation to BMI and WC. Studies need to be conducted with different ethnic groups in order to construct indicators for specific nutritional guidance of indigenous health services. PMID:23358766

  12. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments. PMID:25203584

  13. Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics

    E-print Network

    Wang, Song

    Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics from Kinect Videos Brent,quc,songwang}@cec.sc.edu Abstract. For person identification, motion and anthropometric bio- metrics are known to be less sensitive method that uses motion and anthropometric biometrics acquired from an inexpensive Kinect RGBD sensor

  14. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Reilly; J. Bangsbo; A. Franks

    2000-01-01

    This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer playershave to adapt to the physical demandsof the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess

  15. A New Electronic Monitoring Device to Measure Medication Adherence: Usability of the Helping Hand

    PubMed Central

    De Bleser, Leentje; Vincke, Birgit; Dobbels, Fabienne; Happ, Mary Beth; Maes, Bart; Vanhaecke, Johan; De Geest, Sabina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the user performance, satisfaction and acceptability of the Helping Hand™ (B&O Medicom) electronic medication adherence monitor. Using a mixed-method design, we studied 11 kidney transplant patients and 10 healthy volunteers during three weeks. Although testing showed positive usability aspects, several areas requiring technical improvement were identified: the most important obstacles to usability and acceptability were the weak sound signal, problems loading the medication, and the fact that only one medication could be used at a time. PMID:22294885

  16. Anthropometric characteristics and motor skills in talent selection and development in indoor soccer.

    PubMed

    Ré, Alessandro H Nicolai; Corrêa, Umberto César; Böhme, Maria Tereza S

    2010-06-01

    Kick performance, anthropometric characteristics, slalom, and linear running were assessed in 49 (24 elite, 25 nonelite) postpubertal indoor soccer players in order to (a) verify whether anthropometric characteristics and physical and technical capacities can distinguish players of different competitive levels, (b) compare the kicking kinematics of these groups, with and without a defined target, and (c) compare results on the assessments and coaches' subjective rankings of the players. Thigh circumference and specific technical capacities differentiated the players by level of play; cluster analysis correctly classified 77.5% of the players. The correlation between players' standardized measures and the coaches' rankings was 0.29. Anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities do not necessarily differentiate players at post-pubertal stages and should not be overvalued during early development. Considering the coaches' rankings, performance measures outside the specific game conditions may not be useful in identification of talented players. PMID:20681343

  17. Observational skills assessment score: reliability in measuring amount and quality of use of the affected hand in unilateral cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Observational Skills Assessment Score (OSAS) measures amount and quality of use of the affected hand in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) in bimanual activities and could therefore be a valuable addition to existing assessment tools. The OSAS consists of tasks that are age appropriate and require use of the affected hand. Methods To measure the agreement and reliability of the OSAS a convenience sample of two groups of 16 children with unilateral spastic CP (2.5-6 and 12–16 years old), performed age specific bimanual tasks in 2 measurement sessions. Three experienced raters took part in testing and 8 in scoring. Intra class correlation (ICC) values for intra- and inter-rater reliability, and the mean and standard deviation of the differences between measurements were calculated. For test-retest reliability beside ICC scores, Smallest Detectable Differences (SDDs) were calculated in 16 older and 10 younger children. Results Generally, there seems to be good agreement between repeated measurements of the OSAS, as indicated by the small SDDs on most scales for quality of movement, compared to the range of their scales. This indicates potentially good sensitivity to change if used for patient evaluation purposes. The exceptions were the ‘quality of reach’ score for all tasks, and all quality scores for the stacking blocks task for the young children. As used in the present study, the OSAS has good discriminative capacity within patient populations as indicated by the high ICCs for most quality scores. Measuring the amount of use does not seem to be useful for either discrimination or evaluation. Conclusion In general, the OSAS seems to be a reliable tool for assessing the quality of use of the affected hand in bimanual activities in younger and older children with unilateral CP. Some modifications may improve its usefulness and efficiency. PMID:24139170

  18. Description and validation of a non-invasive technique to measure the posture of all hand segments.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L; Pérez-González, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and validate a technique for measuring the posture of all the segments of the hand in a non-invasive way. The technique uses digital photographic images to reconstruct 3-D location of markers drawn on the skin. The markers are defined to obtain joint rotation angles with physiological meaning. Different experiments have been developed in order to analyze the accuracy and repeatability of the angle measurements. Although the placement of markers does not require any special care, the errors due to their location are lower than 2.6 deg in all cases, thus assuring the repeatability of the technique. PMID:14986420

  19. Associations between Handgrip Strength and Ultrasound-Measured Muscle Thickness of the Hand and Forearm in Young Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Counts, Brittany R; Barnett, Brian E; Dankel, Scott J; Lee, Kofan; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2015-08-01

    It is unknown whether muscle size of intrinsic hand muscles is associated with handgrip strength. To investigate the relationships between handgrip strength and flexor muscle size of the hand and forearm, muscle thickness (MT) of 86 young adults (43 men and 43 women) between the ages of 18 and 34 y was measured by ultrasound. Two MTs (forearm radius and forearm ulna MT) in the anterior forearm, two MTs (lumbrical and dorsal interosseous MT) in the anterior hand and handgrip strength were measured on the right side. Linear regression with part (also referred to as semipartial) correlation coefficients revealed that forearm ulna MT positively correlated with handgrip strength in both men (part = 0.379, p = 0.001) and women (part = 0.268, p = 0.002). Dorsal interosseous MT correlated with handgrip strength in women only (part = 0.289, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that the forearm ulna and dorsal interosseous MTs for women and forearm ulna MTs for men are factors contributing to prediction of handgrip strength in young adults. PMID:25959055

  20. Comparison of the Refractive Measurements with Hand-held Autorefractometer, Table-mounted Autorefractometer and Cycloplegic Retinoscopy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Soner; Çavdarli, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of the hand-held and table-top autorefractokeratometer in measuring refractive errors by comparing them with cycloplegic retinoscopy. Methods Included in the study were 112 eyes of 112 pediatric patients whose mean age was 6.78 ± 2.61 years (range, 2 to 12 years). The refractive errors of all the eyes were measured with and without cycloplegia using a hand held autorefractokeratometer (Retinomax K-plus 3), table top autorefractokeratometer (Canon RK-F1) and performing cycloplegic retinoscopy. The spherical equivalent, cylindrical axis and keratometer values were statistically compared. Results The mean spherical equivalent obtained from the Retinomax K-plus 3 was significantly less hyperopic than that of Canon RK-F1 (p = 0.004) before cycloplegia. When the Bland Altman analysis was performed in comparisons of spherical equivalent values measured with the Retinomax K-plus 3, Canon RK-F1 and cycloplegic retinoscopy, it was seen that almost all of the differences between the measurements remained within the range of ±2 standard deviation. Good agreement was found between Retinomax K-plus 3 and Canon RK-F1 for the Jackson cross-cylinder values at axis 0° and 45°; keratometer values respectively. Conclusions The refractive error components were highly correlated between the two instruments and cycloplegic retinoscopy. PMID:26028946

  1. Birth order influence on the anthropometric properties of the boys from Tuzla region (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Hadzihalilovi?, Jasminka; Redzi?, Amira; Terzi?, Rifat; Jusupovi?, Fatima; Hadzihalilovi?, Amir; Osmi?, Munevera

    2004-05-01

    Birth order and its effect on growth and development of children and youths have rarely been studied so far. The objective of this research was an analysis of the birth order effects on some anthropometric properties of the boys 11-16 years old. The sample consisted of 748 boys from the Tuzla region. As the sample included very few boys born as the third, forth, or fifth child, we decided to consider only the differences in the mean values for some anthropometric parameters between the groups of the first- and the second-born. Measurements were taken according to IBP and the following parameters were investigated: body height, body mass, chest circumference, upper arm circumference, upper leg circumference, sitting height, arm length, leg length, pelvis width, shoulders width, length and width of head. We established that in most generations the firstborn boys have larger mean values for most anthropometric variables in comparison to the second-born. PMID:15629024

  2. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  3. Dermal transfer of chlorpyrifos residues from residential surfaces: comparison of hand press, hand drag, wipe, and polyurethane foam roller measurements after broadcast and aerosol pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Fenske, R A

    1999-06-01

    Indoor residential pesticide applications present the potential for human exposures, particularly for small children. Personal contact with target and nontarget surfaces can result in transfer of pesticides to the skin, but the magnitude of such transfer is uncertain. This research compared surface sampling techniques [wipe and polyurethane foam (PUF) roller] with the removal ability of human skin following broadcast and total aerosol release applications of Dursban (Dow Elanco, Midland, MI), a residential formulation containing the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Hands were washed immediately after surface contact, following a protocol that included a laboratory-generated adjustment factor to account for incomplete removal of chlorpyrifos from skin. Chlorpyrifos transfer was similar for hand press and hand drag techniques, averaging approximately 1-6 ng/cm2 of carpet contacted. These amounts represented < 1% of the amount of chlorpyrifos deposited on the surfaces 3.5 hr earlier. Chlorpyrifos transfer from carpet to skin was 23-24 times lower than for wipe sampling and 33-36 times lower than for PUF roller sampling (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0006 for broadcast and aerosol applications, respectively). Hand press sampling removed approximately 4.5 times less chlorpyrifos from nontarget furniture surfaces (12 ng/cm2) than did wipe sampling (56 ng/cm2; p = 0.009). Chlorpyrifos residues on carpet were substantially higher after broadcast applications than after aerosol applications, but residues on such nontarget surfaces as furniture were substantially higher for the aerosol application. This study indicates that human skin removes substantially less residue from carpets and furniture than either conventional wipe or PUF roller sampling methods following residential pest control applications of chlorpyrifos. Although this paper focuses on quantifying residue transfer from surface to skin using different surface sampling techniques, no attempt is made to quantify the amount of chlorpyrifos residue that is subsequently absorbed. PMID:10339446

  4. Descriptive Anthropometric Reference Data for Older Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR

    2000-01-01

    Objective To present selected anthropometric data derived from adults aged 60 years and older examined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design NHANES III used a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Persons aged 60 years and older, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans were oversampled

  5. Using data mining technique to explore anthropometric data towards the development of sizing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norsaadah Zakaria; Jamil Salleh Mohd; Nasir Taib; Yong Yuan Tan; Yap Bee Wah

    2008-01-01

    An anthropometric survey of 629 girls aged between 7and 12 years old were conducted covering major ethnic groups namely Malays, Chinese and Indians from schools in rural and urban districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. 33 different body dimensions were taken from each subject following the ISO8559-1998 standard for body measurement. Firstly, the whole data was analysed using descriptive analysis

  6. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  7. An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg) using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System) as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days), anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh), and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg) was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg) + 0.055*weight (kg)2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh); R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance. PMID:22436534

  8. A 3D Anthropometric Analysis of the Orolabial Region in Chinese Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The orolabial region frequently undergoes significant changes following trauma, orthognathic surgery or orthodontics. Ethnicity, age and gender specific normative data are needed during the planning phase before surgical interventions in this region. In 2008 the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery published anthropometric lip measurements of Chinese children; however such reference data for Chinese young adults are currently unavailable. Therefore this cross-sectional study using 3-D facial photographs acquired from 103 healthy Chinese young adults with Class I skeletal pattern was conducted to deliver normative data for this age group. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these 3-D images and linear, angular measurements as well as proportions were calculated. It was found that all orolabial measurements were significantly higher in males other than the labiomental angle. No gender differences were found in the anthropometric proportions. This study established the orolabial anthropometric normative data for Chinese young adults. These norms can be used to objectively evaluate the morphology of the lips during diagnosis, treatment planning and assessment of treatment outcomes. PMID:24094549

  9. Reliability of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument with healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie; Mathisen, Bernice; Baines, Surinder; Lazarus, Cathy; Callister, Robin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of tongue and handgrip strength and endurance measurements in healthy adults using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Fifty-one healthy participants (21 males, 30 females; age range = 19-57 years) were tested on four occasions 1 week apart to determine test-retest reliability. The primary outcome measures were isometric tongue and handgrip strength (best of three trials) and sustained isometric endurance. Small increases (changes in group mean) in both anterior (1.7 %) and posterior (2.5 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (5 %) between weeks 1 and 2 were observed with no change in subsequent weeks, suggesting that there is only a small learning effect for these measurements. The within-subject variation (mean-typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation [CV]) indicated higher than desirable initial variation for anterior (CV 10.8 %) and posterior (CV 11.8 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (CV 15.2 %) but this was reduced in weeks 2-4. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated acceptable and improved reliability for both anterior (ICC 0.77-0.90) and posterior (ICC 0.79-0.86) tongue strength and handgrip strength (ICC 0.69-0.91) after week 1. Additional exploratory analyses were conducted with a subset of data to determine whether two values within 5 kPa (tongue) or 15 kPa (handgrip) provide superior strength reliability. Neither tongue nor hand endurance measurements were sufficiently reliable. These findings suggest that tongue and handgrip strength values demonstrate acceptable reliability, especially if familiarization is provided. Further investigation is needed to reduce sources of variability in tongue endurance measurements. PMID:24045852

  10. Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robots are limited only by the dexterity of the hand. Dr. Salisbury, in conjunction with Stanford, Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed the Salisbury Hand which has three, three-jointed human-like fingers. The tips are covered with a resilient, high friction material for gripping. The robot hand can manipulate objects by finger motion, and adapts to different aims. Advanced software allows the hand to interpret information from fingertip sensors. Further development is expected. A company has been formed to reproduce the device; copies have been delivered to several laboratories.

  11. Familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables among the Lobana (nomadic origin) population in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza; Kaur, Punarjot

    2012-01-01

    Familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric characteristics was investigated among the Lobana (a tribal origin) population in Punjab, a North Indian state. A total of 505 individuals comprised the study sample, constituting 116 families of 3 generations. The study represents a multivariate model analysis, which includes family data with respect to blood pressure phenotypes and other metric measurements such as height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and 4 skinfold measurements. A higher correlation for almost all sets of anthropometric variables with blood pressure was found among the offspring generation as compared with the parental and grandparental generations. The study confirmed that the familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric measurements is strong in the offspring generation. The findings suggest that sharing a household environment has a significant effect on familial aggregation especially for systolic blood pressure. PMID:20566522

  12. Participants: 40 (20 female) right-handed,healthy undergraduates Baseline Measures: EEG (see adjacent poster) + State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) anxiety [5] ratings.

    E-print Network

    .2.10.0-.1 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 Aims Participants: 40 (20 female) right-handed,healthy undergraduates Paradigm Baseline Measures: EEG (see adjacent poster) + State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) anxiety [5] ratings. Task: Several 4.33-minute blocks of a continuous performance measure of inhibitory

  13. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  14. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  15. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  16. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  17. Hand Washing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive ... hands clean: Use warm water (not cold or hot). Use whatever soap you like. Antibacterial soaps are ...

  18. A Moving Robotic Hand System for Whole-Glove Permeation and Penetration: Captan and Nitrile Gloves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Phalen; Shane Que Hee

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a robotic hand to test the influence of hand movement on the permeation\\/penetration of captan through disposable nitrile rubber gloves. An available robotic hand was modified to within one standard deviation of the anthropometric 50th percentile male hand. Permeation tests used a nylon inspection glove interposed between medium-size outer and inner nitrile

  19. International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Leslie G; Katic, Marko J; Forrest, Christopher R; Alt, Kurt W; Bagic, Ivana; Baltadjiev, Georgi; Cunha, Eugenia; Cvicelová, Marta; Davies, Scott; Erasmus, Ilse; Gillett-Netting, Rhonda; Hajnis, Karel; Kemkes-Grottenthaler, Arianne; Khomyakova, Irena; Kumi, Ashizava; Kgamphe, J Stranger; Kayo-daigo, Nakamura; Le, Thuy; Malinowski, Andrzej; Negasheva, Marina; Manolis, Sotiris; Ogetürk, Murat; Parvizrad, Ramin; Rösing, Friedrich; Sahu, Paresh; Sforza, Chiarella; Sivkov, Stefan; Sultanova, Nigar; Tomazo-Ravnik, Tatjana; Tóth, Gábor; Uzun, Ahmet; Yahia, Eman

    2005-07-01

    When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various races/ethnic groups were discovered. To treat congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in members of these groups successfully, surgeons require access to craniofacial databases based on accurate anthropometric measurements. Normative data of facial measurements are indispensable to precise determination of the degree of deviations from the normal. The set of anthropometric measurements of the face in the population studied was gathered by an international team of scientists. Investigators in the country of the given ethnic group, experienced and/or specially trained in anthropometric methods, carried out the measurements. The normal range in each resultant database was then established, providing valuable information about major facial characteristics. Comparison of the ethnic groups' databases with the established norms of the North America whites (NAW) offered the most suitable way to select a method for successful treatment. The study group consisted of 1470 healthy subjects (18 to 30 years), 750 males and 720 females. The largest group (780 subjects, 53.1%) came from Europe, all of them Caucasians. Three were drawn from the Middle-East (180 subjects, 12.2%), five from Asia (300 subjects, 20.4%) and four from peoples of African origin (210 subjects, 14.3%). Their morphological characteristics were determined by 14 anthropometric measurements, 10 of them used already by classic facial artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer, complemented by four measurements from the nasal, labio-oral and ear regions. In the regions with single measurements, identical values to NAW in forehead height, mouth width, and ear height were found in 99.7% in both sexes, while in those with multiple measurements, vertical measurements revealed a higher frequency of identical values than horizontal ones. The orbital regions exhibited the greatest variations in identical and contrasting measurements in comparison to NAW. Nose heights and widths contrasted sharply: in relation to NAW the nose was very or extremely significantly wide in both sexes of Asian and Black ethnic groups. Among Caucasians, nose height significantly differed from NAW in three ethnic groups, with one shorter and two greater. In the Middle Eastern groups nose width was identical to those of NAW but the height was significantly greater. The present study, conducted by investigators working separately across the world and with small samples of the population, is clearly preliminary in nature and extent. Yet it may fulfill its mission if medical and anthropological investigators continue the work of establishing normative data of the face. These data are urgently needed by medical professionals but have been lacking up till now in western and northern Europe, Asia, and Africa. PMID:16077306

  20. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  1. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Anderson; K. H. Joyner

    1995-01-01

    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside

  2. Measurements of the Antineutrino Spin Asymmetry in Beta Decay of the Neutron and Restrictions on the Mass of a Right-Handed Gauge Boson

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Kuznetsov; A. P. Serebrov; I. V. Stepanenko; A. V. Alduschenkov; M. S. Lasakov; A. A. Kokin; Yu. A. Mostovoi; B. G. Yerozolimsky; M. S. Dewey

    1995-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the neutron antineutrino spin asymmetry coefficient B in the beta decay of polarized neutrons. Combining results of measurements of the observed asymmetry PB = 0.6617+\\/-0.0044 with measurements of the neutron beam polarization P = \\\\(66.88+\\/-0.22\\\\)%, we obtain the value B = 0.9894+\\/-0.0083. This value implies that the mass of a hypothetical right-handed charged gauge

  3. Use of Anthropometric Indices to Reveal Nutritional Status: Normative Data from 10,226 Chinese Neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai-Fai Fok; Kam-Lun Hon; Pak-Cheung Ng; Eric Wong; Hung-Kwan So; Joseph Lau; Chun-Bong Chow; Wai-Hong Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measures of body size at birth are widely used for the evaluation of prenatal growth but limitations exist in their interpretation. Objective: To establish the percentile curves for the six common anthropometric indices (PI: ponderal index, BMI: body mass index, THR: thigh circumference\\/head circumference ratio, MAC\\/OFC: mid-arm circumference\\/head circumference, W\\/OFC: weight\\/head circumference, and W\\/L: weight\\/length) and determine the best

  4. Coordination of Hand Shape

    PubMed Central

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In Experiment 1, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  5. A 3D anthropometric analysis of the orolabial region in Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    The orolabial region undergoes considerable changes after orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity, age, and sex-specific norms are needed during the planning of interventions in this region. In 2008 the Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg published anthropometric measurements of the lips of Chinese children, but to our knowledge such reference data for young Chinese adults are not currently available. We therefore used digital anthropometry on 3-dimensional craniofacial images acquired from 103 healthy young Chinese adults with Class I skeletal pattern. Anthropometric landmarks were identified, which provided linear and angular measurements. All orolabial measurements were significantly larger in men than women, with the exception of the labiomental angle. In contrast, there were no sex differences in the anthropometric proportions. We therefore provide what we think are the first cross-sectional norms available for young Chinese adults. These norms can be used to evaluate the morphology of the lips objectively for preoperative diagnosis, planning of treatment, and assessment of postoperative outcomes. PMID:24094549

  6. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  7. The zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture - an anthropometric appraisal of surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Hagemeister, Christoph; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Before undergoing repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, most patients are worried about their postoperative appearance. Furthermore, there is an ongoing discussion about the selection of the surgical approach to the inferior orbita and resulting eyelid deformities. We present a photo-assisted postoperative evaluation of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair based on reference anthropometric data. Two hundred and twenty-one patients underwent zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair. An analysis of standardized postoperative photographs included measurements of eye fissure width and height, lid sulcus height, upper lid height, upper and lower coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, canthal tilt, scleral show, ectropion and entropion. It was clearly distinguished between operated and contralateral eyelid, and whether a transconjunctival or a subciliary approach was performed. Surgery per se significantly influenced eyelid deformities as measured by its impact on eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show and ectropion. The surgical approach selected significantly affected eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show, indicating distortion of the lower eyelid. Investigations regarding orbital fractures should clearly differentiate the type of fracture. The subciliary approach included the highest risk of postoperative lower eyelid deformity in zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture repair. The standardized measurements described here are accurate and objective to evaluate postoperative results. PMID:23218980

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  9. Correlations between Areas, Volumes or Body Fat and Anthropometric Variables

    PubMed Central

    ALBULESCU, DANA; ILIESCU, ADRIANA

    2014-01-01

    Body fat is an important determinant of nutritional status and health. This paper aims to demonstrate the existence of significant correlations between areas, or volumes of fat and anthropometric variables. PMID:25729592

  10. Correlations between Areas, Volumes or Body Fat and Anthropometric Variables.

    PubMed

    Albulescu, Dana; Iliescu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Body fat is an important determinant of nutritional status and health. This paper aims to demonstrate the existence of significant correlations between areas, or volumes of fat and anthropometric variables. PMID:25729592

  11. Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

  12. Sequence dependence of base-pair stacking in right-handed DNA in solution: proton nuclear Overhauser effect NMR measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D J; Kozlowski, S A; Bhatt, R

    1983-01-01

    Single-crystal x-ray studies of d(C-G-C-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G) exhibit base-pair propeller twisting [Dickerson, R. E. & Drew, H. R. (1981) J. Mol. Biol. 149, 761-786] that results in close contacts between adjacent purines in the minor groove in pyrimidine (3'-5')-purine steps and in the major groove in purine (3'-5')-pyrimidine steps [Calladine, C. R. (1982) J. Mol. Biol. 161, 343-362]. These observations require an approximately 3.4 A separation between the minor groove edges of adenosines on adjacent base pairs for the dA-dA step but predict a smaller separation for the dT-dA step and a larger separation for the dA-dT step in a D(A-T-T-A).d(T-A-A-T) fragment. We have confirmed these predictions from steady-state nuclear Overhauser effect measurements between assigned minor groove adenosine H-2 protons on adjacent base pairs in the proton NMR spectrum of the d(C1-G2-A3-T4-T5-A6-T6-A5-A4-T3-C2-G1) self-complementary dodecanucleotide duplex (henceforth called the Pribnow 12-mer) in solution. The measured cross-relaxation rates (product of steady-state nuclear Overhauser effect and selective spin- lattice relaxation rates) translate to interproton separations between adjacent adenosine H-2 protons of 4.22 A in the (dA3-dT4).(dA4-dT3) step, of 3.56 A in the (dT4-dT5).dA5-dA4) step, and of 3.17 A in the (dT5-dA6).(dT6-dA5) step for the Pribnow 12-mer duplex with an isotropic rotational correlation time of 9 ns at 5 degrees C. These proton NMR results show that the sequence-dependent base-pair stacking resulting from base-pair propeller twisting of defined handedness for right-handed DNA in the solid state is maintained in aqueous solution. PMID:6575384

  13. Growth of cranial volume: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Purkait, Ruma

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study is to follow the growth dynamics of cranial volume from birth to 18 years of age among 1623 central Indian subjects. Anthropometric technique was adopted to estimate the cranial volume using maximum length, width and auricular height of head. The mean cranial volume at birth is 376 cc in male and 308 cc in female i.e. 28% and 26% of the 18 years old volume. Within a year the volume reaches 65% in male and 59% in female of the adult size due to very rapid growth during the first six months after birth. The adult cranial volume at 18 years is 1329 cc in males and 1193 cc in females, approximately 3.5 and 4 times of the birth size respectively. The cranial volume reaches its adult size in females at 16 years of age and a year later in males. The present study has generated metrical norms for all growing ages and also the growth dynamics for cranial volume of Indian subjects which will be useful to physicians as a guideline in correcting cranial deformity. PMID:21315671

  14. Development of a hand-held sensor probe for detection of sound components radiated from a specific device using surface intensity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Hirao; Kohei Yamamoto; Kentaro Nakamura; Sadayuki Ueha

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a hand-held sensor probe is developed for surface intensity measurements. The sensor probe is composed of a 1\\/2-in. condenser microphone and a lightweight accelerometer of 1 g (=10?3 kg) which are connected with a vibration damper made of silicon rubber. The reliable measurement range of the sensor probe is examined and shown to be 100 Hz to7

  15. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen C Laura; Ana B Menezes; Ricardo B Noal; Pedro C Hallal; Cora L Araújo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004,

  16. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emily L; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45-88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44-81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature-and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them. PMID:26097455

  17. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emily L.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45–88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44–81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature—and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them.

  18. Kinematics and force analysis of a robot hand based on an artificial biological control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man Guen

    An artificial biological control scheme (ABCS) is used to study the kinematics and statics of a multifingered hand with a view to developing an efficient control scheme for grasping. The ABCS is based on observation of human grasping, intuitively taking it as the optimum model for robotic grasping. A final chapter proposes several grasping measures to be applied to the design and control of a robot hand. The ABCS leads to the definition of two modes of the grasping action: natural grasping (NG), which is the human motion to grasp the object without any special task command, and forced grasping (FG), which is the motion with a specific task. The grasping direction line (GDL) is defined to determine the position and orientation of the object in the hand. The kinematic model of a redundant robot arm and hand is developed by reconstructing the human upper extremity and using anthropometric measurement data. The inverse kinematic analyses of various types of precision and power grasping are studied by replacing the three-link with one virtual link and using the GDL. The static force analysis for grasping with fingertips is studied by applying the ABCS. A measure of grasping stability, that maintains the positions of contacts as well as the configurations of the redundant fingers, is derived. The grasping stability measure (GSM), a measure of how well the hand maintains grasping under the existence of external disturbance, is derived by the torque vector of the hand calculated from the external force applied to the object. The grasping manipulability measure (GMM), a measure of how well the hand manipulates the object for the task, is derived by the joint velocity vector of the hand calculated from the object velocity. The grasping performance measure (GPM) is defined by the sum of the directional components of the GSM and the GMM. Finally, a planar redundant hand with two fingers is examined in order to study the various postures of the hand performing pinch grasping by applying the GSM and the GMM.

  19. Hand preference, performance abilities, and hand selection in children

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioral assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge. PMID:24600414

  20. Robot Hands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2004-01-01

    This activity explores how sensing is part of robotics. Learners try tying their shoes with different constraints. After tying shoes normally, learners attempt to tie their shoes while wearing thick gloves or with popsicle sticks taped to their hands so their fingers can't bend. A connection is made to the limitations of the motion of robots, and the role of design in allowing robots to perform different functions.

  1. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 ?g/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 ?g/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  2. Measurement properties of the short version of the Van Lieshout test for arm\\/hand function of persons with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. M. Post; G Van Lieshout; H. A. M. Seelen; G. J. Snoek; M. J. IJzerman; C. Pons; MWM Post

    2006-01-01

    Study design:Two validation studies.Objectives:To assess the measurement properties of the short version of the Van Lieshout test (VLT-SV), a new test for arm\\/hand function of persons with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Two specialized rehabilitation centres in The Netherlands.Methods:Study 1 (N=12) – assessment of inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlations (ICC); weighted kappa; Bland–Altman plots). Study 2 (N=55) – assessment of convergent

  3. Longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Darrall-Jones, Josh; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-06-01

    Till, K, Jones, B, Darrall-Jones, J, Emmonds, S, and Cooke, C. Longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1713-1722, 2015-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 years) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of preseason over a 6-year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (Under 16-17, n = 35; Under 17-18, n = 44; Under 18-19, n = 35; Under 19-20, n = 16). A subset of 15 players were assessed for long-term changes over 4 years (Under 16-19). Anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, 10-m momentum, vertical jump, yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat, bench press, and prone row) assessments were collected. Paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant annual (e.g., body mass, U16 = 76.4 ± 8.4, U17 = 81.3 ± 8.3 kg; p < 0.001, d = 0.59) and long-term (e.g., vertical jump, Under 16 = 44.1 ± 3.8, Under 19 = 52.1 ± 5.3 cm; p < 0.001, d = 1.74) changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics. Greater percentage changes were identified between the Under 16-17 age categories compared with the other ages (e.g., 1RM squat, U16-17 = 22.5 ± 19.5 vs. U18-19 = 4.8 ± 6.4%). Findings demonstrate the annual and long-term development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy rugby league players establishing greater changes occur at younger ages upon the commencement of a structured training program within an academy. Coaches should understand the long-term development of physical characteristics and use longitudinal methods for monitoring and evaluating player performance and development. PMID:25474341

  4. Lipid Profile In Relation To Anthropometric Indices and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi-Asl, Maryam; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehranghiz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Aliashrafi, Soudabeh; Sadein, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated in 63 overweight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR) and non insulin-resistant (NIR) groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ?3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012) was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.37; P=0.004) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (r=0.33; P=0.011) in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circum­ference) are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obesePCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treat­ment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future. PMID:24688970

  5. Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

  6. Hand hygiene: seeing is believing.

    PubMed

    Plante-Jenkins, Cynthia; Belu, Florentina

    2009-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures to prevent the transmission of infections. The infection prevention and control team at Trillium Health Centre has developed an interactive visual portrayal of the efficacy of alcohol-based hand rub use. Staff participate by having fingertip bacteria colony counts determined prior to and after hand sanitizing. During the process, infection control practitioners are able to provide one-on-one coaching on proper hand sanitizing. Seeing is believing. The visible and often dramatic decreases in the fingertip bacterial colony counts after using the hand rub help convey effectiveness. Staff find this cost-effective educational exercise fun, engaging and convincing. PMID:19667787

  7. Prediction of kinematic and kinetic performance in a drop vertical jump with individual anthropometric factors in adolescent female athletes: implications for cadaveric investigations.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range <0.01-0.95). However, none of the anthropometric relationships accounted for clinical variance or provided substantive univariate accuracy needed for clinical prediction algorithms (r(2) < 0.20). Mass and BMI demonstrated models that were significant (p < 0.05) and predictive (r(2) > 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions. PMID:25266933

  8. [Body proportions in sculpture and painting. An anthropometric and historical essay (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hufschmidt, H J

    1977-11-01

    Taking anthropometric mean values of the European population as a standard, we examined some proportions in representative sculptural and pictorial works of art. We established that the classical antique sculptures and those of Michelangelo and his school conform very closely to the European norm. Mid-Italian wooden crucifixes of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and early medieval European paintings of the Corpus Christi, on the other hand, display quite different proportions: exaggerated length of forearms, or torsos that are stunted in relationship to the legs. Proportions similar to these can be found in the art of the New Kingdom of the Egyptians, reflecting the physique of the Nubian population. We discussed the extent to which an artistic proportion is conditioned by style, imitation, racial aesthetic ideals, or anatomy of the ambient population. PMID:339875

  9. [Main treatment and preventive measures for hand-foot syndrome, a dermatologic side effect of cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Bartal, Alexandra; Mátrai, Zoltán; Szûcs, Attila; Liszkay, Gabriella

    2011-06-01

    Hand-foot syndrome is a highly unpleasant adverse reaction caused by treatment protocols containing capecitabine (an orally administered drug), docetaxel, liposomal doxorubicin infusions or continuously infused 5-fluorouracil. It affects the skin of the palms and soles manifesting characteristic symptoms like erythema, inflammation, dysesthesia, pain, thickening, desquamation and cracking of the skin that may progress to cause wounds and ulceration, negatively influencing quality of life, psychological state and belief in recovery, which often result in the need of permanent or temporary interruption of the oncologic treatment and are potential sources of danger to the completion of the therapy. Adequate provision of the syndrome is of particular importance since a decline in adherence due to adverse events endangers precise maintenance of the self-sufficient oral treatment at home. Early recognition of symptoms, regular oncologic checkups and patient education on how to prevent or soothe the unpleasant skin toxicities could ensure a more successful treatment. PMID:21655474

  10. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  11. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (?) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  12. Physiological, anthropometric, strength, and muscle power characteristics correlates with running performance in young runners.

    PubMed

    Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Guglielmo, Luiz G A; Santos, Bruno V; Hernandez, Sara G; da Silva, Sérgio G; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-06-01

    Dellagrana, RA, Guglielmo, LGA, Santos, BV, Hernandez, SG, da Silva, SG, and Campos, W. Physiological, anthropometric, strength, and muscle power characteristics correlates with running performance in young runners. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1584-1591, 2015-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, strength, and muscle power variables and a 5-km time trial (5kmT) in young runners. Twenty-three runners volunteered to participate in this study. Height, body mass, body fat, and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured. The subjects underwent laboratory testing to determine maximal oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), velocity at ventilatory threshold (VVT), running economy (RE), velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), and peak velocity (PV). Peak torque, total work, and power were measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·s and 240°·s angular velocities. Right and left knee flexor and extensor torques were evaluated. Finally, the participants performed a 5kmT. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the variables that significantly related to 5kmT. Strength and muscle power variables did not correlate with 5kmT. However, most physiological variables were associated with 5kmT. Velocity at ventilatory threshold alone explains 40% of the variance in 5kmT. The addition of the RE at speed 11.2 km·h (RE11.2) and FFM to the prediction equation allowed for 71% of the adjusted variance in 5kmT to be predicted. These results show that strength and muscle power variables are not good predictors of 5kmT; however, the physiological variables presented high prediction capacity in the 5kmT. Moreover, the anthropometric measures showed significant influence in performance prediction. PMID:26010795

  13. Sex of Preceding Sibling and Anthropometrics of Subsequent Offspring at Birth and in Young Adulthood

    E-print Network

    Helle, Samuli

    Sex of Preceding Sibling and Anthropometrics of Subsequent Offspring at Birth and in Young is associated with anthropometrics of the subsequent child at birth and in young adulthood. This population- gest that even though the sex of the previous child is associated with the anthropometrics

  14. Anthropometric and behavioral patterns associated with weight maintenance after1 an obesity treatment in adolescents2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Anthropometric and behavioral patterns associated with weight maintenance after1 an obesity Objective To identify anthropometric and behavioral characteristics associated with28 weight maintenance inclusion and end of follow-up. Anthropometric and behavioral characteristics33 were compared between groups

  15. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  16. Simple anthropometric indices associated with ischemic heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry S. Kahn; Harland Austin; David F. Williamson; Daniel Arensberg

    1996-01-01

    In a case-control study of 217 hospitalized incident cases of ischemic heart disease and 261 controls we compared various anthropometric indices for the strength of their associations to the outcome event. The ratio of supine sagittal abdominal diameter to midthigh girth (“abdominal diameter index”; ADI) was the simple index that best discriminated cases from controls for both men (standardized difference,

  17. Head-and-Face Anthropometric Survey of Chinese Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LILI DU; ZIQING ZHUANG; HONGYU GUAN; JINGCAI XING; XIANZHI TANG; LIMIN WANG; ZHENGLUN WANG; HAIJIAO WANG; YUEWEI LIU; WENJIN SU; STACEY BENSON; SEAN GALLAGHER; DENNIS VISCUSI; WEIHONG CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been com- pletely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006.

  18. Measurements of bovine albumin as a model system for the development of a hand-held ellipsometer for ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miran Baygi, M. H.; Payne, P. A.

    2000-06-01

    Scattering ellipsometry is a measurement technique that can extract the characteristics of particles with relative ease. For some while, we have been interested in the use of scattering ellipsometry to examine the particles in the anterior chamber of the human eye. These particles are globular proteins, typically some 6 or 7 nm in diameter and measurements conducted at a wavelength of 670 nm confirm this. Particles or particle aggregates much greater in size will give rise to characteristic patterns in the ellipsometric results and analysis of these patterns could lead to a complete description of the physical properties of such particles. Examples of measurements of this nature made on latex particles are included. The results obtained from the measurements described confirm that bovine serum albumin is suitable as a calibrant for a scattering ellipsometer.

  19. Measurement of hand bone mineral content by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: development of the method, and its application in normal volunteers and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, A A; Brabyn, J; Jones, P W; Davis, M J; Woolf, A D

    1994-10-01

    OBJECTIVES--To develop a method of measuring hand bone mineral content (BMC) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA); to apply this method of measuring hand BMC to normal volunteers to ascertain causes of variability; and to measure hand BMC in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of varying duration and severity. METHODS--The x ray beam of the Hologic QDR 1000 dual energy x ray absorptiometer was hardened by introducing a perspex-aluminium plate and the analysis software altered to allow for the small tissue bulk of the hand compared with the torso. Ninety five volunteers (46 men age 24-81 and 49 women age 20-83) had scans of both hands. Eight volunteers were assessed repeatedly to establish reproducibility and effect of hand position. Fifty six patients (22 men, 34 women, age range 25-86 years) with RA of differing duration and severity, had hand BMC measurement by DXA. RESULTS--The precision of BMC measurement was 2.3% with no additional variation due to hand position. Hand dominance had no significant effect on BMC. In men, hand BMC correlated with height (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001), weight (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), forearm span (r = 0.5, p = 0.0006) and hand volume (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001). In women hand BMC correlated with height (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001), weight (r = 0.4, p = 0.003), forearm span (r = 0.3, p = 0.03) and hand volume (r = 0.49, p = 0.0008). After correcting for all these variables, male volunteers had significantly higher hand BMC than female volunteers (p = 0.01) and patients with RA had lower hand BMC than normal volunteers (total hand BMC in male volunteers 90.9 gms, 95% CI 86.9-95, in male patients 81.7 gms, 95% CI 73.7-89.6, p < 0.004, total hand BMC in female volunteers 62.2 gms 95% CI 59.8-64.5, female patients 52.3 gms, 95% CI 48.1-56.5, p < 0.005). In patients with RA, the hand BMC showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.44, p = 0.01), disease duration (r = -0.62, p = 0.0003), Larsen's grades (r = -0.62, p = 0.0002) and modified Sharp's method score (r = -0.69, p < 0.0001) in female patients only. CONCLUSIONS--A new, sensitive and reproducible technique of measurement of hand bone mineral content by DXA, has been developed and this method has been applied to normal volunteers and patients with RA. Hand dominance had no significant effect on hand BMC. After correcting for physical size, men have higher hand BMC than women. Hand BMC inversely correlates in women patients with disease duration and other validated methods of assessing radiological outcome in RA. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish its role in monitoring disease progression. PMID:7979583

  20. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60°C for 30 seconds, ?110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  1. Reliability of Isometric Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements of Healthy Elderly Subjects Made with a Hand-held Dynamometer and a Belt

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79?years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from ?5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements. PMID:25540481

  2. Anthropometric definitions of dysmorphic facial signs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stengel-Rutkowski; P. Schimanek; A. Wernheimer

    1984-01-01

    A photoanthropometric method is presented, which enables an objective definition of facial structures. It may support the clinical description of patients with dysmorphic syndromes. Eighteen parameters were studied. The measuring points were elected on the base of anthropological criteria. The measurements were related to reference values in the same face. The obtained indices were compared to an age related control

  3. The use of physiological, anthropometric, and skill data to predict selection in a talent-identified junior volleyball squad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Gabbett; Boris Georgieff; Nathan Domrow

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether physiological, anthropometric, and skill test results could discriminate between junior volleyball players of varying ability. Twenty-eight junior volleyball players competed for selection in a talent-identification volleyball programme. Participants underwent measurements of stature, standing reach stature, body mass, skinfold thickness, overhead medicine ball throw, vertical jump, spike jump, 5-m and 10-m speed,

  4. The relationship between anthropometric measurements and fractures in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gunnes; E. H. Lehmann; D. Mellstrom; O. Johnell

    1996-01-01

    In a population-based, retrospective study involving post-menopausal women, we investigated the relation between fracture prevalence (risk) and present as well as previous body height and weight. A questionnaire was mailed to 46,353 postmenopausal women aged 50–80 years and there were 29,802 (64.3%) responses. Questions were asked about body height and weight and fractures after the age of 25 and at

  5. The gamma mass scanning technique for inertial anthropometric measurement.

    PubMed

    Brooks, C B; Jacobs, A M

    1975-01-01

    The validity of the gamma mass scanner in predicting center of mass and moment of inertia of biological tissue was tested using legs of lamb. The reaction board, immersion and pendulum methods were used to obtain one or both the center of mass and moment of inertia of the legs. The results from these methods were compared with those obtained from the scanner. Results indicated that the gamma mass scanner consistently predicted the mass of the legs to within a 1% error, the center of gravity within 2.1% and moment of inertia to within 4.8%. Within the limits of this investigation it was concluded that the gamma mass scanner shows promise as a valid and exact method for determining the center of gravity and moment of inertia of biological tissue. PMID:1235152

  6. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  7. Influence of crank length and crank width on maximal hand cycling power and cadence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Krämer; Lutz Hilker; Harald Böhm

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different crank lengths and crank widths on maximal hand cycling power, cadence and handle speed were determined.\\u000a Crank lengths and crank widths were adapted to anthropometric data of the participants as the ratio to forward reach (FR)\\u000a and shoulder breadth (SB), respectively. 25 able-bodied subjects performed maximal inertial load hand cycle ergometry using\\u000a crank lengths of 19,

  8. Bone mass of Spanish school children: impact of anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors.

    PubMed

    Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Canal-Macias, Maria Luz; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Trinidad; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the relationship between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results and anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors and establish reference ranges for amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) in the phalanges and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneus of children from Extremadura, Spain, and (b) to present reference curves for this population. Healthy children (n = 245), aged 4-16 years, were included (124 girls and 121 boys). Phalangeal and calcaneal QUS measurements were performed using DBM Sonic Bone Profiler and McCue CUBA Clinical ultrasound devices, respectively. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated by anthropometric methods. Fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass (FFM) and total body water (TBWater) were evaluated by bioelectrical impedance measurements using a Holtain body composition analyzer. Food intake was evaluated by a 7-day food record. A gender analysis revealed that Ad-SoS and BUA parameters increased significantly with age and that both positively correlated with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM and TBWater. For both genders, Ad-SoS showed significant and positive correlations with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM, BUA and TBWater. PMID:21822585

  9. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and atopic dermatits were studied and compared. In healthy volunteers increased baseline TEWL and increased light reflection from the skin, interpreted as "fair" skin, was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to SLS. Hand eczema patients were found to have fairer and thinner skin than matched controls. Increased susceptibility to SLS was found only in patients with acute eczema. Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased baseline TEWL as well as increased skin susceptibility as compared to controls. Skin susceptibility is thus influenced by individual- as well as environment-related factors. Knowledge of determinants of skin susceptibility may be useful for the identification of high-risk subjects for development of irritant contact dermatitis, and may help to prevent the formation of the disease. PMID:1636360

  10. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  11. Associations of Anthropometric Factors with KRAS and BRAF Mutation Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer in Men and Women: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brändstedt, Jenny; Wangefjord, Sakarias; Nodin, Björn; Eberhard, Jakob; Sundström, Magnus; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and accumulating evidence suggests a differential influence of sex and anthropometric factors on the molecular carcinogenesis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between height, weight, bodyfat percentage, waist- and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and CRC risk according to KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours, with particular reference to potential sex differences. KRAS and BRAF mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing in tumours from 494 incident CRC cases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Hazard ratios of CRC risk according to anthropometric factors and mutation status were calculated using multivariate Cox regression models. While all anthropometric measures except height were associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated tumours, only BMI was associated with an increased risk of KRAS wild type tumours overall. High weight, hip, waist, WHR and BMI were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, but none of the anthropometric factors were associated with risk of BRAF-mutated CRC, neither in the overall nor in the sex-stratified analysis. In men, several anthropometric measures were associated with both KRAS-mutated and KRAS wild type tumours. In women, only a high WHR was significantly associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC. A significant interaction was found between sex and BMI with respect to risk of KRAS-mutated tumours. In men, all anthropometric factors except height were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, whereas in women, only bodyfat percentage was associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours. The results from this prospective cohort study further support an influence of sex and lifestyle factors on different pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis, defined by KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours. PMID:24918610

  12. Anthropometric and Physical Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players.

    PubMed

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Darrall-Jones, JD, Jones, B, and Till, K. Anthropometric and physical profiles of English academy rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 29(8): 2086-2096, 2015-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English regional academy rugby union players by age category (under 16s, under 18s and under 21s). Data were collected on 67 academy players at the beginning of the preseason period and comprised anthropometric (height, body mass, and sum of 8 skinfolds) and physical (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, acceleration, velocity, and momentum; agility 505; vertical jump; Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1; 30-15 intermittent fitness test; absolute and relative 3 repetition maximum front squat, split squat, bench press, prone row, and chin; and isometric mid-thigh pull). One-way analysis of variance demonstrated significant increases across the 3 age categories (p ? 0.05) for height (e.g., 16s = 178.8 ± 7.1; 18s = 183.5 ± 7.2; 21s = 186.7 ± 6.61 cm), body mass (e.g., 16s = 79.4 ± 12.8; 18s = 88.3 ± 11.9; 21s = 98.3 ± 10.4 kg), countermovement jump height and peak power, sprint momentum, velocity, and acceleration; absolute, relative, and isometric (e.g., 16s = 2,157.9 ± 309.9; 18s = 2,561.3 ± 339.4; 21s = 3,104.5 ± 354.0 N) strength. Momentum, maximal speed, and the ability to maintain acceleration were all discriminating factors between age categories, suggesting that these variables may be more important to monitor rather than sprint times. These findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across age categories and provide comparative data for English Academy Rugby Union players. PMID:25647656

  13. Response of human and anthropometric model skulls to impact loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Townsend; D. McCammond; G. Lie

    1975-01-01

    Experimental strain\\/time results are presented for unprotected and protected human and anthropometric model skulls under impact\\u000a loading. Using a hockey puck as the projectile, the purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of helmet suspensions\\u000a and the likelihood of skull fractures with varying conditions of head protection. An experimental arrangement is described,\\u000a and the strain-gauge technique yields reliable,

  14. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  15. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.

    PubMed

    Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  16. Dietary intake and anthropometric reference values in population studies.

    PubMed

    Arija, Victoria; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Martínez de Vitoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Luis; Ribas, Lourdes; Aranceta, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In nutritional epidemiology it is essential to have reference values for nutrition and anthropometry in order to compare individual and population data. With respect to reference nutritional intake, the new concept of Dietary Reference Intakes is generated based more on the prevention of chronic diseases than on covering nutritional deficiencies, as would occur in the early Recommendations. As such, the more relevant international organizations incorporated new concepts in their tables, such as the Adequate Intake levels or the Tolerable Upper Intake levels. Currently, the EURRECA recommendations (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) are generating reference values for Europe in a transparent, systematic and scientific manner. Using the DRI, health-care authorities formulated nutritional objectives for countries or territories and Dietary Guides to disseminate the dietary advice to the population. Anthropometric assessment continues to be one of the most-used methods for evaluating and monitoring health status, nutritional state and growth in children, not only individuals but also communities. Different organizations have established anthropometric reference patterns of body mass index (BMI) with cut-off points to define overweight and obesity. In children, growth curves have been revised and adapted to the characteristics of healthy children in order to obtain anthropometric reference standards that better reflect optimum growth in children. The Growth Standards for children below 5 years of age of the WHO are a response to these principles, and are widely accepted and used worldwide. PMID:25719783

  17. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G). Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA). All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years) have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items) ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p < 0.001). Correlation between the CAHAI-G and CMSA subscales for hand and arm was r = 0.74 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) respectively. Internal consistency of the CAHAI-G for all four versions ranged between ? = 0.974 and ? = 0.979. Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in ADL in patients after stroke. PMID:21114807

  18. Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722

  19. Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  20. Reliability of near-infrared interactance body fat assessment relative to standard anthropometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, P J; Pitkäniemi, J; Pekkanen, J; Salomaa, V V

    1995-11-01

    We examined the repeatability of near-infrared interactance (NIR) body fat determination as compared with that of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist girth. Thirty-nine volunteers (16 men, 23 women) had percent body fat (%BF) measurements made with a portable NIR device as well as the standard anthropometric indices of height, weight, waist girth, and hip circumference. Frame size and physical activity levels were also determined. For each participant, three independent measurements of each index were made by two trained readers during a 2-week period. The two readers varied significantly in their measurement of %BF and hip circumference. The variability in %BF was largely due to differences between the first and the second measurements, and only for one of the readers. Second and third measurements were not statistically significantly different for either reader, suggestive of a training effect. Variance component calculations revealed that the reliability of NIR is 95.3%, compared with 99.9% for BMI; 93.4% for waist girth; and 82.4% for WHR, with the majority of the remaining variance accounted for by the method itself. We conclude that the NIR method has good repeatability, with low intra- and interobserver variability, provided that readers are carefully trained. However, the NIR device offers little advantage in reliability over conventional measures of adiposity such as waist girth or BMI, and requires additional input of weight, height, frame size, physical activity level, age, and gender data to calculate %BF. Associations of NIR and other anthropometric indices with cardiovascular risk factors in this population will provide additional insight into the merit of NIR body fat assessment. PMID:7490599

  1. Medical malpractice in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Nick D; Moat, Diane; Lee, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    The rise in medical malpractice claims over the past few decades has altered physicians' practice patterns and has had a considerable financial impact on the medical community as a whole. While numerous studies have analyzed the content and effect of these claims, only a handful of articles have addressed specifically the issue of medical malpractice in hand surgery. This article outlines the available literature on malpractice in hand surgery, offers guidance to hand surgeons on managing medical malpractice claims, and discusses preventative measures they might take to limit such claims from being filed in the future. We conclude that the key measures one can take to protecting oneself legally are knowing and abiding by the standard of care, keeping patients informed and developing good relationships with them, and meticulously documenting. Although some malpractice claims are unavoidable, we believe that one can limit his or her exposure to them by incorporating these measures into their respective practices. PMID:24369944

  2. The Keeler Pulsair air impulse tonometer. Comparison with the Perkins hand-held applanation tonometer for peri-operative measurement of intra-ocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Bricker, S R; McGalliard, J N; Mostafa, S M

    1990-01-01

    The Keeler Pulsair is a noncontact tonometer which can be used by those without specialist ophthalmic training. The instrument was compared, in a series of 30 patients in whom a total of 150 readings were taken, in respect of accuracy, ease and speed of use, and acceptability to patients, with the Perkins hand-held applanation tonometer. There was good correlation between measurements obtained with the two instruments: r = 0.92, (p less than 0.001); the Pulsair was described as easy to use in 87% of subjects, and no patient found the procedure unpleasant. The median times taken for Pulsair measurements were 7 (range 4-14) seconds for a single reading in conscious patients, and 11 (range 4-29) seconds for four readings in anaesthetised patients. These times were significantly quicker than those recorded with the Perkins tonometer which were 83 (range 66-138) seconds and 20 (range 8-45) seconds respectively (p less than 0.001). We conclude that the Pulsair is suitable for use by those who are not ophthalmologists for the rapid measurement of intra-ocular pressure changes during anaesthesia. PMID:2316837

  3. Hand or foot spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    Foot spasms; Carpopedal spasm; Spasms of the hands or feet; Hand spasm ... Cramps or spasms in the muscles often have no clear cause. Possible causes of hand or foot spasms include: Abnormal levels ...

  4. Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images.

    PubMed

    Davis, Josh P; Valentine, Tim; Davis, Robert E

    2010-07-15

    Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and profile images of young males meeting a similar description. The system produces 37 linear and 25 angular measurements across the two viewpoints. A series of 64 analyses were conducted to examine whether separate novel probe facial images of target individuals whose face dimensions were already stored within the database would be correctly identified as the same person. Identification verification was found to be unreliable unless multiple distance and angular measurements from both profile and full-face images were included in an analysis. PMID:20570069

  5. Anthropometric, Gait and Strength Characteristics of Kenyan Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Pui W.; de Heer, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q) ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2), low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6%) and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm). At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p ¼ 0.05) during right (170 - 212 ms) compared to left (177 - 220 ms) foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1) but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s). The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners. Key pointsThis is the first study in the literature to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of elite Kenyan distance runners, potentially providing insight into their success in distance running.Their slim limbs may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing.Overall, short ground contact time was observed with the right leg shorter than the left leg. This may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body.These runners displayed symmetry in strength between the left and right legs and possessed high hamstrings to quadriceps ratios compared to athletes in other sports. PMID:24149957

  6. Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesak, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

  7. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  8. Association among obesity-related anthropometric phenotypes: analyzing genetic and environmental contribution.

    PubMed

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Rebato, Esther

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has become a public-health and policy problem in many parts of the world. Epidemiological and population studies in this field are usually based on different anthropometric measures; however, common genetic and environmental factors between these phenotypes have been scarcely studied. The objective of this article is to assess the strength of these factors on the covariation among a large set of obesity-related traits. The subject group consisted of 533 nuclear families living in the Greater Bilbao (Spain), and included 1,702 individuals aged 2-61 years. Detailed anthropometric measurements (stature, breadths, circumferences and skinfolds) were carried out in each subject. Bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were performed using a variance-components procedure implemented in the software SOLAR. The results revealed that the majority of these traits is affected by common genetic and environmental factors. All correlations were significantly different from 1 and varied from non-significant to very high (>0.90, P < 0.0001), with clearly lower pleiotropic effects among pairs including fat-distribution traits. Despite the strong common genetic effects detected among phenotypes determining the amount of body fat and mass, there is a residual genetic influence on the local fatness measures that cannot be explained exclusively by the genetic influence on overall fatness. Moreover, the observed relationships confirm a partially different genetic control of truncal and peripheral fat. In conclusion, our findings highlight the relevance of considering different types of traits in the prevention and treatment of obesity, as well as in the search for genes involved in its development. PMID:22708817

  9. Try Your Hand at Nano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2013-02-25

    This lesson focuses on two simple activities that younger learners can do to gain an appreciation of nanotechnology. First, learners measure their hands in nanometers. Second, learners investigate liquid crystals, applications of liquid crystals and nanotechnology connections and test how the heat of their hands changes the color of the crystals. Learners observe what they see, present their findings to the group, and reflect on the experience.

  10. Measuring normal hand dexterity values in normal 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children and their relationship with grip and pinch strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Netscher; Dorit H. Aaron; Firas Eladoumikdachi; John Thornby

    2003-01-01

    After surgery for trauma or correction of congenital anomaly, hand function is difficult to evaluate in children because there are no reference norms on children 3 to 5 years old. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reproducible normative values for hand dexterity and grip and pinch strength could be obtained in young children using simple tests that

  11. Nutritional risk and anthropometric evaluation in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zamberlan, Patrícia; Leone, Cláudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation. PMID:23295591

  12. Using The Full Scale 3D Solid Anthropometric Model in Radiation Oncology Positioning and Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuh-Ping Sun; Ching-Jung Wu

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the full size solid 3D Anthropometric Model using in the positioning and verification process for radiation treatment planning of the skull of cancer patients in radiotherapy. In order to obtain a full scale 3D, solid Anthropometric Model, data is first collected through computed tomography and optical scanning. Through surface reconstruction, a model is made of the patients

  13. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania.

  14. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Galy, O; Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337

  15. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  16. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors.

    PubMed

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke.Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m(3) Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde.We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans. PMID:20161525

  17. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC–MS and HPLC–MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2–10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans. PMID:20161525

  18. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  19. Low-level prenatal mercury exposure in north china: an exploratory study of anthropometric effects.

    PubMed

    Ou, Langbo; Chen, Cen; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Yang, Tianjun; Xie, Han; Tong, Yindong; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate anthropometric effects of mercury (Hg) exposure, we examined the status of human prenatal exposure to Hg species, including total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg), in North China, as well as their potential effects on fetal and infant growth. Hg concentrations in various bioindicators were measured from 50 Chinese women and newborns in 2011. The participants were followed for 12 months to collect anthropometric information. Linear and two-level regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between Hg levels and body growth. The geometric mean levels of THg in the placenta, cord blood, fetal hair, and maternal blood, hair, and urine were 25.88 ?g/kg dry wt, 2.73 ?g/L, 572.98 ?g/kg, 2.29 ?g/L, 576.54 ?g/kg, and 0.58 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Nearly 100% of Hg presented as IHg in urine, and the percentage of IHg in other bioindicators was 14.86-48.73%. We observed significantly negative associations between Hg levels in some matrixes and anthropometry of neonates (weight and height) and infants (height) (p < 0.05). THg levels in maternal hair were also negatively associated with infant growth rate of weight during 12 months after delivery (p = 0.017). This study suggests that low-level prenatal Hg exposure could play a role in attenuating fetal and infant growth, and the effects of MeHg and IHg are different. PMID:25936461

  20. Dependence of the Geriatric Depression on Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Kooshesh, Seyed-Mohammad-Ali; Sarikhani, Yaser; Peimani, Payam; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition and depression are highly prevalent in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. The aims of the current study were to determine the association between malnutrition and depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in free living elderly. Method In this cross-sectional study, 337 elderly subjects (193 females) were selected using cluster sampling. Depressive symptoms and nutritional status were determined by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores questionnaires, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured all in standard situations. Chi squared test and t-test were used when necessary. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for linear relations between variables. Results Of all the total subjects, 43.62% were depressed; and of whom, 48.01% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. GDS had a significant negative dependence with the MNA for the entire sample (r=-0.58, p <0.0001). However, there was no significant correlation between age and GDS or MNA scores. Moreover, the mean GDS scores differed significantly between men and women (p <0.05), and women were more depressed than men (27.9% vs. 15%, respectively). The elderly subjects living in urban areas were more depressed than those living in rural areas (39.46% vs. 3.85% respectively). Conclusion The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of depression and malnutrition among old subjects. Moreover, depression was associated with worsening of nutritional status. The mechanism of this association needs further study. PMID:24130608

  1. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

  2. Kinesin walks hand-over-hand.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Tomishige, Michio; Vale, Ronald D; Selvin, Paul R

    2004-01-30

    Kinesin is a processive motor that takes 8.3-nm center-of-mass steps along microtubules for each adenosine triphosphate hydrolyzed. Whether kinesin moves by a "hand-over-hand" or an "inchworm" model has been controversial. We have labeled a single head of the kinesin dimer with a Cy3 fluorophore and localized the position of the dye to within 2 nm before and after a step. We observed that single kinesin heads take steps of 17.3 +/- 3.3 nm. A kinetic analysis of the dwell times between steps shows that the 17-nm steps alternate with 0-nm steps. These results strongly support a hand-over-hand mechanism, and not an inchworm mechanism. In addition, our results suggest that kinesin is bound by both heads to the microtubule while it waits for adenosine triphosphate in between steps. PMID:14684828

  3. Hands-Only CPR

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media Center Survivor Stories Contact Us Hands Only CPR Two Steps to Staying Alive with Check out ... Event Toolkit Spotify Playlist Contact Us Hands-Only™ CPR Can Save Lives. Most people who experience cardiac ...

  4. SKK Hand Master-hand exoskeleton driven by ultrasonic motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Choi; H. R. Choi

    2000-01-01

    We present an exoskeletal haptic device called SKK Hand Master. The device is semi-directly driven by linkages with ultrasonic motors, which has characteristic features close to cybernetic actuators. In the control of the device, we propose a method of measuring the joint positions and joint torques of the finger and a control method called PWM\\/PS is presented to overcome the

  5. Removable hand hold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Robert D.; Hauer, Robert L.

    1992-06-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining means which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. An alignment/capture bracket is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing bracket is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The alignment/capture bracket has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side.

  6. An Anthropometric and Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Two-Point Fixation of Zygomatic Complex Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Taehee

    2014-01-01

    Background Maintaining stability and restoring the aesthetic appearance are the fundamental goals when managing zygomatic fractures. We aimed to evaluate the stability and anthropometric outcomes of zygomatic fracture patients who underwent two-point fixation involving the infraorbital rim and zygomaticomaxillary buttress via the transconjunctival and gingivobuccal approaches without any skin incisions. Methods We examined 15 zygomatic fracture patients who underwent two-point fixation during a 3-year period. Stability was evaluated using three-dimensional facial bone computed tomography. Superoinferior and anteroposterior displacement of the zygoma was quantified. The aesthetic appearance of the periorbital region was evaluated using indirect anthropometry with standardized clinical photographs. The ratios between the eye fissure height and width, and lower iris coverage ratio were used to evaluate aesthetical changes. The bony displacement and aesthetic ratios were analyzed using Wilcoxon or Friedman tests. The correlation between the preoperative zygoma position and anthropometric values was analyzed. Results The positions of the zygoma were similar to those on the contralateral side at the long-term follow-up. The preoperative anthropometric measurements on the fractured side differed from those on the contralateral side, although these values were close to the normal values at the long-term follow-up. Furthermore, we noted that the anteroposterior displacement strongly positively correlated with the lower iris coverage rate (Spearman's coefficient= 0.678, P=0.005). Conclusions Two-point fixation of zygomatic fractures achieved stable outcomes on long-term follow-up, and also appeared to be reliable in restoring the aesthetic appearance of the periorbital region. PMID:25276640

  7. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. Methods This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ? 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (p<0.05). In addition, the fasting insulin was significantly greater in metformin group and flutamide group in comparison to metformin+flutamide and placebo groups after treatment (p<0.05). Within groups, insulin level showed significant changes (before and after treatment) in metformin+flutamide group and LDL reduction was significant in flutamide group before and after treatment. Post hoc tukey and two-tailed with p?0.05 were used to define statistical significance. Conclusion Using combination of metformin and flutamide improves anthropometric indices and laboratory tests in obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. PMID:25473629

  8. House dust levels of selected insecticides and a herbicide measured by the EL and LWW samplers and comparisons to hand rinses and urine metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J LIOY; R D EDWARDS; N FREEMAN; S GURUNATHAN; E PELLIZZARI; J L ADGATE; J QUACKENBOSS; K SEXTON

    2000-01-01

    During the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES), comparisons were made between the insecticide\\/herbicide loadings obtained with two household dust\\/insecticide or herbicide samplers: the Edwards and Lioy (EL) press sampler (used for dust collection from carpets or other surfaces) and the Lioy, Wainman and Weisel (LWW) surface wipe sampler. The results were compared with hand rinse levels, and urine metabolite

  9. Structuring software anthropometric variables on CD Rom as a facilitator of the process of design of work situations.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Lisboa Filho, Jugurta; Guimarães, Elza Maria Vidigal; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The environment where everyday activities are developed, these should be appropriate and the individual who will execute them, for greater efficiency of their work and even if you feel safe, comfortable and satisfied when interacting with that space, expending less energy to this interaction. Given this context, this study aims to structure a software with the results obtained in the field, from anthropometric measure to subsidize the furniture industry in manufacturing of furniture, definition work situations, considering the different anthropometric measurements made between 2001 and 2010, using data from this sample of adults aged 18 to 65 years old and children between 6 and 11 years old. It was convenient to make the software with a site, only instead of staying on the Web has been recorded on CD Rom. Tests with the prototype allow navigation through the structure of the software. The data needed to implement the remaining modules were also raised. Issues related to system layout and usability of the interface also were not considered, because it is an initial prototype. PMID:22317345

  10. [Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].

    PubMed

    Pittet, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

  11. Improved "Smart" Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F.; Vigh, Zoltan; Bejczy, Antal; Ohm, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Improved version of developmental "smart" robot hand equipped with bidirectional, wide-band optical-fiber link for transmission of digitized strain-gauge force- and torque-sensor signals from hand and for transmission of command signals to motor drive unit on hand. Collection of sensor data speeded hundredfold. Higher data-collection speed makes possible to perform advanced processing of sensor data in host processor.

  12. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (editor); Iberall, Thea (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  13. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  14. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  15. [Running and the association with anthropometric and training characteristics].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph; Zingg, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Running can be performed as a sprint discipline on the track over a few meters up to 10 km to the marathon and ultramarathon running distances over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Running performance is influenced by a variety of anthropometric and training factors. Morphological features such as skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, circumferences and length of limbs, body weight, body height and body mass index (BMI) seem to have an influence on the running performance. The training volume and running speed during training are also correlated with running performance. When all variables were investigated comparatively, body fat and running speed during training were usually the most important influencing factors. For longer running performances (over 6 hours or 100 km, respectively), the aspects of experience (number of successfully finished races) and personal best times were, however, far more important than training volume or morphological characteristics such as body fat. It was also shown that ultra runners prepare differently (lower running speed and higher running volume) as runners competing over shorter distances such as half-marathon and marathon. PMID:26098073

  16. Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Ismail, L; Knight, H E; Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Chumlea, W C

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes in detail the anthropometric training, standardisation and quality control procedures used to collect data for these new standards. The initial standardisation session was in Nairobi, Kenya, using newborns, which was followed by similar sessions in the eight participating study sites in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards. PMID:23841854

  17. Treating the Rheumatoid Hand

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, D. E.; Welsh, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Deformities in the rheumatoid hand will vary according to whether the joints or the tendons are involved. Frequently both will be involved and several different deformities will be present in the same hand. However, a logical approach to examination and treatment, as outlined in this article, will simplify decision making and ensure prompt, appropriate treatment. PMID:21304805

  18. Birth weight, current anthropometric markers, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Boscaini, Camile; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5-13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  19. Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundermann, Lars; Mundermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

  20. Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mündermann, Lars; Mündermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

  1. Craniofacial anthropometric pattern profile in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia--application in detection of gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Skrinjari?, Ilija; Skrinjari?, Kristina; Vrani?, Dubravka Negoveti?; Majstorovi?, Martina; Glavina, Domagoj

    2003-12-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by clinical manifestations of severe hypodontia or anodontia, hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis, and specific facial appearance. Affected males show complete expression of clinical features of this condition. Their mothers, who are gene carriers, express only some signs, which are usually very mild. Currently available clinical methods are not sufficient for routine identification of the HED heterozygous gene carriers. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the facial characteristics of HED patients and their mothers and to evaluate the usefulness of craniofacial pattern profile analysis (CFPP) in the diagnosis of this syndrome and the detection of gene carriers. In this study six affected males and their mothers were evaluated. Z-scores for each variable were calculated and compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Anthropometric analysis showed a specific dysmorphic pattern in CST patients that includes decreased skull base width (t-t: -1.67 Z); decreased forehead width (ft-ft: -1.8 Z), decreased midface depth (sn-t: -2.02 Z), markedly decreased total facial height (n-gn: -3.4 Z), and markedly decreased maxillary arc (t-sn-t: -2.5 Z). Gene carriers showed a similar tendency in their pattern profiles. They showed the same tendency towards lower Z-values for forehead width, facial height, and mouth width. The values for these measurements were between those of the affected and healthy controls. The most pronounced findings were increased head width (eu-eu: +2.83 Z), increased lower face width (go-go: +2.06 Z), and reduction of total facial height (n-gn: -0.95 Z). They also displayed increased nose width (al-al: +2.41 Z) and increased biocular distance (ex-ex: +2.01 Z). When used in conjunction with other methods the anthropometrics pattern profile analysis can considerably enhance detection of gene carriers for HED and increase objective assessment of the craniofacial region in HED patients. PMID:14746168

  2. Anthropometric variables and their relationship to performance and ability in male surfers.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew John; Findlay, Malcolm; Gresty, Karen; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17 kg), junior national level (n=15; age: 15.61, s =1.06 years, stature: 173.86, s =5.72 cm; body mass: 63.27, s =7.17 kg) and intermediate level surfers (n=47; age: 22.47, s =2.80 years, stature: 179.90, s =5.41; body mass: 77.83, s =9.43 kg). The mean somatotype values for the different groups of surfers were found to be 2.48, 5.00 and 1.03 for the professional surfers; 2.18, 3.72 and 3.24 for the junior national surfers and 2.79, 3.57 and 2.42 for the intermediate surfers. Professional surfers were significantly (P < 0.01) more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than intermediate level surfers. Significant correlations were observed between endomorphy (r = -0.399, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.341, P < 0.05), and body fat percentage (r = -0.380, P < 0.01) and the rating of ability among the intermediate group of surfers. Across all participants, the rating of surfer ability was significantly correlated with endomorphy (r = -0.366, P ? 0.01), mesomorphy (r = 0.442, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.274, P < 0.05) and body fat percentage (r = -0.268, P < 0.05). Findings suggest that the levels of adiposity and muscularity may influence the potential for progression between intermediate and professional-level surfing performance. PMID:24444202

  3. Acute hand infections.

    PubMed

    Osterman, Meredith; Draeger, Reid; Stern, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The continued emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the development of only a few new classes of antibiotics over the past 50 years have made the treatment of acute hand infections problematic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important, because hand stiffness, contractures, and even amputation can result from missed diagnoses or delayed treatment. The most common site of hand infections is subcutaneous tissue and the most common mechanism is trauma. An immunocompromised state, intravenous drug abuse, diabetes mellitus, and steroid use all predispose to infections. PMID:25070032

  4. Sequence-dependent structural variations in two right-handed alternating pyrimidine-purine DNA oligomers in solution determined by nuclear Overhauser enhancement measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M

    1983-01-01

    A 500 MHz 1H-n.m.r. study on two right-handed self-complementary double-stranded alternating pyrimidine-purine oligodeoxyribonucleotides, 5'dCGTACG and 5'dACGCGCGT, is presented. Using the proton-proton nuclear Overhauser effect, proton resonances are assigned by a sequential method and a large number of interproton distances, both intra- and internucleotide, are determined (113 for 5'dCGTACG and 79 for 5'dACGCGCGT). The general procedure required to solve the three-dimensional solution structures of oligonucleotides from such distance data is outlined and applied to these two oligonucleotides. In the case of both oligonucleotides the overall solution structure is that of B DNA, namely a right-handed helix with a helical rise of approximately 3.3 A, 10 bp per turn and the base pairs approximately perpendicular to the helix axis. In the case of 5'dCGTACG, subtle local structural variations associated with the pyrimidine and purine nucleotides are superimposed on the overall structure but the mononucleotide repeating unit is preserved. In contrast, 5'dACGCGCGT has a clear alternating structure with a dinucleotide repeat, alternation occurring in the local helical twist and the glycosidic bond, sugar pucker and phosphodiester backbone conformations. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6667674

  5. Estimates of body water, fat-free mass, and body fat in patients on peritoneal dialysis by anthropometric formulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonios H Tzamaloukas; Glen H Murata; Dorothy J Vanderjagt; Robert H Glew

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of body water, fat-free mass, and body fat in patients on peritoneal dialysis by anthropometric formulas.BackgroundAnthropometric formulas that are used to estimate body water in peritoneal dialysis patients can also be used to estimate fat-free mass and body fat. Evaluation of body composition by the anthropometric formulas rests on two assumptions: (1) fat contains no water, and (2) the

  6. Stigmatization of Repetitive Hand Use in Newspaper Reports of Hand Illness

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was assessed for stigmatization of activities involving repetitive hand use as well as for stigmatization of patients who use their hand repetitively. One hundred and twenty-four articles on hand illnesses were identified. Of these, 65.3% of articles stigmatized activities involving repetitive hand use, including 96.6% of articles discussing overuse injury of the hand, 90% of articles discussing tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and 51.8% of articles discussing carpal tunnel syndrome. Patient stigmatization was documented in 30.6% of the newspaper articles. Stigmatizing statements were most commonly made by journalists (94.8%), followed by patients (3.1%), and physicians (2.1%). Language that stigmatizes repetitive hand use and patients who use their hand repetitively is prevalent among US newspaper articles. Both health professionals and journalists reporting health-related news should be more sensitive to the use of stigmatizing language and provide a more balanced, measured, and evidenced-based account of hand illnesses. PMID:18780117

  7. Enchondroma of the hand.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, I; Giovanini, A; Willmen, H R; Peters, H; Kühnelt, F; Schubert, H J

    1977-04-01

    Thirty-three patients with enchondroma of the hand underwent operation for removal of the enchondroma and filling of the cavity with bone meal. Twenty-six patients had pathological fractures of the phalanges or metacarpals. PMID:873705

  8. A Myoelectric Hand Splint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Frances; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Development of a myoelectrically controlled hand splint permitting ambulating mobility of the user is discussed. The role of occupational therapy in the research and design of the device and the training of the patient are emphasized. (Authors)

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Hand Preference in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Bard, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal study of hand preferences was assessed in a sample of 53 captive chimpanzees. Four measures of laterality assessed during the first 3 months of life were correlated with three measures of hand preferences assessed when the subjects were between 2 and 5 years of age. In addition, the effect of rearing environment on juvenile hand preferences was assessed in a larger sample of 83 chimpanzees. Overall, some early asymmetries were predictive of juvenile hand preferences, notably head orientation and hand-to-hand activities, and a defensive grasping response. No significant effects of rearing on hand preferences were found but males were more right-handed than females for two of the three juvenile measures. The results are discussed within the context of different developmental models of hand preference in humans. PMID:10797250

  10. [Anthropometric methods used in the evaluation of the postpartum weight retention: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jamile Lima; Saunders, Cláudia; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a systematic review of scientific papers that studied postpartum weight retention. The identification of the studies was conducted in the Medline, Lilacs and Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases between 2000 until 2013. The main information evaluated was: author, year of publication, sample size, year of data collection, losses and analysis thereof, age, follow-up time, weight in the baseline and in the postpartum, assessment methods of weight retention and main results. Twenty studies were selected, of which 25% (n = 5) were national. Regarding the mode of analysis, in some works the result was analyzed in different ways as continuous and categorical. Of the selected papers, 45% (n = 9) analyzed the retained weight only continuously, 5% (n = 1) only categorically and 40% (n = 8) both ways. One of the studies used distribution in percentiles and the other evaluated continuously, categorical and by indicators of absolute and relative weight reduction. In conclusion, the results found reveal a lack of well-defined information about the forms of anthropometric measurements of women after delivery, indicating the need for developing national proposals, consistent with the reality of our population. PMID:25715134

  11. CYP17 genotype modifies the impact of anthropometric variation on salivary estradiol in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Van Horn, Andrew; Rockwell, L Christie

    2015-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that human ovarian function is responsive to the energetic environment, which has led to the development of theoretical models that explain this phenomenon. Although many genes are involved in ovarian hormone production, the possibility that genetic polymorphism may affect ovarian response to energetic conditions has not been considered. Cytochrome P450c17? is an enzyme that produces androgen precursors used to make estrogens during ovarian steroidogenesis, and is encoded by the CYP17 gene. A functionally significant variant within the promoter region of CYP17 has been linked to variation in steroid production, and some evidence suggests that this polymorphism could alter transcription of CYP17 in an insulin-dependent manner. We tested the hypothesis that the CYP17 variant affected the relationship between anthropometric measurements and salivary estradiol in healthy women in the United States (n?=?28). PCR-RLFP analysis was used to genotype women for the genetic variant, and estradiol was assayed from saliva by EIA. Moderated regression analysis of these preliminary data revealed a significant interaction between waist-to-hip ratio and CYP17 genotype (P?=?0.004). Our study provides evidence that gene-environment interactions should be considered in future adaptive models for human ovarian function. Moreover, our results stand to illuminate possible associations between this genetic variant and reproductive disease. PMID:25448501

  12. The importance of costal cartilage framework stabilization in microtia reconstruction: anthropometric comparison based on 216 cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Ruhong; Zhang, Qun; Xu, Feng; Li, Datao

    2014-12-01

    This study explored anthropometric changes in the reconstructed auricle and the contralateral normal ear in a series of 216 microtia patients using different stabilization methods. Our main personal modifications concerning the preparation of the framework were the following: 1. The individualized framework grafting was based on patients with different ages and different degrees of the strength and thickness of the rib cartilage. 2. The framework was stabilized as a "C" shape by using a piece of cartilage or suture to reinforce the two end points of the "C". In group A (the thickness of cartilage was more than 5 mm), a block of residual cartilage fixed by wire was added between the tragus and the base frame of the inferior crus by the modified method but was not applied in the original method. In group B (the thickness of cartilage was less than 5 mm), a 4-0 braided suture was used to reinforce the two structures but was not used in the original method. No significant differences were found in the height or width measurements of the cartilage framework and the contralateral normal side in either group at the time of implantation. At the follow-up, the height and width measurements were obviously increased in both groups operated on by the original method compared with the initial implanted or contralateral normal measurements. There were no significant differences in the height or width measurements by the modified method in either group. The authors' techniques produced acceptable results and generated some useful parameters for the growth study of the reconstructed auricle and the contralateral normal ear. The modifications in framework stabilization allow a harmonious outline of the reconstructed auricle to be attained, which is almost symmetrical to the contralateral normal auricle. PMID:25200882

  13. Several steps/day indicators predict changes in anthropometric outcomes: HUB City Steps

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Walking for exercise remains the most frequently reported leisure-time activity, likely because it is simple, inexpensive, and easily incorporated into most people’s lifestyle. Pedometers are simple, convenient, and economical tools that can be used to quantify step-determined physical activity. Few studies have attempted to define the direct relationship between dynamic changes in pedometer-determined steps/day and changes in anthropometric and clinical outcomes. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several descriptive indicators of pedometer-determined steps/day for predicting changes in anthropometric and clinical outcomes using data from a community-based walking intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American population. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether treating steps/day data for implausible values affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced changes in clinical and anthropometric outcomes. Methods The data used in this secondary analysis were collected in 2010 from 269 participants in a six-month walking intervention targeting a reduction in blood pressure. Throughout the intervention, participants submitted weekly steps/day diaries based on pedometer self-monitoring. Changes (six-month minus baseline) in anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat [%BF], fat mass) and clinical (blood pressure, lipids, glucose) outcomes were evaluated. Associations between steps/day indicators and changes in anthropometric and clinical outcomes were assessed using bivariate tests and multivariable linear regression analysis which controlled for demographic and baseline covariates. Results Significant negative bivariate associations were observed between steps/day indicators and the majority of anthropometric and clinical outcome changes (r = -0.3 to -0.2: P < 0.05). After controlling for covariates in the regression analysis, only the relationships between steps/day indicators and changes in anthropometric (not clinical) outcomes remained significant. For example, a 1,000 steps/day increase in intervention mean steps/day resulted in a 0.1% decrease in %BF. Results for the three pedometer datasets (full, truncated, and excluded) were similar and yielded few meaningful differences in interpretation of the findings. Conclusions Several descriptive indicators of steps/day may be useful for predicting anthropometric outcome changes. Further, manipulating steps/day data to address implausible values has little overall effect on the ability to predict these anthropometric changes. PMID:23153060

  14. Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6-16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

  15. Hand Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6–16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes–Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

  16. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  17. Inspections of hand washing supplies and hand sanitizer in public schools.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mary M; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In November 2008, 90 schools (97%) reported their inspection results. Among 697 total bathrooms, 88.8% had soap and 91.7% had paper towels or hand dryers. Hand sanitizer was reported in 1.2% of bathrooms and 15.2% of cafeterias. No difference was observed between boys' and girls' bathrooms, or primary and secondary schools, in the prevalence of soap or paper towels/hand dryers. Hand washing supplies were generally available in public school bathrooms. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer in school bathrooms was reported occasionally and should be discouraged. Hand sanitizer in a supervised setting, the school cafeteria, was not often reported and should be promoted. PMID:20457946

  18. Reliability of ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion measurements obtained using a hand-held goniometer and Biodex dynamometer in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In-Gui; Yu, Il-Young; Kim, Soo-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the reliability of ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF-PROM) measurements obtained using a goniometer and Biodex dynamometer in stroke patients. [Subjects] Fifteen stroke patients participated in this study. [Methods] Ankle DF-PROM was assessed using a goniometer and Biodex dynamometer. Ankle DF-PROM was measured during two sessions with 7 days between tests. Intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change values were used to assess the reliability of measurements obtained using both instruments. [Results] The intra-rater reliability for ankle DF-PROM using the goniometer was moderate and good for the two raters, while using the Biodex dynamometer, it was good for both raters. Inter-rater reliability using the goniometer was moderate; using the Biodex, it was good. [Conclusion] Both intra- and inter-reliability measurements of ankle DF-PROM were higher using a Biodex dynamometer than with a goniometer. PMID:26180344

  19. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    PubMed

    Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  20. Portable hand hold device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  1. Anthropometric profile and body composition of Irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S

    2013-12-01

    The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis. PMID:23539077

  2. Acephate exposure and decontamination on tobacco harvesters' hands.

    PubMed

    Curwin, Brian D; Hein, Misty J; Sanderson, Wayne T; Nishioka, Marcia; Buhler, Wayne

    2003-05-01

    Agricultural workers manually harvesting tobacco have the potential for high dermal fexposure to pesticides, particularly on the hands. Often gloves are not worn as it hinders the harvesters' ability to harvest the tobacco leaves. To enable harvesters to remove pesticide residue on the hands and decrease absorbed doses, the EPA Worker Protection Standard requires growers to have hand-wash stations available in the field. The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of acephate residue on the hands of tobacco harvesters, and the effectiveness of hand washing in reducing the acephate residue. Hand-wipes from the hands of 12 tobacco harvesters were collected at the end of the morning and at the end of the afternoon over 2 consecutive days. Each harvester had one hand-wiped prior to washing his hands, and the other hand-wiped after washing his hands with soap and water. In addition to the hand-wipe samples, leaf-wipe samples were collected from 15 tobacco plants to determine the amount of acephate residue on the plants. The average acephate level in leaf-wipe samples was 1.4 ng/cm(2). The geometric mean prewash and postwash acephate levels on the hands were 10.5 and 0.4 ng/cm(2), respectively. Both prewash (P-value=0.0009) and postwash hand (P-value=0.01) samples were positively correlated with leaf-wipe concentrations. Tobacco harvester position tended to influence hand exposure. Hand washing significantly reduced acephate levels on the hand, after adjusting for sampling period, hand sampled, job position, and leaf-wipe concentration (P-value< or =0.0001) with levels reduced by 96%. A substantial amount of acephate was transferred to the hands, and while hand washing significantly reduced the amount of residue on the hands, not all residue was removed. PMID:12743614

  3. Current trends in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalliainen, Loree K

    2012-06-01

    Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery. PMID:22866498

  4. Anthropometric profiles of elite older triathletes in the Ironman Brazil compared with those of young Portuguese triathletes and older Brazilians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego A. S. Silva; Tânia R. B. Benedetti; Elisa P. Ferrari; Simone T. Meurer; Danielle L. Antes; Analiza M. Silva; Diana A. Santos; Catarina N. Matias; Luís B. Sardinha; Filomena Vieira; Edio L. Petroski

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the anthropometric profiles of elite older triathletes participating in the 2009 Ironman Brazil and to compare their somatotype, anthropometric and body composition characteristics with those of elite young triathletes and older non-athletes. The sample consisted of 64 males, divided into three groups: (1) older triathletes (n = 17), (2) young triathletes (n = 24), and (3)

  5. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  6. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  7. Hand Biometrics Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-03-10

    In this activity, learners explore how engineers incorporate biometric technologies into products as well as the challenges of engineers who must weigh privacy, security and other issues when designing a system. Learners examine different biometric techniques, find their own hand geometry biometrics, and then work in teams of "engineers" to design a high-tech security system for a museum.

  8. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  9. Learning "Hands On."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Janice T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a computer teacher's incorporation of hand-held computer technology into her third- and fifth-grade students' study of acid rain. The project successfully brought two grade levels together for cross-grade research, provided an opportunity for classroom teachers and technology specialists to work collaboratively, and enhanced students'…

  10. [Hand for the dermatologist].

    PubMed

    Cribier, B

    2010-11-01

    Through its anatomical, topographical, and functional distinctiveness, more than all other parts of the body, the hand is the interface between humans and their environment. All types of stimulus produce cutaneous signs in the hands, notably cold, light, pressure, contact, etc. Exposure to light makes it the region where photodermatosis is expressed, but also a particular site for cutaneous carcinogenesis. The countless chemical substances that the hand encounters can create specific or particular diseases in this location (irritative dermitis, contact eczema, hyperkeratosis, atrophy, etc.). The hand is also the site of infectious dermatosis transmission (erysipeloid, orf, mycobacteriosis, etc.), sometimes exotic (chromomycosis, histoplasmosis), and the site of plant penetration (protothecosis or more commonly thorns and splinters). The complexity of its vascularization and its many bones, joints, and tendons explain why it is a preferred area for signs of systemic diseases (diverse forms of lupus, dermatomyositis, inflammatory rheumatism, etc.). The nail unit alone shows innumerable signs of exogenic diseases, but also reflects certain internal diseases localized here with often characteristic signs. Here more than anywhere else, dermatology opens out to all of medicine. PMID:21185984

  11. Hands-On Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2001-01-01

    Originally marketed as a personal organizer for mobile business executives and ardent technophiles, the handheld computer is beginning to catch educators' notice. A handful of school districts are piloting large-scale use of these portable devices, ranging in price from $149 to $450. (MLH)

  12. Fusion of hand and arm gestures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

  13. Human computer interaction via the human hand: a hand model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Kuch; Thomas S. Huang

    1994-01-01

    A new method for building lifelike hand models which articulate in a realistic manner is presented. This method has distinct benefits over previous methods, since the fitting to a particular person's hand is quick, simple and very accurate. Following the calibration process which fits it to a particular person's hand, this hand model can be used in numerous HCI scenarios.

  14. The alien hand syndrome: What makes the alien hand alien?

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    The alien hand syndrome: What makes the alien hand alien? Iftah Biran Department of Neurology of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA The alien hand syndrome is a deeply puzzling phenomenon in which brain, the limb may interfere with the actions of their normal limb. We report a case of alien hand syndrome

  15. Impact of teaching interventions on nurse compliance with hand disinfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Colombo; H. Giger; J. Grote; C. Deplazes; W. Pletscher; R. Lüthi; C. Ruef

    2002-01-01

    The impact of teaching interventions and the availability of additional dispensers for alcoholic hand disinfection was measured during three study periods. A nursing care system of relevant nursing interventions was found to be a useful tool for the assessment of compliance with hand hygiene requirements if combined with an analysis of hand disinfectant use. This study shows that compliance with

  16. NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-07-01

    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques used by other systems. Key Words: Teleoperation, Robotic Hand, Robotic Force Scaling

  17. Anthropometric variables, lifestyle and sports in school-age children: comparison between the cities of Bologna and Crotone.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Brasili, P; Iuliano, T; Spiga, F

    2014-12-01

    Weight disorders are rapidly increasing in childhood. In Italy a strong geographic North-South gradient of overweight and obesity has been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine anthropometric variables, physical activity and lifestyles in school-age children in the cities of Bologna and Crotone. The sample consists of 963 children attending primary schools, aged 6-10 years. Height, weight, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds were measured for each child; body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat mass were calculated. Physical activity was determined through an interview with each child. Another questionnaire was submitted to parents, in order to obtain information on sleep duration, means of transport and type of physical activity. In the city of Bologna, the mean values of anthropometric variables were: height (boys - 1,335 mm, girls - 1,332 mm), BMI (boys - 17.8 kg/m(2), girls - 17.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 20.6%, girls - 12.7%. In Crotone the mean values were: height (boys - 1,275 mm, girls - 1,265 mm), BMI (boys - 19.4 kg/m(2), girls - 19.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 46.7%, girls - 49.0%. The results have demonstrated significant correlations of lifestyle and physical activity with children's weight status. In Crotone there is a larger variation of weight disorders with higher percentages of overweight children than in Bologna. The children in Crotone are engaged in sedentary activities for a significantly longer time than children in Bologna, who are more physically active. The data show a strong North-South gradient concerning not only distribution of weight status, but also lifestyles especially including participation in sports and sedentary behavior. Our study also provides meaningful suggestions how to define lifestyles in order to achieve an optimal health status during growth. PMID:25451512

  18. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all p<0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3 to 28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all p<0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6 to 13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  19. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184

  20. Paroxysmal alien hand syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Leiguarda, R; Starkstein, S; Nogués, M; Berthier, M; Arbelaiz, R

    1993-01-01

    Four patients are described who presented with a paroxysmal form of the alien hand syndrome. Two patients with damage to one frontomedial cortex had brief episodes of abnormal motor behaviour of the contralateral arm that featured groping, grasping, and apparently purposeful but perseverative movements, which both patients interpreted as alien or foreign. The other two patients, with posterior parietal damage, reported a paroxysmal feeling of unawareness of the location of the contralateral arm, lack of recognition of the arm as their own, purposeless movements, and personification of the arm. These cases represent a new form of the alien hand syndrome manifested by brief, paroxysmal episodes, which may be due to ictal mechanisms. Images PMID:8331355

  1. Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with greater playing experience (r = 0.36), dual-task draw and pass proficiency (r = 0.54), reactive agility (r = 0.29), and pattern recall (r = 0.32) and prediction (r = 0.28) ability, while faster speed over 40 m (r = -0.42) was associated (P < 0.05) with a higher number of tries scored. Greater age and playing experience, better lower body muscular power, and faster 10 m and 40 m speed were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the number of tackle attempts (positive), tackles completed (positive), and proportion of missed tackles (negative). These findings demonstrate that well-developed physical and skill qualities are associated with effective playing performance in National Rugby League players. PMID:22092276

  2. Vitamin D Status and Anthropometric Indices of an Omani Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Abiaka, Clifford; Delghandi, Marit; Kaur, Meenu; Al-Saleh, Mohsin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations reflect vitamin D status, with deficiency implicated as causative of many diseases. This study assessed vitamin D status and anthropometric indices in a sample of healthy Omanis. Methods: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 206 healthy Omanis, aged 18–55 years (mean age: men 31.1, women 26.8) in Muscat, Oman. Of this number, 95% indicated that they had never taken vitamin D supplements. Findings were compared with published values for populations domiciled in more northerly latitudes. Classical procedures were used to determine global obesity (body mass index [BMI]), and central obesity determined by waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio. Results: Women, as compared to men, had markedly lower concentrations of 25(OH)D. Applying the cut-off point of serum 25(OH)D levels at 50 nmol/L, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the study population was 87.5%; this was higher than the rates reported for the British, and European-, Hispanic-, and African-Americans. At a BMI cut-point of ?30 kg/m2, the prevalence of obesity was 14.6%; this was lower than the rates reported for European-, Hispanic-, and African-Americans. Levels of 25(OH) D increased relative to age and obesity. WHR was the main predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Conclusion: The striking vitamin D deficiency seen in the study population, relative to more northerly populations, may be linked to sun avoidance, inadequate dietary vitamin D, and virtual non-intake of supplemental vitamin D. Age and male-gender determined the status of vitamin D and of obesity. PMID:23862027

  3. Anthropometric Analysis of Palpebral Fissure Dimensions and its Position in South Indian Ethnic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumar, P.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The morphology and anatomical relationship of periorbital features vary according to age, sex and ethnicity. Standard database regarding periorbital region is available for other ethnic groups. Since there is no data available in the literature, specifically for south Indian ethnic adults, the present study was carried out to determine the normal average values for South Indian ethnic population related to gender. Methods Anthropometric measurements of both eyes were done on standardized frontal view photograph of 200 South Indian ethnic adults aged 18 to 26 years. Parameters included were palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), outercanthal distance (OCD), interpupillary distance (IPD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and comparisons were made between the genders using the independent t test. Results Significant sexual dimorphism was noted in the given parameters. Palpebral fissure width (male: 31.08 mm; female: 29.90 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male: 5.053°; female: 6.102°), outercanthal distance (male: 95.55 mm; female: 92.44 mm) and interpupillary distance (male: 66.72 mm; female: 62.59 mm). The palpebral fissure height (male: 11.30 mm; female: 11.58 mm) and intercanthal distance (male: 34.27 mm; female: 33.41 mm) showed no significant sexual differences. Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between South Indian ethnic males and female in certain key parameters. The present study suggests that ethnicity and gender should be considered in orbital surgery. To individualize the treatment planning and diagnosis, it is important for the surgeons to have knowledge of these local norms. PMID:23386941

  4. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  5. Hand tools: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

  6. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  7. Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness— a critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Molarius; JC Seidell

    1998-01-01

    In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of visceral fat. Many of the studies, however, suffer from methodological limitations: they

  8. Steps/day ability to predict anthropometric changes is not affected by its plausibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...

  9. Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Differences Among Brazilian Adolescents who Practise Different Team Court Sports

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of Brazilian adolescents who practise team court sports and to compare specific parameters obtained for adolescents with data from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,348 male adolescents grouped as follows: basketball players (n = 287), indoor soccer players (n = 665), handball players (n = 108) and volleyball players (n = 288), all between 10 and 14 years of age. Anthropometric (body mass, body height, arm span, and body mass index) and physical fitness data (flexibility, muscular strength, explosive power, speed, aerobic fitness and agility) were collected. The Brazilian population was used as a reference and compared to the adolescent subjects using Z scores for all variables. Anthropometric characteristics and performances in physical fitness tests differed (p<0.05) among players of different sports. In addition, for each variable assessed, adolescents who practised team court sports showed similar or improved results compared to their counterparts in the general population (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics differed depending on the team court sport practised. These findings may elucidate which physical abilities are most impacted by the practise of a particular team sport as well as help teachers and physical education and sport professionals identify talented adolescents. PMID:23717357

  10. A software-hardware anthropometric system and its use for restorative treatment of postinsult patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. Savel’eva; A. N. Novosel’skii; I. A. Senitskii; S. N. Bushkov

    2006-01-01

    Motor and posture disorders are the main morpho? functional defects in patients with cerebral insult. Correct diagnosis and recovery of patients suffering from cerebral vascular catastrophe directly depend on adequate evalua? tion of the patient’s degree of motor dysfunction [9?11]. Earlier, the degree of vascular catastrophe and efficacy of recovery in patients with cerebral insult was assessed using anthropometric examination

  11. Early anthropometric and immunological success of antiretroviral therapy do not predict virological success in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    therapy (ART) is a critical step. In sub-Saharan Africa, few people have access to plasma viral load (VL of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. This is consideredPage 1 Early anthropometric and immunological success of antiretroviral therapy do not predict

  12. Anthropometrical data and coefficients of regression related to gender and race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gongbing Shan; Christiane Bohn

    2003-01-01

    As a result of migration and globalization, the requirement for anthropometrical data of distinct races and gender has augmented whilst the availability remained minimal. Therefore, several sets of estimation equations, which depend on gender, race, body height (BH), and body mass (BM), were established in this study to fulfill this necessity. The method consisted of: (a) an inexpensive device to

  13. Anthropometric assessment of youth national championship basketball players in relation to playing position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Viswanathan; A S Nageswara; S Baskar

    2010-01-01

    Profiling can be a valuable means of identifying talent, strengths and weaknesses, assigning player positions and helping in the optimal design of training programmes. The objective of this study was to provide anthropometric profile of elite national basketball players. A squad of youth national championship basketball players (n = 44) provided informed consent to participate in this study. Using ISAK

  14. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  15. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Perroni, F, Vetrano, M, Camolese, G, Guidetti, L, and Baldari, C. Anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players: Differences among categories, subcategories, and playing position. J Strength Cond Res 29(8): 2097-2104, 2015-Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ? 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ? 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p < 0.01) components, whereas no differences in mesomorphy. Analyzing the interaction between subcategories and playing position factors, a significant effect was found only in the endomorphy component (p = 0.05). The analysis of anthropometric characteristic of Italian young soccer players indicates that players have high muscularity value and low adiposity. This study showed the presence of somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence. PMID:25734780

  16. Reference curves of anthropometric indices in two national studies conducted among Iranian children in 2003-2004 and 2009-2010: The Caspian study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Khoshhali, Mehri; Heshmat, Ramin; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reference percentile curves are usually used as a screening tool to determine growth disorders. Anthropometric indices are population-dependent and may differ according to ethnicity, dietary pattern and lifestyle habits. This study aims to compare the curves of anthropometric measures obtained in two national studies conducted among Iranian children and adolescents in 2003-2004 and 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures obtained in two nationwide surveys conducted in 10-18-year-old Iranian students were compared. Lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) Chart Maker Pro program was used to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles and to smooth and fit the model. Results: In 2003-2004, the mean and standard deviation (SD) of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were 18.98 ± 3.81 kg/m2 and 67.50 ± 11.05 cm in boys; and 19.44 ± 3.78 kg/m2 and 66.55 ± 9.89 cm in girls, respectively. In 2009-2010, the corresponding figures were 19.16 ± 4.07 kg/m2, 69.42 ± 11.43 cm, 19.63 ± 4.11 kg/m2, and 67.29 ± 9.69 cm, respectively. Height curves did not show considerable changes in two studies. Comparison of two series of studies showed that the weight, BMI, WC, and waist-to-height ratio were lower in adolescent girls than boys especially in higher percentiles. Moreover, in both genders, weight, BMI, and WC percentiles decreased. Conclusion: The growth charts of Iranian children and adolescents aged 10-18 years have changed over 5 years. The reference growth curves change over time in the pediatric age group, repeated surveys should be conducted to update the age- and gender-specific reference curves in different populations. PMID:25422654

  17. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  18. A mixed longitudinal anthropometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Cleidy; Buschang, Peter H; Camacho, Jesus A; Botero, Paola; Roldan, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos. Four age cohorts, including a total of 458 children and adolescents (262 males and 216 females), were included in this mixed-longitudinal study. The cohorts were first measured at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 and every year thereafter for 3 years. Eight anthropometric measurements were taken, including three cranial (head perimeter, head width, and head length), two craniofacial (maxillary and mandibular length), and three facial (face height, bizygomatic width, and bigonial width). Multilevel analyses showed that all dimensions increased between 6 and 17 years of age. The cranium grew less than the craniofacial, which in turn grew less than the facial dimensions. In addition, vertical dimensions showed more growth than antero-posterior dimensions, which in turn grew more than transverse dimensions. None of the measurement showed statistically significant growth differences between subjects with normal occlusion and Class I or Class II malocclusions. Males were generally larger than females and showed greater growth rates. Except for facial width, whose yearly velocities decreased regularly with age, an adolescent growth spurt was evident for most of the male measurements. Yearly velocities for females followed a simpler decelerating pattern. The results provide reference data for Colombian mestizos, for whom normative data of other ethnic groups are not applicable. While occlusion had little or no effect, there were gender differences, as well as important growth differences between cranial and facial measurements. PMID:21097992

  19. Hands on CERN

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The project Hands-on-CERN was developed at Stockholm University to educate high school students and teachers about the fundamental processes inside matter and the current research dealing with particle collisions. At the Standard Model link, users can learn about the interactions of particle physics, transformation rules, the future of elementary particle physics, and much more. Through the use of interactive animations, students can learn about hadron decays, Feymann diagrams, and elementary particles. Although particular components of the website may be difficult to locate, by going through the tutorial step-by-step initially, users should eliminate this problem and reap the benefits of this very educational website.

  20. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  1. Anthropometric approaches and their uncertainties to assigning computational phantoms to individual patients in pediatric dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Scott; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    Current efforts to reconstruct organ doses in children undergoing diagnostic imaging or therapeutic interventions using ionizing radiation typically rely upon the use of reference anthropomorphic computational phantoms coupled to Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. These phantoms are generally matched to individual patients based upon nearest age or sometimes total body mass. In this study, we explore alternative methods of phantom-to-patient matching with the goal of identifying those methods which yield the lowest residual errors in internal organ volumes. Various thoracic and abdominal organs were segmented and organ volumes obtained from chest-abdominal-pelvic (CAP) computed tomography (CT) image sets from 38 pediatric patients ranging in age from 2 months to 15 years. The organs segmented included the skeleton, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs and spleen. For each organ, least-squared regression lines, 95th percentile confidence intervals and 95th percentile prediction intervals were established as a function of patient age, trunk volume, estimated trunk mass, trunk height, and three estimates of the ventral body cavity volume based on trunk height alone, or in combination with circumferential, width and/or breadth measurements in the mid-chest of the patient. When matching phantom to patient based upon age, residual uncertainties in organ volumes ranged from 53% (lungs) to 33% (kidneys), and when trunk mass was used (surrogate for total body mass as we did not have images of patient head, arms or legs), these uncertainties ranged from 56% (spleen) to 32% (liver). When trunk height is used as the matching parameter, residual uncertainties in organ volumes were reduced to between 21 and 29% for all organs except the spleen (40%). In the case of the lungs and skeleton, the two-fold reduction in organ volume uncertainties was seen in moving from patient age to trunk height—a parameter easily measured in the clinic. When ventral body cavity volumes were used, residual uncertainties were lowered even further to a range of between 14 and 20% for all organs except the spleen, which continued to remain at around 40%. The results of this study suggest that a more anthropometric pairing of computational phantom to individual patient based on simple measurements of trunk height and possibly mid-chest circumference or thickness (where influences of subcutaneous fat are minimized) can lead to significant reductions in organ volume uncertainties: ranges of 40-50% (based on patient age) to between 15 and 20% (based on body cavity volumes tied to trunk height). An expanded series of non-uniform rational B-spine (NURBS) pediatric phantoms are being created at the University of Florida to allow the full application of this new approach in pediatric medical imaging studies.

  2. Impairment of the rubber hand illusion in focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Fiorio, Mirta; Weise, David; Önal-Hartmann, Cigdem; Zeller, Daniel; Tinazzi, Michele; Classen, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Patients with dystonia display a number of disturbances in the cognitive processing of movements, such as movement simulation and prediction, but whether these deficits point to a deeper rooted disturbance of perceptual bodily representations remains unknown. A useful way to investigate the sense of body ownership is the rubber hand paradigm, in which an illusion of ownership is established by synchronous stroking of the participants' real unseen hand and a visible fake hand, whereas similar asynchronous stroking does not bring about the illusion. This paradigm allows testing of both the subjective experience of feeling ownership over the rubber hand and the proprioceptive relocation of the real unseen hand towards the viewed rubber hand. Previous studies have mapped these different aspects onto two anatomically distinct neuronal substrates, with the ventral premotor cortex processing the illusory feeling of ownership and the inferior parietal lobule and cerebellum processing proprioceptive drift. We applied the rubber hand illusion task to healthy subjects and to patients affected by two different types of focal dystonia-one specifically affecting the hand (focal hand dystonia) and one not affecting the hand (torticollis and blepharospasm). Results showed that in patients with focal hand dystonia, the proprioceptive drift was selectively disrupted on the dystonic hand while the subjective experience of the illusion was retained. In the non-dystonic hand and in the other two groups (non-hand dystonia and healthy subjects), the rubber hand illusion resembled the typical pattern with synchronous stroking eliciting the illusion. These findings provide support for the contention that the mechanisms underlying the presence of the illusory feeling of ownership and the proprioceptive drift are different. Selective impairment of the limb recalibration on the dystonic hand points to underlying deficits in integrating the visual-tactile input with the proprioceptive information in order to update the current body position and may support a model linking dystonia to dysfunctions in a network comprising the inferior parietal cortex and the cerebellum. PMID:21378099

  3. Research article From robotic hands to human hands

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    problems and can be used to plan grasps for an actual robot. With the aid of a vision system, we have shownResearch article From robotic hands to human hands: a visualization and simulation engine York, USA Abstract Purpose ­ Robotic hands are still a long way from matching the grasping

  4. Altered Vision Near the Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

  5. Hand Washing in Emergency Situations 

    E-print Network

    Schoessow, Courtney

    2005-09-30

    the number of Hand Washing in Emergency Situations germs on your skin. Remember: Products vary in the amount of the hand rub needed to reduce the number of bacteria on your hands. Read the product details on the back of the container for directions...

  6. Hands-On Universe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hands-On Universe (HOU) is an educational program that enables students to investigate the Universe while applying tools and concepts from science, math, and technology. Using the Internet, HOU participants around the world request observations from an automated telescope, download images from a large image archive, and analyze them with the aid of image processing software. Student resources include a tutorial on finding asteroids in a pair of images and an astronomical tool to find constellations of stars. Teacher resources include a middle school solar system curriculum and teacher courses. There are also activities such as creating a model of the Moon, a star finder, and a flip-book animation of Jupiter.

  7. Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters

    PubMed Central

    Riello, Marianna; Rusconi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line (MNL). In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e., palm down) and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e., palm up) posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left–right MNL, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the spatial–numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus–response correspondence effects, like the SNARC, that have been typically attributed to the mapping of numbers on a left-to-right mental line. PMID:22207856

  9. Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

  10. Hand Washing in Emergency Situations

    E-print Network

    Schoessow, Courtney

    2005-09-30

    - nated. However, it is still important for you and your family to wash your hands often to avoid illness. When should you wash your hands? ? Before preparing or eating food ? After using the bathroom ? After changing diapers or cleaning a child who... the number of Hand Washing in Emergency Situations germs on your skin. Remember: Products vary in the amount of the hand rub needed to reduce the number of bacteria on your hands. Read the product details on the back of the container for directions...

  11. The cross-sectional association between snacking behaviour and measures of adiposity: The Fenland Study, UK.

    E-print Network

    O’Connor, Laura; Brage, Soren; Griffin, Simon J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Forouhi, Nita G.

    2015-06-30

    of adiposity. 76 Outcomes: anthropometric and body composition measurements 77 At the test site facility, weight and height were measured barefoot and wearing light clothing 78 using standardised procedures. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided...

  12. A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Nácher; S. Alemany; J. C. González; E. Alcántara; J. García-Hernández; S. Heras; A. Juan

    This study describes the development of a model for predicting footwear fit on the basis of user data. The model involved the design of a footwear classification system which grouped different types of footwear into classes on the basis of functional features. Foot dimensions of a total of 316 female participants were measured with a 3D scanner and individual preferences

  13. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics. PMID:25532152

  14. Hands-in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlough, Vickie; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an earth science unit in which students study soil from their own backyards through a series of integrated activities. Introduces several earth science concepts, including local geology and the development of different types of geological regions. Presents activities to make a county soil map, measure moisture in soil, and measure the…

  15. Prosthetic helping hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  16. Anthropometric precision and accuracy of digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: comparing the Genex and 3dMD imaging systems with one another and with direct anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth M; Naidoo, Sybill; Govier, Daniel P; Martin, Rick A; Kane, Alex A; Marazita, Mary L

    2006-05-01

    A variety of commercially available three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are currently in use by craniofacial specialists. Little is known, however, about how measurement data generated from alternative 3D systems compare, specifically in terms of accuracy and precision. The purpose of this study was to compare anthropometric measurements obtained by way of two different digital 3D photogrammetry systems (Genex and 3dMD) as well as direct anthropometry and to evaluate intraobserver precision across these three methods. On a sample of 18 mannequin heads, 12 linear distances were measured twice by each method. A two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test simultaneously for mean differences in precision across methods. Additional descriptive statistics (e.g., technical error of measurement [TEM]) were used to quantify measurement error magnitude. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) mean differences were observed across methods for nine anthropometric variables; however, the magnitude of these differences was consistently at the submillimeter level. No significant differences were noted for precision. Moreover, the magnitude of imprecision was determined to be very small, with TEM scores well under 1 mm, and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 1. Results indicate that overall mean differences across these three methods were small enough to be of little practical importance. In terms of intraobserver precision, all methods fared equally well. This study is the first attempt to simultaneously compare 3D surface imaging systems directly with one another and with traditional anthropometry. Results suggest that craniofacial surface data obtained by way of alternative 3D photogrammetric systems can be combined or compared statistically. PMID:16770184

  17. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals. PMID:23586369

  18. Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Body Fat Percent, Anthropometric Indices in 10 To 18 Year Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; REZAEI, Mansoureh; ASGHARI, Golaleh; MEHRABI, Yadollah; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with body fat percentage (BFP) and anthropometric indicesin10 to 18year old adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 134 Tehranian adolescents, aged 10 to 18 years (66 boys and 68 girls) in 2007. The MetS definition proposed by Cook et al. was used. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of MetS and its components with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and BFP. Using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the discriminatory ability of anthropometric measurements and BFP was evaluated. Results The mean±SD forage of boys and girls was14.5±2.3and13.0±2.9 years, respectively (P=0.001); the prevalence of MetS in these groups was 32.3 and6.5%, respectively (P=0.001). After adjusting for sex and physical activity, the highest odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS and hypertriglyceridemia were found for WC, 6.27 (2.63-14.94; P<0.05)and 3.14 (1.87-5.27; P<0.05), respectively, and those for low HDL-C and hypertension were found for BMI, 2.91 (1.73-4.90; P<0.05)and 2.26 (1.27-4.02; P=0.05), respectively. After adjusting for sex and physical activity, the highest area under ROC curve for MetS and hypertriglyceridemia was seen for WC (P=0.001), for hypertension it was seen for BMI (P=0.001), and for low HDL-C it was observed for both WC and BMI (P=0.001). Conclusions In adolescents, WC was the best predictor of MetS and hypertriglyceridemia, BMI was the best predictor of hypertension, and WC and BMI were the best predictors for low HDL-C.

  19. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  20. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training. PMID:21096021

  1. Satisfaction with and usage of a hand neuroprosthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Stroh Wuolle; Clayton L. Van Doren; Anne M. Bryden; P. Hunter Peckham; Michael W. Keith; Kevin L. Kilgore; Julie H. Grill

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To measure the satisfaction with, clinical impact of, and use of an implantable hand neuroprosthesis.Setting: Eight different medical centers.Participants: Thirty-four individuals with spinal cord injuries at the C5 or C6 motor level.Interventions: Participants were implemented with a hand neuroprosthesis that provides grasp and release. The neuroprosthesis includes a surgically implanted stimulator, implanted electrodes sutured to the hand and forearm

  2. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r?=?0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r?=?0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r?=?0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r?=?0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r?=?0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r?=?0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r?=?0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r?=?0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r?=?0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r?=?0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated. PMID:24626110

  3. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and psychopathology status of Egyptian male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Maggie M; Said, Nagwa S; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A; Abdel-Moety, Hanaa

    2015-02-28

    Ramadan fasting is believed to be beneficial. We assessed a random sample of 100 Egyptian male schizophrenia outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory measures at baseline (T1) before Ramadan of 2014 and during the fourth week of Ramadan (T2). The metabolic syndrome was identified in 31 patients and these showed a reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and increase in the levels of dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), waste circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, all PANSS subscales, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), white blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In a multiple regression analysis, total energy intake and body mass index (BMI) emerged as the main independent predictors of deterioration in most inflammatory and psychopathology parameters. These findings did not support our hypothesis but suggested that Ramadan fasting has a negative impact on schizophrenia patients, especially those with metabolic syndrome. This could draw attention to the need in the psycho-education management of such patients to focus more on nutrition education for safe fasting. PMID:25529262

  4. Which anthropometric indicators identify a pregnant woman as acutely malnourished and predict adverse birth outcomes in the humanitarian context?

    PubMed

    Ververs, Mija-Tesse; Antierens, Annick; Sackl, Anita; Staderini, Nelly; Captier, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Currently there is no consensus on how to identify pregnant women as acutely malnourished and when to enroll them in nutritional programmes. Médecins Sans Frontières Switzerland undertook a literature review with the purpose of determining values of anthropometric indicators for acute malnutrition that are associated with adverse birth outcomes (such as low birth weight (LBW)), pre-term birth and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). A literature search in PUBMED was done covering 1 January 1995 to 12 September 2012 with the key terms maternal anthropometry and pregnancy. The review focused on the humanitarian context. Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) was identified as the preferential indicator of choice because of its relatively strong association with LBW, narrow range of cut-off values, simplicity of measurement (important in humanitarian settings) and it does not require prior knowledge of gestational age. The MUAC values below which most adverse effects were identified were <22 and <23 cm. A conservative cut-off of <23 cm is recommended to include most pregnant women at risk of LBW for their infants in the African and Asian contexts. PMID:23787989

  5. Environmental, Lifestyle, and Anthropometric Risk Factors for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Cuba: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lence-Anta, Juan J; Xhaard, Constance; Ortiz, Rosa M; Kassim, Haoiinda; Pereda, Celia M; Turcios, Silvia; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Salazar, Sirced; Rodriguez, Regla; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is low in people of African origin and higher in populations living on islands, but there is no well-established explanation for these differences. Cuba is a multiethnic nation with people of African and Spanish descent. Until now, no study on the risk factors of DTC has focused on the Cuban population. Our aim is to establish the role of environmental and lifestyle factors and to relate anthropometric measurements to the risk of developing DTC in Cuba. Methods We performed a case-control study of 203 DTC patients treated in two hospitals in Havana and 212 controls living in the area covered by these hospitals (i.e. parts of Havana and the municipality of Jaruco). Risk factors were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results As has been shown by other studies, we found that non-African ethnicity, never smoking, parity, and high body mass index are risk factors significantly associated with DTC, whereas a history of exposure to ionizing radiation and level of education were not significantly related with disease development. Being rhesus factor-positive, having a personal history of benign thyroid disorder, agricultural occupation, and consumption of artesian well water were also associated with a significantly increased risk of developing DTC. Conclusions The original findings reported here concern the risk of DTC that was associated with non-African ethnicity, positive rhesus factor, farming, and drinking water from an artesian well. PMID:25538901

  6. Left- versus right-hand tracking performance by right-handed boys and girls: examination of performance asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Carey, James R; Comnick, Kathleen T; Lojovich, Jeanne M; Lindgren, Bruce R

    2003-12-01

    This study compared left- versus right-hand performance within healthy, right-handed, 8- or 9-yr.-old boys and girls on a finger-movement tracking task. 38 boys and 38 girls were randomly assigned to use either the left hand first and right hand second or vice versa in tracking a sine wave target with extension and flexion movements of the index finger. The data were analyzed with a three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures followed by pair-wise comparisons with a Bonferroni correction. Analysis yielded a significant hand x test interaction and a significant improvement for subjects tracking with the right hand on Test 1 and left hand on Test 2. No significant change occurred for subjects tracking with the left hand on Test 1 and right hand on Test 2. No interaction was observed with sex as a factor. This study suggests that asymmetry of performance favoring the left hand occurs in right-handed boys and girls during finger-movement tracking. PMID:14738340

  7. The Hands of Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Security Agency Central Security Service

    2009-04-22

    Students explore the different ways to measure time and develop their understanding of how to tell time to the hour, half and quarter hours, and then five minute intervals. They identify time on analog and digital clocks and read a clock at the hour or half hour. They participate in timed events and keep time as record keepers. In the final lesson, students make a My Time Book.

  8. One-Handed Thumb Use on Smart Phones by Semi-literate and Illiterate Users in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katre, Dinesh

    There is a tremendous potential for developing mobile-based productivity tools and occupation specific applications for the semi-literate and illiterate users in India. One-handed thumb use on the touchscreen of smart phone or touch phone is considered as an effective alternative than the use of stylus or index finger, to free the other hand for supporting the occupational activity. In this context, usability research and experimental tests are conducted to understand the role of fine motor control, usability of thumb as the interaction apparatus and the ergonomic needs of users. The paper also touches upon cultural, racial and anthropometric aspects, which need due consideration while designing the mobile interface. Design recommendations are evolved to enhance the effectiveness of one-handed thumb use on smart phone, especially for the benefit of semi-literate and illiterate users.

  9. On the Other (Invisible) Hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Brewer

    2009-01-01

    The invisible hand as it appears in the Theory of Moral Sentiments is commonly treated as an afterthought in discussions of the version in the Wealth of Nations, but it deserves attention in its own right. I will argue that there is an entirely coherent (if not entirely plausible) economic argument underpinning the invisible hand of the Theory of Moral

  10. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 are most ... or blows their nose. You can catch hand-foot-and-mouth disease if: A person with the infection sneezes, coughs, ...

  11. Hand hygiene and skin health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kownatzki

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of hand problems associated with the hand hygiene of medical professions is due to a combination of damaging factors: (1) the removal of barrier lipids by detergent cleaning and alchohol antisepsis followed by a loss of moisturizers and stratum corneum water and (2) the overhydration of the stratum corneum by sweat trapped within gloves. Together the facilitate

  12. Arguments for alcoholic hand disinfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Rotter

    2001-01-01

    The non-aqueous use of ethanol or propanols offers various advantages over washing hands with either unmedicated or medicated soap in both hygienic and surgical hand disinfection. Alcohols exert the strongest and fastest activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi (but not bacterial spores) as well as enveloped (but less so against non-enveloped) viruses, being little influenced by interfering

  13. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  14. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  15. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ?7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis. PMID:25119755

  16. Optimal Cut-Off Values of Anthropometric Markers to Predict Hypertension in North Indian Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpi Gupta; Satwanti Kapoor

    The aim of the study was to determine the cut-offs of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in an endogamous North\\u000a Indian population. A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect data from 578 adult Aggarwal Baniya subjects (271 men\\u000a and 307 women, mean age: 43.4 ± 5.3 and 38.7 ± 4.9 respectively) using multistage, stratified sampling method. Individual\\u000a body weight, height, waist circumference (WC),

  17. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Ennen, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks). Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline) to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5) and 14 days (94.8). Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline) to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1). Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days). Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice. PMID:16476166

  18. Cognitive bias, hand preference and welfare of common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

    2015-07-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have hand preferences for grasping pieces of food and holding them while eating and these are stable throughout adult life. We report here that left-handed marmosets have negative cognitive bias compared to right-handed marmosets. Twelve marmosets were trained to expect a food reward from a bowl with a black lid and not from one with a white lid, or vice versa. In probe tests with ambiguous, grey-lidded bowls a left-handed group (N=7) were less likely to remove the lid to inspect the bowl than a right-handed group (N=5). This difference between left- and right-handed marmosets was not dependent on rate of learning, sex or age. In fact, hand-preference was not associated with rate of learning the task. Furthermore, retrospective examination of colony records of 39 marmosets revealed that more aggression was directed towards left- than right-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference, which can be measured easily, could serve as an indicator of cognitive bias and may signal a need for particular care in laboratory environments. We explain the results by arguing that hand preference reflects more frequent (or dominant) use of the opposite hemisphere and this predisposes individuals to behave differently. PMID:25813746

  19. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power. PMID:22531616

  20. Apolipoprotein A5 and lipoprotein lipase interact to modulate anthropometric measures in Hispanics of Caribbean origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) proteins interact functionally to regulate lipid metabolism, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene have also been associated independently with obesity risk. Evaluating gene combinations may be more effective than single SNP a...

  1. Diet, anthropometric measures and prostate cancer risk: a review of prospective cohort and intervention studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Dagnelie; A. G. Schuurman; R. A. Goldbohm; P. A. van den Brandt

    2004-01-01

    and tomatoes\\/lycopene. Overall consumption of meat, eggs, vegetables, fruit, coffee, tea, carotenoids and vitamins A, C and D was not consistently related to prostate cancer risk. Intervention studies also indicate that supplementation with b -carotene does not lower prostate cancer risk, except possibly in men with low b -carotene status at baseline. For specific types of meat, alcoholic drinks, dairy

  2. The Impact of Various Anthropometric Measurements of Obesity on Pulmonary Function in Candidates for Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Feng Wei; Huey-Dong Wu; Chi-Yang Chang; Chih-Kun Huang; Chi-Ming Tai; Chao-Ming Hung; Wei-Kung Tseng; Chau-Chung Wu

    2010-01-01

    Background  Obesity has proven to be associated with respiratory symptoms and impaired pulmonary function, which could increase the incidence\\u000a of postoperative complications after bariatric surgery. However, the component of obesity that has the most influence on pulmonary\\u000a function has not been identified, especially in Asian-Pacific populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This cross-sectional study enrolled obese Chinese patients ?18 years of age with a body mass index

  3. Supraorbital Notch\\/Foramen, Infraorbital Foramen and Mental Foramen in Thais: Anthropometric Measurements and Surgical Relevance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wandee Apinhasmit DDS; Supin Chompoopong; Dolly Methathrathip DDS; Roengsak Sansuk; Wannapa Phetphunphiphat

    Objective: To determine the morphology and the locations of the SupraOrbital Notch\\/Foramen (SON\\/F), InfraOrbital Foramen (IOF), and Mental Foramen (MF) relative to frequently encountered surgical land- marks. Material and Method: One hundred and six Thai adult skulls were investigated. Results: Mean horizontal widths of SON, SOF, IOF and MF were 4.31 ? 1.61 mm, 2.81 ? 0.62 mm, 3.35 ?

  4. An anthropometric study to evaluate the correlation between the occlusal vertical dimension and length of the thumb

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Bishal Babu; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Shrestha, Pragya; Baral, Dharanidhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishment of proper occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is one of the important tasks for successful prosthodontic therapy. An ideal method for determining OVD in terms of cost, time, and instrument requirements has been sought in prosthodontics by various investigators. However, no such single method has been formulated. In the current anthropometric study, the relationship of the length of the thumb to the OVD was tested in two ethnic groups of Nepal, Aryans, and Mongoloids. The result of this study can be useful in determining proper OVD in edentulous patients. Aims and objectives The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the length of the thumb and OVD in Aryan and Mongoloid ethnic groups. The secondary aim was to compare the correlation between OVD and other anatomic measurements (eye–ear distance and pupil-to-rima oris distance) in these ethnicities. Materials and methods The OVD, thumb length, eye–ear distance and distance between pupil of eye and rima oris were measured in a total of 500 adult dentulous volunteers. The correlation between OVD and thumb length as well as other anatomic measurements was checked with Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship of OVD to the length of the thumb. Results The thumb length was significantly (P?0.05) correlated with strong and positive values (Pearson’s coefficient =0.874 in the whole population, 0.826 in Aryans, and 0.944 in Mongoloids). Regression analysis showed that thumb length was significantly related to OVD in both ethnic groups. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, the result implies that thumb length can be used as an adjunct for establishing OVD in the edentulous patients. PMID:25678817

  5. The effect of radiological hand osteoarthritis on hand function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berna Özkan; Dilek Keskin; Hatice Bodur; Nurdan Barça

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of osteoarthritis (OA) on hand function in elderly patients. One hundred\\u000a elderly patients with a mean age of 68.50?±?6.37 years (87 women, 13 men) were enrolled to the study. Radiological hand OA\\u000a was defined as the presence of Kellgren–Lawrence (K–L) grade ? 2. Grip strength, and lateral, tip, and three-fingered pinches

  6. Clockwork: Hands On For Habitat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vox Bandicoot.

    Clockwork is "a self directed, theatre-based education package about biological diversity." Produced by Vox Bandicoot in collaboration with the Biodiversity Group (Environment Australia), the Clockwork site offers four sections: Midnight, an introduction to and philosophy of biological diversity, Mainspring, a hands-on lesson in critical concepts about threatened species and habitats, Big Hand and Little Hand, curriculum support material for classroom teachers, and Cog and Spindle, general science and ecological background about Australia. Though depth of content varies, environmental educators will be interested in this fresh and creative approach.

  7. The Hands-On Universe Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Ferlet; Carlton Pennypacker; G. Monsen; J. Refling; K. Govil

    1995-01-01

    Hands-On Universe (HOU) is a slowly but steadily growing international endeavor that teaches students and teachers modern\\u000a astronomy through the acquisition, measurement, and analysis of real images from either the International Virtual Observatory\\u000a or a developing network of small robotic telescopes. This intrinsically global effort shares data, teachers, scientists, students,\\u000a telescope sites, lesson plans, teacher training strategies, software, collaborative tools,

  8. Arm-Hand-Finger Video Game Interaction

    E-print Network

    Logsdon, Drew Anthony

    2012-02-14

    ................................. 35 7 The fingers of the hand flex (lower left) and abduct (lower right) ............ 36 8 Joints whose angles are measured by the CyberGlove .............................. 37 9 Example of a sliding window segmentation approach... practice ............................ 85 1 1. INTRODUCTION Human-computer gesture interaction has existed for several decades and has recently become popular in the video game industry. Some of the original approaches used data-collecting gloves...

  9. Hand-Eye Calibration Using Dual Quaternions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Daniilidis

    1999-01-01

    Abstract To relate measurements,made,by a sensor mounted,on a mechanical link to the robot’s coordinate frame, we must first estimate the trans- formation between,these two frames. Many algorithms have been proposed for this so-called hand-eye calibration, but they do not treat the relative position and orientation in a unified way. In this paper, we introduce the use of dual quaternions, which

  10. Operational value of anthropometric surveillance in famine early warning and relief: wollo region, ethiopia, 1987-88.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M

    1993-03-01

    In this article I examine the operational implications of the findings reported in 'Entitlements, Coping Mechanisms and Indicators of Access to Food: Wollo Region, Ethiopia, 1987-88' (Kelly, 1992). The usefulness of anthropometric and other indicators for early warning and relief planning in Wollo is assessed by comparing the findings of Save the Children Fund's nutritional surveillance programme with those of the Early Warning and Planning Service of the Ethiopian government's Relief and Rehabilitation Commission. Case studies are used to illustrate the value of anthropometric and other indicators for targeting relief food and monitoring its effects. The costs of monitoring various indicators are then considered, and the cost of the Save the Children Fund programme is compared with that of other programmes. It is argued that in Wollo, anthropometric surveillance is a cost-effective means of improving early warning, planning, targeting and monitoring. PMID:20958757

  11. Women holding hands.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J

    1995-01-01

    It is estimated that 80% of the people involved in grassroots environmental protection advocacy in the US are women. One such self-described "average" woman became an activist upon learning that her drinking water was contaminated with uranium leaking from a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility. When DOE officials tried to brush off her concerns and those of her neighbors at a hearing, she presented them with a jar of water from her kitchen tap and challenged them to drink it. They refused. Thus began a long, but ultimately successful, struggle to shut down the offending facility. The efforts of these US women are mirrored all over the world as women have embraced environmental justice as one of their causes. At recent UN conferences, activists have challenged conventional strategies of economic development as being incompatible with equity and environmental sustainability. They have also established that "women's rights are human rights" and added domestic violence and rape to the human rights agenda. The recent International Conference on Population and Development revolved around women's health and rights issues. Throughout the world, women activists have challenged and changed the social dynamics of families, households, communities, and societies in general. One reason for the increased success of women's groups is that they have adopted the tactics of mass communication, including the use of computers, radio, and film. Although the various efforts are arising from diverse circumstances, they have some things in common such as finding personal experience to be a major impetus for action, realizing the self-reinforcing empowering nature of advocacy work, breaking the silence surrounding culturally taboo topics, and challenging the status quo. Such challenges often lead to political backlash or to counter measures taken by fundamentalist religious groups who link improvements in women's status with societal ills. Despite these challenges, the global women's movement continues to grow and to seek democracy and social justice. PMID:12290007

  12. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused with foot- ...

  13. Neural bases of hand synergies

    PubMed Central

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is “synergy control” which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of “fixed” vs. “flexible” synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control. PMID:23579545

  14. American Society of Hand Therapists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Opportunities Awards ASHT Blog Clinic Directory Code of Ethics Donate FAQs History Leadership and Governance Member Benefits ... Association Headquarters, a chartered accredited association management company. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hand Therapists. All Rights ...

  15. Anthropometric, body composition and health determinants of active ageing: a gender approach.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar Montero; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; López, Santiago Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    This study applied a gender perspective to establish some of the anthropometric, body composition, health and socio-cultural determinants of active ageing. The variable 'active ageing' (presence/absence) was created based on cognitive and disability/illness/physical functioning, subjective health, satisfaction with life and productive activity performed, and used in predictive models to establish its relationship with anthropometric variables, physical health indicators and educational level. The sample consisted of 456 home-living individuals (169 men and 287 women; age range 54-75 years) from Madrid and Toledo in Spain. The women had a higher prevalence of obesity than the men (37.6% vs 29.0%), significantly greater fat accumulation in the abdominal area and worst perceived health (p=0.003). The frequency of active agers is higher in men than in women (38.4% vs 21.9%; p<0.001). Men and women were found to have distinctive ageing patterns. Health factors condition the presence of active ageing in women, while education factors are also relevant in men. PMID:21729364

  16. Correlation between elite male Iranian gymnast’s wrist injuries and their anthropometric characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Hadi; Rajabi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Nikro, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: In gymnastics, wrists are under considerable force that causes various injuries. The influences of various risk factors have not been studied sufficiently to date to reduce the wrist injuries of gymnasts. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and the wrist injuries of elite male gymnasts who took part in the Iranian Premier League and Division One in 2012. Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlation study concerning the injuries of 43 elite male gymnasts. The extent of their wrist injuries was determined by a questionnaire and interviews. Also, their anthropometric characteristics were collected according to the criteria established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Event tree analysis and the Spearman rho correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the gymnasts, 53.5% experienced wrist injuries over the past year, and the rate of wrist injuries was three per gymnast for one year. The incidents of skin and muscular injuries were the most prevalent type of injuries followed by Injuries to ligaments and bones respectively. Body weight was the only anthromopetric characteristic of the participants that was found to have a significant positive relationship with wrist injuries (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gymnasts and their coaches should pay special attention to gymnasts’ weight as an intrinsic risk factor and take the required actions to prevent wrist injuries. PMID:25763171

  17. Machine Vision and Applications manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Wuhrer, Stefanie

    anthropometric measurements is such a problem, since these 1-D mea- surements encode 3-D shape information individual application. On the other hand, there is a long history of using anthropometric measurements of measurements, traditional anthropometric data can be leveraged to create 3D datasets without resorting

  18. Anthropometrics Provide a Better Estimate of Urinary Organic Acid Anion Excretion than a Dietary Mineral Intake-Based Estimate in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoma Berkemeyer; Thomas Remer

    The role of elevated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in the causation of osteoporosis, muscle wasting, and kidney stones is currently under discussion. The aim of this study was to examine whether urinary organic acid anion excretion, a major component of NEAP, is predicted primarily by anthropometric- (OAanthro) or diet- (OAdiet) based estimates. Dietary intakes, anthropometric data, and 24-h urinary

  19. HandWave : design and manufacture of a wearable wireless skin conductance sensor and housing

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Marc D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis report details the design and manufacture of HandWave, a wearable wireless Bluetooth skin conductance sensor, and dedicated housing. The HandWave collects Electrodermal Activity (EDA) data by measuring skin ...

  20. Nicotine exposure and decontamination on tobacco harvesters' hands.

    PubMed

    Curwin, Brian D; Hein, Misty J; Sanderson, Wayne T; Nishioka, Marcia G; Buhler, Wayne

    2005-07-01

    Green tobacco sickness is an illness associated with nicotine exposures among tobacco harvesters. Agricultural workers manually harvest tobacco and thus have the potential for skin exposure to nicotine, particularly on the hands. Often gloves are not worn as it hinders the harvesters' ability to harvest the tobacco leaves. The purposes of this study were to measure the concentration of nicotine residue on the hands of tobacco harvesters and the effectiveness of hand washing at removing the residue. Wipe samples from the hands of 12 tobacco harvesters were collected at the end of morning and afternoon work periods over two consecutive days. Each harvester had one hand wiped before washing his hands, and the other hand wiped after washing his hands with soap and water. Eight samples per worker were collected over the two days for a total of 96 samples collected. In addition to the hand-wipe samples, leaf-wipe samples were collected from 15 tobacco plants to estimate the amount of nicotine residue on the plants. The average nicotine level in leaf-wipe samples was 1.0 microg cm(-2). The geometric mean pre-wash and post-wash nicotine levels on the hands were 10 and 0.38 microg cm(-2), respectively. Nicotine leaf-wipe level, right or left hand and time of sampling did not significantly influence exposure. Job position-working on the bottom versus the top of the tobacco harvesting machine-was associated with nicotine levels. Pre-wash nicotine levels were higher for workers on the bottom of the harvester but not significantly higher (P = 0.17). Post-wash nicotine levels were significantly higher for workers on the bottom of the harvester (P = 0.012). A substantial amount of nicotine was transferred to the hands, but washing with soap and water in the field significantly reduced nicotine levels by an average of 96% (P < 0.0001). PMID:15705597

  1. Alexithymia modulates the experience of the rubber hand illusion

    PubMed Central

    Grynberg, Delphine; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is associated with lower awareness of emotional and non-emotional internal bodily signals. However, evidence suggesting that alexithymia modulates body awareness at an external level is scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether alexithymia is associated with disrupted multisensory integration by using the rubber hand illusion task. Fifty healthy individuals completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and underwent the rubber hand illusion measure. In this measure, one watches a rubber hand being stroked synchronously or asynchronously with one’s own hand, which is hidden from view. Compared to the asynchronous stimulation, the synchronous stimulation results in the illusion that the rubber hand and the participant’s hand are closer together than they really are and that the rubber hand belongs to them. Results revealed that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with a lower ownership illusion over the rubber hand. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high alexithymia scorers integrate two simultaneous sensory and proprioceptive events into a single experience (lower multisensory integration) to a lesser extent than low alexithymia scorers. Higher susceptibility to the illusion in high alexithymia scorers may indicate that alexithymia is associated with an abnormal focus of one’s own body. PMID:26150779

  2. A Miniature Force Sensor for Prosthetic Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Chu, Mars; Diftler, Myron; Martin, Toby; Valvo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Tactile sensing is an important part of the development of new prosthetic hands. A number of approaches to establishing an afferent pathway back to the patient for tactile information are becoming available including tactors and direct stimulation of the afferent nerves. Tactile information can also be used by low-level control systems that perform simple tasks for the patient such as establishing a stable grasp and maintaining the grasping forces needed to hold an object. This abstract reports on the design of a small fingertip load cell based on semi-conductor strain gauges. Since this load cell is so small (measuring only 8.5mm in diameter and 6.25 mm in height), it easily fits into the tip of an anthropomorphic mechatronic hand. This load cell is tested by comparing a time series of force and moment data with reference data acquired from a much larger high-precision commercial load cell.

  3. Noninvasive Technique for the Diagnosis of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Infants by Analyzing Pulse Wave Phases on Photoplethysmography Signals Measured in the Right Hand and the Left Foot

    PubMed Central

    Goudjil, Sabrina; Imestouren, Fatiha; Armougon, Aurelie; Razafimanantsoa, Lucie; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Wallois, Fabrice; Leke, André; Kongolo, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on the pulse phase difference (PPD) between the left foot (postductal region) and the right hand (preductal region). Materials and Methods PPD was determined from arterial photoplethysmography signals (pulse waves) measured by infrared sensors routinely used for pulse oximetry in 56 premature infants less than 32 weeks gestation. Only infants with significant PDA (sPDA) diagnosed by echocardiography were treated with ibuprofen (for 3 days). Patients were classified according to whether or not they responded (Success/Failure) to this treatment. The Control group was composed of infants in whom ductus had already closed spontaneously at the time of the first echocardiography. The 3 groups were compared in terms of PPD at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the study. For patients in the Failure (n?=?17) and Success groups (n?=?18), T1 corresponded to the first day of treatment and T2 to the day after completion of the course of ibuprofen. In the Control group (n?=?21), T1 corresponded to 1 to 3 days of life (DOL), and T2 to 4–6 DOL. Results Compared to the Control group, PPD was higher in the Failure (at T1 and T2) and Success (at T1) groups characterized by sPDA. After ibuprofen therapy, PPD in the Success group decreased to about the level observed in the Control group. The area under the ROC curve of PPD for the diagnosis of sPDA was 0.98 (95% CI 0.96–1); for an optimal cut-off of PPD ?1.65 deg/cm, the sensitivity was 94.2% and the specificity was 98.3%. Conclusion In this study, PPD was correlated with ductus arteriosus status evaluated by echocardiography, indicating involvement of the ductal shunt in the mechanism of redistribution in systemic vascular territories. PPD can be considered for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant PDA. PMID:24892695

  4. Does Twice-weekly Cabergoline Improve Anthropometrical and Biochemical Profiles in Prediabetes? A Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Navid; Esmaily, Hadi; Abbasinazari, Mohammad; Tohidi, Maryam; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Hadaegh, Farzad; Tolabi, Maryam; Kalantar- Hormozi, Maryam; Dibaj, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic signaling is one of the regulatory pathways being investigated for its implication in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cabergoline on biochemical and anthropometric parameters in prediabetes stage (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance). In this double blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study, 27 prediabetic adults were randomized to receive 0.25-mg cabergoline twice weekly for two weeks, followed by 0.5 mg twice weekly for next 14 weeks (n = 13) or placebo (n = 14). All subjects were advised to follow a 500 kcal-deficit energy diet. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance, glycated hemoglobin (A1c), fasting, and 2-h insulin were measured at baseline and at 16-week follow-up. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) 2 was calculated to estimate steady-state beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance. Our results showed significant reductions in fasting (P = 0.004) and 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.01) after treatment, and significant improvements in beta-cell function (P = 0.03) and insulin resistance (P = 0.04) in the cabergoline group. The trend of non-significant A1c changes was decreasing in the cabergoline group versus an increasing trend in the placebo group. All anthropometric parameters were similar between the two groups. Our results revealed that twice-weekly cabergoline could improve glucose metabolism in prediabetes stage. Larger studies of longer duration are warranted to investigate the effect of cabergoline in preventing progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26185508

  5. Are the current Indian growth charts really representative? Analysis of anthropometric assessment of school children in a South Indian district

    PubMed Central

    Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart. PMID:24701431

  6. A comparison of migrants to, and women born in, urban Mongolia: demographic, reproductive, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Frazier, Lindsay A.; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Oyunbileg, Gankhuyag; Janes, Craig; Potischman, Nancy; Hoover, Robert; Troisi, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Background Mongolia has experienced vast migration from rural to urban areas since the 1950s. We hypothesized that women migrating to Ulaanbaatar, the capital, would differ in factors related to future chronic disease risk compared with women who were born in Ulaanbaatar. Methods Premenopausal mothers (aged <44 years) of children attending two schools (one in the city centre and one in the outskirts) in Ulaanbaatar were recruited for the study. During April and May 2009, 420 women were interviewed about migration, reproductive history and lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements were taken. Results Women born in (n=178) and outside (n=242) Ulaanbaatar were similar in education and marital status, but the latter appeared to have a more traditional lifestyle including being more likely to have lived as a nomadic herder (22.3% vs 5.6%; p<0.001) and to currently live in a traditional yurt or ger (40.1% vs 29.2%). Ever-use of hormonal contraception was more common in women born outside Ulaanbaatar (52.1% vs 38.2%; p=0.005) and their age at first live birth was older (26.0% vs 20.8% for ?25 vs <25 years). Although the number of pregnancies was similar, the number of live births was greater for those born outside Ulaanbaatar (p=0.002). Women born in Ulaanbaatar were more likely to have smoked cigarettes (24.7% vs 11.2%; p<0.001). Women born outside Ulaanbaatar were more likely to consume the traditional meat and dairy diet. Conclusion Rural migrants to Mongolia's capital have retained a traditional lifestyle in some, but not all, respects. Internal migrant populations may provide the opportunity to assess the effect of changes in isolated risk factors for subsequent chronic disease. PMID:24021762

  7. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  8. Hands-On Science, 680 Hands at a Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harry L. Shipman

    2001-02-01

    This article explains how students can do hands-on science in a large lecture theater with seats bolted to the floor. It specifically describes the logistics of doing a collapsing can activity in such a large class to demonstrate the birth of a black hole

  9. Precise determination of anthropometric dimensions by means of image processing methods for estimating human body segment parameter values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Baca

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed for the precise determination of anthropometric dimensions from the video images of four different body configurations. High precisionis achieved by incorporating techniques for finding the location of object boundaries with sub-pixel accuracy, the implementation of calibration algorithms, and by taking into account the varying distances of the body segments from the recording camera. The system

  10. Assessment of nutritional status using biochemical and anthropometric variables in a nutritional intervention study of women with hip fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARETA BACHRACH-LINDSTRÖM; MITRA UNOSSON; ANNA-CHRISTINA EK; HANS J ARNQVIST

    2001-01-01

    Background & Aims: The aim of this study of women with hip fracture was to describe nutritional status with biochemical markers and anthropometric variables, and to evaluate the effect of nutritional intervention with the intention of increasing protein and energy intake.Methods: The first consecutive 44 women were included, and used as controls. The next 44 were matched for age, fracture

  11. Anthropometric and physiologic correlates of mitral valve prolapse in a biethnic cohort of young adults: The CARDIA study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Flack; John H. Kvasnicka; Julius M. Gardin; Samuel S. Gidding; Teri A. Manolio; David R. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology of echocardiographic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and its anthropometric, physiologic, and psychobehavioral correlates with a cross-sectional analysis at 4 urban clinical centers. Patients A biethnic, community-based sample of 4136 young (aged 23 to 35 years) adult participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who had echocardiograms during their third examination

  12. Arm-Hand-Finger Video Game Interaction 

    E-print Network

    Logsdon, Drew Anthony

    2012-02-14

    Despite the growing popularity and expansion of video game interaction techniques and research in the area of hand gesture recognition, the application of hand gesture video game interaction using arm, hand, and finger motion has not been...

  13. A hybrid algorithm for selecting head-related transfer function based on similarity of anthropometric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Gao, Li-Ping

    2010-09-01

    As the basic data for virtual auditory technology, head-related transfer function (HRTF) has many applications in the areas of room acoustic modeling, spatial hearing and multimedia. How to individualize HRTF fast and effectively has become an opening problem at present. Based on the similarity and relativity of anthropometric structures, a hybrid HRTF customization algorithm, which has combined the method of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and database matching (DM), has been presented in this paper. The HRTFs selected by both the best match and the worst match have been applied into obtaining binaurally auralized sounds, which are then used for subjective listening experiments and the results are compared. For the area in the horizontal plane, the localization results have shown that the selection of HRTFs can enhance the localization accuracy and can also abate the problem of front-back confusion.

  14. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity. PMID:19437058

  15. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  16. Hands-on Digital Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, only the best-funded schools could afford to offer students the kinds of hands-on science experiences that "real life" scientists perform. However, with the advent of digital technologies and portable, affordable handheld computing devices, real world investigations--that also address science standards--are now broadly accessible to…

  17. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  18. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  19. Evaluation of Hand Evaluation of Hand - - to to - - Hand Bioelectrical Impedance Hand Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimating Percent Body Fat in Young Analysis for Estimating Percent Body Fat in Young Adults Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AARON M. WEAVER; ASHLEY C. HILL; JOSEPH L. ANDREACCI; CURT B. DIXON

    Int J Exerc Sci 2(4): 254-263, 2009. Purposes were to (a) to examine the validity and precision of a hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analyzer (HBIA) and (b) to determine the effect of an acute sub-maximal aerobic exercise bout on HBIA percent body fat (%BF) measures. Forty-one young adults (21 women; 20 men) visited the laboratory for body composition assessment on two

  20. The Effects of Skill Demands and Object Position on the Distribution of Preferred Hand Reaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.

    2004-01-01

    Performance-based measures of hand preference have been developed as an objective method of examining handedness. Previous research using this method by Bryden, Roy, and Mamolo (2003) showed that both skill demands and the position of the object in working space affect preferential hand reaching. Specifically, preferred hand reaches predominated…

  1. Hand hygiene in the dental setting: reducing the risk of infection.

    PubMed

    Fluent, Marie T

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene remains the single most important measure for reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections. In the past 20 years, hand-washing recommendations and guidelines have become increasingly complex, and a plethora of products have become available. This article aims to discuss and clarify the fundamentals of appropriate hand hygiene in dentistry. PMID:24564616

  2. Roughness Perception during the Rubber Hand Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz-Bosbach, Simone; Tausche, Peggy; Weiss, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while feeling identical stroking of one's own occluded hand can create a compelling illusion that the seen hand becomes part of one's own body. It has been suggested that this so-called rubber hand illusion (RHI) does not simply reflect a bottom-up multisensory integration process but that the…

  3. Bionic hand enhancement methods for precise motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Mahdi Abedini; Rouhallah Javadpour

    2011-01-01

    in this article an attempt has been made to give some ideas about intelligent bionic hand that can improve performance of existing bionic hand and will lead to extend future of bionic hand structures. Some of ideas are based on current bionic hand projects which they work by taking impulses from nerve stubs of amputee's limb. Although all of projects

  4. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY FOR A SIMULATED PROSTHETIC HAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thea Iberall; Denise J. Beattie; Gaurav Sukhatme; George A. Bekey

    1993-01-01

    Multifingered robot hands can approximate human hand functionality, and it is possible to consider their use in prosthetics. The Belgrade\\/USC robot hand is used as a prototype prosthetic hand in order to evaluate a system, PRESHAPE, that translates user commands into motor signals using the virtual finger concept. This paper describes the control philosophy of PRESHAPE and presents simulation results.

  5. Biased hand use in captive emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Katharina; Sommer, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Comparing forelimb use across primates can improve the understanding of the mechanisms and functions of brain asymmetry. We broadened the comparative framework by investigating hand use biases across spontaneous behaviors in 11 captive emperor tamarins of 2 family groups. We found a right preference across 58% of pooled unimanual bouts and 60% of all tasks. The maximum biases for a single task were 88% right-hand use and 78% left-hand use. On an individual basis, for most tasks, 6 tamarins preferred their right hand, 2 tamarins the left, and 2 animals were ambidextrous. Only a single tamarin did not switch between left and right hand bias according to task, but displayed a consistent right-hand bias. Our accompanying review of the 2 dozen previous callitrichid hand use studies confirms this picture. Across the board, these report hand preferences for single tasks. Task specialization is found in less than half of the studies, hand specialization in less than a third, whereas population level handedness is almost never reported. Importantly, right-hand use is preponderant, but very rarely consistent across tasks or subjects. This might be attributable to the fact that often-employed simple (food-reaching) tasks may not be coupled to a specialized hemisphere and therefore not constrain forelimb use. A better understanding of what causes directional forelimb use in callitrichids and other animals is currently hampered by a lack of standardized methods including measurement criteria, task difficulty, and social setting as well as a dearth of taxonomic diversity and field studies. PMID:24491176

  6. [Socioeconomic sequelae to hand injuries].

    PubMed

    Grys, G; Uszy?ski, H; Sawicki, G; Or?owski, J

    1998-01-01

    Remote results of hand injuries in 78 patients (93% males, 7% females) aged 16-82 (mean 39 years) were analyzed statistically and economically. Injuries sustained at work constituted 61%. All patients were operated on emergency basis, hospital stay ranged 1-93 days (mean 14 days). Further treatment on an outpatient basis lasted 4.5 months on an average. According to own 3-grade scale 24% results were rated good, 33%-fair and 43%-poor. Fifty-one per cent of patients resumed previous occupation, 17% found less demanding work and 15% were unable to work. Accident compensation fund was granted to 56% of patients. Great social cost of hand injuries is underlined in the paper. PMID:9607285

  7. Robot Hand Grips Cylinders Securely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Jaws and linkage accommodate various sizes. Robot hand includes two pairs of parallel jaws that grasp rods, pipes, tubes, struts, and other long, heavy cylindrical objects. Hand features compact rotary drive and butterfly configuration simplifying approach and gripping maneuvers of robot. Parallelogram linkages maintain alignment of each jaw with other jaws. One bar of each linkage connected to one of two concentric, counterrotating shafts; rotation of shafts moves jaws in each pair toward or away from each other to grasp or release workpiece. Each jaw includes rigid gripping pad lined with rubber to give firm grip and to prevent damage to workpiece. Inner cylindrical surface (corner) of each jaw tapers off to flat sides. Enables jaw to grasp workpieces with diameters larger than or equal to twice the corner radius.

  8. Hand-Eye Calibration of Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickels, Kevin; Huber, Eric

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA's) performed by human astronauts. EVA is a high risk environment that requires extensive training and ground support. In collaboration with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), NASA is conducting a ground development project to produce a robotic astronaut's assistant, called Robonaut, that could help reduce human EVA time and workload. The project described in this paper designed and implemented a hand-eye calibration scheme for Robonaut, Unit A. The intent of this calibration scheme is to improve hand-eye coordination of the robot. The basic approach is to use kinematic and stereo vision measurements, namely the joint angles self-reported by the right arm and 3-D positions of a calibration fixture as measured by vision, to estimate the transformation from Robonaut's base coordinate system to its hand coordinate system and to its vision coordinate system. Two methods of gathering data sets have been developed, along with software to support each. In the first, the system observes the robotic arm and neck angles as the robot is operated under external control, and measures the 3-D position of a calibration fixture using Robonaut's stereo cameras, and logs these data. In the second, the system drives the arm and neck through a set of pre-recorded configurations, and data are again logged. Two variants of the calibration scheme have been developed. The full calibration scheme is a batch procedure that estimates all relevant kinematic parameters of the arm and neck of the robot The daily calibration scheme estimates only joint offsets for each rotational joint on the arm and neck, which are assumed to change from day to day. The schemes have been designed to be automatic and easy to use so that the robot can be fully recalibrated when needed such as after repair, upgrade, etc, and can be partially recalibrated after each power cycle. The scheme has been implemented on Robonaut Unit A and has been shown to reduce mismatch between kinematically derived positions and visually derived positions from a mean of 13.75cm using the previous calibration to means of 1.85cm using a full calibration and 2.02cm using a suboptimal but faster daily calibration. This improved calibration has already enabled the robot to more accurately reach for and grasp objects that it sees within its workspace. The system has been used to support an autonomous wrench-grasping experiment and significantly improved the workspace positioning of the hand based on visually derived wrench position. estimates.

  9. Prosthetic hands from Touch Bionics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Connolly

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the innovative design of prosthetic hands now in production from a Scottish spin-off company. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The novel features are described, followed by the details of the mechanical construction and the available grip patterns. The benefits of the modular design are explained, and the function and construction of a skin-like

  10. Rehabilitative strategies following hand fractures.

    PubMed

    Hays, Peyton L; Rozental, Tamara D

    2013-11-01

    The importance of rehabilitation in the management of hand fractures cannot be overstated. The breadth of rehabilitative strategies ranges from heat and range-of-motion exercises to more complex splinting and tendon gliding modalities. The goals, however, are clear: control pain; limit soft tissue swelling; provide support for fracture healing; restore motion, strength, and function; and enable the return to work and daily activities. PMID:24209956

  11. [My hands hurt so much!].

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-11-26

    We present the case of a 48-year-old man complaining of pain in his hands. In a first step, a two-sided carpal tunnel syndrome was found, and in the further course of the disease an acromegaly. The combinations of carpal tunnel syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and radiological findings in the area of the sella turcica were the clues for the diagnosis of acromegaly. PMID:25446685

  12. [Hand exzema: think about work].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jan G; Jungbauer, Frank H W; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Skin conditions such as acne, urticaria, psoriasis, and particularly eczema (dermatitis) may have many causes. However, a work-related aetiology is often forgotten. Hand eczema is the most common occupational dermatosis. Exposure to skin irritants is the main cause with wet work playing a major role. The cause cannot be inferred from the clinical picture and it is almost impossible to distinguish between irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Besides observation and history-taking, epicutaneous contact allergological (patch) testing is necessary for this. In occupational dermatoses, patch testing using the European Standard Series alone is often inadequate for diagnosing. Everyone with hand eczema in a risk profession is eligible for patch testing. The prognosis of hand eczema is poor: in 60% of patients the eczema becomes chronic. Genetic predisposition, such as atopic dermatitis, is seriously underestimated. This is the main risk factor for irritant contact dermatitis and, indirectly, for allergic contact dermatitis. This predisposition should give direction to career choices in young people. PMID:25227884

  13. Technical note: Assessment of blinding of hand hygiene observers in randomized controlled trials of hand hygiene interventions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Chris; Besser, Sarah; Cookson, Barry D; Fragaszy, Ellen; Gardiner, Julian; McAteer, John; Michie, Susan; Savage, Joanne; Stone, Sheldon P

    2010-05-01

    Trials evaluating interventions to improve health care workers' hand hygiene compliance use directly observed compliance as a primary outcome measure. Observers should be blinded to the intervention and the effectiveness of blinding assessed to prevent systematic bias. The literature has not addressed this issue, and this study describes a robust and pragmatic method for assessing the adequacy of blinding in hand hygiene intervention trials. PMID:20189686

  14. Detection of joint space narrowing in hand radiographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joost A. Kauffman; Cornelis H. Slump; Hein J. Bernelot Moens; M. Reinhardt; J. W. P. Pluim

    2006-01-01

    Radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing in hand radiographs is important for determining the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in an early stage. Clinical scoring methods are based on manual measurements that are time consuming and subjected to intra-reader and inter-reader variance. The goal is to design an automated method for measuring the joint space width with a higher sensitivity to

  15. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Rebecca K; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon J; ProActive Project Team

    2010-04-30

    physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004). 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric...

  16. Towards a comprehensive Functional Capacity Evaluation for hand function.

    PubMed

    Hollak, N; Soer, R; van der Woude, L H; Reneman, M F

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a more efficient (i.e. shortened) protocol for hand function capacity evaluation and to test the agreement of the protocol compared to the original protocol. 643 Healthy subjects performed tests for hand function. Agreement between two shortened protocols was compared with an existing protocol. The original protocol was performed once and the proposed shortened protocol differed in the number of trials which were reduced by statistical elimination. Agreement was determined with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and Limits of Agreement (LoA). Excellent ICCs (?0.91) were observed in all proposed protocols except for the one trial purdue pegboard test protocol. For all tests of hand function, shorter protocols are valid to determine hand function. For Tip Pinch Strength testing, Palmar Pinch Strength testing and the Purdue Pegboard test, a two-trial protocol is recommended, because the LoA were considerable, which could affect decision-making with regards to hand capacity. For the Hand Grip strength test, the Key Pinch Strength test and the Complete Minnesota Dexterity Test, a one-trial protocol is recommended, because the LoA were acceptable. It was concluded that for healthy subjects, this shorter protocol is a reliable measure. Further testing of the short form hand FCE protocols should be completed on patients with disabling conditions prior to widespread use of these protocols among clinical samples. PMID:24094586

  17. Anthropometric and Hormonal Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer: Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Results

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. Methods In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 11 case–control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case–control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression generated study design–specific (case–control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.38), and body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.51), with evidence that recent rather than distant BMI was the strongest predictor. Klinefelter syndrome (OR = 24.7; 95% CI = 8.94 to 68.4) and gynecomastia (OR = 9.78; 95% CI = 7.52 to 12.7) were also statistically significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99). Although age at onset of puberty and histories of infertility were unrelated to risk, never having had children was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.66). Among individuals diagnosed at older ages, a history of fractures was statistically significantly related (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). Conclusions Consistent findings across case–control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles of endogenous hormones. PMID:24552677

  18. Hand contamination during routine care in medical wards: the role of hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Monistrol, Olga; López, M Liboria; Riera, Montserrat; Font, Roser; Nicolás, Carme; Escobar, Miguel Angel; Freixas, Núria; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther

    2013-04-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are the most common vehicle for the transmission of micro-organisms from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal campaign on the type and amount of resident and transient flora and the presence of potential risk factors for hand contamination during routine care. A before-after (PRE and POST periods) interventional study was carried out in medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Eighty-nine samples were analysed. Samples were cultured immediately before patient contact using a glove-juice method. Data collected included socio-demographic and risk factors for hand contamination. Flora was measured as log10 c.f.u. ml(-1) and evaluated by comparing median values in the PRE and POST periods. Transient flora was isolated from the hands of 67.4 and 46.1 % of HCWs in the PRE and POST periods, respectively (P<0.001). Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant contaminants. Resident flora was isolated from 92.1 % of HCWs in the PRE period and from 70.8 % in the POST period (P<0.001). The meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci log10 c.f.u. count ml(-1) decreased from 1.96 ± 1.2 to 0.89 ± 1.2 (mean ± s d; P<0.001), and the global flora count decreased from 2.77 ± 1.1 to 1.56 ± 1.4 (P<0.001). In the POST period, the wearing of fewer rings (P<0.001), shorter fingernail length (P = 0.008), a shorter time since recent hand hygiene (HH) (P = 0.007) and an increased use of alcohol-based hand rub instead of soap (P<0.001) were documented. The HH multimodal strategy reduced the number of risk factors and the level of HCW hand contamination. PMID:23329322

  19. Optimal cut-off values for obesity: using simple anthropometric indices to predict cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; R-S Lin; W-Y Shau; K-C Huang

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased health risks associated with obesity have been found to occur in Asians at lower body mass indices (BMIs). To determine the optimal cut-off values for overweight or obesity in Taiwan, we examined the relationships between four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors.METHODS: The data were collected from four health-screening centers from 1998 to 2000 in Taiwan. Included

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthropometric Traits and Evidence of Interactions With Age and Study Year in Filipino Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien C. Croteau-Chonka; Amanda F. Marvelle; Ethan M. Lange; Nanette R. Lee; Linda S. Adair; Leslie A. Lange; Karen L. Mohlke

    2011-01-01

    Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first

  1. An exceptionally large giant lipoma of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Chatterton, Benjamin Dougal; Moores, Thomas Steven; Datta, Praveen; Smith, Kevin David

    2013-01-01

    Lipomas are benign tumours that consist of mature adipocytes. They are the commonest soft tissue tumours, most frequently seen in the trunk and proximal extremities. Lesions in the hand are uncommon, and giant lipomas of the hand, defined as greater than 5?cm in size, are particularly rare. We present a case of an exceptionally large giant lipoma of the hand, presenting as an extremely large inconvenient swelling of the palm in a 67-year-old woman. The diagnosis of lipoma was suggested via ultrasonography, and confirmed via MRI and histology. The lesion was successfully excised with no postoperative neurovascular deficit. The excised lesion measured 8×6×3?cm, one of the largest giant lipomas of the hand reported to date. When patients present with large lesions such as these a malignant cause must always be considered, and appropriate early imaging is essential when assessing these patients. PMID:23839616

  2. Technology and Engineering Education Students' Perceptions of Hands-On and Hands-Off Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianez, David M.; Fugere, Madeleine A.; Lennon, Carter A.

    2010-01-01

    Technology and engineering education students responded to a survey regarding hands-on and hands-off activities. First, the students listed hands-on and hands-off activities and what characterized the two types of activities. Activities such as building or assembling something as well as working manually with tools were viewed as hands-on. Passive…

  3. Measurement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Brand

    2010-04-14

    Students will measure different items with rulers! Drag and Measure! Drag the ruler to the appropiate mark! Drag and Measure! Measure the Bear! Select the correct measurement of the height of the bear! Measure the Bear! The Ruler Game-Let's Measure! Click on the correct measurement of the ruler! The Ruler Game-Let s Measure! ...

  4. Anatomy of the "Cosmic Hand"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chi-Yung; Gaensler, Bryan; Slane, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    The 'Cosmic Hand' is an extremely complex pulsar wind nebula system powered by the energetic pulsar B1509-58 in supernova remnant G320.4-1.2 (MSH 15-52). High resolution X-ray imaging reveal its rich structure, showing a bright one-sided jet, two semi-circular arcs, a network of filaments and compact knots. We propose new ATCA observations to identify their radio counterparts and to map the magnetic field geometry. This will complement the X-ray data to provide a complete picture of this remarkable system, at a level of detail that was not possible before.

  5. Smart Sensors for Smart Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    Proximity, force-torque, touch and slippage sensors developed or applied by the JPL Teleoperator Project for remote manipulator control are described, including sensor data handling by computers for display and control. Examples are quoted showing the significance of these sensors for manual or computer control of manipulators. An interesting example is a proximity sensor system implemented for a four-claw JSC end effector and tested at the Shuttle Manipulator Training Facility of JSC. New sensing concepts aimed at simplifying the implementation of 'Smart Sensors for Smart Hands' in the space environment are discussed.

  6. Longitudinal changes in maternal and neonatal anthropometrics: a case study of the Helsinki Birth Cohort, 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Moltchanova, E; Eriksson, J G

    2015-08-01

    Changes in anthropometrics often reflect changes in living conditions, and one's characteristics at birth may be associated with future health. The aim of this study was to investigate the secular trends in maternal and neonatal anthropometrics in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. The study participants, thus, comprised all 13,345 live births recorded in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Adult characteristics of the clinical subsample comprised of 2003 individuals, alive during 2003, were also analyzed. Linear Regression analysis with seasonal terms was applied to see whether clinically and statistically significant trends can be found in maternal age, height and body mass index (BMI) at pregnancy; gestational age, birth weight, ponderal index and sex ratio; and adult height, BMI and fat percentage. Statistically significant trends were found in maternal age and maternal BMI with abrupt changes between 1941 and 1944. Gestational age increased by an average of 0.11% per year (P<0.0001), and the proportion of premature births dropped from 7.9% in 1934 to 4.5% in 1944 (P<0.0001). In the clinical sample, a statistically significant, although small, average annual increase of 0.1% in adult heights was detected (P=0.0012 for men and P=0.0035 for women). In conclusion, although no significant changes were found in either neonatal or adult anthropometrics of babies born in Helsinki between 1934 and 1944, there were abrupt changes in the characteristics of their mothers. PMID:25711942

  7. Evaluation of anthropometric, physiological, and skill-related tests for talent identification in female field hockey.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Weber, Clare L; Dalton, Carl T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective testing battery for female field hockey by using anthropometric, physiological, and skill-related tests to distinguish between regional representative (Rep, n = 35) and local club level (Club, n = 39) female field hockey players. Rep players were significantly leaner and recorded faster times for the 10-m and 40-m sprints as well as the Illinois Agility Run (with and without dribbling a hockey ball). Rep players also had greater aerobic and lower body muscular power and were more accurate in the shooting accuracy test, p < 0.05. No significant differences between groups were evident for height, body mass, speed decrement in 6 x 40-m repeated sprints, handgrip strength, or pushing speed. These results indicate that %BF, sprinting speed, agility, dribbling control, aerobic and muscular power, and shooting accuracy can distinguish between female field hockey players of varying standards. Therefore talent identification programs for female field hockey should include assessments of these physical parameters. PMID:12955867

  8. Development of anthropometric and physical performance profiles of young elite male soccer players: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mirkov, Dragan M; Kukolj, Milos; Ugarkovic, Dusan; Koprivica, Vladimir J; Jaric, Slobodan

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present longitudinal study was to explore distinctive anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of young soccer players between the age of 11 and 14 and to reveal the performance at the age of 11, which contributes to the later success. Male players of the best national male squads of the 'cadet league' (14 years of age; n = 26) were annually tested starting from the age of 11 for body size and composition, flexibility, power, coordination, and agility. Randomly selected untrained but physically active age-matched boys (n = 63) were also tested over 4 consecutive years. The results revealed no difference between 2 groups regarding the body size and composition (p > 0.05). The differences in flexibility emerged only at the later age, whereas the differences regarding the explosive power (as assessed by various jumps) were moderate and partly inconsistent. The most prominent advantage of the soccer players over the control subjects during the entire tested age period appeared to be movement agility and coordination (p < 0.01). Therefore, the explosive muscle power and, in particular, the agility and coordination characterize elite soccer players of 11-14 years of age but not the body size and body composition. In addition, the agility and coordination could be among the crucial factors of future success in 11-year-old players and, therefore, should be used for early selection. PMID:20885193

  9. Assessment of waist-to-hip ratio attractiveness in women: an anthropometric analysis of digital silhouettes.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    The low proportion of waist to hip size in females is a unique and adaptive human feature. In contemporary human populations, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is negatively associated with women's health, fecundity, and cognitive ability. It is, therefore, hypothesized that men will prefer women with low WHR. Although this prediction is supported by many studies, considerable disagreement persists about which WHR values are the most attractive and the importance of WHR for attractiveness of the female body. Unfortunately, the methods applied thus far are flawed in several ways. In the present study, we investigated male preferences for female WHR using a high precision assessment procedure and digitally manufactured, high quality, anthropometrically informed stimuli which were disentangled from body mass covariation. Forty men were requested to choose the most attractive silhouette consecutively from six series (2 levels of realism × 3 levels of body mass), each consisting of 26 female images that varied in WHR (from .60 to .85 by .01). Substantial inter-individual variation in the choices made was observed. Nevertheless, low and average WHR values were chosen more frequently than above-average values or values below the normal variation of the trait. This preference pattern mirrors the relationship between WHR and mate value, suggesting that the preferences are adaptive. PMID:23975738

  10. An anthropometric and hematological comparison of sickle cell disease children from rural and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Nikhar, H. S.; Meshram, S. U.; Shinde, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disorder in India and the rural and urban areas experience distinctly different healthcare facilities. In view of this, a comparative study of SCD-SS pattern children of age 8–15 years from rural and urban areas of Wardha district of Central India was carried out using anthropometric and hematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data were collected using standard methods and the results showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the mean values for body weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood corpuscles (WBC). Statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS 18.0 software. Individuals were screened by solubility test method. Sickle cell patterns (AS and SS) were determined by using electrophoresis technique. RESULT: The SCD-SS children from rural were significantly underweight than those from the urban area of Wardha district. BMI is a good indicator of nutritional status and BMI values of SCD children have less than desired. CONCLUSION: The study highlights an urgent need to conduct integrated investigations for SCD population of rural areas covering clinical, nutritional, and social aspects. PMID:22754219

  11. Influence of anthropometric factors on tumour biological characteristics of colorectal cancer in men and women: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a well established risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but how body size influences risk of colorectal cancer defined by key molecular alterations remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist- and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and risk of CRC according to expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, p53 and microsatellite instability status of the tumours in men and women, respectively. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, p53 and MSI-screening status was assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 584 cases of incident CRC in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Six anthropometric factors: height, weight, BMI, waist- and hip circumference, and WHR were categorized by quartiles of baseline measurements and relative risks of CRC according to expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, p53 and MSI status were calculated using multivariate Cox regression models. Results High height was associated with risk of cyclin D1 positive, and p53 negative CRC in women but not with any investigative molecular subsets of CRC in men. High weight was associated with beta-catenin positive, cyclin D1 positive, p53 negative and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours in women, and with beta-catenin negative and p53 positive tumours in men. Increased hip circumference was associated with beta-catenin positive, p53 negative and MSS tumours in women and with beta-catenin negative, cyclin D1 positive, p53 positive and MSS tumours in men. In women, waist circumference and WHR were not associated with any molecular subsets of CRC. In men, both high WHR and high waist circumference were associated with beta-catenin positive, cyclin D1 positive and p53 positive tumours. WHR was also associated with p53 negative CRC, and waist circumference with MSS tumours. High BMI was associated with increased risk of beta-catenin positive and MSS CRC in women, and with beta-catenin positive, cyclin D1 positive and p53 positive tumours in men. Conclusions Findings from this large prospective cohort study indicate sex-related differences in the relationship between obesity and CRC risk according to key molecular characteristics, and provide further support of an influence of lifestyle factors on different molecular pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:24256736

  12. Steam generator hand hole shielding.

    PubMed

    Cox, W E

    2000-05-01

    Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

  13. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  14. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio: which anthropometric indicator is better predictor for the hypertension development in women population of the island Cres.

    PubMed

    Kabalin, Milena; Kolari?, Branko; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Pereza, Nina; Ostoji?, Sasa; Rukavina, Tomislav; Kapovi?, Miljenko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity - waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. We approached separately groups of women with measured high blood pressure and with previously diagnosed. The research was preformed within the research project "Genetic and biomedical characteristics of the population of the island of Cres". This was the cross sectional study and data were obtained on the sample of 247 females over 18 years old that voluntarily participated in this study. In our study group the prevalence of overweight was 39.0%, obesity 27.5%, increased waist circumference was present in 69.4% while increased blood pressure was found in 53.0% examinees. Our results indicate that age, BMI, impaired glucose concentration and serum cholesterol could be considered as predictors for the development of arterial hypertension, whether measured or previously diagnosed. PMID:22856216

  15. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor...AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor...AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor...AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor...AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section...

  19. A Framework for Virtual Hand Haptic Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoxia; Wan, Huagen

    Virtual hand interactions play key roles in virtual environments. The recent addition of force feedback to virtual reality simulations has enhanced their realism, especially when dexterous manipulation of virtual objects is concerned. However, though there exist many works on virtual hand modeling regarding computer animation and interaction applications, much less attention is paid on haptic modeling of virtual hand. In this paper, we propose a framework for virtual hand haptic interaction. The modeling of a sophisticated virtual hand for haptic interactions is investigated with special attention paid on issues of visual realism, motion realism as well as force sensation. Specifically, our virtual hand model simulates natural anatomy in its appearance, motion and deformation, and reflects the feature of force feedback datagloves. Besides, virtual hand interactions based on the constructed virtual hand model are discussed. The proposed framework has been tested on a PC with a force feedback dataglove.

  20. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... left-handed runs in families. So they're pretty sure your genes (DNA) influence whether or not ... Hand in Sports? It's true. While left-handers face some obstacles, they enjoy a real advantage on ...

  1. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training. PMID:25699224

  2. Hand hygiene among neurologists attending a congress.

    PubMed

    Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Altmann, Marianne

    2014-02-01

    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing health care-associated infections, but hand hygiene compliance is low among health care workers in different hospital settings. Less is known about hand hygiene among physicians in a nonhospital setting. We evaluated handwashing behavior among 200 neurologists (100 males and 100 females) attending a world congress. Overall, 74.0% performed proper hand hygiene using soap and water, and there were significant differences between sex and handwashing behavior. PMID:24485383

  3. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe...

  4. Toolbox Safety Talk Hand and Power Tools

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Toolbox Safety Talk Hand and Power Tools Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. OSHA Hand & Power Tools Link Hand and power tools are a common part of our everyday lives and are present in nearly every industry. However, these simple tools can

  5. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe...

  14. Hand-Controlled Brazing-Paste Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    Hand control proven superior to foot control. Hand-operated switch added to hand-held brazing-alloy-paste dispenser yields improved, more consistent brazing-alloy beads. Dispenser used to apply paste between adjacent tubes in heat exchanger. Switch reliable and safe, and removed and reattached easily.

  15. Hands-on Virtual Clay Adeline Pihuit

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hands-on Virtual Clay Adeline Pihuit University of Grenoble and INRIA Paul G. Kry McGill University virtual hand that is modeling soft virtual clay. During interaction, the user is provided both passive of sculpting virtual clay as naturally as he would do it with his hands. Generally, he must deal

  16. Hemispheric asymmetries in eye-hand coordination.

    PubMed

    Lavrysen, Ann; Heremans, Elke; Peeters, Ron; Wenderoth, Nici; Helsen, Werner F; Feys, Peter; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2008-02-15

    Manual asymmetries in limb kinematics and eye-hand coordination have usually been attributed to differences in online processing capabilities between the left and the right cerebral hemisphere. In the present fMRI experiment, we examined in right handers the brain areas involved in eye-hand coordination with either the left or the right hand. Although temporal and spatial accuracy was equal for left- and right-hand movements, manual asymmetries were found in behavioral and neurophysiologic data, suggesting an asymmetric mode of control for left vs. right eye-hand coordination. For left eye-hand coordination, peak velocity and saccade completion occurred earlier than for the contralateral movements, suggesting that there was more time needed for homing-in on the target. When using the right hand, there was more activation in occipital areas. This might indicate a more intense visual processing or visualization of the target locations. When using the left hand, there was more activation in sensorimotor areas, frontal areas and cerebellum. This might point toward more processing effort. Left-hand movements may be considered as more difficult than right-hand movements by right-handed participants. Alternatively and more likely, these findings might reflect a difference in attention or resources attributed to different aspects of the tasks because of the different functional specializations of both hand/hemisphere systems. PMID:18053745

  17. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Scarfe; Euan Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a

  18. Spatially defined modulation of skin temperature and hand ownership of both hands in patients with unilateral complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Gallace, Alberto; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2012-12-01

    Numerous clinical conditions, including complex regional pain syndrome, are characterized by autonomic dysfunctions (e.g. altered thermoregulation, sometimes confined to a single limb), and disrupted cortical representation of the body and the surrounding space. The presence, in patients with complex regional pain syndrome, of a disruption in spatial perception, bodily ownership and thermoregulation led us to hypothesize that impaired spatial perception might result in a spatial-dependent modulation of thermoregulation and bodily ownership over the affected limb. In five experiments involving a total of 23 patients with complex regional pain syndrome of one arm and 10 healthy control subjects, we measured skin temperature of the hand with infrared thermal imaging, before and after experimental periods of either 9 or 10 min each, during which the hand was held on one or the other side of the body midline. Tactile processing was assessed by temporal order judgements of pairs of vibrotactile stimuli, delivered one to each hand. Pain and sense of ownership over the hand were assessed by self-report scales. Across experiments, when kept on its usual side of the body midline, the affected hand was 0.5 ± 0.3°C cooler than the healthy hand (P < 0.02 for all, a common finding in cold-type complex regional pain syndrome), and tactile stimuli delivered to the healthy hand were prioritized over those delivered to the affected hand. Simply crossing both hands over the midline resulted in (i) warming of the affected hand (the affected hand became 0.4 ± 0.3°C warmer than when it was in the uncrossed position; P = 0.01); (ii) cooling of the healthy hand (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02); and (iii) reversal of the prioritization of tactile processing. When only the affected hand was crossed over the midline, it became warmer (by 0.5 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.01). When only the healthy hand was crossed over the midline, it became cooler (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.01). The temperature change of either hand was positively related to its distance from the body midline (pooled data: r = 0.76, P < 0.001). Crossing the affected hand over the body midline had small but significant effects on both spontaneous pain (which was reduced) and the sense of ownership over the hand (which was increased) (P < 0.04 for both). We conclude that impaired spatial perception modulated temperature of the limbs, tactile processing, spontaneous pain and the sense of ownership over the hands. These results show that complex regional pain syndrome involves more complex neurological dysfunction than has previously been considered. PMID:23250885

  19. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  20. Tendon injuries of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265