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1

The independent effects of second hand smoke exposure and maternal body mass index on the anthropometric measurements of the newborn  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, whether as active smoking or by exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age infants due to the effect of tobacco on the anthropometric measurements of the newborn. This effect might be masked by maternal obesity as it increases fetal weight. The objectives of this study were to estimate the independent effects of maternal exposure to SHS and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the anthropometric measurements and on the prevalence of macrosomia and LBW among term infants. Methods Data were collected from women in the postnatal ward following delivery. Participants were stratified into six groups based on the BMI (underweight <18 kg/m2, non-obese 18–29.9 kg/m2, and obese ?30 kg/m2) and the SHS exposure status (exposed and non- exposed), to examine the independent effects of BMI and SHS on infants’ anthropometry. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore the independent associations between the six groups and the risk of delivering a macrosomic or LBW infant. Results Infants of women exposed to SHS had significantly reduced anthropometric measurements compared to infants of unexposed women. The odds of delivering a macrosomic baby increased to 9-fold for women with BMI of ?30 kg/m2 compared to non-obese women; odds ratio (OR) 9.18, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.01, 9.37); p?=?0.04, this risk was attenuated to 1.5-fold in women exposed to SHS, OR 1.53, 95% CI (1.19, 12.1); p?anthropometric measurements of the newborn and increased rate of LBW infants, irrespective of maternal BMI. Maternal obesity was associated with increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant; conversely maternal underweight was associated with increased risk of delivering an LBW infant. PMID:24209496

2013-01-01

2

Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method  

PubMed Central

Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

2013-01-01

3

Obesity and Myelomeningocele: Anthropometric Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the appropriate use of arm span measurements as a substitute for height/linear length to evaluate obesity in people with myelomeningocele by comparing calculated body mass indices (BMIs) with recently published BMI graphs by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Center for Health Statistics standards (NCHS) published in 2000. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of collected data on patients seen in the University of Washington Birth Defects Clinic from July 1, 1965, through June 1, 2008. Observations included degree of paralysis, presence of scoliosis, height (linear length), weight, and arm span. We compared published CDC/NCHS BMIs with our data using both height and arm span in place of height/linear length. There were 14,701 measures collected during 4,968 visits from 709 patients. Mean values were calculated using age, gender, and lesion level as independent variables. Results: Comparison of BMI means of patients with myelomeningocele suggests that our observations using arm span and height are comparable with the CDC/NCHS BMI means using height for the 2 least paralyzed groups but not for those groups with paralysis from high-level lesions that are more likely to exhibit lower extremity deformities or scoliosis. Conclusions: Published CDC/NCHS graphs, with their percentiles, are appropriate for estimating normal growth by BMI for children born with myelomeningocele when arm span is substituted for length if severe body differences due to high-level paralysis are taken into consideration. PMID:21061901

Shurtleff, David B; Walker, William Otis; Duguay, Sharon; Peterson, Do; Cardenas, Diana

2010-01-01

4

Correlations of Handgrip Strength with Selected Hand-Arm-Anthropometric Variables in Indian Inter-university Female Volleyball Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with some hand and arm anthropometric variables in 101 randomly selected Indian inter-university female volleyball players aged 18-25 years (mean age 20.52±1.40) from six Indian universities. Methods Three anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, BMI, two hand anthropometric variables, viz. right and left hand width and length, four arm anthropometric variables, i.e. upper arm length, lower arm length, upper extremity length, upper arm circumference and dominant right and non-dominant handgrip strength were measured among Indian inter-university female volleyball players by standard anthropometric techniques. Results The findings of the present study indicated that Indian female volleyball players had higher mean values in eleven variables and lesser mean values in two variables than their control counterparts, showing significant differences (P<0.032-0.001) in height (t=2.63), weight (t=8.66), left hand width (t=2.10), left and right hand length (t=9.99 and 10.40 respectively), right upper arm length (t=8.48), right forearm length (t=5.41), dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) handgrip strength (t=9.37 and 6.76 respectively). In female volleyball players, dominant handgrip strength had significantly positive correlations (P=0.01) with all the variables studied. Conclusion It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in Indian inter-university female volleyball players. PMID:22375242

Koley, Shyamal; Pal Kaur, Satinder

2011-01-01

5

Validity of child anthropometric measurements in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children  

E-print Network

2012. Validity of child anthropometric measurements in thelongitudinal anthropometric measurements of young childrenanthropometric measurements from WIC. It is informative to compare our findings with the accuracy of child

Crespi, Catherine M; Alfonso, Vivian H; Whaley, Shannon E; Wang, May C

2012-01-01

6

Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

7

Influence of anthropometric parameters on ultrasound measurements of os calcis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data have been published concerning the influence of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) on broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and Lunar “stiffness” index, and always in small population samples. The first aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine whether anthropometric factors have a significant influence on ultrasound measurements. The second objective was

D. Hans; A. M. Schott; M. E. Arlot; E. Sornay; P. D. Delmas; P. J. Meunier

1995-01-01

8

Grip strength and endurance: Influences of anthropometric variation, hand dominance, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of grip strength typically examine maximum force during a single repetition, but this type of exertion is relatively rare in the workplace, where tasks frequently involve repeated forceful dynamic grasping or prolonged static holding. This study examined grip strength and endurance in three experiments: single-repetition, 10-repetition, and 30-second static hold. The relationships between anthropometric variation and grip performance were

Christopher W. Nicolay; Anna L. Walker

2005-01-01

9

2.MD Hand Span Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Hand span is a measure of distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger with the hand fully extended. Each student places his or h...

10

Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901

Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

2014-01-01

11

Fatty liver in obese children: prevalence and correlation with anthropometric measurements and hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Arslan N, Büyükgebiz B, Öztürk Y. Fatty liver in obese children: prevalence and correlation with anthropometric measurements and hyperlipidemia. Turk J Pediatr 2005; 47: 23-27. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of ultrasonography-proven fatty liver with liver functions, serum lipid levels and anthropometric measurements in children with exogenous obesity. Three hundred and twenty- two patients

Nur Arslan; Benal Büyükgebiz; Yeþim Öztürk; Handan Çakmakçý

2005-01-01

12

Anthropometric measurements and estimating body composition in ballet dancers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) in female ballet dancers. One hundred twelve, 11- to 25-yr old, female dancers had FFM measured by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and anthropometrics, including skinfold and circumference measurements. The regression equation that best estimated FFM in the dancers was FFM = 0.73 x body weight (kg) + 3.0, (R2 = 88%, SEE = 1.5 kg, P < 0.001). This equation was then cross-validated on a separate group of 23 female dancers who also had FFM measured by TOBEC. FFM estimated by this equation correlated with FFM measured by TOBEC (r = 0.94, SEE = 0.9 kg), and the difference in the FFM values using the two methods (the equation and TOBEC) did not change with the size of the FFM of the dancers. FFM in accomplished female ballet dancers can be best estimated from body weight alone. This is related to the homogeneity of body size and body composition in female ballet dancers at this level. PMID:8423748

Hergenroeder, A C; Brown, B; Klish, W J

1993-01-01

13

Intercorrelations of Anthropometric Measurements: A Source Book for USA Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Correlation matrices based on data from USAF anthropometric surveys of women (1968, 127 variables), flying personnel (1950, 128 variables; 1967, 190 variables), and basic trainees (1965, 161 variables); a U. S. Army survey of women separatees (1946, 60 va...

E. Churchill, P. Kikta, T. Churchill

1978-01-01

14

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Measurements of Idealized Females and Young Women in General  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant Winners, and Fashion Models) and Young Women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. Body mass index (BMI) for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Jessica Murray; Yvette R. Schlussel

2005-01-01

15

Effect of parental consanguinity on anthropometric measurements among the Sheikh Sunni Muslim boys of Delhi.  

PubMed

The study of consanguineous marriage is an efficient way to elucidate the genetic structure of human populations. Such matings give an opportunity for recessive genes to manifest themselves by becoming homozygous. The present attempt examines the effects of parental consanguinity on various anthropometric measurements among the Sheikh Sunni Muslim boys of old Delhi between the ages of 11 and 16 years. A slight inbreeding depression has been observed for all eight anthropometric measurements, i.e., stature, span, sitting height, head length, head circumference, chest girth, and calf circumference. The results support earlier studies in regard to the effect of consanguinity on anthropometric measurements. PMID:3728657

Krishan, G

1986-05-01

16

Classifying children for sports participation based upon anthropometric measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study proposes a classification system for youth sports that is maturation-based, using the anthropometric prediction of vertical jump impulse potential. Methods: Impulse was calculated for children between 8.0 and 17.9 years of age from vertical jump height [I = m × (2 gh)0.5] in a truncated version of the Coquitlam Growth Study database. A series of stepwise regressions

Gregory Anderson; Richard Ward

2002-01-01

17

Estimation of living stature from selected anthropometric (soft tissue) measurements: applications for forensic anthropology.  

PubMed

Estimation of living stature has obvious utility in the identification process. Typically, anthropologists estimate stature from the measurement of long bone length. This type of analysis is traditionally conducted on skeletonized or badly decomposed remains, so collection of the necessary bone measurements is relatively simple. As the role of anthropologists expands into medical examiner offices and mass fatality incidents, the analysis of fleshed bodies and body parts is a more common scenario. For stature estimation in these types of cases (e.g., analysis of body portions recovered from an aircraft crash site or from intentional dismemberment), the presence of soft tissue on the human remains would usually necessitate dissection to expose skeletal elements to derive metric data for stature estimation. In order to circumvent this step, this paper provides various formulae that allow for standard anthropometric (i.e., soft tissue) measurements to be used in place of skeletal measurements. Data were compiled from several anthropometric studies (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] and U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey [ANSUR]) and numerous regression models are presented. Results are compared between skeletal measurements and the anthropometric measurements from each study. It was found that the ANSUR models are similar to the skeletal models, while the NHANES models exhibit weaker correlation coefficients and higher standard errors. Overall, this study finds that stature estimates derived from anthropometric data provide good results and remove the necessity for dissection when working with fleshed body portions. PMID:19486443

Adams, Bradley J; Herrmann, Nicholas P

2009-07-01

18

The Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on the Anthropometric Measures of Children: Evidence from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the associations between macroeconomic policies and the health status of children in Bangladesh. We use three waves of a repeated cross-section dataset: Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2000, 2004 and 2007. We measure the health status of children by their anthropometric measures. The policies we evaluate are the Millennium Development Goals Focused Comprehensive Maternal Care

M. I. Hossain

2010-01-01

19

Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and

T. Jürimäe; T. Hurbo; J. Jürimäe

2009-01-01

20

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures

Hugo Amigo; Patricia Bustos; Jay S Kaufman

2010-01-01

21

Correlation between morphometry of the suprascapular notch and anthropometric measurements of the scapula.  

PubMed

The concept of the study was to find the correlation between the morphometry of the suprascapular notch and basic anthropometric measurements of the human scapula. The measurements of the human scapulae included: morphological length and width, maximal width and length projection of scapular spine, length of acromion, and maximal length of the coracoid process. The glenoid cavity was measured in two perpendicular directions to evaluate its width and length. The width-length scapular and glenoid cavity indexes were calculated for every bone. In addition to standard anthropometric measurements two other measurements were defined and evaluated for every suprascapular notch: maximal depth (MD) and superior transverse diameter (STD). The superior transverse suprascapular ligament was completely ossified in 7% of cases. Ten (11.6%) scapulae had a discrete notch. In the studied material, in 21 (24.4%) scapulae the MD was longer than the STD. Two (2.3%) scapulae had equal maximal depth and superior transverse diameter. In 47 (57.7%) scapulae the superior transverse diameter was longer than the maximal depth. There was no statistically significant difference between anthropometric measurements in the group with higher MD and the group with higher STD. The maximal depth of the suprascapular notch negatively correlated with the scapular width-length index. The maximal depth of the scapular notch correlated with the morphological length of the scapulae. PMID:21630232

Polguj, M; J?drzejewski, K S; Podgórski, M; Topol, M

2011-05-01

22

[Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].  

PubMed

This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

1993-03-01

23

Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

2011-01-01

24

Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires were completed. Independent t tests and Pearson correlations were utilized for analysis.

Sarah Grinnell; Geoffrey Greene; Kathleen Melanson; Bryan Blissmer; Ingrid E. Lofgren

2011-01-01

25

Sensitivity and Specificity of Maternal Anthropometric Measures Relative to Infant Nutritional Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study was done in July 1990 at health posts of two subdistricts in Cilandak, South Jakarta, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of maternal anthropometric measures against the functional outcome of infant nutritional status (weight-for-age). The study population consisted of 175 mother-infant pairs, who were between 14-45 years old, and their

Nugroho Abikusno; Rachel Novotny

1997-01-01

26

Normative Findings for Periocular Anthropometric Measurements among Chinese Young Adults in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions. PMID:23957005

Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

2013-01-01

27

Association between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in HCV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODS: A total of 160 consecutive patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus and who received treatment at the hepatitis C outpatient unit of our hospital from April 2010 to May 2011 were prospectively evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, anthropometric measurements, and serum lipid profile analysis were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were excluded. A total of 135 patients with a mean age of 49.8±11.4 years were studied. Among these patients, 60% were male. The phase angle and BMI means were 6.5±0.8° and 26.5±4.8 kg/m2, respectively. Regarding anthropometric variables, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area had a positive correlation with phase angle. In contrast, when analyzing the lipid profile, only HDL was inversely correlated with phase angle. However, in multiple regression models adjusted for age and gender, only mid-arm circumference (p?=?0.005), mid-arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.003), and arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.001) were associated with phase angle in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, phase angle is positively correlated with anthropometric measures in our study. However, there is no association between phase angle and lipid profile in these patients. Our results suggest that phase angle is related to lean body mass in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. PMID:24473515

de Souza Dorna, Mariana; Costa, Nara Aline; de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes; de Paiva, Sergio Alberto Rupp; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Silva, Giovanni Faria

2013-01-01

28

Anthropometric measurements in both sides of the body in the assessment of nutritional status in prepubertal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the impact of choosing the left or the right side of the body on the anthropometric measurements and derived nutritional indices, in prepubertal children.Design: Cross-sectional pilot nutrition survey.Setting: General prepubertal school-age population.Subjects: One-hundred and sixty-four children (97 boys and 67 girls) aged 7–9 y.Interventions: None.Results: The agreement between anthropometric measurements in both sides of the body showed

LA Moreno; G Rodríguez; J Guillén; MJ Rabanaque; JF León; A Ariño

2002-01-01

29

Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

2014-01-01

30

Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts.  

PubMed

Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a series of selected anthropometric measurements in young male and female gymnasts. Segment lengths, body breadths, circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured in 20 young gymnasts by the same experienced examiner, using portable and easy-to-use instruments. All parameters were measured twice (test-retest) under the same conditions within a week's period. The high intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99, as well as the low coefficient of variation (CV) values (<5.3%), affirmed that the selected measurements were highly reliable. The technical error of measurement (TEM) values for lengths and breadths were 0.15 to 0.80 cm, for circumferences 0.22 to 1 cm, and for skinfold thickness 0.33 to 0.58 mm. The high test-retest ICC and the low CV and TEM values confirmed the reliability of all anthropometric measurements in young artistic gymnasts. Therefore, these measurements could contribute to further research in this field of investigation, helping to monitor young artistic gymnasts' growth status and identify specific characteristics for increased performance in this sport. PMID:21170478

Siatras, Theophanis; Skaperda, Malamati; Mameletzi, Dimitra

2010-12-01

31

Heat tolerance testing: association between heat intolerance and anthropometric and fitness measurements.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between heat intolerance, as determined by performance on a heat tolerance test (HTT), and anthropometric measurements (body surface-to-mass ratio, percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference) and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]). Relationships between predictive variables and specific physiological measurements recorded during the HTT were examined. A total of 34 male and 12 female participants, recruited from the military community, underwent anthropometric measurements, a maximal aerobic exercise test, and a standardized HTT, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 5 km/h at 2% grade for 120 minutes at 40°C and 40% relative humidity. VO2max negatively correlated with maximum core temperature (r = -0.30, p < 0.05) and heart rate (HR) (r = -0.48, p < 0.01) although percent body fat showed a positive correlation with maximum HR (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). VO2max was the only independent attribute that significantly influenced both the maximum HR and core temperature attained during HTT. Logistic regression analyses indicated that VO2max was the only independent parameter (OR = 0.89, p = 0.026) that significantly contributed to overall HTT performance. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with heat intolerance, as defined by HTT performance, and can be addressed as a preventative measure for exertional heat illness. This study provides further evidence that the HTT can be an effective tool for assessment of thermoregulatory patterns. PMID:25373064

Lisman, Peter; Kazman, Josh B; O'Connor, Francis G; Heled, Yuval; Deuster, Patricia A

2014-11-01

32

Anthropometric sourcebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

1979-01-01

33

Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight ( - 0.4 ± 4.1, - 1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18 , 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. Practitioner Summary: This study along with literature revealed that the self-reported approach is not a sustainable option for anthropometric surveys, even for gathering data from physically active professional groups, such as firefighters, who presumably are knowledgeable of their body dimensions. Self-reported anthropometric information is undependable in important population subgroups. PMID:25198061

Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

2014-12-01

34

Temporal changes in anthropometric measurements of idealized females and young women in general.  

PubMed

This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R

2005-01-01

35

Prediction of insulin resistance with anthropometric measures: lessons from a large adolescent population  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to describe the minimum number of anthropometric measures that will optimally predict insulin resistance (IR) and to characterize the utility of these measures among obese and nonobese adolescents. Research design and methods Six anthropometric measures (selected from three categories: central adiposity, weight, and body composition) were measured from 1298 adolescents attending two New York City public high schools. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). The homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, was used to estimate IR. Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to predict HOMA-IR based on the six selected measures, while controlling for age. Results The stepwise regression retained both waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Notably, BMI was not retained. WC was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than BMI was. A regression model using solely WC performed best among the obese II group, while a model using solely BF% performed best among the lean group. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed the WC and BF% model to be more sensitive in detecting IR than BMI, but with less specificity. Conclusion WC combined with BF% was the best predictor of HOMA-IR. This finding can be attributed partly to the ability of BF% to model HOMA-IR among leaner participants and to the ability of WC to model HOMA-IR among participants who are more obese. BMI was comparatively weak in predicting IR, suggesting that assessments that are more comprehensive and include body composition analysis could increase detection of IR during adolescence, especially among those who are lean, yet insulin-resistant. PMID:22924001

Wedin, William K; Diaz-Gimenez, Lizmer; Convit, Antonio J

2012-01-01

36

The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Luna, Natalia Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fabio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andreia

2012-01-01

37

Anthropometric History: What Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

Komlos, John

1992-01-01

38

Measurement of baseball glove and hand dynamics  

E-print Network

An apparatus was developed that provides a dynamic representation of the hand-glove interaction inside a baseball glove during catching situations. Until recent history, baseball manufacturers relied primarily upon player ...

LaCrosse, Brian A

2007-01-01

39

Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

2014-01-01

40

Anthropometric measurement of the Chinese elderly living in the Beijing area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometric data of the elderly have become an immediate need for ergonomic design of health care and living products even in a developing country like China. The first aim of this survey was to collect anthropometric data of the Chinese elderly (aged over 65) living in the Beijing area. 58 females (age range 65.0–80.7, mean 71.2, SD 4.1) and 50

Haitao Hu; Zhizhong Li; Jingbin Yan; Xiaofang Wang; Hui Xiao; Jiyang Duan; Li Zheng

2007-01-01

41

Anthropometric measurements to design best-fit femoral stem for the Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background: The standard commercially available marketed prostheses sometimes may not be the best fit to Indian patients because of the large anatomic variation. Orthopedic surgeons always stress the need for a proper implant–patient match in hip joint replacements, in particular, for a cementless femoral stem. The complications of mismatch are aseptic loosening, improper load distribution, and discomfort. The present study was undertaken to compare the differences in dimensions between femurs of elderly Indians and those of populations from other regions in order to solve the problem of a possible geometric mismatch between a selected implant and the hip joint as far as Indian patients are concerned. Materials and Methods: Measurements were made using computer aided design techniques on computed tomography (CT) scanned images of 98 femurs (56 left and 42 right). The software used to convert the CT images into solid models was MIMICS® (Materialize, Inc., Leuven, Belgium). The geometrical parameters, viz., the femoral head offset, femoral head center (HC), femoral head diameter, femoral head relative position, position of shaft isthmus, neck-shaft angle, bow angle, femoral neck length, canal flare index, femoral length, and canal width at various locations, were chosen to design best-fit standard femoral stems for cementless insertion. These data were compared with the published data of other countries. Results: A difference of 16.8% was found in the femoral head offset between Indian and Swiss populations, which can affect soft tissue tension and range of motion. At a distance of 20 mm above the lesser trochanter (LT), the anteroposterior (AP) canal width was found to differ by 45.4%, when compared with a French population which can affect the mechanical stability of femoral stem. Femoral dimensions of Indian male and female subjects have also been compared and differences evaluated. At the LT, the aspect ratio (ratio of mediolateral canal width and AP canal width) in case of males (1.198) is approximately13% higher than that of females (1.059). Conclusions: This study indicates a need for redesign of femoral stems. The obtained anthropometric femoral dimensions can be used to design and develop indigenous hip joint prosthesis in India. The results of this study can also be used in forensic anthropometric studies. PMID:22345806

Rawal, BR; Ribeiro, Rahul; Malhotra, Rajesh; Bhatnagar, Naresh

2012-01-01

42

The relative influence of physical fitness, acclimatization state, anthropometric measures and gender on individual reactions to heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An experiment was set up to quantify the relative influence of fitness, acclimatization, gender and anthropometric measures on physiological responses to heat stress. For this purpose, 12 male and 12 female subjects were exposed to a neutral [ambient temperature (T\\u000aa) 21°C, relative humidity (r.h. 50%)], a warm, humid (T\\u000aa 34°C, r.h. 80%) and a hot, dry (T\\u000aa

George Havenith; Henk van Middendorp

1990-01-01

43

Obesity in Korean pre-adolescent school children: comparison of various anthropometric measurements based on bioelectrical impedance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI), percentage-weight-for-height (PWH) and percentage body fat (PBF), and to compare their validity based on PBF with the BMI criteria of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) for childhood obesity in Korean pre-adolescent school children.Design:Statistical comparative analysis for anthropometric measures.Subjects:Korean pre-adolescent children (438 boys and 454 girls, aged 8–12 years, mean BMI 19.5±3.4

S Yoo; S-Y Lee; K-N Kim; E Sung

2006-01-01

44

Malnutrition in women with rheumatoid arthritis is not revealed by clinical anthropometrical measurements or nutritional evaluation tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To evaluate diagnostic instruments for assessment of nutritional status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to objective body composition data.Subjects and methods:Study subjects include 60 in-ward patients (83% women, median age 65 years). Anthropometric measures and the nutritional tools Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening tool 2002

A-C Elkan; I-L Engvall; B Tengstrand; T Cederholm; I Hafström

2008-01-01

45

Mercury (Hg) and oxidative stress status in healthy mothers and its effect on birth anthropometric measures.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to: (a) investigate the antagonistic interaction between selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in mothers and their newborns, (b) delineate the role of oxidative mechanisms induced by Hg exposure and (c) examine the protective effect of Se on Hg-induced oxidative stress and birth outcomes. Levels of Hg and Se were measured in umbilical cord blood and the placentas of 250 healthy mothers who participated in a study between 2006 and 2006 assessing prenatal exposure various pollutants. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in cord and maternal blood and of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in urine were measured for assessing oxidative stress. Tail moment (TM) in the comet assay, as a biomarker of DNA damage was measured in samples of cord and maternal blood. The mean Se levels in umbilical cord blood (67.618±12.897?g/l) were lower than those reported in many countries, but none of the newborns had Se levels <20?g/l (the threshold limit of Keshan disease). More than 80% of the newborns, though, had Se levels below the 80?g/l needed for maximum glutathione peroxidase activity. Even though 18.6% of the newborns had levels of Hg ?5.8?g/l (the reference dose of the Environmental Protection Agency), no relationship was observed with the biomarkers of oxidative stress. The mean placental Hg levels (0.056±0.075?g/g dry wt.) were higher than those reported for newborns with abnormal fetal development. Our study also documented significant placental transfer of Hg and Se to the fetus. The Hg/Se molar ratio in both cord blood and placental tissue was well below 1. The average amount of Se in both matrices was approximately 50-fold in molar excess over Hg. The molar excess of Se in the umbilical cord (0.843?mol/l), however, was lower than in placental tissues (13.098?mol/kg dry wt.). In further support of the relationships of Hg and Se on oxidative stress, we observed significantly lower levels of maternal MDA associated with Se levels in both cord blood and placental tissues and significantly higher TM levels associated with placental Hg in both newborns and their mothers. In contrast, Se/Hg molar ratios in placental tissues were positively associated with MDA and negatively with TM. The disproportion between Hg and Se might be influenced by the length of Hg exposure that in turn might affect Se bioavailability. Each birth anthropometric outcome was modeled as a function of Hg, Se and their interactions. After an adjustment for confounding variables, Hg in cord blood had a significantly positive rather than the expected negative association with crown-heel length. Placental Hg was associated with reduced birth height. Both associations were independent of prematurity. The status of Se in newborns was positively associated with crown-heel length and placental weight, with and without preterm births, and with birth weight, but only without preterm births. In contrast, a lower cephalization index was correlated with Se levels in cord blood, which may be an indicator of a detrimental effect on health. Our study, however, revealed associations between significantly lower levels of placental Se and several birth anthropometric measures (head circumference, birth weight and birth height) but the significance disappeared after excluding preterm births. Regression analyses generally indicated either significant or marginally significant Hg-Se antagonistic interactions that may have moderated the toxic effect of Hg on head circumference and birth weight. This finding may be due to chance or residual confounding and so may not be clinically relevant, but it may also suggest that Hg, Se and Hg-Se interactions are important factors for understanding Hg-induced adverse birth outcomes. Additional research will be necessary to evaluate the biological impact of combined metals in the assessment of fetal growth and development. PMID:24332576

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Obsum, Cercilia Angela; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Billedo, Grisellhi; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Rabbah, Abdullah

2014-01-01

46

Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: a prospective study in the EPIC cohort.  

PubMed

Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p?=?0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking. PMID:24771290

Roswall, Nina; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn Erica; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Helen-Maria; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Ehrnström, Roy; Brennan, Paul; Ferrari, Pietro; Ljungberg, Börje; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Halkjaer, Jytte

2014-12-15

47

MediHandTrace ®: a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence.  

PubMed

The proper implementation of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing healthcare-associated infection. Although there are many programmes aimed at enhancing hand hygiene, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains incredibly low. One limiting factor is the lack of standardized measures and reports of hand hygiene opportunities. Direct observational audits have reported the weaknesses in this field. We report here a radiofrequency identification-based real-time automated continuous recording system (MediHandTrace(®)) that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of HCWs that we evaluated against video recordings as being accurate (99.02%), sensitive (95.65%) and specific (100%). The system can also provide information that is useful to understand HCW non-compliance and will allow the evaluation of future intervention studies. PMID:24261513

Boudjema, S; Dufour, J C; Aladro, A S; Desquerres, I; Brouqui, P

2014-01-01

48

Measurement and device design of left-handed metamaterials  

E-print Network

The properties of a variety of left-handed metamaterial (LHM) structures are analyzed and measured to verify consistent behavior between theory an measurements. The structures are simulated using a commercial software ...

Thomas Zachary M. (Zachary Michael)

2005-01-01

49

Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria. Part II: Anthropometric measures.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of anthropometric measures. The following variables were determined in a sample of 278 disabled children (171 males, 107 females) aged 6 to 24 years, recruited from five specialized day care centers for retarded children in Alexandria: birth order, type of disability, socioeconomic status, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin level. Mentally retarded children represent the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and autism. There is an increase in the mean body weight of males with the increase in age among the three type of disability except at age from 14 to 18 years, while there is a fluctuation in the mean body weight between ages and disability among females. Down syndrome groups at all ages are shorter than the other groups, while disabled males are taller than females at all ages. Based on BMI for age, the incidence of obesity was higher among Down's syndrome and mentally retarded females and among autistic males (19.8%, 16.1% of males versus 15.8%, 6.7% of females with mental retardation and autism were underweight). Majority of subjects have mild degree anemia. Hemoglobin levels below the cut-off levels issued by WHO were found higher among autistic and mentally retarded females. The levels were comparable among males with autism and mental retardation and among Down's syndrome males and females. The results also revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity were more common in subjects who showed an evidence of anemia. PMID:17265606

Shabayek, Magda M

2004-01-01

50

Relationship between anthropometric and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures to assess total and regional adiposity in Malaysian adolescents.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper was to determine the utility of various anthropometric measures to assess total and regional body fatness using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion in 454 adolescent boys and girls aged 12-19 years. Multivariable regression analyses of gender-specific and gender-combined models were used to determine anthropometric measures on DXA-derived body fatness models, after adjusting for known confounding biological factors. Partial correlation analyses, after adjusting for age, pubertal growth status and ethnicity in boys and girls, showed that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-height ratio (WhtR) were significantly correlated with total body fat (TBF), percent body fat (%BF), android region fat (ARF) and trunk fat (TF) (all p<0.0001). BMI was the greatest independent determinant, contributing 43.8%-80.9% of the total variance for DXA-derived body fatness models. Results confirmed that a simple anthropometric index such as the BMI is a good surrogate indicator of body fat levels in Malay and Chinese adolescents. PMID:23945404

Foo, Leng Huat; Teo, Pey Sze; Abdullah, Nurul Fadhilah; Aziz, Mohd Ezane; Hills, Andrew P

2013-01-01

51

Distinguishing Inchworm and Hand-Over-Hand Processive Kinesin Movement by Neck Rotation Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motor enzyme kinesin makes hundreds of unidirectional 8-nanometer steps without detaching from or freely sliding along the microtubule on which it moves. We investigated the kinesin stepping mechanism by immobilizing a Drosophila kinesin derivative through the carboxyl-terminal end of the neck coiled-coil domain and measuring orientations of microtubules moved by single enzyme molecules at submicromolar adenosine triphosphate concentrations. The kinesin-mediated microtubule-surface linkage was sufficiently torsionally stiff (>=2.0 +/- 0.9 × 10-20 Newton meters per radian2) that stepping by the hypothesized symmetric hand-over-hand mechanism would produce 180° rotations of the microtubule relative to the immobilized kinesin neck. In fact, there were no rotations, a finding that is inconsistent with symmetric hand-over-hand movement. An alternative ``inchworm'' mechanism is consistent with our experimental results.

Hua, Wei; Chung, Johnson; Gelles, Jeff

2002-02-01

52

Hand transmitted vibration measurement using experimentally simulated hand-arm rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hand transmitted vibration (HTV) is one of the most common hazards faced by workers in the construction industry. A major source of HTV is hand held percussion tools, such as pneumatically driven chipping hammers and rock drills. This paper presents a new approach to measuring the vibration from these tools using a mechanically simulated hand arm model to which the tools are attached. The simulated hand-arm model has been designed to have similar dynamic characteristics to that of a human hand-arm system. This approach addresses the issue of repeatability as HTV measurements suffer from variability between cases and from user to user. Different percussion tools ranging from a small chipping hammer to a rock drill, from two major construction equipment manufacturing companies, were used to conduct the vibration tests. The goals of these tests were to measure the vibration levels and to determine the most dominant modes of vibration. Comprehensive data analyses of the tests results are presented. Further, the paper discusses potential vibration control methods and expected performance levels.

Kadam, Rahul; Johnson, Marty; Muract, Jorge; Burdisso, Ricardo

2005-09-01

53

Relation between bone mineral density, biological markers and anthropometric measures in 4-year-old children: a pilot study within the IDEFICS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD), anthropometric characteristics, levels of biological markers for growth, bone turnover, insulin resistance and fat mass in 4-year-old Swedish children.Methods:Descriptive study with 41 children (28 boys) who had anthropometric measurements and blood samples taken and heel dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and laser (DXL) performed. The study participants were divided into groups of normal-weight

B Tubi?; P Magnusson; D Swolin-Eide; S Mårild

2011-01-01

54

Lipid Profile in Relation to Anthropometric Measurements among College Male Students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Anthropometric measurements can easily reflect any changes in the lipid concentration in the human body. Objectives: The present work is aimed at studying lipid profile and its relation to anthropometric measurements in college males from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted from September 2006 to December 2008. 333 students aged 18-35 years of Riyadh College of Health Science - male section - participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) were estimated. Socio-demographic data were collected from a questionnaire. Results: Mean TC level was 4.227 ± 0.869 mmol/l, while for LDL, HDL and TG were 2.57 ± 0.724, 1.360 ± 0.545 and 1.385 ± 0.731 mmol/l, respectively. Mean TC level did not differ significantly across weight groups except among obese patients. Mean HDL, LDL and TG did not differ significantly among different groups at 5% level of significance. There was positive, statistically non-significant correlation between age and BMI. The correlation between age and all lipid parameters were statistically non-significant. There was positive correlation between BMI and TC and LDL, while there was a negative correlation between BMI and HDL. There was no correlation between BMI and triglycerides. Conclusion: BMI, waist and hip circumferences all increase with age. The level of TC, LDL and TG go high with increase in age and BMI. PMID:23675226

Al-Ajlan, Abdul Rahman

2011-01-01

55

The Association between Primary Tooth Emergence and Anthropometric Measures in Young Adults: Findings from a Large Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Cross sectional studies suggest a link may exist between tooth emergence and obesity. To explore this relationship, we aimed to evaluate the prospective associations between primary tooth emergence and anthropometric measures in young adults. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse relationships between primary tooth emergence, and anthropometric measures measured at 17.8 years, in 2977 participants (1362 males and 1615 females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In minimally adjusted models, ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ (assessed by questionnaire at 15 months) was positively associated with height [change in height (cm) per quintile increase in ‘number of paired teeth’ (?)?=?0.35 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.52) P?=?0.0001] and weight [ratio of geometric mean weight per quintile increase in ‘number of paired teeth’ (RGM)?=?1.015 (95%CI: 1.010, 1.019) P<0.0001]. The relationship with weight was largely driven by fat mass, which showed an equivalent relationship with ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ to that seen for weight [RGM?=?1.036 (95%CI: 1.022, 1.051) P<0.0001] (adjusted for height)]. Conversely, no association was seen between ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ and lean mass. An increase in ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ at age 15 months was associated with a higher Tanner stage at age 13 in girls but not boys, but further adjustment of associations between ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ and anthropometric traits for Tanner stage was without effect. Primary tooth emergence is associated with subsequent fat mass, suggesting these could share common constitutive factors, and that early primary tooth emergence may represent a hitherto unrecognised risk factor for the development of obesity in later life. PMID:24823714

Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Evans, David M.; Tobias, Jonathan H.

2014-01-01

56

Anthropometric differences among occupational groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demands for anthropometric information for the design of machinery and personal protective equipment to prevent occupational injuries has necessitated an understanding of the anthropometric differences to be found among occupations. This study identified differences in various body measurements between occupational groups in the USA, as determined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Approximately 16,000 of

Hongwei Hsiao; Daniel Long; Karl Snyder

2002-01-01

57

Complaints arising from a mismatch between school furniture and anthropometric measurements of rural secondary school children during classwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The present investigation aimed to evaluate the extent of mismatch between different dimensions of school furniture and the\\u000a respective anthropometric measures of school children. Assessment of health problems as well as postural pattern among the\\u000a school children while attending their classes in relation to the classroom furniture was the other aim of this study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  For this purpose, 621 male school

Prakash Chandra Dhara; Gurucharan Khaspuri; Soudeep Kumar Sau

2009-01-01

58

New anthropometric instruments.  

PubMed

Anthropometric examinations have been carried out since 1901 (USA) with the aim of developing and furthering the garment and footwear size system. The contribution to the solution of these problems was noticed in the last decades when a technical board was founded and the propositions in ISO norm series as well as in European norm (EN) series were prescribed. Two methods are employed in anthropometric measurements: the conventional one using anthropometric instruments and the one applying a 3D body scanner. The method using 3D scanning is faster and more accurate, but at the same time it is more complicated and expensive. In the framework of STIRP Croatian Anthropometric System the classical method was applied because out of the total number of examinees (0.68% of the whole population of the Republic of Croatia) 6,380 children up to the age of 5, 4 were examined. That was the reason why the development of new anthropometric instruments was taken up with the aim of developing and improving the existing ones. In this paper a new anthropometer with two legs has been described: it contributes to the stability of the instrument when a larger number of examinees has to be tested. In addition to this, new goniometers for determining the shoulder-tilt have been presented and described. PMID:18217454

Ujevi?, Darko; Nikoli?, Gojko; Dolezal, Ksenija; Szirovicza, Lajos

2007-12-01

59

Reliability and stability of anthropometric and performance measures in highly-trained young soccer players: effect of age and maturation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess both short-term reliability and long-term stability of anthropometric and physical performance measures in highly-trained young soccer players in relation to age and maturation. Data were collected on 80 players from an academy (U13-U18, pre- (n = 14), circum- (n = 32) and post- (n = 34) estimated peak height velocity, PHV). For the reliability analysis, anthropometric and performance tests were repeated twice within a month. For the stability analysis, these tests were repeated 12 times over a 4-year period in 10 players. Absolute reliability was assessed with the typical error of measurement, expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Relative reliability and long-term stability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There was no clear age or maturation effect on either the CVs or ICCs: e.g., Post-PHV vs. Pre-PHV: effect size = -0.37 (90% confidence limits (CL):-1.6;0.9), with chances of greater/similar/lower values of 20/20/60%. For the long-term stability analysis, ICCs varied from 0.66 (0.50;0.80) to 0.96 (0.93;0.98) for 10-m sprint time and body mass, respectively. The short-term reliability of anthropometry and physical performance measures is unlikely to be affected by age or maturation. However, some of these measures are unstable throughout adolescence, which questions their usefulness in a talent identification perspective. PMID:23656211

Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

2013-01-01

60

The effects of tournament preparation on anthropometric and sport-specific performance measures in youth judo athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training. PMID:22476167

Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P

2013-02-01

61

Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects2  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. Objective We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. Results In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ? 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ? 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Conclusion Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. PMID:18541572

Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B

2008-01-01

62

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2010-10-01

63

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2013-10-01

64

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2012-10-01

65

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2011-10-01

66

Sound power measurement techniques for powered hand tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a project to reduce noise induced hearing loss in the construction industry, NIOSH developed a database of sound power level measurements of electric powered hand tools typically used in the construction industry. The tool testing jigs and setups specified and illustrated in ANSI S12.15 were modified to accommodate the higher precision ten-microphone arrangement used in ISO 3744.

Edward L. Zechmann; Charles Hayden

2005-01-01

67

NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

2010-11-01

68

Modeling transitions in body composition: the approach to steady state for anthropometric measures and physiological functions in the Minnesota human starvation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether the changes in several anthropometric and functional measures during caloric restriction combined with walking and treadmill exercise would fit a simple model of approach to steady state (a plateau) that can be solved using spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel®). We hypothesized that transitions in waist girth and several body compartments would fit a simple exponential model

James L Hargrove; Grete Heinz; Otto Heinz

2008-01-01

69

A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

2010-11-01

70

Levels of DDT and its metabolites in placenta, maternal and cord blood and their potential influence on neonatal anthropometric measures.  

PubMed

Previous studies of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have shown mixed results for the harmful effects on fetal growth and development. This cross-sectional study was designed to: (1) examine the extent of DDT exposure in 1578 women, aged 28.5±6.0 who delivered between June 2005 and 2006 in the area of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; and (2) assess its influence on neonatal anthropometric measurement of newly born babies. DDT and its metabolites, namely 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDD) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2' bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in cord and maternal serum as well as placenta by Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD). p,p'-DDE was detected in 28.3% of cord and 54.4% of maternal serum, reflecting past exposure, whereas the p,p'-DDT was only found in 0.46% cord and 1.2% maternal samples. As expected the p,p'-DDE cord levels (0.197±0.961?g/L) were 2.8 times lower than the maternal levels (0.551±1.778?g/L), and both were significantly correlated (r=0.517) suggesting its transplacental transfer. The picture was different in placental tissues. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 84% and 99% of placental tissues, with the highest p,p'-DDT in placental tissues (29.62±158.282µg/kg dry wt.) compare to p,p'-DDE (10.167±18.851?g/kg dry wt.). In general, the presence of DDT metabolites in our participants indicates that these chemicals are still relevant despite the fact that they have been banned or restricted in the study area for many years. Our results support the view for an association between low in utero exposure to DDT and the anthropometric development of the fetus leading to a reduction in its head circumference, crown-heel length, birth weight and birth height. Since the reduction in these measures was independent of gestational age and/or preterm births, our findings suggest a detrimental effect of the DDT exposure on fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometric measures are considered as an important tool to detect newborns at higher risk of morbidity and impairment of growth. Efforts should be made to decrease exposure of women of reproductive age and to examine maternal DDT exposure in relation to long-term impact on health. PMID:22192892

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam; Alsabbaheen, Ammar; Mohamed, Gamal El Din; Rabbah, Abdullah

2012-02-01

71

Hands-on statistics’—empirical introduction to measurement uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to share with you our ongoing experiences with ‘hands-on statistics’ lessons we have recently carried out. We have developed a new experimental path for teaching young students using fundamental concepts of ‘statistics’: uncertainty of the measurement, the uncertainty of the mean, the mean itself, etc. The methods themselves need no special skills in mathematics, only the use of a takoyaki setup is needed for the experiments. This equipment we have found makes the lesson far more interesting for the students and has allowed us to work successfully for many years, even with children from elementary schools starting from the age of 10.

Wibig, Tadeusz; Dam-o, Punsiri

2013-03-01

72

Photographic facial soft tissue analysis of healthy Iranian young adults: anthropometric and angular measurements  

PubMed Central

Background: Soft tissue profile can be widely different in various populations. Furthermore, this profile can be also continues to change throughout life. However, there are few studies that quantitatively evaluate the soft tissue profile in Iranian population. In order to determine normal reference values of facial parts in our populations, we aimed to measure standards for facial soft tissue parameters in Iranian young population. Methods: The study samples included 155 medical students at the Firouzgar hospital in winter 2011. The soft tissue facial profiles were digitally analyzed using linear measurements and angles made with standardized photographic records, taken in a natural head position, to determine the average soft tissue facial profile for males and females. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between males and females in 21 of our 26 measurements. The most prominent differences between the genders were observed in the measurements taken from the face region. Minimum frontal breadth and supraorbital breadth were larger in males than in females. Except for middle face height measurement, other horizontal and vertical measurements for the face were larger in males than in females, indicating wider and higher faces in men than in women. Some measurements of facial angles are discrepant between the two genders. Conclusion: Due to the specific features of Iranian facial soft tissue values and also observable differences in facial measurements and angles between men and women, the Iranian standard values on facial measurements and angles should be given more attention, especially by plastic and cosmetic surgeons.

Asghari, Alimohamad; Rajaeih, Shahin; Hassannia, Fatemeh; Tavakolifard, Negah; Fattahi Neisyani, Hamed; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Jalessi, Maryam; Omidian, Parisa

2014-01-01

73

A hand-held optical sensor for dissolved oxygen measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hand-held dissolved oxygen optical sensor based on solid-state electronics and highly oxygen-sensitive luminescence material has been developed. Oxygen-sensitive dye absorbed on silica gel particles was dispersed in a 0.2 mm homogenous silicone rubber film (optode membrane) and coated on a 580 nm long-pass filter. The O2-sensitive dye was excited by an ultra-bright blue light-emitting diode and the emission intensity was captured by a silicon photodiode. The long-pass filter efficiently reduced the scattered light from the light source. The emission signal of the optode membrane was converted to the voltage signal which was processed by a single-chip Micyoco controller, and the dissolved oxygen concentration was automatically displayed on a liquid crystal display unit. The developed hand-held optical sensor is a single-piece device which can provide instant and reliable dissolved oxygen measurement. The sensor showed good repeatability, photostability and long-term stability. Satisfactory results were obtained when its analytical performance was compared with that of a typical Clark-type amperometric oxygen electrode. The developed oxygen optical sensor possesses the advantages of portability, low cost and long lifetime.

Xiao, Dan; Mo, Yuanyao; Choi, Martin M. F.

2003-06-01

74

Measuring hand, head, and vehicle motions in commuting environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewing video on mobile devices is becoming increasingly common. The small field-of-view and the vibrations in common commuting environments present challenges (hardware and software) for the imaging community. By monitoring the vibration of the display, it could be possible to stabilize an image on the display by shifting a portion of a large image with the display (a field-of-view expansion approach). However, the image should not be shifted exactly per display motion because eye movements have a 'self-adjustment' ability to partially or completely compensate for external motions that can make a perfect compensation appear to overshoot. In this work, accelerometers were used to measure the motion of a range of vehicles, and observers' heads and hands as they rode in those vehicles to support the development of display motion compensation algorithms.

Li, Feng; Pelz, Jeff B.; Daly, Scott J.

2009-02-01

75

Anthropometric measurement of muscle mass: revised equations for calculating bone-free arm muscle area13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arm muscle area (AMA, cm2) is currently calculated from triceps skinfold thickness (TSF. cm), and midarm circumference (MAC, cm). In assessing the accuracy of the current equation by comparison to AMA measured by computerized axial tomography, error in each of the four approximations made was found to result in a 20 to 25% overestimate of AMA. Two correctible error sources

Steven B Heymsfield; Janet Smith; Victoria Stevens; Daniel W Nixon

76

Utility of anthropometric measures in a multiethnic population: their association with prevalent diabetes, hypertension and other chronic disease comorbidities.  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are two common anthropometric measures of obesity in clinical and public health practice. Consensus, however, remains elusive regarding their utility for predicting cardiovascular disease risk in multiethnic populations. We address this gap in the literature by analyzing cross-sectional data from the first round of the Los Angeles County Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011. We characterized the relationships between BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratios, waist-to-height ratios, and chronic disease extent, as confirmed by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, and/or two or more other chronic conditions as defined by a composite indicator 'comorbidity'. To account for race/ethnicity, age, gender, and cigarette smoking frequency, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were generated and reported for each of the regression analyses. Whereas being overweight was associated with hypertension alone (aOR 2.10; 95% CI 1.12-3.94), obesity was associated with hypertension (aOR 5.04; 95% CI 2.80-9.06) as well as diabetes (aOR 5.28; 95% CI 2.25-12.3) and comorbidity (aOR 3.69; 95% CI 2.02-6.77). In whites and African-Americans, BMI and WC were positively related to diabetes, hypertension and comorbidity. In Hispanics, BMI and WC were also positively related to diabetes and comorbidity, but only the former measure was associated with hypertension (p < 0.050). In Asians, BMI was not a significant predictor of diabetes, hypertension and/or comorbidity. Collectively, the findings suggest that BMI is not universally informative and waist circumference and its derivatives may represent a viable, more racially/ethnically appropriate alternative for use with selected minority groups. PMID:24132872

Tarleton, Heather P; Smith, Lisa V; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kuo, Tony

2014-06-01

77

The effect of ready-to-eat cereal consumption on energy intake, body weight and anthropometric measurements: results from a randomized, controlled intervention trial.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to determine the effect of consumption of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) in the evening in place of a normal evening snack on body weight, anthropometric measurements and energy intake in overweight individuals. Seventy overweight participants who were self-reported habitual evening snackers were assigned to either the control or treatment group. For 6 weeks the treatment group consumed RTEC instead of their normal evening snack. Body weight, anthropometric and food intake measurements were taken at 2-week intervals. There were no significant differences between groups in any anthropometric measurements; however, within the treatment group, body weight (p = 0.030) and waist circumference (p = 0.0003) were reduced after 6 weeks compared with baseline. Evening energy intake was lower in the treatment group compared with the control group (p = 0.007). These data indicate that replacing evening snacks with RTEC in overweight habitual evening snackers significantly reduces post dinner energy intake and may assist with weight management. PMID:21777054

Matthews, Aimee; Hull, Sarah; Angus, Fiona; Johnston, Kelly L

2012-02-01

78

Hip Axis Length Variation: Its correlation to anthropometric measurements in women from three ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hip axis length (HAL) has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture. Significant ethnic differences in HAL have been noted, but no direct comparison has been made between African-American, Mexican-American, and non-Hispanic white women using the same protocol. Methods We compared 157 non-Hispanic white women from the Rancho Bernardo Study, 292 women from the Health Assessment Study of African-American Women, and 210 women from the Skeletal Health of Mexican-American Women Project. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain medical history; height, weight, waist girth, and hip girth were measured; and percent body fat and HAL were obtained using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. All HAL comparisons were adjusted for maximum hip girth to control for differences in size magnification by fan-beam absorptiometry. Results Though there were ethnic differences in the unadjusted HAL measurement, after adjusting for hip circumference, there were no residual differences in HAL by ethnicity: 10.7 cm in Mexican-American women vs. 10.8 in non-Hispanic white women and African-American women (p=0.61) Conclusions There were no ethnic differences in HAL in women from the 3 ethnic groups. Differences in fracture risk among these groups cannot be explained by ethnic differences in HAL. PMID:18301856

Clark, Patricia; Tesoriero, Linda J.; Morton, Deborah J.; Talavera, Juan O.; Karlamangla, Arun; Schneider, Diane L.; Wooten, Wilma J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

79

An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

80

Residential Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Anthropometric Measures at Birth in a Multicenter Cohort in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background: A growing body of research suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution may be harmful to fetal development. We assessed the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in four areas within the Spanish Children’s Health and Environment (INMA) mother and child cohort study. Methods: Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene was estimated for the residence of each woman (n = 2,337) for each trimester and for the entire pregnancy. Outcomes included birth weight, length, and head circumference. The association between residential outdoor air pollution exposure and birth outcomes was assessed with linear regression models controlled for potential confounders. We also performed sensitivity analyses for the subset of women who spent more time at home during pregnancy. Finally, we performed a combined analysis with meta-analysis techniques. Results: In the combined analysis, an increase of 10 µg/m3 in NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in birth length of –0.9 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), –1.8 to –0.1 mm]. For the subset of women who spent ? 15 hr/day at home, the association was stronger (–0.16 mm; 95% CI, –0.27 to –0.04). For this same subset of women, a reduction of 22 g in birth weight was associated with each 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure in the second trimester (95% CI, –45.3 to 1.9). We observed no significant relationship between benzene levels and birth outcomes. Conclusions: NO2 exposure was associated with reductions in both length and weight at birth. This association was clearer for the subset of women who spent more time at home. PMID:21429861

Ballester, Ferran; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Llop, Sabrina; Freire, Carmen; Tardon, Adonina; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi; Iniguez, Carmen

2011-01-01

81

Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic difference, discretionary salt use and blood pressures. PMID:22808349

Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong

2012-01-01

82

Optimal brassiere wire based on the 3D anthropometric measurements of under breast curve.  

PubMed

It has been difficult to quantify the fit of brassiere wire to the natural nude under breast line due to the difficulty of obtaining women's nude under breast line in 3D image. The objectives of this study are firstly to design the ergonomic brassiere wire that should fit to the curve of under breast and thorax and secondly to apply the 3D measurement of human body structure to the product design and evaluation using phase shifting moiré topography. Eight brassiere wires were evaluated and key factors of comfortable wires were selected depending on the types of women's under breast those are considered as backbones of the brassiere structure. Twenty-one middle-aged women participated in the subjective wear test, and 17 volunteers of them continued to participate in the 3D image recording. 3D morphological data of the breast before and after wearing experimental brassiere was examined by phase shifting moiré topography. As results, it was found that the fitting of the global average radius of curvature of wire to that of the body line of the under breast curve was an important variable for the design of wires. Conventional shape of brassiere wire was suitable to the majority of the subjects. However, for those who have skewed under breast lines, the wire of larger global average radius of curvature along the inner part of the under breast line was rated higher in terms of wear comfort and appearance. The recommended magnitude of the torsional rigidity of the brassiere wire was about 0.015 N/mm2mm. The observation on women's under breast curve and their comfortable breast wire as discussed in this paper would provide with comfortable and stable fit for women in special needs such as soldiers, athletes and actress. PMID:16828050

Lee, Hyun-Young; Hong, Kyunghi

2007-05-01

83

Relationship between Anthropometric Measures and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk stratification in pediatrics. Objective To analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods We evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. Results WC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r = 0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001, respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age, BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p < 0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y = 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). Conclusion WC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies. PMID:23979777

Burgos, Miria Suzana; Burgos, Leandro Tibirica; Camargo, Marcelo Dias; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Pra, Daniel; da Silva, Antonio Marcos Vargas; Borges, Tassia Silvana; Todendi, Pamela Ferreira; Reckziegel, Miriam Beatris; Reuter, Cezane Priscila

2013-01-01

84

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2010-10-01

85

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2011-10-01

86

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2013-10-01

87

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2012-10-01

88

Anthropometric study of Mexican primary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on male and female Mexican primary school children age 6–11 years in the metropolitan area of the city of Guadalajara. A set of 50 body dimensions was taken based on international standards. The sample consisted of 4758 children (boys and girls). The anthropometric measurements were compared to those of American,

Lilia R Prado-León; Rosal??o Avila-Chaurand; Elvia L González-Muñoz

2001-01-01

89

A new anthropometric phantom for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the human leg using X-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead deposited in bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape of the mid shaft of the adult human leg and is fabricated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to produce materials that exhibit the same density, energy transmission, and calcium content as cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle. The phantom includes a removable tibia fabricated using simulants for cortical bone and bone marrow to which a precise amount of stable lead has been added to cortical bone. The formulations used in fabricating the new anthropometric phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the conventional phantom made from Plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster-of-Paris. The energy spectrum from an x-ray fluorescence measurement of the phantom using a {sup 109}Cd source is indistinguishable from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement of the human leg, demonstrating that the materials used in the phantom exhibit the same radiological properties as human tissue. Likewise, results from x-ray fluorescence measurements of the phantom exhibit the same positional dependency as the human leg and vary by approximately 36% when, for example, the phantom containing 54 ppm of stable lead in the tibia was rotated by only 15 degrees. The detection limit for a 30 min {sup 109}Cd K shell x-ray fluorescence in vivo measurement is approximately 20 ppm determined from a background measurement using the new phantom containing no added lead in the muscle, bone, or bone marrow. The new anthropometric phantom significantly improves in vivo x-ray fluorescence calibration measurements by (1) faithfully reproducing the anatomy of the human leg, (2) having components that exhibit radiological properties similar to that of human tissue, and (3) providing a realistic calibration standard that can be used for in vivo x-ray fluorescence intercomparison measurements.

Spitz, H.; Jenkins, M.; Lodwick, J.; Bornschein, R.

2000-02-01

90

Measurement of Hand Palm Pressures in “La Pelota Vasca” Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Pelota Vasca” is a traditional sport coming from the País Vasco with a long history and different modalities. In one of them\\u000a the ball is hit with the hand against a wall placed in front of the players. A high incidence of hand injuries is found in\\u000a this sport which has been related to high impact loads and to not

Javier Gámez; David Rosa; Enrique Alcántara; Antonio Martínez; María José Such; Juan Vicente Durá; Jaime Prat; José Ramiro

91

Normative data on hand grip strength in a Greek adult population  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to establish data concerning normal hand grip strength (GS) and to explore possible associations with anthropometric parameters. GS was measured in 232 individuals in a standard arm position using the Jamar dynamometer. We examined differences between right/left and dominant/nondominant hands. Possible correlations of GS with anthropometric values were evaluated. Right hand and dominant hand GS were found to be higher and statistically significant compared to left hand and nondominant hand GS, respectively. Men had higher values of GS compared to women. A negative association was observed between age and dominant hand GS. A positive association was documented between height and dominant hand GS, while the respective comparison for weight and dominant hand GS documented a statistically significant positive association only in the male group. A positive association between BMI and dominant hand GS was seen in female individuals. Additional factors associated with GS should be the goal of future investigations. PMID:18414855

Mitsionis, Gregory; Stafilas, Kosmas S.; Paschos, Nikolaos; Papakostas, Theodore; Beris, Alexandros E.

2008-01-01

92

Accuracy of measuring impedance in the hand-arm system.  

PubMed

In an assessment of the accuracy with which impedance can be determined in the hand-arm system, two subjects were each tested six times at 28 frequencies between 10 and 800 Hz. In addition the effect of wearing an air cushion glove was investigated, and an attempt was made to develop a simple model of the glove. The results showed agreement with other recently published data for impedance in the hand-arm system at frequencies above about 25 Hz but not below. The mean values of the impedance for a single subject had standard errors of about 10%. When the subjects wore an air cushion glove, there was only a small change in impedance, and consequently in the total amount of energy dissipated in the hand-arm system. A simple mass-spring damper model of the glove predicted that the attenuation provided by the glove was minimal, except at the highest frequencies. PMID:3775323

Hempstock, T I; O'Connor, D E

1986-08-01

93

THE VALIDITY OF PLANTARFLEXOR STRENGTH MEASURES OBTAINED THROUGH HAND-HELD DYNAMOMETRY MEASUREMENTS OF FORCE  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: Hand?held dynamometers are commonly used to assess plantarflexor strength during rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of measuring plantarflexion force using a hand?held dynamometer (HHD) as compared to an electromechanical dynamometer as the gold standard. The hypothesis was that plantarflexor forces obtained using a hand?held dynamometer would not show absolute agreement with a criterion standard. Design: Concurrent validity assessment for a diagnostic strength testing device. Setting: Institutional clinic and research laboratory Participants: Volunteer sample of healthy university students (N=20, 10 women, 10 men; 25.9±4.1 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximal plantarflexion strength was measured using both a HHD and an electromechanical dynamometer (EMD) as a criterion measure. Results: Plantarflexor force measures with the HHD were significantly different (p<0.01) and not correlated with plantarflexor forces measured using the EMD for either limb (R2 ? 0.09). Conclusions: Plantarflexor strength measurements acquired using HHD are different from those acquired using an EMD and are likely influenced by the strength of the examiner. Level of Evidence: Prospective cohort study, level II PMID:24377068

Pozzi, Federico; Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

94

Finger-Shaped GelForce: Sensor for Measuring Surface Traction Fields for Robotic Hand  

E-print Network

. In particular, a haptic sensor for a robotic finger is considered to be an important device because the fingerFinger-Shaped GelForce: Sensor for Measuring Surface Traction Fields for Robotic Hand Katsunari in a robotic hand. Index Terms--Force sensor, surface traction field, finger shape, robotic hand. Ã? 1

Tachi, Susumu

95

Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

1977-01-01

96

Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.  

PubMed

Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts. PMID:23480448

Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

2013-09-01

97

Multiple Measures of Hand-Use Lateralization in the Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated a free-ranging matriline of 13 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) from videotaped records for lateralized hand use with 2 tasks and 4 measures: food reaching, feeding posture, duration of food holding, and manipulation of food between mouth and hand while eating. Binomial z scores determined 7 lemurs to be left preferent in reaching, 3 right, and 3 ambipreferent. Ideographic analyses

Garrett W. Milliken; Chris Forsythe; Jeanette P. Ward

1989-01-01

98

CUAHSI's Hydrologic Measurement Facility: Putting Advanced Tools in Scientists' Hands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like related environmental sciences, the hydrologic sciences community has been defining environmental observatories and the support components necessary for their successful implementation, such as informatics (cyberinfrastructure) and instrumentation. Unlike programs, such as NEON and OOI, that have been pursuing large-scale capital funding through the Major Research Equipment program of the National Science Foundation, CUAHSI has been pursuing incremental development of observatories that has allowed us to pilot different parts of these support functions, namely Hydrologic Information Systems and a Hydrologic Measurement Facility (HMF), the subject of this paper. The approach has allowed us to gain greater specificity of the requirements for these facilities and their operational challenges. The HMF is developing the foundation to support innovative research across the breadth of the Hydrologic Community, including classic PI-driven projects as well as over 20 grass-roots observatories that have been developing over the past 2 years. HMF is organized around three basic areas: water cycle instrumentation, biogeochemistry and geophysics. Committees have been meeting to determined the most effective manner to deliver instrumentation, whether by special instrumentation packages proposed by host institutions; collaborative agreements with federal agencies; and contributions from industrial partners. These efforts are guided by the results of a community wide survey conducted in Nov-Dec 2005, and a series of ongoing workshops. The survey helped identify the types of equipment that will advance hydrological sciences and are often beyond the capabilities of individual PI's. Respondents to the survey indicated they were keen for HMF to focus on providing supported equipment such as atmospheric profilers like LIDAR, geophysical instrumentation ranging from airborne sensors to ground-penetrating radar, and field-deployed mass spectrophotometers. A recently signed agreement with the USGS will for the first time provide university researchers with rental access to hydrological equipment ranging from data loggers to advanced acoustic doppler current meters through USGS's Hydrologic Instrument Facility.

Hooper, R. P.; Robinson, D.; Selker, J.; Duncan, J.

2006-05-01

99

An anthropometric face model using variational techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints

Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone

1998-01-01

100

Measurement of patient hand hygiene in multiorgan transplant units using a novel technology: an observational study.  

PubMed

Objective.?Healthcare worker hand hygiene is known to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but there are few data on patient hand hygiene despite the fact that nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands. The purpose of this study was to measure patient hand hygiene behavior in the hospital after visiting a bathroom, before eating, and on entering and leaving their rooms. Design.?Cross-sectional study. Setting.?Acute care teaching hospital in Canada. Patients.?Convenience sample of 279 adult patients admitted to 3 multiorgan transplant units between July 2012 and March 2013. Methods.?Patient use of alcohol-based hand rub and soap dispensers was measured using an ultrasound-based real-time location system during visits to bathrooms, mealtimes, kitchen visits, and on entering and leaving their rooms. Results.?Overall, patients performed hand hygiene during 29.7% of bathroom visits, 39.1% of mealtimes, 3.3% of kitchen visits, 2.9% of room entries, and 6.7% of room exits. Conclusions.?Patients appear to perform hand hygiene infrequently, which may contribute to transmission of pathogens from the hospital environment via indirect contact or fecal-oral routes. PMID:25333427

Srigley, Jocelyn A; Furness, Colin D; Gardam, Michael

2014-11-01

101

Complex hand dexterity: a review of biomechanical methods for measuring musical performance.  

PubMed

Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social, and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation. The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities. PMID:24860531

Metcalf, Cheryl D; Irvine, Thomas A; Sims, Jennifer L; Wang, Yu L; Su, Alvin W Y; Norris, David O

2014-01-01

102

Anthropometrics for the design of Bahraini school furniture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey carried out on a sample of male and female Bahraini school children aged 6–12years (N=1174), to throw some light on the anthropometric parameters of Bahraini students in order to provide school furniture designers and importers with relevant data. A set of 44 body dimensions covering most body parts were measured, from

M. Mokdad; M. Al-Ansari

2009-01-01

103

An Analysis of Anthropometric Data on Iranian Primary School Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Anthropometric data can be used to identify the physical dimensions of equipment, furniture, etc. The use of furniture that fails to fulfill the anthropometric data of its users has a negative impact on human health. Specific anthropometric dimensions are necessary to design school furniture. Anthropometric data have been measured in many communities especially among schoolchildren. There are different ethnic groups with probably different anthropometric data in Iran, and anthropometric data can change by time, so gathering data about anthropometric dimensions is important. This study was designed to obtain anthropometric dimensions of Iranian children (Fars ethnicity) aged 7–11 years. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in Yazd, Iran, descriptive statistics as well as key percentiles for 17 static anthropometric data of primary school students (1015 males and 1015 females), were measured and compared between boys and girls. Results: The age of the students was between 6 and 11 years. Mean weight was between 21.56±5.33 kg and 36.63±9.45 kg in boys and between 20.79±3.48 kg and 35.88±9.40 kg in girls. Mean height was between 1187/02±53.98 mm and 1420.83± 69.39 mm in boys and between 1173.90±51.01mm and 1421.27±70.82 mm in girls. There was also some difference in other anthropometric data between two genders. Conclusion: Results of this study showed some differences in anthropometric data with other studies. We also observed significant gender differences in some dimensions as well. PMID:23113041

Hafezi, R; Mirmohammadi, SJ; Mehrparvar, AH; Akbari, H; Akbari, H

2010-01-01

104

Asians have lower body mass index (BMI) but higher percent body fat than do whites: comparisons of anthropometric measurements?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the correlations between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (fat%) measured by dual- photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 445 white and 242 Asian adults aged 18-94 y. In addition, comparisons in six circumferences and eight skinfold-thickness measurements between whites and Asians were made to explain the discrepancies. Although Asians had lower BMI, they were fatter than whites

Jack Wang; John C Thornton; Mary Russell; Santiago Burastero; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N Pierson Jr

105

Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Yoga in Overweight and Obese Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Quality of Life and Anthropometric Measures  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To obtain estimates of time to recruit the study sample, retention, facility-based class attendance and home practice for a study of yoga in breast cancer survivors, and its efficacy on fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and weight change. METHODS Sixty-three post-treatment stage 0–III borderline overweight and obese (body mass index ? 24 kg/m2) breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to a 6-month, facility- and home-based viniyoga intervention (n = 32) or a waitlist control group (n = 31). The yoga goal was 5 practices per week. Primary outcome measures were changes in self-reported QOL, fatigue, and weight from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in waist and hip circumference. RESULTS It took 12 months to complete recruitment. Participants attended a mean of 19.6 classes and practiced at home a mean of 55.8 times during the 6-month period. At follow-up, 90% of participants completed questionnaires and 87% completed anthropometric measurements. QOL and fatigue improved to a greater extent among women in the yoga group relative to women in the control group, although no differences were statistically significant. Waist circumference decreased 3.1 cm (95% CI: ?5.7, ?0.4) more among women in the yoga compared with the control group, with no differences in weight change. CONCLUSIONS This study provides important information regarding recruitment, retention, and practice levels achieved during a 6-month, intensive yoga intervention in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors. Yoga may help decrease waist circumference and improve quality of life; future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:21207071

Littman, Alyson J; Bertram, Lisa Cadmus; Ceballos, Rachel; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Ramaprasad, Jaya; McGregor, Bonnie; McTiernan, Anne

2011-01-01

106

The reliability of the serum dioxin measurement in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.  

PubMed

A study was conducted on the reliability of the serum dioxin measurement of enlisted Ranch Hands veterans participating in the Air Force Health Study using paired serum dioxin measurements. The 46 veterans were not randomly selected, but their demographic characteristics, health, and dioxin levels were similar to those of 404 other enlisted Ranch Hand veterans who had a single dioxin measurement made in 1987. The average time between the measurements was 0.61 years, the first measurement made from blood drawn on 10 April 1987 and the second from blood collected at a subsequent physical examination. In original unit, the coefficient of reliability was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.94) when the first measurement was at or below 50 parts per trillion. The measurement had no reliability in original units when the first measurement was greater than 50 parts per trillion. After a logarithmic transformation, the coefficient of reliability was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 0.98). These results suggest that the serum dioxin measurement should not be used in original units for any purpose when the value exceeds 50 parts per trillion. The measurement is, however, highly reliable after a logarithmic transformation over the entire range of concentrations. Other studies using the same analytical method to measure dioxin in serum could similarly benefit if the measurement used is on the natural logarithm scale. PMID:8889952

Michalek, J E; Tripathi, R C; Kulkarni, P M; Pirkle, J L

1996-01-01

107

In vivo measurement of carpal tunnel pressure in the functioning hand.  

PubMed

We recorded directly the pressure within the carpal tunnel during nine different functional positions of the hand and wrist in 102 hands of 92 subjects. Carpal tunnel syndrome was present in 81 hands, and 21 served as controls. A significant rise in pressure was recorded not only with wrist flexion but also with wrist extension, making a fist, holding objects, and isolated isometric flexion of a finger against resistance. Intratunnel pressure dropped after 1 minute of hand and wrist exercises and remained below the resting pressure for over 15 minutes of continuous measurement. We did not observe a rebound phenomenon. Clinical Application: Non-surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome should also include a significant reduction in making a fist, holding objects, pushing, and isolated finger work such as key punching and typing. Activities that require sustained contracture of finger flexor muscles (eg, grasp and hold) also should be avoided. Brief intermittent wrist and hand exercise is recommended to reduce the intratunnel pressure. PMID:8522756

Seradge, H; Jia, Y C; Owens, W

1995-09-01

108

CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

109

Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults  

PubMed Central

Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ?60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2–74.3]; P = 0.12, respectively). The chest containing covariate (C) equation had the most appropriate performance for Sco equations (chest versus nonchest: 73.4 [69.7–77.1] versus 69.3 [67.0–71.6]; P = 0.03, respectively). For Cco equations, although there were no differences between covariates using summation of chest and hip (C+Hp) and other Cco but C+Hp had a slightly higher performance validity (C+Hp versus other Cco [95% CI]: 77.8 [73.2–82.3] versus 76.5 [72.7–80.2]; P = 0.65, respectively). Conclusion Body weight can be predicted by height and circumferential covariate equations. Cco had more Sco error tolerance. Original and simple equations had comparable validity. Chest- and C+Hp-containing covariate equations had more precision within the Sco and Cco equation types, respectively. PMID:22287849

Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

2012-01-01

110

Hands as Sex Cues: Sensitivity Measures, Male Bias Measures, and Implications for Sex Perception Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Sex perceptions, or more particularly, sex discriminations and sex categorisations, are high-value social behaviours. They mediate almost all inter-personal interactions. The two experiments reported here had the aim of exploring some of the basic characteristics of the processes giving rise to sex perceptions. Experiment 1 confirmed that human hands can be used as a cue to an individual’s sex even when colour and texture cues are removed and presentations are brief. Experiment 1 also showed that when hands are sexually ambiguous observers tend to classify them as male more often than female. Experiment 2 showed that “male bias” arises not from sensitivity differences but from differences in response biases. Observers are conservative in their judgements of targets as female but liberal in their judgements of targets as male. These data, combined with earlier reports, suggest the existence of a sex-perception space that is cue-invariant. PMID:24603615

Gaetano, Justin; van der Zwan, Rick; Blair, Duncan; Brooks, Anna

2014-01-01

111

Hands as sex cues: sensitivity measures, male bias measures, and implications for sex perception mechanisms.  

PubMed

Sex perceptions, or more particularly, sex discriminations and sex categorisations, are high-value social behaviours. They mediate almost all inter-personal interactions. The two experiments reported here had the aim of exploring some of the basic characteristics of the processes giving rise to sex perceptions. Experiment 1 confirmed that human hands can be used as a cue to an individual's sex even when colour and texture cues are removed and presentations are brief. Experiment 1 also showed that when hands are sexually ambiguous observers tend to classify them as male more often than female. Experiment 2 showed that "male bias" arises not from sensitivity differences but from differences in response biases. Observers are conservative in their judgements of targets as female but liberal in their judgements of targets as male. These data, combined with earlier reports, suggest the existence of a sex-perception space that is cue-invariant. PMID:24603615

Gaetano, Justin; van der Zwan, Rick; Blair, Duncan; Brooks, Anna

2014-01-01

112

Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration.  

PubMed Central

The measurement of hand-transmitted vibration converts oscillatory movements to a form in which they can be evaluated with respect to human responses and assessed for their acceptability. This paper presents methods of measurement, evaluation, and assessment currently advocated in standards and other forms of guidance. The degree to which the methods of evaluating different frequencies, directions, and durations of vibration affect the assessment of vibration on different tools is illustrated. With the frequency weighting currently used to allow for the effects of different frequencies there is little need to measure vibration at frequencies as high as 1000 Hz; this has significant implications to the design and evaluation of proposed antivibration devices, including gloves. Without the current frequency weighting, vibration at frequencies greater than 250 Hz can contribute to the magnitude of the vibration, but many common causes of injury from hand-transmitted vibration have their dominant components of vibration below 250 Hz. On many powered tools, although the dominant frequency of vibration is the same before and after frequency weighting, the reported magnitude of vibration is greatly affected by the frequency weighting. On tools with dominant low frequencies, their vibration is rated as being of far greater importance relative to other tools when considering frequency-weighted acceleration than when considering unweighted acceleration. It is shown that the effect of considering three axes of vibration as opposed to one axis has a greater effect on some tools than on others. The uncertainties and assumptions involved in the measurement, evaluation, and assessment of hand-transmitted vibration are reviewed. It is suggested that whereas current decisions on health and welfare should be based on current assessment methods, the measurement and evaluation of hand-transmitted vibration should involve the collection and reporting of data which allow other interpretations in the future. PMID:9072014

Griffin, M J

1997-01-01

113

System to measure the range of motion of the joints of the human hand .  

PubMed

Today, the manual goniometer is a common tool used in clinical practice to measure the range of motion (ROM) of joints in the hand. This device is not only tedious and highly timeconsuming to use, but its accuracy mainly depends on the experience of the examiner. The majority of electronic goniometers currently available on the market exhibit these same limitations. This document presents the physical design and attributes of a system known as the MULTIELGON, which can be used automatically to obtain multiple measurements of the angles of the hand's small finger joints simultaneously using a novel angle-to-voltage transducer. The reproducibility and repeatability of the transducer were evaluated; low dispersion and high homogeneity were demonstrated. Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare the accuracy of the novel transducer (A) and traditional manual goniometer (B); the correlation coefficient was 0.9995. The Bland-Altman analysis determined the limits of agreement (1.4° to 1.7°) with a 95% confidence interval for any variation between the instruments (A and B), which gave readings differing by less than 3.1°. Differences were sufficiently small to propose that the manual goniometer can be replaced by the transducer; moreover A is best to evaluate the hand's small finger joints than B. The system is comprised of the device, the interface and the MULTIELGON GUI. The device consists of 14 angle-to-voltage transducers that can be attached to joints in the hand using a PVC clamp and an elastic glove. The MULTIELGON can be utilized to evaluate patients, as well as record and manage ROM data for surgical and rehabilitation decisions. PMID:25264792

Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Ortiz-Espinosa, Ascención; Hernández-Rodríguez, Pablo Rogelio; Núñez-Gaona, Marco Antonio

2014-07-01

114

Kinetic measurements of hand motor impairments after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate quantitative outcome measurements of hand motor performance for subjects after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks and characterize abnormal flexion synergy of upper extremities after stroke. Methods A customized dynamometer with force sensors was used to measure grip force and calculate rotation torque during the sub-maximal grip control tasks. The paretic and nonpartic sides of eleven subjects after stroke and the dominant sides of ten healthy persons were tested. Their maximal voluntary grip force was measured and used to set sub-maximal grip control tasks at three different target force levels. Force control ability was characterized by the maximal grip force, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation (CV), target deviation ratio (TDR), and rotation torque ratio (RTR). The motor impairments of subjects after stroke were also evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Results Maximal grip force of the paretic side was significantly reduced as compared to the nonparetic side and the healthy group, while the difference of maximal grip force between the nonparetic side and the healthy group was not significant. TDR and RTR increased for all three groups with increasing target force level. There were significant differences of CV, TDR and RTR between the paretic side and the healthy group at all the force levels. CV, TDR and RTR showed significant negative correlations with FMA-UE and WMFT at 50% of maximum grip force. Conclusions This study designed a customized dynamometer together with an innovative measurement, RTR, to investigate the hand motor performance of subjects after mild to moderate stroke during force control tasks. And stroke-induced abnormal flexion synergy of wrist and finger muscles could be characterized by RTR. This study also identified a set of kinetic parameters which can be applied to quantitatively assess the hand motor function of subjects after mild to moderate stroke. PMID:24886085

2014-01-01

115

Exploring the Use of Sensors to Measure Behavioral Interactions: An Experimental Evaluation of Using Hand Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Humans appear to be sensitive to relative small changes in their surroundings. These changes are often initially perceived as irrelevant, but they can cause significant changes in behavior. However, how exactly people’s behavior changes is often hard to quantify. A reliable and valid tool is needed in order to address such a question, ideally measuring an important point of interaction, such as the hand. Wearable-body-sensor systems can be used to obtain valuable, behavioral information. These systems are particularly useful for assessing functional interactions that occur between the endpoints of the upper limbs and our surroundings. A new method is explored that consists of computing hand position using a wearable sensor system and validating it against a gold standard reference measurement (optical tracking device). Initial outcomes related well to the gold standard measurements (r?=?0.81) showing an acceptable average root mean square error of 0.09 meters. Subsequently, the use of this approach was further investigated by measuring differences in motor behavior, in response to a changing environment. Three subjects were asked to perform a water pouring task with three slightly different containers. Wavelet analysis was introduced to assess how motor consistency was affected by these small environmental changes. Results showed that the behavioral motor adjustments to a variable environment could be assessed by applying wavelet coherence techniques. Applying these procedures in everyday life, combined with correct research methodologies, can assist in quantifying how environmental changes can cause alterations in our motor behavior. PMID:24516583

Bergmann, Jeroen H. M.; Langdon, Patrick M.; Mayagoitia, Ruth E.; Howard, Newton

2014-01-01

116

Conceptual design of a device to measure hand swelling in a micro-gravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design of pressurized suits for use by astronauts in space, proper fit is an important consideration. One particularly difficult aspect of the suit design is the design of the gloves. If the gloves of the suit do not fit properly, the grip strength of the astronaut can be decreased by as much as fifty percent. These gloves are designed using an iterative process and can cost over 1.5 million dollars. Glove design is further complicated by the way the body behaves in a micro-gravity environment. In a micro-gravity setting, fluid from the lower body tends to move into the upper body. Some of this fluid collects in the hands and causes the hands to swell. Therefore, a pair of gloves that fit well on earth may not fit well when they are used in space. The conceptual design process for a device which can measure the swelling that occurs in the hands in a micro-gravity environment is described. This process involves developing a specifications list and function structure for the device and generating solution variants for each of the sub functions. The solution variants are then filtered, with the variants that violate any of the specifications being discarded. After acceptable solution variants are obtained, they are combined to form design concepts. These design concepts are evaluated against a set of criteria and the design concepts are ranked in order of preference. Through this process, the two most plausible design concepts were an ultrasonic imaging technique and a laser mapping technique. Both of these methods create a three dimensional model of the hand, from which the amount of swelling can be determined. In order to determine which of the two solutions will actually work best, a further analysis will need to be performed.

Hysinger, Christopher L.

1993-01-01

117

Auxological and anthropometric evaluation in skeletal dysplasias.  

PubMed

Anthropometry is the technique of expressing body shape in quantitative terms. The measurements are compared with the standard growth curves for the general population and expressed as a SD score or percentiles. The comparison of the different parameters with normal standards requires: standardized landmarks on the body, standardized methods of taking measurements, and standard equipment. Skeletal dysplasias generally present with disproportionate short stature, that may be caused primarily by a short trunk or short limbs. If short limbs are observed, the reduction may affect the proximal (rhizomelic), the middle (mesomelic) or distal (acromelic) segments. Anthropometric measurements should include all the segments of the arms and the legs with a comparison with the normal standards for height age. Short stature homeobox- containing (SHOX) gene defects determine a highly variable phenotype, that includes an osteochondrodysplasia with mesomelic short stature and Madelung deformity, but also presentations without evident malformations. Anthropometric indicators of SHOX deficiency are: disproportionate short stature, reduction of lower limb, reduction of the ratio between arm span and forearm length with respect to height, increase in the sitting/ height stature ratio, increase in limb circumference (arm, forearm, thigh, and leg) with respect to height and increased body mass index. In some forms of skeletal dysplasias and in particular in SHOX gene anomalies that have many characteristics superimposable to idiopathic short stature, only an accurate auxo-anthropometric and dysmorphologic evaluation enable us to propose, fairly accurately, the subjects for the gene study. PMID:21057181

Mazzanti, L; Matteucci, C; Scarano, E; Tamburrino, F; Ragni, M C; Cicognani, A

2010-06-01

118

Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

2000-01-01

119

Measuring perceived risk: Self-reported and actual hand positions of SUV and car drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the observed steering wheel hand positions and the reported steering wheel hand placements of a sample of Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) and car drivers. Following the method of Walton and Thomas (Walton, D. & Thomas, J. A. (2005). Naturalistic observations of driver hand positions. Transportation Research Part F. Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 8, 229–238), variation in hand

J. A. Thomas; D. Walton

2007-01-01

120

Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 µg g-1 Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 µg Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4? detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation was constrained to be less than 150 mSv as opposed to the previously imposed dose equivalent limit of 20 mSv. A maximum beam current, which could be delivered on the lithium target to produce neutrons, was restricted to 500 µA. The length of irradiation intervals larger than 10 min, was considered inconvenient and impractical to implement with Mn measurements in humans. To fulfil the requirements for developing a protocol for in vivo bone Mn measurements, a revised estimate of the dose equivalent has been presented here. Beam energy of 1.98 MeV was determined to be optimal to complete the irradiation procedure within 10 min using 500 µA beam current. The local dose equivalent given to hand was estimated as 118 mSv, which is lower by a factor of 1.5 compared to that of 2.00 MeV. The optimized beam parameters are expected to improve the currently obtained detection limit of 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to 0.6 µg Mn/g Ca. Using this dose equivalent delivered to the central location of the hand, the average dose equivalent to the hand of 74 mSv and an effective dose of approximately 70 µSv will be accompanying the non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone Mn, which is little over the chest radiograph examination dose.

Aslam; Chettle, D. R.; Pejovi?-Mili?, A.; Waker, A. J.

2009-01-01

121

Monte Carlo simulation of neutron irradiation facility developed for accelerator based in vivo neutron activation measurements in human hand bones.  

PubMed

The neutron irradiation facility developed at the McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator was employed to assess in vivo elemental content of aluminum and manganese in human hands. These measurements were carried out to monitor the long-term exposure of these potentially toxic trace elements through hand bone levels. The dose equivalent delivered to a patient during irradiation procedure is the limiting factor for IVNAA measurements. This article describes a method to estimate the average radiation dose equivalent delivered to the patient's hand during irradiation. The computational method described in this work augments the dose measurements carried out earlier [Arnold et al., 2002. Med. Phys. 29(11), 2718-2724]. This method employs the Monte Carlo simulation of hand irradiation facility using MCNP4B. Based on the estimated dose equivalents received by the patient hand, the proposed irradiation procedure for the IVNAA measurement of manganese in human hands [Arnold et al., 2002. Med. Phys. 29(11), 2718-2724] with normal (1 ppm) and elevated manganese content can be carried out with a reasonably low dose of 31 mSv to the hand. Sixty-three percent of the total dose equivalent is delivered by non-useful fast group (> 10 keV); the filtration of this neutron group from the beam will further decrease the dose equivalent to the patient's hand. PMID:16122932

Aslam; Prestwich, W V; McNeill, F E; Waker, A J

2006-01-01

122

Craniofacial anthropometric analysis in Down's syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Past investigations of Down's syndrome (DS) have indicated that there are marked abnormalities in the craniofacial morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the craniofacial anthropometric variables which discriminate DS group from healthy population and also to observe the changes occurring with growth. Using noninvasive method of craniofacial anthropometry, craniofacial pattern profile (CFPP) analysis (from twenty-five anthropometric measurements per person) was performed in 104 DS individuals and 365 healthy controls, aged seven to fifty-seven and divided into four age ranges. Z-scores were calculated for each variable and the variations in the craniofacial region have been identified by multivariate discriminative analysis. The results showed that three variables (head length (g-op), head circumference (OFC) and outer canthal distance (ex-ex) were responsible for 85.68% variability (p < 0.001). The analysis of z-scores showed that the majority of variables were in subnormal (under -2 SD) and normal range (from -2SD to +2SD), but none of them was in the supernormal range (over the +2SD). Some craniofacial characteristics are age-related. On the basis of craniofacial anthropometric traits it was possible to separate even 91.35% of DS patients from the healthy population. It could be concluded that these findings demonstrate the usefulness of application of CFPP in defining abnormal craniofacial dimensions in DS individuals. PMID:12971167

Bagi?, Ivana; Verzak, Zeljko

2003-01-01

123

Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

2014-01-01

124

Hand controller commonality evaluation process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

1990-01-01

125

Measurement and interpretation of hand hygiene compliance rates: importance of monitoring entire care episodes.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess the importance of monitoring hand hygiene compliance (HHC) during series of successive contacts with patients or surroundings for measurement and interpretation of the compliance rates. A direct observational study of HHC was performed in four intensive care units (ICUs) and four healthcare settings with non-intensive care wards (NICWs). Hand hygiene (HH) opportunities were differentiated into two categories: extra-series opportunities (ESOs) (before or after a single contact, and before the first contact or after the last contact of a series of successive contacts) or as intra-series opportunities (ISOs) (from the opportunity following the first contact to the opportunity preceding the last in the same series). In all, 903 opportunities of HH were performed in ICUs and 760 in NICWs. The proportion of ISOs was 46.0% in ICUs and 22.9% in NICWs. The overall HHC was significantly higher in NICWs than in ICUs (61.2% vs 47.5%, P<0.00001). The HHC was significantly higher for ESOs than for ISOs (67.7% vs 28.5%, P<0.00001). The HHC for ISOs was significantly higher in ICUs (32.2% vs 19.0%, P<0.005). If the distribution of categories of HH opportunities observed in NICWs had been the same as in ICUs, the overall HHC would have been similar in NICWs (46.4%) and in ICUs (47.5%). Monitoring HHC during entire care episodes in series of successive contacts is necessary to avoid a strong overestimation of the overall compliance rates. Concurrently, comparison of compliance data should take into account the proportion of ISOs included in the evaluation study. PMID:19481837

Eveillard, M; Hitoto, H; Raymond, F; Kouatchet, A; Dubé, L; Guilloteau, V; Pradelle, M-T; Brunel, P; Mercat, A; Joly-Guillou, M-L

2009-07-01

126

Monte Carlo simulation of neutron irradiation facility developed for accelerator based in vivo neutron activation measurements in human hand bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron irradiation facility developed at the McMaster University 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator was employed to assess in vivo elemental content of aluminum and manganese in human hands. These measurements were carried out to monitor the long-term exposure of these potentially toxic trace elements through hand bone levels. The dose equivalent delivered to a patient during irradiation procedure is

Aslam; W. V. Prestwich; F. E. McNeill; A. J. Waker

2006-01-01

127

[Nicolò Paganini: Devil's violinist because of abnormal hands?--New investigations using a bronze cast from the right hand].  

PubMed

This paper presents new measurements of a bronze cast from the right hand of the famous Italian violin virtuoso Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840). These are compared to anthropometric standard values. In addition, detailed dorsal and palmar views of the cast are shown. With a middle finger length of 75 mm, the palm width is 60 mm and the hand length 152 mm, which is significantly below the 5% percentile of today's standard values. Also the finger length index (0.55), the ratio of finger length to palm length (0.98) and the ratio of finger length to palm width (1.25) are significantly above normal limits. Hence, Paganini had abnormal hand measurements with a very small palm and relatively "long" fingers. This remarkable constellation, among others, could have been advantageous for his amazing skills as a violinist. PMID:25004620

Otte, Andreas

2014-01-01

128

Assessment of techniques for measuring hand pressures in mock deliveries on a mannequin  

E-print Network

with deliveries, this study analyzed hand pressures applied by obstetricians in mock deliveries and suggests improvements for pressure-sensing gloves. The subjects were obstetricians, both residents and staff, recruited from the University of Kansas Hospital. A...

Schwartz, Cynthia Mary

2012-08-31

129

Assessment of hand held ion selective electrode technology for direct measurement of soil chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to real-time information on soil chemistry would assist farmers in making decisions about nutrient management. Hand held Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) are commercially available for testing pH, sodium (Na), potassium (K), and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N). To date, there has been some success in adapting hand held ISE devices for testing plant sap nutrient levels. The objective of our study was

J. R. Davenport; J. D. Jabro

2001-01-01

130

Performance of a new hand-held device for exhaled nitric oxide measurement in adults and children  

PubMed Central

Background Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurement has been shown to be a valuable tool in the management of patients with asthma. Up to now, most measurements have been done with stationary, chemiluminescence-based NO analysers, which are not suitable for the primary health care setting. A hand-held NO analyser which simplifies the measurement would be of value both in specialized and primary health care. In this study, the performance of a new electrochemical hand-held device for exhaled NO measurements (NIOX MINO) was compared with a standard stationary chemiluminescence unit (NIOX). Methods A total of 71 subjects (6–60 years; 36 males), both healthy controls and atopic patients with and without asthma were included. The mean of three approved exhalations (50 ml/s) in each device, and the first approved measurement in the hand-held device, were compared with regard to NO readings (Bland-Altman plots), measurement feasibility (success rate with 6 attempts) and repeatability (intrasubject SD). Results Success rate was high (? 84%) in both devices for both adults and children. The subjects represented a FENO range of 8–147 parts per billion (ppb). When comparing the mean of three measurements (n = 61), the median of the intrasubject difference in exhaled NO for the two devices was -1.2 ppb; thus generally the hand-held device gave slightly higher readings. The Bland-Altman plot shows that the 95% limits of agreement were -9.8 and 8.0 ppb. The intrasubject median difference between the NIOX and the first approved measurement in the NIOX MINO was -2.0 ppb, and limits of agreement were -13.2 and 10.2 ppb. The median repeatability for NIOX and NIOX MINO were 1.1 and 1.2 ppb, respectively. Conclusion The hand-held device (NIOX MINO) and the stationary system (NIOX) are in clinically acceptable agreement both when the mean of three measurements and the first approved measurement (NIOX MINO) is used. The hand-held device shows good repeatability, and it can be used successfully on adults and most children. The new hand-held device will enable the introduction of exhaled NO measurements into the primary health care. PMID:16626491

Alving, K; Janson, C; Nordvall, L

2006-01-01

131

Development of Hands-On Student Experience with Modern Facilities, Measurement Systems, and Uncertainty Analysis in Undergraduate Fluids Engineering Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development described of hands-on student experience with modern facilities, measurement systems, and uncertainty analysis in undergraduate fluids engineering laboratories. Classroom and pre-lab lectures and laboratories teach students experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) methodology and uncertainty analysis (UA) procedures following a step-by-step approach, which mirrors the \\

Fred Stern; Marian Muste; Surageet Ghosh; Jun Shao; Don Yarbrough

132

Predicting insulin resistance in children: anthropometric and metabolic indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To predict insulin resistance in children based on anthropometric and metabolic indicators by analyzing the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 109 children aged 7 to 11 years, 55 of whom were obese, 23 overweight and 31 well-nourished, classified by body mass index (BMI) for age. Measurements were taken to

Sérgio R. Moreira; Aparecido P. Ferreira; Ricardo M. Lima; Gisela Arsa; Carmen S. G. Campbell; Herbert G. Simões; Francisco J. G. Pitanga; Nanci M. França

2008-01-01

133

A palmar pressure sensor for measurement of upper limb weight bearing by the hands during transfers by paraplegics.  

PubMed

Paraplegic patients have to effect transfer from one seat to another by using their upper limbs. In this process the hands bear almost the entire weight of the body in at least some phases of the transfer. It is desirable to train patients, especially those who are elderly and otherwise weak, to distribute their weight so as to avoid large forces being sustained on any one hand for an extended period. It is also desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive devices like lower limb FES in sharing the load on the hand. This study presents a simple and versatile method of measuring palmar hand force during transfers by paraplegic patients. It is important that this force sensor should not interfere with the grasping and stabilizing properties of the hands and should permit normal transferring. The force sensor comprises an air-filled pouch or pillow that can be placed on any surface. This pneumatic sensor feels like upholstery padding on the surface on which it is placed. The sensor integrates the total pressure applied to the surface of the pouch, thereby obtaining the total force exerted by the palm/hand. The fabrication of the sensor is described, as well as the associated measurement circuit. The static calibration shows that the sensor is linear up to 350?N and the dynamic calibration shows that it has a bandwidth of 13?Hz. The sensor was fabricated using an inflated inelastic airbag attached to a pressure transducer. An automatic offset correction circuit in the preamplifier module ensures that any offset due to initial pressure or sensor drift is removed and the output is zero under no load condition. The key to this sensor arrangement is the ease of fitting it into the intended location without disturbing the existing arrangement for the subject's activities of daily living (ADL). PMID:23964668

Kunju, Nissan; Ojha, Rajdeep; Devasahayam, Suresh R

2013-10-01

134

Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

Zehner, Gregory F.

1994-01-01

135

High-Precision Measurement of the 19Ne Half-Life and Implications for Right-Handed Weak Currents  

E-print Network

We report a precise determination of the 19Ne half-life to be $T_{1/2} = 17.262 \\pm 0.007$ s. This result disagrees with the most recent precision measurements and is important for placing bounds on predicted right-handed interactions that are absent in the current Standard Model. We are able to identify and disentangle two competing systematic effects that influence the accuracy of such measurements. Our findings prompt a reassessment of results from previous high-precision lifetime measurements that used similar equipment and methods.

S. Triambak; P. Finlay; C. S. Sumithrarachchi; G. Hackman; G. C. Ball; P. E. Garrett; C. E. Svensson; D. S. Cross; A. B. Garnsworthy; R. Kshetri; J. N. Orce; M. R. Pearson; E. R. Tardiff; H. Al-Falou; R. A. E. Austin; R. Churchman; M. K. Djongolov; R. D'Entremont; C. Kierans; L. Milovanovic; S. O'Hagan; S. Reeve; S. K. L. Sjue; S. J. Williams

2012-06-25

136

Cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To translate and validate the Persian version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome measure (Persian DASH).Design: Cultural translation and psychometric testing.Setting: Outpatient departments of orthopaedics surgery, primary care settings, rehabilitation medicine and physical therapy.Subjects: Two hundred and seventy-one consecutive Persian-speaking patients with upper extremity disorders including subacromial impingement syndrome, rotator cuff disease, epicondylitis, ulnar

Sayed Javad Mousavi; Mohamad Parnianpour; Mohsen Abedi; Ahmadreza Askary-Ashtiani; Abdolkarim Karimi; Aliakbar Khorsandi; Hossein Mehdian

2008-01-01

137

Quenching and Cold-Work Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings : Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold-compression stress relief process used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings does not fully relieve the stresses. This study measured and predicted the residual stress in 7050-T74 (solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially overaged) and 7050-T7452 (cold compressed prior to aging) hand forgings. The manufacturing process was simulated by finite element analysis. First, a

Michael B. Prime; Mark A. Newborn; John A. Balog

2003-01-01

138

Hand Washing  

MedlinePLUS

... News Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine Hand Washing KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Skin Stuff > Hand Washing ... or from animals and animal waste. Continue Defensive Hand Washing In 2010 the American Society for Microbiology ...

139

Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  

PubMed

In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G

1989-09-01

140

A novel anthropometric chart for craniofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Various indices and measurements of the growing cranial vault exist, but there is no single head-shape chart specific to craniofacial surgery. The authors have produced a reliable head-shape chart that will enable accurate charting of patients with craniosynostosis both in the preoperative and postoperative period.One thousand eighty-two participants were used to obtain normal anthropometric measurements, specifically the ear-to-ear measurement and the glabella-to-external occipital protuberance measurement. Both male and female participants aged 6 months to 25 years were used to obtain these measurements. These measurements were correlated with the cephalic index as described by Farkas according to the different age groups.A head-shape chart has been created for males and females using the normal ear-to-ear measurements and the cephalic index that define both qualitative and quantitative elements of the growing skull. Craniofacial surgeons may find this chart useful for managing patients with craniosynostosis. This chart is also useful in the assessment of how the skull grows after surgery. PMID:20186088

Christofides, Efthimios Andreas; Steinmann, Mark Eugene

2010-03-01

141

Observational skills assessment score: reliability in measuring amount and quality of use of the affected hand in unilateral cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Background The Observational Skills Assessment Score (OSAS) measures amount and quality of use of the affected hand in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) in bimanual activities and could therefore be a valuable addition to existing assessment tools. The OSAS consists of tasks that are age appropriate and require use of the affected hand. Methods To measure the agreement and reliability of the OSAS a convenience sample of two groups of 16 children with unilateral spastic CP (2.5-6 and 12–16 years old), performed age specific bimanual tasks in 2 measurement sessions. Three experienced raters took part in testing and 8 in scoring. Intra class correlation (ICC) values for intra- and inter-rater reliability, and the mean and standard deviation of the differences between measurements were calculated. For test-retest reliability beside ICC scores, Smallest Detectable Differences (SDDs) were calculated in 16 older and 10 younger children. Results Generally, there seems to be good agreement between repeated measurements of the OSAS, as indicated by the small SDDs on most scales for quality of movement, compared to the range of their scales. This indicates potentially good sensitivity to change if used for patient evaluation purposes. The exceptions were the ‘quality of reach’ score for all tasks, and all quality scores for the stacking blocks task for the young children. As used in the present study, the OSAS has good discriminative capacity within patient populations as indicated by the high ICCs for most quality scores. Measuring the amount of use does not seem to be useful for either discrimination or evaluation. Conclusion In general, the OSAS seems to be a reliable tool for assessing the quality of use of the affected hand in bimanual activities in younger and older children with unilateral CP. Some modifications may improve its usefulness and efficiency. PMID:24139170

2013-01-01

142

A new tool for measuring hand preference in non-human primates: Adaptation of Bishop's Quantifying Hand Preference task for Olive baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

As non-human primates are phylogenetically close to humans, they are ideal models to investigate the precursors of human brain hemispheric specialisation. However, in spite of hundreds of reports investigating hand preference, empirically based theories generating valuable predictions are still lacking, mainly because of a disappointing deficiency in comparability between studies and even more so between species. Therefore, we propose here

Hélène Meunier; Catherine Blois-Heulin; Jacques Vauclair

2011-01-01

143

Anthropometric case materials on a Shinnecock Indian Family of Eastern Long Island (photographs, pedigree, field notes, and physical measurements)( page 5 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Race and Ethnicity   Pedigrees

2008-03-26

144

Seaford Town male anthropometric case: photo, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3, notes; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 7 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

145

Seaford Town female anthropometric case: photos, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 8 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

146

Seaford Town male anthropometric case: photo, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3, notes; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 9 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

147

Seaford Town male anthropometric case: photo, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3, notes; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 6 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

148

Seaford Town female anthropometric case: photos, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 5 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2007-10-25

149

Seaford Town female anthropometric case: photos, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 4 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

150

Seaford Town male anthropometric case: photo, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3, notes; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 5 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

151

Seaford Town male anthropometric case: photo, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3, notes; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 8 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

152

Seaford Town female anthropometric case: photos, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 9 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

153

Seaford Town male anthropometric case: photo, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3, notes; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 4 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2007-10-25

154

Seaford Town female anthropometric case: photos, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 7 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

155

Seaford Town female anthropometric case: photos, measurements, finger prints, Schedule 3; by Morris Steggerda for Race Crossing in Jamaica( page 6 )  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Source Archive: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Otis Historical Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Field Notes and Student Work   Race Mixing and Marriage Laws

2008-03-26

156

Association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity and hand symptoms reported by operators of power tools.  

PubMed

An association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and symptoms of reduced manipulative function, as established by responses to a questionnaire, was demonstrated in a population of 81 manual workers from the mining industry (62 power-tool operators and 19 nonusers). Mechanoreceptor-specific vibrotactile thresholds were determined for the slowly adapting type I (SAI) and fast-adapting types I and II (FAI and FAII) receptors at the fingertip of the third digit of each hand. Statistically significant threshold shifts in SAI and/or FAII acuity were found in persons responding affirmatively to questions concerning finger/hand numbness, blanching, and difficulty buttoning clothing. The best predictors of a quantitative change in tactile acuity were questions relating to difficulty manipulating small objects and buttoning clothing, yielding positive predictive values of from 90% to 100% and false positive rates of from 0% to 2.8%. The demonstration of an association between a quantitative measure of tactile acuity at the fingertips and some symptom reports, obtained by means of a questionnaire, provides the basis for the development of a screening procedure for persons at risk of such disturbances in hand function. PMID:9330148

Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Brammer, A J; Piercy, J E

1997-09-01

157

Classroom furniture and anthropometric characteristics of Iranian high school students: proposed dimensions based on anthropometric data.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls, 480 boys), aged 15-18 years. Nine anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, sitting shoulder height, popliteal height, hip breadth, elbow-seat height, buttock-popliteal length, buttock-knee length and thigh clearance) and five dimensions from the existing classroom furniture were measured and then compared together (using match criterion equations) to identify any potential mismatch between them. The results indicated a considerable mismatch between body dimensions of the students and the existing classroom furniture, with seat height (60.9%), seat width (54.7%) and desktop height (51.7%) being the furniture dimensions with a higher level of mismatch. The levels of mismatch varied between the high-school grade levels and between genders, indicating their special requirements and possible problems. The proposed dimensions of the classroom furniture more appropriate for the students were given. This additional information on students' anthropometry can be used by local furniture industries as a starting point for designing more appropriate furniture for school children, or used by schools to aid in furniture selection. PMID:22695080

Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Bahrampour, Samira

2013-01-01

158

Dermal transfer of chlorpyrifos residues from residential surfaces: comparison of hand press, hand drag, wipe, and polyurethane foam roller measurements after broadcast and aerosol pesticide applications.  

PubMed Central

Indoor residential pesticide applications present the potential for human exposures, particularly for small children. Personal contact with target and nontarget surfaces can result in transfer of pesticides to the skin, but the magnitude of such transfer is uncertain. This research compared surface sampling techniques [wipe and polyurethane foam (PUF) roller] with the removal ability of human skin following broadcast and total aerosol release applications of Dursban (Dow Elanco, Midland, MI), a residential formulation containing the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Hands were washed immediately after surface contact, following a protocol that included a laboratory-generated adjustment factor to account for incomplete removal of chlorpyrifos from skin. Chlorpyrifos transfer was similar for hand press and hand drag techniques, averaging approximately 1-6 ng/cm2 of carpet contacted. These amounts represented < 1% of the amount of chlorpyrifos deposited on the surfaces 3.5 hr earlier. Chlorpyrifos transfer from carpet to skin was 23-24 times lower than for wipe sampling and 33-36 times lower than for PUF roller sampling (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0006 for broadcast and aerosol applications, respectively). Hand press sampling removed approximately 4.5 times less chlorpyrifos from nontarget furniture surfaces (12 ng/cm2) than did wipe sampling (56 ng/cm2; p = 0.009). Chlorpyrifos residues on carpet were substantially higher after broadcast applications than after aerosol applications, but residues on such nontarget surfaces as furniture were substantially higher for the aerosol application. This study indicates that human skin removes substantially less residue from carpets and furniture than either conventional wipe or PUF roller sampling methods following residential pest control applications of chlorpyrifos. Although this paper focuses on quantifying residue transfer from surface to skin using different surface sampling techniques, no attempt is made to quantify the amount of chlorpyrifos residue that is subsequently absorbed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10339446

Lu, C; Fenske, R A

1999-01-01

159

Hand-held dynamometry in patients with haematological malignancies: Measurement error in the clinical assessment of knee extension strength  

PubMed Central

Background Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of intra and inter-observer strength measurements with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Methods Two observers performed maximum voluntary peak torque measurements (MVPT) for isometric knee extension in 24 patients with haematological malignancies. For each patient, the measurements were carried out on the same day. The main outcome measures were the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95%CI), the standard error of measurement (SEM), the smallest detectable difference (SDD), the relative values as % of the grand mean of the SEM and SDD, and the limits of agreement for the intra- and inter-observer '3 repetition average' and the 'highest value of 3 MVPT' knee extension strength measures. Results The intra-observer ICCs were 0.94 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.86–0.97) and 0.86 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.71–0.94). The ICCs for the inter-observer measurements were 0.89 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.75–0.95) and 0.77 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.54–0.90). The SEMs for the intra-observer measurements were 6.22 Nm (3.98% of the grand mean (GM) and 9.83 Nm (5.88% of GM). For the inter-observer measurements, the SEMs were 9.65 Nm (6.65% of GM) and 11.41 Nm (6.73% of GM). The SDDs for the generated parameters varied from 17.23 Nm (11.04% of GM) to 27.26 Nm (17.09% of GM) for intra-observer measurements, and 26.76 Nm (16.77% of GM) to 31.62 Nm (18.66% of GM) for inter-observer measurements, with similar results for the limits of agreement. Conclusion The results indicate that there is acceptable relative reliability for evaluating knee strength with a HHD, while the measurement error observed was modest. The HHD may be useful in detecting changes in knee extension strength at the individual patient level. PMID:19272149

Knols, Ruud H; Aufdemkampe, Geert; de Bruin, Eling D; Uebelhart, Daniel; Aaronson, Neil K

2009-01-01

160

Intuitive operability evaluation of robotic surgery using brain activity measurement to identify hand-eye coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical robots have undergone considerable improvement in recent years, but the intuitive operability, representing user inter-operability, has not been quantitatively evaluated. Thus, we propose a method for measuring brain activity to determine intuitive operability in order to design a robot with intuitive operability. The objective of this paper is to clarify the angle between the endoscope and the manipulator that

Satoshi Miura; Yo Kobayashi; Masatoshi Seki; Takehiko Noguchi; Masahiro Kasuya; Yuki Yokoo; Masakatsu G. Fujie

2012-01-01

161

Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to under- stand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, rela- tive stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m\\/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension

Pui W. Kong; Hendrik de Heer

2008-01-01

162

Relationship between anthropometric variables and lipid levels among school children: The Taipei Children Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between anthropometric parameters and lipid levels among Taiwanese school children.DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a probability-proportional-to size sampling and multi-stages sampling procedure, we sampled 1500 school children from 10 schools in Taipei city. Anthropometric parameters including body weight, body height, waist circumference, hip circumference and skinfolds were measured. Serum total cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), high density

N-F Chu; EB Rimm; D-J Wang; H-S Liou; S-M Shieh; Nain-Feng Chu

1998-01-01

163

Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

2003-05-01

164

Reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation induced corticomotor excitability measurements for a hand muscle in healthy and chronic stroke subjects.  

PubMed

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to evaluate neuroplastic changes in the brain in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of 4 TMS measures of corticomotor excitability - (1) resting motor threshold, (2) slope of input-output curve, (3) peak motor evoked potential amplitude, and (4) cortical silent period duration for the corticospinal projections to the first dorsal interosseous of the contralateral hand. Fourteen healthy subjects (mean age 27.4 years) and 27 subjects with stroke-induced upper limb hemiparesis (mean age 61.3 years) completed 2 repeated sessions of assessment of 1 week apart. Good to excellent test-retest reliability of the TMS measurements was confirmed in the stroke subjects for both hemispheres with the ICC ? 0.88. Measurement reliability was good (ICC ? 0.75) for the 4 outcome measures in healthy subjects. Contrary to the similarity in standard error of measurements in both hemispheres for outcome measures (1) to (3) in the stroke subjects, that of the cortical silent period duration was larger in magnitude in the lesioned hemisphere. The test-retest reliability coefficients determined for the four corticomotor excitability measurements allowed the estimation of 95% minimal detectable changes of these outcome variables for the respective subject group in future clinical trials. PMID:24792099

Liu, Hao; Au-Yeung, Stephanie S Y

2014-06-15

165

Claw hand  

MedlinePLUS

Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. See ... Claw hand can be something that someone is born with (congenital) or that they develop because of certain disorders, ...

166

Hand controller commonality evaluation process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

1993-01-01

167

Comparison of three anthropometric techniques for tooth selection.  

PubMed

The absence of a reliable method to assess the proper dimension of artificial teeth can lead to errors that reduce aesthetic outcomes of the dental treatment. Previous studies indicate facial anthropometric parameters as guides to estimate the width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Nasal width, distance between the medialis angles of the eyes and mouth width were measured in young subjects Brazilian as well as the width of their six maxillary anterior teeth. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's (p < or = 0.05). The distance between the medialis angles of the eyes is a reliable anthropometric method to indicate the width of artificial teeth similar to the natural extracted. PMID:22852522

Lucas, B L; Bernardino-Júnior, R; Lopes-Júnior, I; Gonçalves, L C; Gomes, V L

2012-06-01

168

Anthropometric evaluation of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand.  

PubMed

For the design of farm machinery, body dimension data is essential. There are little such anthropometric data available on agricultural laborers from developing countries. This research, therefore, aimed to collect anthropometric data of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand. Forty-four physical dimensions of both 50 men and 50 women agricultural laborers were measured. These laborers were selected randomly from two provinces in the central plains of Thailand. The average body dimensions, standard deviation and 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were determined. No significant difference was observed in most of the body dimensions of men and women laborers in different age groups used in this study. Body dimensions of length were in constant proportion to stature. The body dimensions of Thai laborers obtained in this study were also compared with the data of body dimensions from some Asian as well as Western countries. PMID:7844358

Mamansari, D U; Salokhe, V M; Intaranont, K

1994-06-01

169

Young swimmers' classification based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F=53.680; P<.001), followed by the dv (F=28.506; P<.001), CDa (F=21.025; P<.001), S (F=6.297; P<.01) and v (F=5.375; P=.01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers' profiles. PMID:24043707

Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mário J; Goncalves, José; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J

2014-04-01

170

Comparability of a hand-held nitric oxide analyser with online and offline chemiluminescence-based nitric oxide measurement.  

PubMed

Practicability is crucial for successful implementation of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement into asthma management. The study aimed at comparing a conventional chemiluminescence NO analyser (EcoMedics) with a hand-held device (NIOX MINO) and offline FeNO measurement using a commercially available system in an unselected cohort of children aged 6-16 yr. A secondary objective was to confirm FeNO stability over time in 15 samples from adult volunteers obtained using the offline system. Sixty-six children (mean +/- s.d. age 11.8 +/- 3.0 yr) underwent single breath FeNO measurement in triplets with each device. Offline collected FeNO was measured after offline breath collection into a Mylar balloon and subsequent analysis using the chemiluminescence NO analyser. Variability and between-method agreement were assessed, and stability over time within the Mylar balloons was tested by repeated hourly measurements. FeNO levels ranged from 2 to 113 p.p.b. Intra-class correlation was excellent (r = 0.98, p < 0.001 for each pair). Bland-Altman plots and back-transformation of logarithmic mean differences revealed fair agreement between methods. Stability over time was confirmed over 10 h both at room temperature and when stored under cooling conditions. FeNO values obtained using the chemiluminescence NO analyser, the portable NIOX MINO system and the offline collection technique show between-method agreement within clinically acceptable range. PMID:19682277

Schiller, Barbara; Hammer, Juerg; Barben, Juerg; Trachsel, Daniel

2009-11-01

171

Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.  

PubMed

Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs. PMID:22505243

Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

2012-05-01

172

Effect of Cigarette Smoking in Pregnancy on Infants Anthropometric Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Aim: The main goal of this research is to correlate anthropometric characteristics of newborns in pregnant women who consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics Clinic of the Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. Methods: The retrospective study covered a period of two years. Main inclusion criteria for the study was that pregnant women consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The research included respondents who had a singleton pregnancy, without pathological conditions that can affect the outcome and duration of pregnancy. Results: At the Obstetrics Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. In that period 393 pregnant women completed labor who in the personal history had data on smoking during pregnancy. Of the total number of subjects enrolled in this study 38.17% smoked up to 10 cigarettes a day, 33.08 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes a day, while up to 30 cigarettes per day smoked 28.75 % of respondents. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the average values of all anthropometric parameters, in relation to the number of cigarettes consumed by the subjects during the day. We also found negative correlation in the average values of anthropometric measures and the number of cigarettes consumed (p <0.05). PMID:25126013

El-Ardat, Mohammad Abou; Izetbegovic, Sebija; El-Ardat, Khalil A. Abou

2014-01-01

173

Improved facial outcome assessment using a 3D anthropometric mask.  

PubMed

The capacity to process three-dimensional facial surfaces to objectively assess outcomes of craniomaxillofacial care is urgently required. Available surface registration techniques depart from conventional facial anthropometrics by not including anatomical relationship in their analysis. Current registrations rely on the manual selection of areas or points that have not moved during surgery, introducing subjectivity. An improved technique is proposed based on the concept of an anthropometric mask (AM) combined with robust superimposition. The AM is the equivalent to landmark definitions, as used in traditional anthropometrics, but described in a spatially dense way using (?10.000) quasi-landmarks. A robust superimposition is performed to align surface images facilitating accurate measurement of spatial differences between corresponding quasi-landmarks. The assessment describes magnitude and direction of change objectively and can be displayed graphically. The technique was applied to three patients, without any modification and prior knowledge: a 4-year-old boy with Treacher-Collins syndrome in a resting and smiling pose; surgical correction for hemimandibular hypoplasia; and mandibular hypoplasia with staged orthognathic procedures. Comparisons were made with a reported closest-point (CP) strategy. Contrasting outcomes were found where the CP strategy resulted in anatomical implausibility whilst the AM technique was parsimonious to expected differences. PMID:22103995

Claes, P; Walters, M; Clement, J

2012-03-01

174

Quenching and Cold-Work Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings : Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction  

SciTech Connect

The cold-compression stress relief process used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings does not fully relieve the stresses. This study measured and predicted the residual stress in 7050-T74 (solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially overaged) and 7050-T7452 (cold compressed prior to aging) hand forgings. The manufacturing process was simulated by finite element analysis. First, a thermal analysis simulated the quench using appropriate thermal boundary conditions and temperature dependent material properties. Second, a structural analysis used the thermal history and a temperature and strain-rate dependent constitutive model to predict the stresses after quenching. Third, the structural analysis was continued to simulate the multiple cold compressions of the stress relief process. Experimentally, the residual stresses in the forgings were mapped using the contour method, which involved cutting the forgings using wire EDM and then measuring the contour of the cut surface using a CMM. Multiple cuts were used to map different stress components. The results show a spatially periodic variation of stresses that results from the periodic nature of the cold work stress relief process. The results compare favorably with the finite element prediction of the stresses.

Prime, M. B. (Michael B.); Newborn, M. A. (Mark A.); Balog, J. A. (John A.)

2003-01-01

175

Evaluation of a hand-held evaporimeter (VapoMeter) for the measurement of transepidermal water loss in healthy dogs.  

PubMed

In humans, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is measured by noninvasive techniques using either open- or closed-chamber instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a hand-held, closed chamber device (Vapometer) to measure TEWL in canine skin. Repeated measurements obtained from multiple body sites in one short and one long-coated dog had mean coefficients of variation ranging from 20% to 33%. In the short-coated dog, TEWL ranged from a mean of 5.8 g/m(2)/h on the ventral abdomen to 24.4 g/m(2)/h between the shoulders. In the long-coated dog, mean TEWL values ranged from 26.3 g/m(2)/h on the right chest wall to 51.3 g/m(2)/h in the right axilla. TEWL readings differed significantly at different body sites and showed significant day-to-day variation. In a comparison of a further 20 dogs, TEWL readings obtained from the lateral thorax differed significantly between dogs. Furthermore, in seven of the twenty dogs, readings differed significantly when one side was compared with the other. The Vapometer was able to measure TEWL in canine skin and yielded values similar to those previously reported in the literature using other devices. However, for use in clinical studies, the significant site to site, day-to-day and dog to dog variations would make changes induced by disease, drugs, dietary supplements or topical agents very difficult to reliably detect. PMID:19961567

Lau-Gillard, Peri Jasmin; Hill, Peter Barrie; Chesney, Christopher James; Budleigh, Chis; Immonen, Aki

2010-04-01

176

Hidden Hands  

E-print Network

Abstract The large-scale installation, Hidden Hands, is constructed of thousands of fabric loops in various colors that cover the exhibition walls. Next to this growth of fabric is a domestic workspace, along with pins, needles, torn garments...

Wegren, Allison Felice

2013-05-31

177

Hallowed hands  

E-print Network

Human hand transplantation became a medical reality at the turn of the 2 1st century. Often hailed by media and the general public as miraculous, these life-changing surgeries are also highly controversial. Many doctors, ...

Ruppel, Emily (Emily C.)

2011-01-01

178

The Hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Injections at the hand region are relatively common in musculoskeletal practice. Some of the more commonly performed injections\\u000a are listed in Table 9.1, along with relevant references from the medical literature. These hand region injections encompass\\u000a a spectrum of intra-articular joint injections for osteoarthritis and other arthritic conditions, tendon sheath injections,\\u000a nerve blocks, etc.

Patrick M. Foye; Debra S. Ibrahim; Michael J. Mehnert; Todd P. Stitik; Jong H. Kim; Mohammad Hossein Dorri; Jose Ibarbia; Lisa Schoenherr; Naimish Baxi; Ladislav Habina; Jiaxin J. Tran

179

Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer playershave to adapt to the physical demandsof the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess

T. Reilly; J. Bangsbo; A. Franks

2000-01-01

180

Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of male volleyball players.  

PubMed

Fourteen Finnish and ten Russian elite male volleyball players were studied for their anthropometric dimensions, maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion, leg extension strength and vertical jumping height. In addition, the height of rise of the body centre of gravity h (C.G.), and the height of the hand and ball were analyzed from a video tape in spike and block jumps taken during actual competition. The two teams were found to differ significantly in the h (C.G.) during a vertical jumping test where a preliminary counter movement was allowed and in the lengths of lower limbs and legs; the Russian volleyball players jumped higher and had longer lower extremities. In actual competition, the hands of the Russian players while performing a spike were on the average ten centimeters higher (p less than .01) than the hand of the Finnish players. No significant differences were found, however, between the teams in the h (C.G.) during spiking. This finding seems to suggest that the Russians have better spike technique. PMID:7127653

Viitasalo, J T

1982-09-01

181

A comparison of 4 common methods of hand-measured techniques with a computerized technique to measure the first intermetatarsal angle.  

PubMed

Measurement of the intermetatarsal (IM) angle on plain dorsoplantar radiographs is considered a standard in the surgical evaluation of hallux valgus. The angle formed in this measurement helps determine the selection of surgical procedure. A study was performed to determine the most consistent method to radiographically measure the first IM angle. The IM angle was measured manually with a tractograph by using 4 different techniques on 50 preoperative dorsoplantar radiographs. The techniques used were 1) bisecting the shaft of the first and second metatarsals, 2) bisecting the head and base of the first and second metatarsals (center-of-head method), 3) measuring the angle from the tangent of the medial aspect of the first and the second metatarsal shaft, and 4) measuring the angle formed by the tangent of the lateral aspects of the first and second metatarsal shafts. In addition, the same 50 radiographs were evaluated by a Java software program designed by 1 of the authors to specifically measure the IM angle by bisecting the areas of the first and second metatarsals. A statistical analysis was applied to determine which IM angle of the 4 methods measured by hand was most consistent with the computer-generated IM angle. The median absolute deviation error test was applied to interpret the results. The results showed that the bisection of the shaft of the first and second metatarsals had the smallest mean absolute value of 2.8 degrees (22.37% error), with the other techniques ranging from 3.0 degrees to 3.8 degrees. It appears that the method of bisection of the shafts of the first and second metatarsals provides the most accurate technique compared with the computer-determined technique. PMID:15605052

Van Vo, Ha; Safiedine, Ali M; Short, Tim; Merrill, Thomas

2004-01-01

182

Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ? 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 ± 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 ± 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 ± 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 ± 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 ± 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 ± 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ? 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 ± 8.6, forwards = 80.9 ± 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 ± 0.08, forwards = 3.14 ± 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 ± 0.18, forwards = 1.51 ± 0.17 kg·kg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players. PMID:23942164

Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

2014-02-01

183

Hand Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... results can I expect from surgery for hand fractures? Perfect alignment of the bone on x-ray is not always necessary to ... Smoking has been shown to slow fracture healing. Fractures in children occasionally affect future growth of that bone (see the brochure/web page on Fractures in ...

184

Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside

V. Anderson; K. H. Joyner

1995-01-01

185

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. Method Twenty five national level volleyball players (mean (SD) age 17.5 (0.5) years) were assessed on a number of physiological and anthropometric variables. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath?Carter method, body composition (% body fat, % muscle mass) was assessed using surface anthropometry, leg strength was assessed using a leg and back dynamometer, low back and hamstring flexibility was assessed using the sit and reach test, and the vertical jump was used as a measure of lower body power. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted using the 20?m multistage fitness test. Results Setters were more ectomorphic (p<0.05) and less mesomorphic (p<0.01) than centres. Mean (SD) of somatotype (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) for setters and centres was 2.6 (0.9), 1.9 (1.1), 5.3 (1.2) and 2.2 (0.8), 3.9 (1.1), 3.6 (0.7) respectively. Hitters had significantly greater low back and hamstring flexibility than opposites. Mean (SD) for sit and reach was 19.3 (8.3)?cm for opposites and 37 (10.7)?cm for hitters. There were no other significant differences in physiological and anthropometric variables across playing positions (all p>0.05). Conclusion Setters tend to be endomorphic ectomorphs, hitters and opposites tend to be balanced ectomorphs, whereas centres tend to be ectomorphic mesomorphs. These results indicate the need for sports scientists and conditioning professionals to take the body type of volleyball players into account when designing individualised position specific training programmes. PMID:16799112

Duncan, M J; Woodfield, L; al-Nakeeb, Y

2006-01-01

186

Anthropometric Typology of Male and Female Rowers Using K-Means Clustering  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to present the morphological features of rowers. The objective is to establish the type of body build best suited to the present requirements of this sports discipline through the determination of the most important morphological features in rowing with regard to the type of racing boat. The subjects of this study included competitors who practise rowing and were members of the Junior National Team. The considered variables included a group of 32 anthropometric measurements of body composition determined using the BIA method among male and female athletes, while also including rowing boat categories. In order to determine the analysed structures of male and female rowers, an observation analysis was taken into consideration and performed by the k-means clustering method. In the group of male and female rowers using long paddles, higher mean values for the analysed features were observed, with the exception of fat-free mass, and water content in both genders, and trunk length and horizontal reach in women who achieved higher means in the short-paddle group. On the men’s team, both groups differed significantly in body mass, longitudinal features, horizontal reach, hand width and body circumferences, while on the women’s, they differed in body mass, width and length of the chest, body circumferences and fat content. The method of grouping used in this paper confirmed morphological differences in the competitors with regard to the type of racing boat. PMID:23486287

Forjasz, Justyna

2011-01-01

187

Hand Eczema  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hand eczema is a common disease in the general population and one of the most frequent diagnoses in dermatology. It affects\\u000a occupational as well as private aspects of life, and the severity varies from mild and transient to severe and chronic disease.\\u000a Being a disease that affects mainly young people, often interfering with their professional career, the disease is a

Tove Agner

188

DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

189

Anthropometric characteristics of elite cricket fast bowlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to describe the current anthropometric profiles of elite Australian female and male cricket fast bowlers and establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on player selection, talent identification, and training programme development. The participants were 26 female (mean age 22.5 years, s = 4.5; height 1.71 m, s = 0.05; body mass 66.2 kg, s = 7.5) and 26

Max Stuelcken; David Pyne; Peter Sinclair

2007-01-01

190

The Influence of Anthropometric, Kinematic and Energetic Variables and Gender on Swimming Performance in Youth Athletes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the: (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers’ anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 ± 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 ± 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics. PMID:24511356

Morais, Jorge E; Garrido, Nuno D; Marques, Mario C; Silva, Antonio J; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M

2013-01-01

191

Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance.  

PubMed Central

Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance. PMID:3814989

Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E

1986-01-01

192

Anthropometric study of Malaysian youths - a case study in Universiti Teknologi Mara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometric data has become crucial when it comes to designing consumer products that involves ergonomic factors such as in health care and automotive areas. Most products are designed according to United States and European countries anthropometry data. The nearest anthropometry data we can refer to is Japan for Asian measurements. The continuous growth of youth population in Malaysia has created

Nursalbiah Nasir; Abdul Halim Abdullah; Mohammad Fitri Shuib; Helmi Rashid

2011-01-01

193

Using data mining technique to explore anthropometric data towards the development of sizing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anthropometric survey of 629 girls aged between 7and 12 years old were conducted covering major ethnic groups namely Malays, Chinese and Indians from schools in rural and urban districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. 33 different body dimensions were taken from each subject following the ISO8559-1998 standard for body measurement. Firstly, the whole data was analysed using descriptive analysis

Norsaadah Zakaria; Jamil Salleh Mohd; Nasir Taib; Yong Yuan Tan; Yap Bee Wah

2008-01-01

194

Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 ?g/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 ?g/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

2008-12-01

195

Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin

Karolina-Petkovic Duran; Yonggang Zhu; Chuanpin Chen; Anthony Swallow; Robert Stewart; Pam Hoobin; Patrick Leech; Simon Ovenden

2008-01-01

196

In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in vitro measurements reported in the literature and therefore allows for a quantitative intersubject comparison, even if to a limited extent. The features of the developed technique such as its simplicity, rapidity, accuracy, robustness, noninvasive nature, and very effective use of radiation doses, present the technique as a viable diagnostic tool available for trial in a clinical environment.

Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada and Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

2008-02-15

197

An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography  

PubMed Central

Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg) using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System) as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days), anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh), and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg) was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg) + 0.055*weight (kg)2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh); R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance. PMID:22436534

2012-01-01

198

Hand preference, performance abilities, and hand selection in children  

PubMed Central

It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioral assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge. PMID:24600414

Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

2014-01-01

199

Smart Hand For Manipulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

Fiorini, Paolo

1987-10-01

200

Responsiveness of the Manual Ability Measure-36 (MAM-36): changes in hand function using self-reported and clinician-rated assessments.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To examine the responsiveness of the Manual Ability Measure-36 (MAM-36) compared with a clinician-administered functional assessment. METHOD. The MAM-36 was administered to 46 patients (Cohort A, n = 20; Cohort B, n = 26) with various upper-extremity conditions. All patients received occupational therapy intervention for 2-37 wk and were retested at discharge. Additionally, the Smith Hand Function Test (SHFT), including task performance speeds and grip strength measurements, was administered to Cohort B at intake and discharge. RESULTS. Manual ability improved significantly at discharge in all patients. Patients also showed significant improvement on the SHFT. The correlation between gain in MAM-36 and gain in grip strength was moderate. The standardized response mean for the MAM-36 was 1.18. CONCLUSION. The MAM-36 was responsive to changes in hand function in patients receiving occupational therapy services. MAM-36 results correlated positively with improvements in task performance speeds and grip strength. PMID:24581405

Chen, Christine C; Palmon, Orit; Amini, Debbie

2014-01-01

201

Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

1989-01-01

202

Evaluation of the effectiveness of thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits using the measurement of skin resistance  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating beyond the needs of thermoregulation. It is disease which mostly affects young people, often carrying a considerable amount of socio-economic implications. Thoracic sympathectomy is now considered to be the "gold standard" in the treatment of idiopathic hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits. Aim Assessment of early effectiveness of thoracic sympathectomy using skin resistance measurements performed before surgery and in the postoperative period. Material and methods A group of 20 patients with idiopathic excessive sweating of hands and the armpit was enrolled in the study. Patients underwent two-stage thoracic sympathectomy with resection of Th2-Th4 ganglions. The skin resistance measurements were made at six previously designated points on the day of surgery and the first day after the operation. Results In all operated patients we obtained complete remission of symptoms on the first day after the surgery. Inhibition of sweating was confirmed using the standard starch iodine (Minor) test. At all measurement points we obtained a statistically significant increase of skin resistance, assuming p < 0.05. To check whether there is a statistically significant difference in the results before and after surgery we used sequence pairs Wilcoxon test. Conclusions Thoracic sympathectomy is an effective curative treatment for primary hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits. Statistically significant increase of skin resistance in all cases is a good method of assessing the effectiveness of the above surgery in the early postoperative period. PMID:23256019

Jablonski, Slawomir; Rzepkowska-Misiak, Beata; Piskorz, Lukasz; Brocki, Marian; Wcislo, Szymon; Smigielski, Jacek; Kordiak, Jacek

2012-01-01

203

Anthropometric profile, vertical jump, and throwing velocity in elite female handball players by playing positions.  

PubMed

Women's handball is a sport, which has seen an accelerated development over the last decade. Although anthropometric and physical characteristics have been studied for male sports teams, in women's handball, studies are scarce. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to describe the anthropometric characteristics, throwing velocity, hand grip, and muscular power of the lower limbs in female handball players and second, to identify the possible differences in these parameters in terms of individual playing positions (center, back, wing, pivot, and goalkeeper). A total of 130 elite female Spanish handball players participated in the study (age 25.74 ± 4.84 years; playing experience 14.92 ± 4.88 years). Anthropometric assessment was performed for all the subjects following the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocols. Furthermore, all the subjects performed a vertical jump test (squat jump and countermovement jump). Hand grip and throwing velocity in several situations were also assessed. A 1-way analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc test were used to study the differences among individual playing positions. Wings were less heavy, shorter, and showed a smaller arm span than did goalkeepers, backs and pivots (p ? 0.001). Additionally, pivots were heavier than centers. Backs and pivots exhibited higher muscular mass than did wings. Total players' somatotype was mesomorphy endomorphy (3.89-4.28-2.29). Centers showed higher throwing velocity levels than did wings in 9-m throws from just behind the line, with a goalkeeper. Backs exhibited higher hand-grip values than did wings. Statistical differences have been established between wings and other specific playing positions, especially with pivot and backs. Coaches can use this information to select players for the different specific positions. PMID:21997459

Vila, Helena; Manchado, Carmen; Rodriguez, Nuria; Abraldes, José Arturo; Alcaraz, Pedro Emilio; Ferragut, Carmen

2012-08-01

204

Anthropometric-based selection and sprint kayak training in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12 week kayak training programme was evaluated in children who either had or did not have the anthropometric characteristics identified as being unique to senior elite sprint kayakers. Altogether, 234 male and female school children were screened to select 10 children with and 10 children without the identified key anthropometric characteristics. Before and after training, the children completed an

David A. Aitken; David G. Jenkins

1998-01-01

205

Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation.

Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

2014-01-01

206

Kinematics and force analysis of a robot hand based on an artificial biological control scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial biological control scheme (ABCS) is used to study the kinematics and statics of a multifingered hand with a view to developing an efficient control scheme for grasping. The ABCS is based on observation of human grasping, intuitively taking it as the optimum model for robotic grasping. A final chapter proposes several grasping measures to be applied to the design and control of a robot hand. The ABCS leads to the definition of two modes of the grasping action: natural grasping (NG), which is the human motion to grasp the object without any special task command, and forced grasping (FG), which is the motion with a specific task. The grasping direction line (GDL) is defined to determine the position and orientation of the object in the hand. The kinematic model of a redundant robot arm and hand is developed by reconstructing the human upper extremity and using anthropometric measurement data. The inverse kinematic analyses of various types of precision and power grasping are studied by replacing the three-link with one virtual link and using the GDL. The static force analysis for grasping with fingertips is studied by applying the ABCS. A measure of grasping stability, that maintains the positions of contacts as well as the configurations of the redundant fingers, is derived. The grasping stability measure (GSM), a measure of how well the hand maintains grasping under the existence of external disturbance, is derived by the torque vector of the hand calculated from the external force applied to the object. The grasping manipulability measure (GMM), a measure of how well the hand manipulates the object for the task, is derived by the joint velocity vector of the hand calculated from the object velocity. The grasping performance measure (GPM) is defined by the sum of the directional components of the GSM and the GMM. Finally, a planar redundant hand with two fingers is examined in order to study the various postures of the hand performing pinch grasping by applying the GSM and the GMM.

Kim, Man Guen

207

Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (?) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data.

Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

2014-01-01

208

Gender-Related Differences in the Relationship between Plasma Homocysteine, Anthropometric and Conventional Biochemical Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objective: Gender-related differences in anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)] and other coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors have been reported in other ethnics. However, information available on middle aged healthy Indians are scanty. The aim of our present study is to determine plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), anthropometric measures (BMI and WC) and conventional biochemical CHD

Sujatha Pitla; Balakrishna Nagalla

2009-01-01

209

Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

Zehner, Gregory Franklin

210

Design of a phantom equivalent to measure bone-fluorine in a human's hand via delayed neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Fluorine is an element that can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the total amount accumulated in the teeth or bones. In our laboratory, we have developed a non-invasive technique for the in vivo measurement of fluoride in bone using neutron activation analysis and performed the first pilot human study. Fluoride in humans is quantified by comparing the ?-ray signal from a person to the ?-ray signal obtained from appropriate anthropomorphic calibration phantoms. An identified problem with existing fluoride phantoms is contamination with aluminum. Aluminum creates an interfering ?-ray signal which, although it can be subtracted out, increases the uncertainty in the measurement and worsens the detection limit. This paper outlines a series of studies undertaken to develop a better calibration phantom for fluorine measurement, which does not have aluminum contamination. PMID:23587669

Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Prestwich, W V; Inskip, M

2013-05-01

211

Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

212

Find a Hand Surgeon  

MedlinePLUS

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213

About Hand Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Hand and Arm ... ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Hand and Arm ...

214

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

215

Validation of skinfold thickness and hand-held impedance measurements for estimation of body fat percentage among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects.  

PubMed

Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured in 298 Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian men and women using a chemical four-compartment model consisting of fat, water, protein and mineral (BF%4C). In addition, weight, height, skinfold thickness and segmental impedance (from hand to hand) was measured. Body fat percentage was predicted using prediction equations from the literature (for skinfolds BF%SKFD) and using the manufacturer's software for the hand-held impedance analyser (BF%IMP). The subjects ranged in age from 18-70 years and in body mass index from 16.0 to 40.2 kg/m2. Body fat ranged from 6.5 to 53.3%. The biases for skinfold prediction (BF%4C-BF%SKFD, mean +/- SD) were -0.4+/-3.9, 2.3+/-4.1 and 3.1+/-4.2 in Chinese, Malay and Indian women, respectively, the Chinese being different from the Malays and Indians. The differences were significant from zero (P < 0.05) in the Malays and Indians. For the men, the biases were 0.5+/-3.8, 0.0+/-4.8 and 0.9+/-4.0 in Chinese, Malays and Indians, respectively. These biases were not significantly different from zero and not different among the ethnic groups. The biases for hand-held impedance BF% were -0.7+/-4.5, 1.5+/-4.4 and 0.4+/-3.8 in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. These biases were not significantly different from zero but the bias in the Chinese was significantly different from the biases in the Malays and Indians. In the Chinese, Malay and Indian men, the biases of BF%IMP were 0.7+/-4.6, 1.9+/-4.8 and 2.0+/-4.4, respectively. These biases in Malay and Indian men were significantly different from zero and significantly different from the bias in Chinese men. The biases were correlated with level of body fat and age, and also with relative arm span (arm span/height) for impedance. After correction, the differences in bias among the ethnic groups disappeared. The study shows that the biases in predicted BF% differ between ethnic groups, differences that can be explained by differences in body composition and differences in body build. This information is important and should be taken into account when comparing body composition across ethnic groups using predictive methods. PMID:11890632

Deurenberg, Paul; Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel

2002-01-01

216

The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT?=?-144.66?+?1.84X1?+?1.35X2?+?0.52X3 (r?=?0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P?

2014-01-01

217

A 3D anthropometric analysis of the orolabial region in Chinese young adults.  

PubMed

The orolabial region undergoes considerable changes after orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity, age, and sex-specific norms are needed during the planning of interventions in this region. In 2008 the Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg published anthropometric measurements of the lips of Chinese children, but to our knowledge such reference data for young Chinese adults are not currently available. We therefore used digital anthropometry on 3-dimensional craniofacial images acquired from 103 healthy young Chinese adults with Class I skeletal pattern. Anthropometric landmarks were identified, which provided linear and angular measurements. All orolabial measurements were significantly larger in men than women, with the exception of the labiomental angle. In contrast, there were no sex differences in the anthropometric proportions. We therefore provide what we think are the first cross-sectional norms available for young Chinese adults. These norms can be used to evaluate the morphology of the lips objectively for preoperative diagnosis, planning of treatment, and assessment of postoperative outcomes. PMID:24094549

Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

2013-12-01

218

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

2013-01-01

219

A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between anthropometric factors and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of individual data from 12 case–control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China and Europe.

Luigino Dal Maso; Carlo La Vecchia; Silvia Franceschi; Susan Preston-Martin; Elaine Ron; Fabio Levi; Wendy Mack; Steven D. Mark; Anne McTiernan; Laurence Kolonel; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; Fan Jin; Gun Wingren; Maria Rosaria Galanti; Arne Hallquist; Eystein Glattre; Eiliv Lund; Dimitrios Linos; Eva Negri

2000-01-01

220

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

221

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

222

Influence of passive smoking on basic anthropometric characteristics and respiratory function in young athletes.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the maintenance difference in basic anthropometric characteristics and to outline the dynamics of respiratory function change in youngsters athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) and athletes not exposed to passive smoking in their families (NPS). High and weight were determined as basis anthropometric characteristics. Measured parameters for respiratory function were vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), maximum expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% forced vital capacity (MEF 50) and forced expiratory flow at 25% forced vital capacity (MEF 25). Significant statistical differences in separate spirometric variable were found in three variables (FEV1, MEF50, and MEF25) for group older youngsters. Analysis of variance showed statistical differences between athletes unexposed to passive smoking (NPS) and athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) in even four spirometric variables (VC, FEV1, MEF50 and MEF25). PMID:17058533

Goi?-Barisi?, Ivana; Bradari?, Anteo; Erceg, Marko; Barisi?, Igor; Foreti?, Nikola; Pavlov, Neven; Tocilj, Jadranka

2006-09-01

223

Predicting insulin resistance in children: anthropometric and metabolic indicators Predição da resistência à insulina em crianças: indicadores antropométricos e metabólicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To predict insulin resistance in children based on anthropometric and metabolic indicators by analyzing the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 109 children aged 7 to 11 years, 55 of whom were obese, 23 overweight and 31 well-nourished, classified by body mass index (BMI) for age. Measurements were taken to

Sérgio R. Moreira; Aparecido P. Ferreira; Ricardo M. Lima; Gisela Ars; Carmen S. G. Campbell; Herbert G. Simões; Francisco J. G. Pitanga; Nanci M. França

224

Reliability of bioimpedance analysis compared with other adiposity measurements in children: The FLVS II Study.  

E-print Network

analysis (BIA) compared with anthropometric measurements of adiposity in children and the correlations are needed before extrapolating these results to overweight children. Key-words: Epidemiology; AnthropometricReliability of bioimpedance analysis compared with other adiposity measurements in children

Boyer, Edmond

225

Chapped hands (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

226

Proper hand washing (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... handwashing include: Take off any jewelry Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to ... Steps for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to 30 seconds. ...

227

The Dependency of Vitamin D Status on Anthropometric Data  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypovitaminosis D appears to parallel several cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. However, previous findings cannot be considered conclusive, since the association may have been confounded by different anthropometric variables that were not accounted for. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between important explanatory variables and circulation levels of vitamin D. Methods: A total of 553 individuals attending the metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic of the Burdwan district of India were selected from 1289 people by simple random sampling, and information regarding relevant variables and their blood was obtained. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH) D level and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were measured. Associations between different explanatory variables and circulatory 25(OH) D were analysed in linear regression models. Results: Of the population studied, 53% had insufficient vitamin D levels, while approximately 9% were vitamin D deficient. Variables that significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels were obesity, current smoking, forced expiratory volume 1 and depression Conclusion: Lower serum levels of vitamin D were associated with different variables that should be explored in several diseases before a conclusion of hypovitaminosis D is drawn.

DATTA, Subinay; PAL, Mrinal; DE, Anshuman

2014-01-01

228

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

2013-05-01

229

Effects of a soccer season on anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness in elite young soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soccer-training season on the anthropometric and performance characteristics of elite youth soccer players. Two groups (age: 14.4 years) participated in this study: (1) 24 soccer players training 8 to 10 hours per week and (2) 26 non-athletic boys used as controls. Anthropometric measurements, aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1) and anaerobic (counter-movement-jump (CMJ), squat-jump (SqJ), five-jump-test (5JT), and speed (T5m, 10 m, 30 m)) performances were assessed twice during 8 months (T0: October; T1: May) of the competitive season. Data showed significant differences in height and weight at T0 between the two groups (P < 0.05), while no difference in the percentage of body fat (%BF) was observed. However, the soccer players were significantly taller and had lower %BF than age-matched controls at T1. Compared to the controls, the soccer players attained better results in the physical fitness test (P < 0.05) at T0 and T1 except in (T5m) sprinting speed. Hence, significant improvements (P < 0.05) in physical parameters were observed between T0 and T1 only in soccer players. The results demonstrate that soccer-training season was able to provide maturation free improvement in anthropometric and performance characteristics in young soccer players during the training season. PMID:23181693

Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; Nebigh, Ammar; Le Moal, Emmeran; Ben Ounis, Omar; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane

2013-01-01

230

Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.  

PubMed

Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

2005-03-15

231

Anthropometric influence on physical fitness among preschool children: gender-specific linear and curvilinear regression models.  

PubMed

There is evident lack of studies which investigated morphological influence on physical fitness (PF) among preschool children. The aim of this study was to (1) calculate and interpret linear and nonlinear relationships between simple anthropometric predictors and PF criteria among preschoolers of both genders, and (2) to find critical values of the anthropometric predictors which should be recognized as the breakpoint of the negative influence on the PF. The sample of subjects consisted of 413 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 (mean age, 5.08 years; 176 girls and 237 boys), from Rijeka, Croatia. The anthropometric variables included body height (BH), body weight (BW), sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold (SUMSF), and calculated BMI (BMI = BW (kg)/BH (m)2). The PF was screened throughout testing of flexibility, repetitive strength, explosive strength, and agility. Linear and nonlinear (general quadratic model y = a + bx + cx2) regressions were calculated and interpreted simultaneously. BH and BW are far better predictors of the physical fitness status than BMI and SUMSF. In all calculated regressions excluding flexibility criterion, linear and nonlinear prediction of the PF throughout BH and BW reached statistical significance, indicating influence of the advancement in maturity status on PF variables Differences between linear and nonlinear regressions are smaller in males than in females. There are some indices that the age of 4 to 6 years is a critical period in the prevention of obesity, mostly because the extensively studied and proven negative influence of overweight and adiposity on PF tests is not yet evident. In some cases we have found evident regression breakpoints (approximately 25 kg in boys), which should be interpreted as critical values of the anthropometric measures for the studied sample of subjects. PMID:24611341

Kondric, Miran; Trajkovski, Biljana; Strbad, Maja; Foreti?, Nikola; Zeni?, Natasa

2013-12-01

232

Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

2012-03-01

233

Seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within English academy rugby league players.  

PubMed

Professional rugby league clubs implement training programmes for the development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within an academy programme. However, research that examines seasonal changes in these characteristics is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics of academy rugby league players by age category (i.e., under 14, 16, 18, 20). Data were collected on 75 players pre- and postseason over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 195 assessments). Anthropometric (body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and 1 repetition maximum squat, bench press, and prone row) measures were collected. The under 14s and 16s showed greater seasonal improvements in body mass (e.g., under 14s = 7.4 ± 4.3% vs. under 20s = 1.2 ± 3.3%) and vertical jump performance than under 18s and under 20s. In contrast, under 18s and under 20s players showed greater seasonal improvements in Yo-Yo performance and 10-m sprint (e.g., under 14s = 1.3 ± 3.9% vs. under 20s = -1.9 ± 1.2%) in comparison to under 14s and under 16s. Seasonal strength improvements were greater for the under 18s compared with under 20s. This study provides comparative data for seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within rugby league players aged 13-20 years. Coaches should be aware that seasonal improvements in speed may not exist within younger age categories, until changes in body mass stabilize and consider monitoring changes in other characteristics (e.g., momentum). Large interplayer variability suggests that player development should be considered on an individual and longitudinal basis. PMID:24662225

Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Tester, Emma; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

2014-09-01

234

Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones  

SciTech Connect

Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H. [Telecom Research Labs., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Electromagnetic Compatibility Section

1995-05-01

235

Physiological, biomechanical and anthropometrical predictors of sprint swimming performance in adolescent swimmers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (?La). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ?La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key pointsThis study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys.Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters.Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers. PMID:24149633

Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L; Rodriguez, Ferran A; Jürimäe, Toivo

2010-01-01

236

Hand in Hand Collaborative Burn Sculpture 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand in Hand is the collaborative sculpture built by the Introduction to Studio class at Linfield College during the 2011 January term. On April 21, 2011, the sculpture was burned to the ground in the field west of Miller Fine Arts. The Introduction to Studio class included students Will Bailey, Laura Breshock, Kyle Flynn, Amanda Holtby, Tori Kraft, Dung Le,

Amanda Holtby

2011-01-01

237

Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

2008-01-01

238

Second-hand smoke in hospitals in Catalonia (2009): A cross-sectional study measuring PM 2.5 and vapor-phase nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe second-hand smoke in the hospitals of the Catalan Network for Smoke-free Hospitals using Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and to assess the association between second-hand smoke exposure in main entrances (outdoors) and halls and between PM2.5 and airborne nicotine concentrations.

Xisca Sureda; Marcela Fu; María José López; Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez; Esther Carabasa; Esteve Saltó; Cristina Martínez; Manel Nebot; Esteve Fernández

2010-01-01

239

Try Your Hand at Nano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on two simple activities that younger learners can do to gain an appreciation of nanotechnology. First, learners measure their hands in nanometers. Second, learners investigate liquid crystals, applications of liquid crystals and nanotechnology connections and test how the heat of their hands changes the color of the crystals. Learners observe what they see, present their findings to the group, and reflect on the experience.

Ieee

2013-02-25

240

Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. Objectives: To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. Results: The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Conclusions: Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. PMID:24696694

Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Katragadda, Anuradha; Addepally, Uma; Hasan, Qurratulain

2014-01-01

241

Anthropometric features and body composition of young athletes practicing karate at a high and medium competitive level.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the anthropometric features and body composition of athletes practising karate at a high and medium competitive level. Our study was carried out on a sample of 35 subjects practising karate and aged from 16.0 to 32.5 years. This sample was divided into two groups: group 1 ( n=14 elite athletes) and group 2 ( n=21 amateur athletes). Various anthropometric measurements were taken (weight, height both standing and sitting, diameters, circumferences and skinfold thickness) from which different anthropometric indices were calculated (body mass index, Scelic and Grant indices, arm muscle circumference and area), and the somatotype was then determined. The body composition of each subject was assessed using the skinfold technique and the Jackson-Pollock (J-P) and Sloan-Weir (S-W) equations. The two groups of athletes showed very similar measurements regarding anthropometric characteristics. Only the Scelix index presented a significantly different value in the two groups (49.6+/-1.3 for group 1 vs. 51.1+/-1.3 for group 2; p<0.01). Group 1 showed a mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, while the amateur athletes presented a balanced mesomorphic type. Moreover, a lower percentage of fat mass was more frequent in the first group (J-P=8.1+/-2.4%; S-W=8.9+/-3.3%) than in the second one (J-P=9.8+/-1.6%; S-W=11.2+/-3.7%), although the differences between the two groups were not significant. We conclude that group 1 is characterized by a slightly prominent vertical development of the skeletal frame. This could be an anthropometric characteristic that is best suited to meet the specific functional requirements of this sport. Moreover, both groups of athletes are characterized by a low percentage of fat mass, particularly the elite group. PMID:14618456

Giampietro, M; Pujia, A; Bertini, I

2003-10-01

242

Sensory interaction and descriptions of fabric hand.  

PubMed

82 subjects who viewed and felt fabrics (sensory interaction group) used different categories of terms to describe fabric hand than did 38 subjects who only felt the fabrics. Therefore, the methods used to measure fabric hand that isolate the senses may not accurately assess the way in which subjects describe fabric hand in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:8532445

Burns, L D; Chandler, J; Brown, D M; Cameron, B; Dallas, M J

1995-08-01

243

Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

2010-01-01

244

Kinesin Walks Hand-Over-Hand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinesin is a processive motor that takes 8.3-nm center-of-mass steps along microtubules for each adenosine triphosphate hydrolyzed. Whether kinesin moves by a ``hand-over-hand'' or an ``inchworm'' model has been controversial. We have labeled a single head of the kinesin dimer with a Cy3 fluorophore and localized the position of the dye to within 2 nm before and after a step. We observed that single kinesin heads take steps of 17.3 +/- 3.3 nm. A kinetic analysis of the dwell times between steps shows that the 17-nm steps alternate with 0-nm steps. These results strongly support a hand-over-hand mechanism, and not an inchworm mechanism. In addition, our results suggest that kinesin is bound by both heads to the microtubule while it waits for adenosine triphosphate in between steps.

Yildiz, Ahmet; Tomishige, Michio; Vale, Ronald D.; Selvin, Paul R.

2004-01-01

245

Anthropometric Correlates of Total Body Fat, Abdominal Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in a Biracial Sample of Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between anthropometric measurements and total body fat, abdominal adipose tissue, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large biracial sample. Patients and Methods This study is limited to cross-sectional analyses of data from participants attending a baseline visit between January 26, 1996, and February 1, 2011. The sample included 2037 individuals aged 18 to 69 years: 488 African American women (24%), 686 white women (34%), 196 African American men (9%), and 667 white men (33%). Anthropometry included weight; hip circumference; waist circumference; waist-hip, waist-height, and weight-height ratios; body adiposity index; and body mass index. Body fat and percentage of fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by computed tomography. Bivariate correlations, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used, and analyses were stratified by sex and race. Results In each sex-by-race group, all anthropometric measures were highly correlated with percentage of fat, fat mass, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and moderately correlated with visceral adipose tissue, with the exception of the waist-hip ratio. The odds of having an elevated cardiometabolic risk were increased more than 2-fold per SD increase for most anthropometric variables, and the areas under the curve for each anthropometric measure were significantly greater than 0.5. Conclusion Several common anthropometric measures were moderately to highly correlated with total body fat, abdominal fat, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of women and men. This comprehensive analysis provides evidence of the linkage between simple anthropometric measurements and the purported pathways between adiposity and health. PMID:22560524

Barreira, Tiago V.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Smith, Steven R.; Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

2012-01-01

246

Hand fracture - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

Boxer’s fracture; Metacarpal fracture ... are called the metacarpal bones. You have a fracture (break) in one or more of these bones. This is called a hand (or metacarpal) fracture. Some hand fractures require wearing a splint or ...

247

Hand Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

248

Hand and Finger Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

249

Classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric measures in primary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare students’ dimensions to the dimension of school furniture, in primary school, and determine whether this type of furniture is well-designed and promotes good sitting posture at school by taking into account the dimensions of the children.A total of 180 (90 male and 90 female) students, from three primary schools in Thessaloniki, Greece,

Georgia Panagiotopoulou; Kosmas Christoulas; Anthoula Papanckolaou; Konstantinos Mandroukas

2004-01-01

250

Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

2013-01-01

251

Body composition in children based on anthropometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the body composition in terms of fat and fatfree mass is used in paediatrics to estimate a child's nutritional status. To obtain the fat content or protein content sophisticated techniques exist. These techniques are often difficult to apply in daily practice. An anthropometric approach is therefore relevant because of its simplicity. In this study skinfold thicknesses and midupperarm

W. J. M. Gerver; R. de Bruin

1996-01-01

252

Auditing hand hygiene practice.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824

Gould, Dinah

253

Hand Transplantation: Lyon Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first right hand and the first bilateral hand transplantation were performed in Lyon (France) on September 23, 1998 and\\u000a on January 13, 2000, respectively; then a second bilateral hand transplantation was performed on April 30, 2003. These cases\\u000a of hand transplantation demonstrated that it was possible to perform composite tissue allografts.\\u000a \\u000a The immunosuppressive protocol used for all French patients

Palmina Petruzzo; Emmanuel Morelon; Jean Kanitakis; Lionel Badet; Assia Eljaafari; Marco Lanzetta; Earl Owen; Jean-Michel Dubernard

254

Itchy Hands or Feet  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Itchy Hands or Feet A A A A skin condition that is limited to the hands and/or feet can have several possible causes. Many of these conditions on the hands or feet are itchy, but, in some people, ...

255

Hand x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

256

Factors that influence bone mass of healthy children and adolescents measured by quantitative ultrasound at the hand phalanges: a systematic review?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze the main factors that influence bone mass in children and teenagers assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the phalanges. Data source: A systematic literature review was performed according to the PRISMA method with searches in databases Pubmed/Medline, SciELO and Bireme for the period 2001-2012, in English and Portuguese languages, using the keywords: children, teenagers, adolescent, ultrasound finger phalanges, quantitative ultrasound of phalanges, phalangeal quantitative ultrasound. Data synthesis: 21 articles were included. Girls had, in QUS, Amplitude Dependent Speed of Sound (AD-SoS) values higher than boys during pubertal development. The values of the parameters of QUS of the phalanges and dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) increased with the increase of the maturational stage. Anthropometric variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass showed positive correlations with the values of QUS of the phalanges. Physical activity has also been shown to be positively associated with increased bone mass. Factors such as ethnicity, genetics, caloric intake and socioeconomic profile have not yet shown a conclusive relationship and need a larger number of studies. Conclusions: QUS of the phalanges is a method used to evaluate the progressive acquisition of bone mass during growth and maturation of individuals in school phase, by monitoring changes that occur with increasing age and pubertal stage. There were mainly positive influences variables of sex, maturity, height, weight and BMI, with similar data when compared to the gold standard method, the DXA.

Krahenbühl, Tathyane; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo

2014-01-01

257

Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools.

Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

2014-01-01

258

Removable hand hold  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

259

Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy  

PubMed Central

This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60°C for 30 seconds, ?110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

2014-01-01

260

Comparisons of body composition derived from anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance methods.  

PubMed

This study compared bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements with current bedside techniques for determination of body composition in 18 normal volunteers to evaluate the relative usefulness of these methods as adjuncts to assessment in surgical nutrition. Anthropometrics (weight, height, and two skinfold thicknesses) and age and sex were used to derive body density (D) or total body water (TBW) by two methods. Method 1: D was calculated from the logarithm of skinfold thickness according to Durnin and Womersley, adapted for age and sex. Method 2: TBW was calculated from height, weight, and sex according to Hume and Weyers. Resistance and reactance were measured with a four terminal impedance plethysmograph; from these data plus height, weight, and sex, lean body mass (LBM) was derived. In each instance, Siri's and Pace and Rathburn's equations were used to derive the remaining parameters of body composition: D, total body fat (TBF), TBW, and LBM. Using the paired t-test, no statistically significant differences were seen in any parameter determined by the different methods. These results show that D, TBW, TBF, and LBM in a population of healthy individuals under steady-state conditions can be estimated by anthropometric-derived formulas with the same relative accuracy as that provided from estimates based upon BIA measurements. PMID:2621290

Campos, A C; Chen, M; Meguid, M M

1989-12-01

261

Anthropometric Comparison of the Idealized Youth and Hideous Old Man of Leonardo's Profile Drawings.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to compare the old and ugly with the young and beautiful in Leonardo's profile drawings using soft tissue anthropometry.Thirty-one of Leonardo's profile drawings and portraits of the lateral view were collected and scanned. Among the 29, 9 young and 20 hideous old man scans had a measurable nasion-subnasale (n-sn) distance, and 49 anthropometric items (43 distances and 6 angles) were used for measurement as relative distances to the n-sn distance.The measured distances or angles did not differ significantly between the young and old in the 39 anthropometric items. However, the remaining 10 items were statistically significant. The young group had a significantly greater (P < 0.05) upper face height (n-stomion [sto]), nasolabial angle, and upper lip height (sn-sto) compared with the old group. However, the supraorbital depth (glabella-tragion), mandible height (sto-gnathion), nasal bridge height (n-pronasale), cutaneous lower lip height (labiale inferius-sublabiale), ear length (superaurale-subaurale), Rickett line-upper lip distance, and facial inclination were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the old group compared with the young group.The difference of soft tissue cephalometric results between the young and old subjects can be the index in rejuvenating surgeries. PMID:25340691

Hwang, Kun; Heo, Won Young; Jeong, Ji Myeong; Hwang, Se Won

2014-11-01

262

Correlation of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations with Anthropometric Parameters and Insulin Sensitivity in Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objective. High-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) and leptin are two important adipokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the two adipokines and anthropometric measurements of neonates at birth. Furthermore, we would like to explore whether HMW-adiponectin and leptin correlate with insulin sensitivity in neonates. Methods. Venous cord blood samples were obtained from 266 full-term healthy neonates consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. HMW-adiponectin, leptin, blood glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured. Results. HMW-adiponectin and leptin were significantly higher in females compared with males (P = 0.031 and P = 0.000, resp.). Univariate correlation analysis showed that leptin concentrations in cord blood were positively associated with gestational age, birth weight, body length, ponderal index, placenta weight, insulin, and insulin sensitivity (all P < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between cord blood HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal anthropometric measurements or foetal insulin sensitivity indicators (all P > 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that leptin (B = ?0.126, P = 0.045) in cord blood was independently associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Leptin concentrations, but not HMW-adiponectin, were positively associated with foetal anthropometric measurements. Leptin concentrations are significantly associated with foetal insulin sensitivity, and there were no significant correlations between HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal insulin sensitivity. PMID:25374599

Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Lili; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Ying

2014-01-01

263

The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and  

E-print Network

on surface electromyography (EMG) pattern recognition have been developed based on two consecutive components. INTRODUCTION Surface electromyography (EMG) signals are measured by surface electrodes that are placed engineering, biomechanics, ergonomics, and human-computer interfaces (HCIs) (Merletti & Parker, 2004). Surface

264

Hand development in trisomy 21.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate hand size and maturity in fetuses with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Twenty-five fetuses, crown-rump length (CRL) 55-222 mm, foot length (FL) 8-42 mm, were included in the study. After whole-body radiography (Hewlett Packard Faxitron), special radiographs of the hand and foot were taken. Hand length was measured as the length of the third finger from the distal tip of the distal phalanx to the proximal tip of the metacarpal bone, the digital-metacarpal length (DML). The lengths of the proximal phalangeal bone (PPL) and the metacarpal bone (MCL) of the third finger were also measured. The DML, PPL, and MCL values of each fetus were related to CRL and FL. The individual hand bones were evaluated with regard to time of appearance on radiographs, sequence in comparison with the normal sequence of appearance, and morphology. The hand length is normal during the first half of the fetal period, whereas the length of individual bones in the third finger is reduced. The normal sequence of ossification, with the middle phalanx of the fifth finger last to ossify, also occurred in Down syndrome; however, this bone appeared later in Down syndrome. In four of the fetuses it did not appear. PMID:9779798

Kjaer, M S; Keeling, J W; Andersen, E; Fischer Hansen, B; Kjaer, I

1998-10-12

265

Anthropometric and Nutritional Profile of People Living with HIV and AIDS in India: an Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART) center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including height, weight, waist, hip, mid arm, and calf circumferences, were collected; 1-day 24-h dietary recall was done to gather nutrient intake from which nutrient adequacy ratios were computed. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was also conducted. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 19.73 ± 3.55 kg/m2 with around 40% having BMI <18.5 kg/m2 . All anthropometric measurements were found to correlate positively and significantly with CD4 count (P < 0.05). The sample consumed poor quality of diet as they could not meet even the 2/3rd of the Indian Council of Medical Research (2010) requirements for energy, protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12, copper, and zinc. Classification of subjects according to MNA indicated that more than 50% of the sample was at-risk of malnutrition and 34% were malnourished. With 40% of sample having BMI less than normal, 50% at risk of malnutrition together with poor nutrient intakes over a long period of time could contribute to further worsening of the nutritional status. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a database on nutritional profile of PLHIV in India which reinforces the need for development of effective strategies to improve their nutritional status. PMID:25136157

Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

2014-01-01

266

Assessment of anthropometric indices among residents of Calabar, South-East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus which may be addressed by application of intensive lifestyle interventions. Thus, establishing normative values of anthropometric indices in our environment is crucial. This study aimed to determine normative values of anthropometric indices of nutrition among residents of Calabar. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional observational study recruited residents of Calabar aged between 15-79 years using a multistage sampling method. Trained research assistants collected socio-demographic data and did anthropometric measurements. Results: There were 645 (56.5%) males and 489 (43.1%) females. Males had significantly lower general adiposity and hip circumference (HC) than females while females had significantly lower waist circumference (WC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) than males. The WHR increased with age particularly among males. Body mass index (BMI) also increased with age in both males and females with a peak in the middle age bracket, followed by a decline among the elderly. The mean (SD) BMI was 27.7 (5.0) kg/m2. Males had a mean (SD) BMI of 27.0 (4.4) kg/m2, while females had a mean (SD) BMI of 28.5 (5.5) kg/m2 respectively. WC correlated positively and significantly with BMI and WHR in males and females. WHR correlated positively and significantly with BMI in males and females. Conclusion: There are positive linear inter relationships between the indices of nutrition which is strongest between WC and BMI. In view of the strong independent association of DM with indices of nutrition, it is appropriate to derive normal cut-off values for WC, WHR and BMI nationally. PMID:24944936

Egbe, Enang Ofem; Asuquo, Otu Akaninyene; Ekwere, Essien Okon; Olufemi, Fasanmade; Ohwovoriole, A. E.

2014-01-01

267

General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

Kondric, Miran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontic, Dean; Sekulic, Damir

2012-01-01

268

Anthropometric and body build variables as discriminators of event participation in elite adolescent male track and field athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which anthropometric and body build measures discriminated between elite adolescent male athletes competing in different track and field events. One hundred and six national?level Junior Olympic male athletes (mean age ± s.d. = 17.7±0.7 yr) volunteered as subjects. The sample included 26 middle distance runners, 24 sprinters\\/hurdlers, 39 jumpers

T. J. Housh; W. G. Thorland; G. O. Johnson; G. D. Tharp; C. J. Cisar

1984-01-01

269

Accuracy of Anthropometric Indexes of Obesity to Predict Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Among Men and Women With Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnthropometric measurements and indexes that assess excess of adiposity are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and predict diabetes mellitus.MethodsThis cross-sectional study reported the performance of adiposity indexes to detect or turn diabetes unlikely in patients with hypertension. Patients with hypertension (blood pressure (BP) ?140\\/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive drug use) aged 18–80 years, being 150 men and 332 women, had

Aline Marcadenti; Sandra C. Fuchs; Leila B. Moreira; Mario Wiehe; Miguel Gus; Flavio D. Fuchs

2011-01-01

270

Digital Radiogrammetry of the Hand in a pediatric and Adolescent Dutch Caucasian Population: Normative Data and Measurements in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the applicability of a new Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry (DXR) system in a Dutch Caucasian pediatric population. For this study we enrolled 535 healthy participants who all signed an informed consent form. In addition, 20 children suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were enrolled. Radiographs of the left hand were obtained from all

R. R. van Rijn; D. S. Grootfaam; M. H. Lequin; A. M. Boot; R. D. van Beek; W. C. J. Hop; C. van Kuijk

2004-01-01

271

Dextrous robot hands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (editor); Iberall, Thea (editor)

1990-01-01

272

Gender Differences in Anthropometric Predictors of Physical Performance in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Both high body fat and low muscle mass have been associated with physical disability in older adults. However, men and women differ markedly in body composition, where men generally have more absolute and relative lean muscle mass and less fat mass than women. It is not known how these anthropometric differences differentially impact physical ability in men and women. Objectives This study examines differences in anthropometric predictors of physical performance in older women and men. Methods Participants were 470 older women and men aged 72.9±7.9y. Body composition was measured using DXA. Maximum leg strength and power were measured using a leg press. Muscle quality (MQ) was calculated as relative strength (leg press strength per kg of leg muscle mass). Gait speed and chair rise were used to assess mobility performance and functional strength. Results BMI, age and muscle quality emerged as predictors (p<0.05) of functional strength and mobility in men and women somewhat differently. After accounting for age and sample, leg muscle quality was related to chair rise time and gait speed in men but not women. BMI was related to gait speed in both men and women, but BMI was related to chair rise time in only women and not men. Discussion Results implicate the prioritized importance of healthy weight and muscle maintenance in older women and men, respectively for maintained physical functioning with aging. PMID:23123187

Fragala, Maren S.; Clark, M.H.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Kleppinger, Alison; Judge, James O.; Kuchel, George A.; Kenny, Anne M.

2012-01-01

273

[Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Puerto Rican cyclists].  

PubMed

This study was conducted to describe various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 31 athletes (F = 5, M = 26) members of the Puertorrican Cycling Federation's national pre-selection. The athletes were divided into four categories according to their sex and age. The mean and standard deviation of all the variables in each category was computed. An Analysis of Covariance was conducted to determine significant differences between the mean's of the four categories. Male cyclists showed superior results compared to female cyclists in all the variables studied except body mass, ectomorphy, VO2 max, max HR, max power (W), and neuromuscular function in which they showed no statistical differences. The anthropometric, body composition, max power (W) and cardiorespiratory characteristics of our cyclists compared with those reported for international cyclists. The groups means for push ups, sit ups and flexibility were below the excellent classification when compared to the general population's health related physical fitness norms. PMID:1475344

Ramírez Marrero, F A; Rivera, M A

1992-12-01

274

The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and  

E-print Network

on surface electromyography (EMG) pattern recognition have been developed based on two consecutive components. INTRODUCTION Surface electromyography (EMG) signals are measured by surface electrodes that are placed-module, surface EMG signals are firstly amplified with an amplifier due to small EMG amplitude, and may

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To identify the physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance.Methods—Forty four climbers (24 men, 20 women) of various skill levels (self reported rating 5.6–5.13c on the Yosemite decimal scale) and years of experience (0.10–44 years) served as subjects. They climbed two routes on separate days to assess climbing performance. The routes (11 and 30 m in distance) were set

Christine M Mermier; Jeffrey M Janot; Daryl L Parker; Jacob G Swan

2000-01-01

276

Hand grip strength and associated factors in non-institutionalised men and women 50 years and older in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the prevalence, predictors and gender differences in hand grip strength of older adults in Africa. This study aims to investigate social and health differences in hand grip strength among older adults in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 men and women aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and anthropometric measurements. Linear multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the association of social factors, health variables and grip strength. Results The mean overall hand grip strength was 37.9 kgs for men (mean age 61.1 years, SD?=?9.1) and 31.5 kgs for women (mean age 62.0 years, SD?=?9.7). In multivariate analysis among men, greater height, not being underweight and lower functional disability was associated with greater grip strength, and among women, greater height, better cognitive functioning, and lower functional disability were associated with greater grip strength. Conclusions Greater height and lower functional disability were found for both older South African men and women to be significantly associated with grip strength. PMID:24393403

2014-01-01

277

Analysis of Multifingered Hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses three fundamental problems relating to grasping and manipulating objects within an articulated, multifingered hand: determining how hard to squeeze an ob ject in order to ensure a secure grasp, determining the finger- joint motions required to produce a desired motion of the object, and determining the workspace of the hand.Squeezing the object, or the application of internal

Jeffrey Kerr; Bernard Roth

1986-01-01

278

Associations of Anthropometric Factors with KRAS and BRAF Mutation Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer in Men and Women: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and accumulating evidence suggests a differential influence of sex and anthropometric factors on the molecular carcinogenesis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between height, weight, bodyfat percentage, waist- and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and CRC risk according to KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours, with particular reference to potential sex differences. KRAS and BRAF mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing in tumours from 494 incident CRC cases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Hazard ratios of CRC risk according to anthropometric factors and mutation status were calculated using multivariate Cox regression models. While all anthropometric measures except height were associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated tumours, only BMI was associated with an increased risk of KRAS wild type tumours overall. High weight, hip, waist, WHR and BMI were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, but none of the anthropometric factors were associated with risk of BRAF-mutated CRC, neither in the overall nor in the sex-stratified analysis. In men, several anthropometric measures were associated with both KRAS-mutated and KRAS wild type tumours. In women, only a high WHR was significantly associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC. A significant interaction was found between sex and BMI with respect to risk of KRAS-mutated tumours. In men, all anthropometric factors except height were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, whereas in women, only bodyfat percentage was associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours. The results from this prospective cohort study further support an influence of sex and lifestyle factors on different pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis, defined by KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours. PMID:24918610

Brandstedt, Jenny; Wangefjord, Sakarias; Nodin, Bjorn; Eberhard, Jakob; Sundstrom, Magnus; Manjer, Jonas; Jirstrom, Karin

2014-01-01

279

Associations of anthropometric factors with KRAS and BRAF mutation status of primary colorectal cancer in men and women: a cohort study.  

PubMed

Obesity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and accumulating evidence suggests a differential influence of sex and anthropometric factors on the molecular carcinogenesis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between height, weight, bodyfat percentage, waist- and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and CRC risk according to KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours, with particular reference to potential sex differences. KRAS and BRAF mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing in tumours from 494 incident CRC cases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Hazard ratios of CRC risk according to anthropometric factors and mutation status were calculated using multivariate Cox regression models. While all anthropometric measures except height were associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated tumours, only BMI was associated with an increased risk of KRAS wild type tumours overall. High weight, hip, waist, WHR and BMI were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, but none of the anthropometric factors were associated with risk of BRAF-mutated CRC, neither in the overall nor in the sex-stratified analysis. In men, several anthropometric measures were associated with both KRAS-mutated and KRAS wild type tumours. In women, only a high WHR was significantly associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC. A significant interaction was found between sex and BMI with respect to risk of KRAS-mutated tumours. In men, all anthropometric factors except height were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, whereas in women, only bodyfat percentage was associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours. The results from this prospective cohort study further support an influence of sex and lifestyle factors on different pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis, defined by KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours. PMID:24918610

Brändstedt, Jenny; Wangefjord, Sakarias; Nodin, Björn; Eberhard, Jakob; Sundström, Magnus; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin

2014-01-01

280

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101  

E-print Network

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101 Hand washing may be a simple task, but it is extremely important in preventing the spread of contagious illnesses. Wash your hands often to remove disease-causing germs. Wash your hands: Wet hands with warm water. When warm water isn't available, wash for a longer

281

Three-dimensional anthropometric techniques applied to the fabrication of burn masks and the quantification of wound healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropometric surveys conducted by the military provide comprehensive human body measurement data that are human interface requirements for successful mission performance of weapon systems, including cockpits, protective equipment, and clothing. The application of human body dimensions to model humans and human-machine performance begins with engineering anthropometry. There are two critical elements to engineering anthropometry: data acquisition and data analysis. First, the human body is captured dimensionally with either traditional anthropometric tools, such as calipers and tape measures, or with advanced image acquisition systems, such as a laser scanner. Next, numerous statistical analysis tools, such as multivariate modeling and feature envelopes, are used to effectively transition these data for design and evaluation of equipment and work environments. Recently, Air Force technology transfer allowed researchers at the Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to work with the Dayton, Ohio area medical community in assessing the rate of wound healing and improving the fit of total contract burn masks. This paper describes the successful application of CARD Lab engineering anthropometry to two medically oriented human interface problems.

Whitestone, Jennifer J.; Geisen, Glen R.; McQuiston, Barbara K.

1997-03-01

282

American Association for Hand Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Meeting Register Now View Preliminary Program Housing Reservations HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND is the ... access to HAND via the Members' Only webpage. HAND Journal Featured Article Overcoming short gaps in peripheral ...

283

Interaction of adolescent anthropometric characteristics and family history on breast cancer risk in a Historical Cohort Study of 426 families (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether the association of adolescent anthropometric characteristics with breast cancer is modified by a family history of the disease. Methods: These interactions were evaluated in a historical cohort of 426 families of breast cancer probands diagnosed between 1944 and 1952 at the University of Minnesota. The occurrence of breast cancer and the measurement of risk factors in

James R. Cerhan; Dawn M. Grabrick; Robert A. Vierkant; Carol A. Janney; Celine M. Vachon; Janet E. Olson; Larry H. Kushi; Thomas A. Sellers

2004-01-01

284

Patterns of hand preference and unintentional injuries among Indian attempted hand switchers and hand non-switchers.  

PubMed

This study examines the patterns of hand preference and unintentional injuries of attempted hand switchers and hand non-switchers. Data were collected from 3698 participants in Kharagpur, India, on measures of hand preference, hand switching, and unintentional injuries. The direction of left- or right-handedness was on the basis of hand used for the item "writing on paper" and the degree of handedness was based on the average score of remaining items in the handedness inventory. Results reveal that, among attempted hand-switchers, learned right-handers were not right-sided in hand continuum as the natural right-handers, but left-handers were left-sided as natural left-handers. With increasing age the learned right-handers become less right-sided and natural right-handers become more right-sided. Females (males) are found to be more right-handed than males (females) among learned right-handers (natural right-handers). On the direction of handedness, the learned right-handers have more than twice the risk of unintentional injuries than the natural right- and left-handers. On degree of handedness, the use of inconsistent left and both hands among natural left-handers, the use of inconsistent right and both hands among natural right-handers, and the use of weak right hand among learned right-handers increase their vulnerability to unintentional injuries. Any deviation from the genetic make-up in hand use elevates the risk of unintentional injuries, suggesting that one should not change the biological hand. PMID:23157575

Suar, Damodar; Mandal, Manas K; Misra, Indiwar; Suman, Shanti

2013-01-01

285

Facial and hand allotransplantation.  

PubMed

Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients suffering from limb loss or severe facial disfigurement. To date, 72 hand and 19 facial transplantations have been performed worldwide. VCA in hand and facial transplantation is a complex procedure requiring a multidisciplinary team approach and extensive surgical planning. Despite good functional outcome, courses after hand and facial transplantation have been complicated by skin rejection. Long-term immunosuppression remains a necessity in VCA for allograft survival. To widen the scope of these quality-of-life-improving procedures, minimization of immunosuppression to limit risks and side effects is needed. PMID:24478387

Pomahac, Bohdan; Gobble, Ryan M; Schneeberger, Stefan

2014-03-01

286

"Fever in the Hand"  

PubMed

A 14-year-old female adolescent was being treated for malnutrition secondary to anorexia nervosa. She complained of severe "shooting" pain, swelling, and color and temperature changes in her left (dominant) hand. She had recently suffered a fall during a hockey game and pounded on the table during a "temper tantrum." On exam, the left hand was cyanotic, edematous, and cold, with severe hyperesthesia. A bone scan showed marked reduction in flow to the left hand. She underwent eight sympathetic ganglion blocks resulting in transitory Horner's syndrome. Favorable plethysmographic changes occurred and her recovery was complete. Her eventual diagnosis was reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. PMID:10360004

Silber

1996-10-01

287

Mutilated hand injuries.  

PubMed

The authors provide a review of treatment of the mutilated hand, discussing the effect of injury on soft tissue loss, intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, paravascular structures, tendons, and the bony skeleton. The authors review functional loss and restoration. PMID:22032584

Hegge, Theresa; Neumeister, Michael W

2011-10-01

288

[Bilateral hand transplantation].  

PubMed

In March 2000 we performed a bilateral hand transplantation on a 47-year-old policeman who had lost both hands in a bomb accident. Although he was fitted with myoelectric prostheses, he kept investigating the possibility of hand transplantation. The ethical, surgical, medical, legal and human aspects of this special kind of reconstruction was discussed in a symposium in Vienna, and it was decided to go ahead with it if a suitable candidate presented. The operation was successful, the immunosuppressive regimen well-planned and carried out, the post-operative course without any remarkable events. Under intensive physical therapy, the patient gradually but steadily regained sensory and motor functions in his hands. Now, two years after the operation, the patient is practically independent in the activities of daily living and is able to work at his job. PMID:12073182

Piza-Katzer, H; Hussl, H; Ninkovi?, M; Pechlaner, S; Gabl, M; Ninkovi?, M; Schneeberger, S; Margreiter, R

2002-03-01

289

Hand transplant surgery.  

PubMed

In September 1998 the world's first hand transplant was performed in Lyon, France. A new era in reconstructive surgery had begun. This case highlighted the potential for composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA). While CTA is not a new technique, it unifies the principles of reconstructive microsurgery and transplant surgery, achieving the goals of absolute correction of a defect with anatomically and physiologically identical tissue with none of the issues of donor site morbidity associated with autologous tissue transfer. The adoption of this technique for non-life threatening conditions to improve quality of life has generated a number of new ethical considerations. Additionally, the prominence of transplanted hands has led to much discussion around the issue of body identity and psychological assessment of potential recipients. This is fundamental to any hand transplantation programme. With the advent of hand transplantation dawning in the UK, we review the many ethical considerations that contribute to this new frontier. PMID:25350176

Nassimizadeh, M; Nassimizadeh, Ak; Power, D

2014-11-01

290

Hand and Wrist Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In comparison to lower limb injury, wrist and hand injury in sport is relatively uncommon accounting for only 3–9% of all\\u000a sports injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a It however has much greater relevance in some sports particularly where the incidence of injury is increased (golf, tennis,\\u000a snowboarding and contact sports) or the impact of wrist and hand dysfunction on performance is high. Preservation of

Philip J. O’Connor

291

Analysis of Experts’ Quantitative Assessment of Adolescent Basketball Players and the Role of Anthropometric and Physiological Attributes  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we investigated two questions: (1) can measurements of anthropometric and physiological attributes substitute for expert assessment of adolescent basketball players, and (2) how much does the quantitative assessment of a player vary among experts? The first question is relevant to the potential simplification of the player selection process. The second question pertains directly to the validity of expert quantitative assessment. Our research was based on data from 148 U14 female and male basketball players. For each player, an array of anthropometric and physiological attributes was recorded, including body height, body mass, BMI, and several motor skill tests. Furthermore, each player’s current ability and potential ability were quantitatively evaluated by two different experts from a group of seven experts. Analysis of the recorded data showed that the anthropometric and physiological attributes explained between 15% and 40% of the variance in experts’ scores. The primary predictive attributes were speed and agility (for predicting current ability) and body height and growth potential (for predicting potential ability). We concluded that these attributes were not sufficiently informative to act as a substitute for expert assessment of the players’ current or potential ability. There is substantial variability in different experts’ scores of the same player’s ability. However, the differences between experts are mostly in scale, and the relationships between experts’ scores are monotonic. That is, different experts rank players on ability very similarly, but their scores are not well calibrated.

Štrumbelj, Erik; Er?ulj, Frane

2014-01-01

292

Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images.  

PubMed

Expert witnesses using facial comparison techniques are regularly required to disambiguate cases of disputed identification in CCTV images and other photographic evidence in court. This paper describes a novel software-assisted photo-anthropometric facial landmark identification system, DigitalFace tested against a database of 70 full-face and profile images of young males meeting a similar description. The system produces 37 linear and 25 angular measurements across the two viewpoints. A series of 64 analyses were conducted to examine whether separate novel probe facial images of target individuals whose face dimensions were already stored within the database would be correctly identified as the same person. Identification verification was found to be unreliable unless multiple distance and angular measurements from both profile and full-face images were included in an analysis. PMID:20570069

Davis, Josh P; Valentine, Tim; Davis, Robert E

2010-07-15

293

Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME) device for hand rehabilitation after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independent lifestyles. After stroke, patients often have flexor hypertonia, making it difficult to open their hand for functional grasp. The development and initial testing of a passive hand rehabilitation device is discussed. The device, Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME), assists with opening the patient's hand using a series of bungee

Elizabeth B. Brokaw; Rahsaan J. Holley; Peter S. Lum

2010-01-01

294

Impact of breastfeeding on anthropometric changes in peri-urban Toba women (Argentina).  

PubMed

We present an analysis of the effect of lactation on average maternal anthropometric and body composition measures in a population of Toba women in Formosa, Argentina. This indigenous population is undergoing a continuing transition from a seminomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary, peri-urban one. Using a mixed-longitudinal design, we measured monthly maternal body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness between birth and the 18th month postpartum in 113 breastfeeding women. The pattern of change in postpartum body composition varied with maternal age. Adult women (20 years old and older) did not show significant changes in any of the anthropometric measures during the entire study. Older adult women (30 years old and older) consistently had the highest values in measures of BMI and percentage fat, and tended to retain weight postpartum. Adolescent subjects (19 years old and younger) tended to lose weight during the first 6 months postpartum but regain their prepregnancy weight by 12 months postpartum. The same patterns were observed for changes in body fat percentage and in skinfold thickness. We conclude that in this population the energetic stress of lactation does not pose a serious challenge to the maintenance of long-term maternal energy balance or to short-term energy balance in women over 20 years of age. From a public health perspective, postpartum weight retention in older women may represent a more serious health threat. The low level of energetic stress associated with lactation may also contribute to the relatively short duration of lactational amenorrhea in this population despite a cultural pattern of intensive breastfeeding. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15:717-724, 2003. PMID:12953184

Valeggia, Claudia R; Ellison, Peter T

2003-01-01

295

Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

Chesak, D. D.

1981-01-01

296

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101  

E-print Network

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101 Hand washing may be a simple task, but it is extremely important in preventing the spread of contagious illnesses in child-care settings. Wash your hands often to remove disease-causing germs. Wash your hands upon arrival to the child-care setting in addition to: Wet

297

Increasing hand efficiency at cold temperatures by training hand vasodilation with a classical conditioning-biofeedback overlap design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolonged exposure of hands to cold environments leads to substantial cold pain and severe deterioration of manual dexterity, finger dexterity, hand strength, and tactile sensitivity. This study taught volunteers to warm their hands at -14 degrees Celsius and measured the hand efficiency effects. The subjects were six male and female nonsmoking volunteers. All research was conducted in a cold

Allan W. Hayduk

1980-01-01

298

The Multicomponent Anthropometric Model for Assessing Body Composition in a Male Pediatric Population: A Simultaneous Prediction of Fat Mass, Bone Mineral Content, and Lean Soft Tissue  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to propose and cross-validate an anthropometric model for the simultaneous estimation of fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), and lean soft tissue (LST) using DXA as the reference method. A total of 408 boys (8–18 years) were included in this sample. Whole-body FM, BMC, and LST were measured by DXA and considered as dependent variables. Independent variables included thirty-two anthropometrics measurements and maturity offset determined by the Mirwald equation. From a multivariate regression model (Ymn = x(r + 1)(r + 1)n?m + ?nm), a matrix analysis was performed resulting in a multicomponent anthropometric model. The cross-validation was executed through the sum of squares of residuals (PRESS) method. Five anthropometric variables predicted simultaneously FM, BMC, and LST. Cross-validation parameters indicated that the new model is accurate with high RPRESS2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 and standard error of estimate ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. The newly proposed model represents an alternative to accurately assess the body composition in male pediatric ages. PMID:23555052

Machado, Dalmo; Oikawa, Sergio; Barbanti, Valdir

2013-01-01

299

The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls  

PubMed Central

Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n?=?129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n?=?129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples, the present study cannot discriminate sedentary girls from world-class female gymnasts by means of the left hand 2D:4D ratio. PMID:22768268

Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

2012-01-01

300

Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

2013-01-01

301

The giant hand phenomenon.  

PubMed

The "giant hand" is a form of recognized spatial disorientation. An experienced fighter pilot described the events leading up to ejection from his out-of-control aircraft. Investigation of the mishap found no flight control problems and attributed the accident to the giant hand phenomenon. A survey of tactical aircrews indicated that this form of spatial disorientation is not an unusual occurrence. Past training of aircrew to deal with this problem has been inadequate. Earlier reports of this phenomenon recommended attempting to recover the aircraft by grasping the stick using only the thumb and index finger rather than the entire hand. Further investigation to include simulation of this phenomenon in advanced spatial disorientation trainers should contribute to aviation safety. PMID:2923599

Lyons, T J; Simpson, C G

1989-01-01

302

Stigmatization of Repetitive Hand Use in Newspaper Reports of Hand Illness  

PubMed Central

Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was assessed for stigmatization of activities involving repetitive hand use as well as for stigmatization of patients who use their hand repetitively. One hundred and twenty-four articles on hand illnesses were identified. Of these, 65.3% of articles stigmatized activities involving repetitive hand use, including 96.6% of articles discussing overuse injury of the hand, 90% of articles discussing tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and 51.8% of articles discussing carpal tunnel syndrome. Patient stigmatization was documented in 30.6% of the newspaper articles. Stigmatizing statements were most commonly made by journalists (94.8%), followed by patients (3.1%), and physicians (2.1%). Language that stigmatizes repetitive hand use and patients who use their hand repetitively is prevalent among US newspaper articles. Both health professionals and journalists reporting health-related news should be more sensitive to the use of stigmatizing language and provide a more balanced, measured, and evidenced-based account of hand illnesses. PMID:18780117

Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago

2007-01-01

303

Chronic hand infections.  

PubMed

Chronic infections of the hand are uncommon, and a high index of suspension is required for their early diagnosis. These can be grouped based on the microorganism. Mycobacterial infections include tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and leprosy. Other bacterial infections include actinomycosis, cat-scratch disease, syphilis, tularemia, bacillary angiomatosis, and actinomycetoma. Fungal infections may be classified as cutaneous (affecting the skin, the paronychia or nail plate), subcutaneous (mainly lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis and dermatiaceous infections), and deep fungal infections. Each type of deep fungal infection has a "classic" presentation and this is emphasized. Finally, common chronic viral infections of the hand include warts and orf. PMID:25070033

Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Helmi, Adel A

2014-08-01

304

Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

1991-01-01

305

[Hand and occupational diseases].  

PubMed

Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk. PMID:24134812

Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

2013-12-01

306

Hand-Eye Coordinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes ways in which visual-tactual integration develops in young children and explains reasons for some children's failure. Procedures for teaching basic writing skills such as hand position, grouping of letters, and finally the writing of words are discussed. (CL)

Getman, G. N.

1985-01-01

307

Hands On Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

308

Hand Biometrics Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers incorporate biometric technologies into products as well as the challenges of engineers who must weigh privacy, security and other issues when designing a system. Learners examine different biometric techniques, find their own hand geometry biometrics, and then work in teams of "engineers" to design a high-tech security system for a museum.

Ieee

2014-03-10

309

Hands On Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site provides a list of hands on activities, called "toys", that can be made with common household items. Construction details are often provided with pictures and sometimes movies. Alternative designs are sometimes provided. In addition to the toys, the site provides links to a collection of short stories.

Williamson, David

2008-09-07

310

Hands-On Hydrology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

2004-01-01

311

Hands-on Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

Science Activities, 1987

1987-01-01

312

Three-Fingered Robot Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

1984-01-01

313

This Hand Is My Hand: A Probabilistic Approach to Hand Disambiguation in Egocentric Video  

E-print Network

This Hand Is My Hand: A Probabilistic Approach to Hand Disambiguation in Egocentric Video Stefan. Recent work has focused on iden- tifying the camera wearer's hands as a first step towards more complex analysis. In this paper, we study how to dis- ambiguate and track not only the observer's hands but also

Menczer, Filippo

314

Genome-wide Association Study of Anthropometric Traits in Kor?ula Island, Croatia  

PubMed Central

Aim To identify genetic variants underlying six anthropometric traits: body height, body weight, body mass index, brachial circumference, waist circumference, and hip circumference, using a genome-wide association study. Methods The study was carried out in the isolated population of the island of Kor?ula, Croatia, with 898 adult examinees who participated in the larger DNA-based genetic epidemiological study in 2007. Anthropometric measurements followed standard internationally accepted procedures. Examinees were genotyped using HumanHap 370CNV chip by Illumina, with a genome-wide scan containing 316?730 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Results A total of 11 SNPs were associated with the investigated traits at the level of P?anthropometric traits makes CRIM1 and ITGA1 highly interesting for further replication and functional follow-up. Increased linkage disequilibrium between the used markers in an isolated population makes the formal significance threshold overly stringent, and changed allele frequencies in isolate population may contribute to identifying variants that would not be easily identified in large outbred populations. PMID:19260139

Polasek, Ozren; Marusic, Ana; Rotim, Kresimir; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Huffman, Jennifer; Campbell, Susan; Jankovic, Stipan; Boban, Mladen; Biloglav, Zrinka; Kolcic, Ivana; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Terzic, Janos; Matec, Lana; Tometic, Gordan; Nonkovic, Dijana; Nincevic, Jasna; Pehlic, Marina; Zedelj, Jurica; Velagic, Vedran; Juricic, Danica; Kirac, Iva; Belak Kovacevic, Sanja; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

2009-01-01

315

Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6-16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

316

Hand Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6–16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes–Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

317

Current trends in hand surgery.  

PubMed

Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery. PMID:22866498

Kalliainen, Loree K

2012-06-01

318

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

319

Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

1993-01-01

320

Dexterity analysis and robot hand design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding about a dexterous robot hand's motion ranges is important to the precision grasping and precision manipulation. A planar robot hand is studied for object orientation, including ranges of motion, measures with respect to the palm, position reaching of a point in the grasped object, and rotation of the object about the reference point. The rotational dexterity index and dexterity chart are introduced and an analysis procedure is developed for calculating these quantities. A design procedure for determining the hand kinematic parameters based on a desired partial or complete dexterity chart is also developed. These procedures have been tested in detail for a planar robot hand with two 2- or 3-link fingers. The derived results are shown to be useful to performance evaluation, kinematic parameter design, and grasping motion planning for a planar robot hand.

Li, LU; Soni, A. H.; Chunsheng, Cai; Brown, Max

1988-01-01

321

Anthropometric and fitness characteristics of international, professional and amateur male graduate soccer players from an elite youth academy.  

PubMed

We compared anthropometric and fitness performance data from graduate male youth players from an elite soccer academy who on leaving the institution were either successful or not in progressing to higher standards of play. Altogether, 161 players were grouped according to whether they achieved international or professional status or remained amateur. Measures were taken across three age categories (under 14, 15 and 16 years of age). Players were assessed using standard measures of anthropometric and fitness characteristics. The skeletal age of players was also measured to determine maturity status. Multivariate analysis (MANCOVA) identified a significant (p<0.001) effect for playing status. Univariate analysis revealed a significant difference in maturity status in amateurs and professionals versus internationals (p<0.05), in body mass in professionals versus amateurs (d=0.56, p<0.05), in height (d=0.85, p<0.01) and maximal anaerobic power (d=0.79, p<0.01) in both professionals and internationals versus amateurs. There was also a significant difference in counter-movement jump (d=0.53, p<0.05) and 40-m sprint time (d=0.50, p<0.05) in internationals versus amateurs, as well as a significant main effect for age and playing position (p<0.001). Significant differences were reported for maturity status, body mass, height, peak concentric torque, maximal anaerobic power, and sprint and jump performance with results dependant on age category and playing position. These results suggest that anthropometric and fitness assessments of elite youth soccer players can play a part in determining their chances of proceeding to higher achievement levels. PMID:18835220

le Gall, Franck; Carling, Christopher; Williams, Mark; Reilly, Thomas

2010-01-01

322

Anthropometric predictors of gestational hypertensive disorders in a remote aboriginal community: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Australian Aboriginal women tend to have body shape and pregnancy risk profiles different from other Australian women. This study aims to examine the associations of anthropometric indices with gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD), and to determine the index that can best predict the risk of this condition occurring during pregnancy. Methods This is a nested case–control study. Baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured as part of a broader health screening program between 1992 and 1995 in a remote Aboriginal community. All subsequent pregnancies among the original participants were identified during 20 year follow-up period through hospital records (up to May 2012). Twenty eight women were diagnosed as having GHD, each of whom were individually matched by age at baseline with five women who were hospitalised for other pregnancy-related conditions and were free from GHD (n?=?140). The associations of the baseline anthropometric measurements with GHD were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results The best predictor of GHD was WC (OR?=?1.8; (95% CI, 1.1-2.9) for one standard deviation increase in WC), followed by BMI with the corresponding OR?=?1.7 (95% CI, 1.1- 2.6). Other measurements, HC, WHR, and WHtR, were also positively associated with GHD, but those associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions WC and BMI prior to pregnancy are anthropometric predictors of GHD in Aboriginal women, and WC is the best predictor. These findings imply the importance of early weight control in preventing GHD in Aboriginal women. PMID:24593885

2014-01-01

323

[Ballistic hand trauma].  

PubMed

46 victims of projectile accidents or explosions were treated over a 5 years period between 1984 and 1989. 3 categories were distinguished: injuries due to a single projectile (12 cases), only inducing serious bone damage and, apart from 3 immediate amputations, the final result was satisfactory. Injuries due to multiple scattered projectiles (11 cases), less severe in terms of the initial lesions, not requiring any amputations, with good results in 8 cases. Explosion injuries (23 cases) in which the effect of the explosion induced considerable initial lesions leading to one hand amputation and 33 finger amputations; the association of skeletal and soft tissue lesions raises the problem of excision and primary cover, requiring large flaps. The course is long and 8 out of 26 hands had serious sequelae, while the reconstruction of an elementary pinch can be considered to be an acceptable result in the other cases. PMID:1725712

Iselin, F; Audren, J L; Hautefort, E; Gouet, O; Peze, W; Pradet, G

1991-01-01

324

Effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometric and lifestyle variables in males.  

PubMed

The obesity epidemic in North America has focused attention on the health risks of excess weight gain. The transition from high school to university is a critical period for weight gain, commonly referred to as the Freshman 15. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the transition from high school to university on anthropometrics and physical and sedentary activities in males. A total of 108 males completed 3 study visits: the summer prior to first year university, and the ends of the first and second semesters. Outcome measures were body mass, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students experienced a significant weight gain, of 3.0 kg, with significant increases in BMI, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist:hip ratio. Energy and nutrient intake did not change. Final body mass was significantly predicted by intention for body mass to stay the same, relative to weight loss intention. Fast aerobic physical activity significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, while slow aerobic physical activity, strength training, and flexibility training did not change. Computer and studying time significantly increased, while television time and hours of nightly sleep significantly decreased between the summer prior to and the end of first year university. Weekly alcoholic drinks and binge drinking frequency significantly increased over this time period. In conclusion, between the summer prior to and the end of first year university, male students gained an average of 3.0 kg, with increases in related anthropometrics. These changes may be due to body mass change intention and (or) the observed decreased physical and increased sedentary activities, but appear to be unrelated to dietary intake. PMID:19370046

Pullman, Allison W; Masters, Rachel C; Zalot, Lindsay C; Carde, Lauren E; Saraiva, Michelle M; Dam, Yian Yian; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Duncan, Alison M

2009-04-01

325

Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors  

PubMed Central

Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility (“T”- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors. PMID:23486746

Koropanovski, Nenad; Berjan, Bobana; Bozic, Predrag R.; Pazin, Nemanja; Sanader, Aleksandra; Jovanovic, Srecko; Jaric, Slobodan

2011-01-01

326

Hands-on-CERN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the Hands-On CERN project is to increase understanding of the most fundamental processes inside matter, and to explain modern research about particle collisions. The site includes many lab activities, interactive resources, and background information for teachers and learners. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It's primary function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Its laboratory houses the LHC (Large Hadron Collider).

2011-09-13

327

Hand tools: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

1972-01-01

328

Waking up the alien hand: rubber hand illusion interacts with alien hand syndrome.  

PubMed

It has been shown that combinations of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive manipulations in healthy subjects may elicit illusory feelings of embodiment (the rubber hand illusion and the somatic rubber hand illusion). We report a case of alien hand syndrome in which the alien hand interacted with the somatic rubber hand illusion to provoke a very strong movement of the alien hand. This effect could be reliably replicated at every application of the experimental procedure. Thus, the illusion seemed to wake up the alien hand. The results demonstrate that the alien hand syndrome can be affected by experimentally induced bodily illusions, which are based on the manipulation of touch and proprioceptive information. PMID:22554115

Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Galazky, Imke

2013-08-01

329

Artificial dexterous hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

330

Morphologic and anthropometric characteristics of high level Dutch korfball players.  

PubMed

In this study a morphologic and anthropometric characterisation of Dutch korfball players (N = 36) is performed. Data, compared with those of other sports populations, showed that (1) korfball athletes are smaller and lighter than basketball and volleyball players but heavier and taller than other team-sport players; (2) korfball players have less relative body fat, more lean body mass, more limb fat, and less or similar trunk fat than the other athletes. (3) Male korfball players presented a somatotype (1.9-4.4-3.4) similar to endurance athletes and an endomorphic value lower than or similar to the other athletes. (4) The only apparent similarity between female korfball somatotype (3.2-4.0-2.8) and other athletes' somatotypes is the dominance of mesomorphy. PMID:8668500

Godinho, M; Fragoso, I; Vieira, F

1996-02-01

331

In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum,

Aslam; A. Pejovic-Milic; F. E. McNeill; S. H. Byun; W. V. Prestwich; D. R. Chettle

2008-01-01

332

A general framework for robot hand-eye coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general framework for robot hand-eye coordination is proposed, including: dynamic, real time, adaptive hand-eye calibration; full cooperation and mutual coordination of a vision system and a robot manipulator; and three stages in motion control, namely, global motion control, precise measurement of object-in-hand, and fine-motion control. In measurement of object-in-hand, an iterative method based on null motion observation is used.

Ping Liang; J. Feng; Susan Hackwood

1988-01-01

333

Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination. J. Med. Virol. 86:21772180, 2014. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24760731

Luby, Stephen P; Lu, Xiaoyan; Cromeans, Theresa; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Erdman, Dean D

2014-12-01

334

Fusion of hand and arm gestures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

2005-12-01

335

The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) can measure the impairment, activity limitations and participation restriction constructs from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)  

PubMed Central

Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model of the consequences of disease identifies three health outcomes, impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. However, few orthopaedic health outcome measures were developed with reference to the ICF. This study examined the ability of a valid and frequently used measure of upper limb function, namely the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH), to operationalise the ICF. Methods Twenty-four judges used the method of Discriminant Content Validation to allocate the 38 items of the DASH to the theoretical definition of one or more ICF outcome. One-sample t-tests classified each item as measuring, impairment, activity limitations, participation restrictions, or a combination thereof. Results The DASH contains items able to measure each of the three ICF outcomes with discriminant validity. The DASH contains five pure impairment items, 19 pure activity limitations items and three participation restriction items. In addition, seven items measured both activity limitations and participation restrictions. Conclusion The DASH can measure the three health outcomes identified by the ICF. Consequently the DASH could be used to examine the impact of trauma and subsequent interventions on each health outcome in the absence of measurement confound. PMID:18715495

Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; McQueen, Margaret; Court-Brown, Charles

2008-01-01

336

Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand  

E-print Network

This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covertorienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms—location prioritization and shifting attention—were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected visual targets following highly predictive visual cues. There was no a priori reason for the hand to influence task performance unless hand presence influenced attention. Results showed that target detection near the hand was facilitated relative to detection away from the hand, regardless of cue validity. Similar facilitation was found with only proprioceptive or visual hand location information but not with arbitrary visual anchors or distant targets. Hand presence affected attentional prioritization of space, not the shifting of attention.

Catherine L. Reed; Jefferson D. Grubb; Cleophus Steele; Catherine L. Reed; Jefferson D. Grubb; Cleophus Steele; We Thank Elizabetta Ládavas; Ro Farné; Rob Roberts

337

Evidence for hand-size constancy: the dominant hand as a natural perceptual metric.  

PubMed

The hand is a reliable and ecologically useful perceptual ruler that can be used to scale the sizes of close, manipulatable objects in the world in a manner similar to the way in which eye height is used to scale the heights of objects on the ground plane. Certain objects are perceived proportionally to the size of the hand, and as a result, changes in the relationship between the sizes of objects in the world and the size of the hand are attributed to changes in object size rather than hand size. To illustrate this notion, we provide evidence from several experiments showing that people perceive their dominant hand as less magnified than other body parts or objects when these items are subjected to the same degree of magnification. These findings suggest that the hand is perceived as having a more constant size and, consequently, can serve as a reliable metric with which to measure objects of commensurate size. PMID:25253278

Linkenauger, Sally A; Geuss, Michael N; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Leyrer, Markus; Richardson, Beth H; Proffitt, Dennis R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

2014-11-01

338

Hand dermatitis: an allergist's nightmare.  

PubMed

Hand dermatitis is a common skin complaint. We use our hands to explore our environment; subsequently, our hands are in frequent contact with potential allergens and irritants. Patients with hand dermatitis may present to their allergist with this complaint. Approaching the diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis can be challenging, as both internal and external factors may contribute to the overall condition. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of hand dermatitis is broad and the cause often multifactorial. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a focused examination may help the clinician differentiate between multiple causes of hand dermatitis. Numerous treatment options exist for hand dermatitis, and new potential treatments are in development as well. We aim to provide the allergist with a streamlined toolkit for help in the diagnosis and management of hand dermatitis. PMID:25228264

Wold, Lindsey; Chen, Jennifer K; Lampel, Heather P

2014-11-01

339

Artificial dexterous hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

340

The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive results that encompass the variation within the entire population. The current EMU does not accommodate humans at the extremes of the anthropometric spectrum. To account for this and to ensure that these requirements cover the population, another phase of testing will be conducted in a differential pressure glove box. This phase will focus on smaller females and very large males that do not have a properly fitted EMU suit. Instead, they would wear smaller or larger gloves and be tested in the glove box as a means to compare and contrast their strength capabilities against the EMU accommodated hand size subjects. The glove box s ability to change pressures easily will also allow for a wider range of glove pressures to be tested. Compared to the data collected on the subjects wearing the EMU suit, it is expected that there will be similar ratios to bare-hand. It is recommended that this topic be sent to the Physical Ergonomics Board for review.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

2009-01-01

341

An Anthropometric and Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Two-Point Fixation of Zygomatic Complex Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Maintaining stability and restoring the aesthetic appearance are the fundamental goals when managing zygomatic fractures. We aimed to evaluate the stability and anthropometric outcomes of zygomatic fracture patients who underwent two-point fixation involving the infraorbital rim and zygomaticomaxillary buttress via the transconjunctival and gingivobuccal approaches without any skin incisions. Methods We examined 15 zygomatic fracture patients who underwent two-point fixation during a 3-year period. Stability was evaluated using three-dimensional facial bone computed tomography. Superoinferior and anteroposterior displacement of the zygoma was quantified. The aesthetic appearance of the periorbital region was evaluated using indirect anthropometry with standardized clinical photographs. The ratios between the eye fissure height and width, and lower iris coverage ratio were used to evaluate aesthetical changes. The bony displacement and aesthetic ratios were analyzed using Wilcoxon or Friedman tests. The correlation between the preoperative zygoma position and anthropometric values was analyzed. Results The positions of the zygoma were similar to those on the contralateral side at the long-term follow-up. The preoperative anthropometric measurements on the fractured side differed from those on the contralateral side, although these values were close to the normal values at the long-term follow-up. Furthermore, we noted that the anteroposterior displacement strongly positively correlated with the lower iris coverage rate (Spearman's coefficient= 0.678, P=0.005). Conclusions Two-point fixation of zygomatic fractures achieved stable outcomes on long-term follow-up, and also appeared to be reliable in restoring the aesthetic appearance of the periorbital region.

Jo, Taehee

2014-01-01

342

The hand-reversal illusion revisited  

PubMed Central

The hand-reversal illusion is a visuomotor illusion that is commonly seen in children's play. When participants attempt to lift a designated finger while their hands are cross-folded, they are likely to erroneously lift the matched finger of the other hand; however, such errors are rare when subjects close their eyes. Based on the fact that the illusion disappears without visual input, researchers previously concluded that the illusion depends upon visual and proprioceptive conflict (Van Riper, 1935). Here, we re-evaluated this visual-proprioceptive conflict hypothesis by obtaining reaction time measurements because, in the original study, subjects might have relied on a strategy of responding more slowly to minimize making errors. We found that the impairment due to cross-folding one's hand persisted in the absence of the visual input, as evidenced by delayed response times (RTs). Further, we found that such impairment occurred when the fingers of only one hand were tested, indicating that the impairment was not due to left-right confusions of the hands during tactile identification or response selection. Based on these results, we suggest that the illusion is not solely due to the conflict between visual and proprioceptive information. Instead, we propose that the unusual configuration itself that involves a reversal of the left and right hands in external space also contributes to the impaired motor response. PMID:23055958

Hong, Sang W.; Xu, Linda; Kang, Min-Suk; Tong, Frank

2012-01-01

343

A prototype hand geometry-based verification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric measurements of the human hand have been used for identity authentication in a number of commercial systems. Yet, there is not much open public literature addressing research issues underly- ing hand geometry-based identity authentication. This work is our attempt to draw attention to this important biometric by designing a prototype hand geometry- based identity authentication system. We also present

Anil K. Jain; Arun Ross; Sharath Pankanti

1999-01-01

344

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Question of Hand and Wrist Configurations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether there is an association between hand and wrist configurations and the occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome. The external hand and wrist dimensions of 50 subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome and 50 healthy volunteers were measured and compared. In addition carpal tunnel depth and width were determined with ultrasound. Our results showed that the hand length was

L.-P. KAMOLZ; H. BECK; W. HASLIK; M. RAB; M. FREY

2004-01-01

345

Carpal tunnel syndrome: a question of hand and wrist configurations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether there is an association between hand and wrist configurations and the occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome. The external hand and wrist dimensions of 50 subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome and 50 healthy volunteers were measured and compared. In addition carpal tunnel depth and width were determined with ultrasound. Our results showed that the hand length was

L.-P Kamolz; H Beck; W Haslik; R Högler; M Rab; K. F SchrÖgendorfer; M Frey

2004-01-01

346

DESIGNING A HAND DRYER: HYGIENE AND COMPARATIVE HAND DRYING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong perception that hand drying is an important step in hand washing and in particular, the sanitization process. The next generation of manual, semi automatic and automatic hand drying systems will be heavily influenced by their capability to enhance personal hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the historical and current research

Arthur Bono; Jia Wang

347

Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

2006-01-01

348

Compact artificial hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (inventors)

1979-01-01

349

Anthropometric and anthroposcopic analysis of different shapes of faces in group of Indian population: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Focus of facial identification research is to isolate features that can be considered a factor of individualization. Anthropometry and Anthroposcopy have been the most important research tools in the field of forensic anthropology. These two methods of observation and data collection are made both on the living and on skeletonized human remains. Anthropometry is a systematic study of human measurements. Morphological analysis of unmeasurable features usually is the area of anthroposcopy. Hence, this study aims to assess different human faces using anthropometry and anthroposcopy. A total of 100 subjects were included in the study, prosopic index given by Martin and Saller was used to classify facial types. An anthropometric measurement was used to assess the facial proportions and anthroposcopy for facial morphology. A significant number of subjects were of hyperleptoprosopic facial type, and with a significant sexual dimorphism observed among the Indian population. Anthroposopic analysis showed common morphological features in each prosopic indices. The findings in our study may throw light on anthropometric and anthroposcopic features of Indians and help significantly in the field of forensic anthropology. PMID:21056876

Mane, Deepa R; Kale, Alka D; Bhai, Manjula B; Hallikerimath, Seema

2010-11-01

350

Anthropometric comparison of painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the painting portraits of beautiful women, femme fatales, and artists' mothers using anthropometry.Portraits of each theme were selected in modern novels, essays and picture books, and categorized portraits. A total of 52 samples were collected, including 20 beautiful women, 20 femme fatales, and 12 artists' mothers. In 5 persons, 17 anthropometric ratios including the alae-alae/zygion-zygion ratio were compared in a 15-degree oblique view and in anteroposterior view photographs, and they were proved to not differ significantly. To distinguish oblique portraits less than 15 degrees, we measured the exocanthion-stomion-exocanthion (ESE) angle in photographs of 5 volunteers. The mean ± SD of the ESE angle was 64.52 ± 4.87 in the 15-degree angle view and 57.68 ± 54.09 in the 30-degree angle view. Thereafter, if the ESE angle was greater than 65 degrees, we considered the portrait to have less than a 15-degree angle and included it in the samples.The ratio did not differ significantly in 11 anthropometric proportions. However, the remaining 5 proportions were statistically significant. Beautiful women had wider noses (85% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the femme fatale group (77%). Lips in the beautiful woman group are nicer and thicker (36% of lip's width) compared with the artists' mother group (27%). Femme fatales were relatively similar to beautiful women such as those women with nice and thick lips. However, the femme fatale group had an attractive midface ratio (36% of the total face height) that has been mentioned in the older literature, and the noses of the femme fatale group were narrower and sharper (77% of the endocanthion-endocanthion width) than those of the beautiful women (85%). The artists' mother group has a relatively narrower upper face (29% of the total face height) and thinner lips (27% of the lip width) compared with the other 2 groups (36%).Proportions from works of art are more ideal and attractive than clinically measured proportions. The ideal ratios measured from historical portraits might be useful in planning facial surgeries. PMID:24220418

Park, Ju Yong; Hwang, Se Won; Hwang, Kun

2013-11-01

351

Analysis of the most relevant anthropometric dimensions for school furniture selection based on a study with students from one Chilean region.  

PubMed

Most of the worldwide standards used for furniture selection suggest the use of the Stature of the school children, assuming that all the other anthropometric characteristics will also be appropriate. However, it is important to consider that students' growth differ with age. The aim of this study is to determine if Popliteal Height can be used as a better, or more adequate, measure for classroom furniture selection when comparing with Stature. This study involved a representative group of 3046 students from the Valparaíso Region, in Chile. Regarding the methodology, eight anthropometric measures were gathered, as well as six furniture dimensions from the Chilean standard. After assigning the level of school furniture using Stature and Popliteal Height to each of the students, six mismatch equations were applied. The results show that when using Popliteal Height, higher levels of match were obtained for the two more important furniture dimensions. Additionally, it also presents a better cumulative fit than Stature. In conclusion, it seems that Popliteal Height can be the most accurate anthropometric measure for classroom furniture selection purposes. PMID:25151312

Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M

2015-01-01

352

Health, height, and history: an overview of recent developments in anthropometric history.  

PubMed

This paper examines some of the major developments in the field of anthropometric history since the end of the 1970s. The first two sections of the paper consider the conceptual basis of anthropometric history and the relationship between height and the standard of living. Sections 3-7 discuss the contributions made by anthropometric historians to our understanding of the social and economic history of the United States, the history of American slavery, the social history of the United Kingdom, the origins of Habsburg industrialization, and the standard of living in nineteenth-century Sweden. The concluding section summarizes the impact of anthropometric history and identifies a number of areas for further research. PMID:11639331

Harris, B

1994-08-01

353

IRON STATUS AND DIETARY AND ANTHROPOMETRIC RISK FACTORS IN US TODDLERS  

E-print Network

, its application in children is limited. Our objective was to determine the body iron of middle-class US toddlers using this equation and to compare calculated body iron to dietary and anthropometric covariates previously associated with ID. Eighty...

Kerling, Elizabeth Helen

2008-05-01

354

Health Tip: Scrub Hands Thoroughly  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Scrub Hands Thoroughly Use proper washing techniques to reduce risk ... News) -- To get rid of germs on your hands, you should make sure you're washing properly. ...

355

Hand-foot-mouth disease  

MedlinePLUS

Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children ...

356

Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

Bryfogle, Mark D.

1991-01-01

357

Surgical anatomy of hand allotransplantation.  

PubMed

The hand is the most refined anatomical terminal device known and the leading edge of the sensorium. Further, the hand is second only to the face in terms of visibility and is a vitally important aspect aesthetic and body image. Hand amputation represents a devastating loss of function and independence. Restoring function after limb loss is a challenge and traditionally includes autologous methods and prosthetics. In the last 15 years, hand transplantation has become a viable option for select patients. PMID:23609942

Carlsen, Brian T; Al-Mufarrej, Faisal; Moran, Steven L

2013-07-01

358

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2011-01-01

359

Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate

Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves; Leonardo Pasqua; Guilherme Gianinni Artioli; Marina Solis; Gabriel Tobias; Christian Klansener; Rômulo Bertuzzi; Emerson Franchini; Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior; Bruno Gualano

2012-01-01

360

Development and validation of anthropometric prediction equations for estimation of lean body mass and appendicular lean soft tissue in Indian men and women  

PubMed Central

Lean body mass (LBM) and muscle mass remain difficult to quantify in large epidemiological studies due to the unavailability of inexpensive methods. We therefore developed anthropometric prediction equations to estimate the LBM and appendicular lean soft tissue (ALST) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Healthy volunteers (n = 2,220; 36% women; age 18-79 yr), representing a wide range of body mass index (14–44 kg/m2), participated in this study. Their LBM, including ALST, was assessed by DXA along with anthropometric measurements. The sample was divided into prediction (60%) and validation (40%) sets. In the prediction set, a number of prediction models were constructed using DXA-measured LBM and ALST estimates as dependent variables and a combination of anthropometric indices as independent variables. These equations were cross-validated in the validation set. Simple equations using age, height, and weight explained >90% variation in the LBM and ALST in both men and women. Additional variables (hip and limb circumferences and sum of skinfold thicknesses) increased the explained variation by 5–8% in the fully adjusted models predicting LBM and ALST. More complex equations using all of the above anthropometric variables could predict the DXA-measured LBM and ALST accurately, as indicated by low standard error of the estimate (LBM: 1.47 kg and 1.63 kg for men and women, respectively), as well as good agreement by Bland-Altman analyses (Bland JM, Altman D. Lancet 1: 307–310, 1986). These equations could be a valuable tool in large epidemiological studies assessing these body compartments in Indians and other population groups with similar body composition. PMID:23950165

Kuper, Hannah; Taylor, Amy; Wells, Jonathan C.; Radhakrishna, K. V.; Kinra, Sanjay; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Byrne, Nuala M.; Hills, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

361

Altered Vision Near the Hands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

2008-01-01

362

Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives When & How to Wash Hands — Key times and tips Show Me the Science — ... more about when and how to wash your hands, the importance of using soap and water, and ...

363

The apparent mass and mechanical impedance of the hand and the transmission of vibration to the fingers, hand, and arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hand-transmitted vibration causes injury and disease, most often evident in the fingers, the biodynamic responses of the fingers, hand, and arm are not yet well understood. A method of investigating the motion of the entire finger–hand–arm system, based on the simultaneous measurement of the biodynamic response at the driving point and the transmissibility to many points on the finger–hand–arm

Enrico Concettoni; Michael Griffin

2009-01-01

364

Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG?200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

2011-01-01

365

Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME): A Portable, Passive Hand Exoskeleton for Stroke Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke patients often have flexor hypertonia and finger extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Because of this impairment, hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring func- tional independent lifestyles. The goal of this study is to develop a passive, lightweight, wearable device to assist with hand function during performance of activities

Elizabeth B. Brokaw; Iian Black; Rahsaan J. Holley; Peter S. Lum

2011-01-01

366

Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting  

PubMed Central

Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

2014-01-01

367

"Measuring Me": Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Measuring Me" is an introductory activity developed to be used while collecting pre-study anthropometric data for the Food Math and Science Teacher Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative. Using "Measuring Me" as an introductory activity for collecting anthropometric measurements in the classroom was feasible and well received by students…

McLeod, Sara; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Duffrin, Melani

2012-01-01

368

Long-term effect of placental type on anthropometrical and psychological traits among monozygotic twins: a follow up study.  

PubMed

The long-term effect of differences in placentation in MZ twins is a controversial subject. An effect has been clearly established for birth weight but data on psychological traits are still under debate. We studied 20 pairs of monochorionic MZ (MC MZ) and 24 pairs of dichorionic MZ (DC MZ) twins. A chorion effect was observed for Block Design (WISC-R) confirming a previous report: MC MZ co-twins were more similar that DC MZ co-twins. For anthropometrical measures, an expected effect in the opposite direction was found. No chorion effect was significant for the other variables. A follow up was undertaken 3 years later using cognitive, national academic evaluations, and personality variables. The sample included 16 pairs of MC MZ and 22 pairs of DC MZ twins. Again a chorion effect was observed on anthropometrical variables but results on the Block Design were not replicated. However, the MC MZ co-twins were more similar than the DC MZ co-twins for two other cognitive variables: Perceptual Organization Index from the WISC-R and Global Visualisation from a Belgian reasoning test. Among the personality variables only one was sensitive to a chorion effect. The discussion focuses on the need for larger samples to achieve adequate power in statistical comparisons. PMID:10555132

Gutknecht, L; Spitz, E; Carlier, M

1999-09-01

369

NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND  

SciTech Connect

MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques used by other systems. Key Words: Teleoperation, Robotic Hand, Robotic Force Scaling

Anthony L. Crawford

2012-07-01

370

Relationship between anthropometric and physiological characteristics in youth soccer players.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between anthropometric and physiological performances among youth soccer players and the positional differences for these variables. Seventy U14 male soccer players (goalkeeper: 10, defender: 20, midfielder: 25, and forward: 15) participated in this study. Body mass was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with ball shooting speed (r = 0.58) and 30 m sprint time (r = -0.54). Body height was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with vertical jump height (r = 0.36), 10 m (r = -0.32) and 30 m (r = -0.64) sprint times, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance run (YYIER) distance (r = 0.26), and running time during maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) (r = 0.35). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with ball shooting speed (r = 0.31), 30 m sprint time (r = -0.24), Hoff test dribble distance (r = -0.29), YYIER distance (r = -0.25), submaximal running cost (r = -0.38), Vo2max (r = -0.42), and the corresponding running time (r = -0.24). Significant positional differences were observed in anthropometry (body mass [p < 0.01], height [p < 0.01], and BMI [p < 0.01]) but not in physiological performances. This study provides a scientific rationale behind the coaches' practice of selecting young soccer players according to their anthropometry for short-term benefits such as heavier players for higher ball shooting speed and 30-m sprint ability as an example. However, this does not justify such practice in the long-term process of player development. PMID:19528844

Wong, Pui-Lam; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisløff, Ulrik

2009-07-01

371

The psychotic mummified hand: an unusual hand injury complication.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a patient with psychotic symptoms secondary to a posttraumatic stress disorder following a work-related hand injury. The somatic presentation was a "mummified" hand neglected for several years in a splint without any care. The psychiatric analysis concluded that this was part of a delusion of persecution expressing a conflict against the patient's employer and insurance company. Surgical treatment was limited to a hand cleaning with hardware removal. Despite 3 years of antipsychotic medication the patient was still suffering from delusion and the hand remained neglected at the last follow-up. PMID:24145122

Mathieu, L; Guillibert, E; Mamane, W; Masmejean, E H

2013-12-01

372

The cardiorespiratory, anthropometric, and performance characteristics of an international/national touring ballet company.  

PubMed

This study examined the cardiorespiratory and anthropometric indices of professional classical ballet dancers in relation to company seniority, gender, and supplemental training. Forty-nine participants from an international touring company carried out a peak Vo(2) test and vertical jump test. Anthropometric measurements and supplemental training activities were also recorded for each participant. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between gender and dancer seniority levels. Gender differences were seen for jump height (M = 52.7 +/- 7.12 cm; F = 37.6 +/- 5.32 cm) and peak Vo(2) (M = 49.32 +/- 3.72 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); F = 43.3 +/- 5.16 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Differences were also seen between dancer levels for peak Vo(2) (artist = 46.47 +/- 4.67 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); first artist = 42.72 +/- 5.81 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); soloist = 43.38 +/- 7.14 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); principal = 49.04 +/- 3.63 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) and jump height (artist = 42.0 +/- 9.11 cm; first artist = 50.33 +/- 11.65 cm; soloist = 45.6 +/- 9.78 cm; principal = 44.67 +/- 9.53 cm). Pairwise post hoc comparisons showed that corps and principals had significantly greater relative peak Vo(2) than first artists and soloists (p < 0.05), while soloists and first artists had significantly greater jump heights compared to principals and corps (p < 0.05). Analysis of covariance modeling indicated that the self-reported mode of supplemental training had no association with relative peak Vo(2) or the percentage at which ventilatory threshold occurred. The present study has provided further insight into the cardiorespiratory profiles of classical ballet dancers, where soloists have significantly greater power capacities compared to principals and corps, who in turn had significantly greater aerobic power. These data can help guide strength and conditioning intervention strategies that need to take into account the nuances of the different seniority levels within a dance company. PMID:17530956

Wyon, Matthew A; Deighan, Martine A; Nevill, Alan M; Doherty, Michael; Morrison, Sharon L; Allen, Nick; Jobson, Simon J; George, Simon

2007-05-01

373

Anthropometric variables and their relationship to performance and ability in male surfers.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s =3.81 years, stature: 177.28, s =6.29 cm; body mass: 78.57, s =7.17 kg), junior national level (n=15; age: 15.61, s =1.06 years, stature: 173.86, s =5.72 cm; body mass: 63.27, s =7.17 kg) and intermediate level surfers (n=47; age: 22.47, s =2.80 years, stature: 179.90, s =5.41; body mass: 77.83, s =9.43 kg). The mean somatotype values for the different groups of surfers were found to be 2.48, 5.00 and 1.03 for the professional surfers; 2.18, 3.72 and 3.24 for the junior national surfers and 2.79, 3.57 and 2.42 for the intermediate surfers. Professional surfers were significantly (P < 0.01) more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than intermediate level surfers. Significant correlations were observed between endomorphy (r = -0.399, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.341, P < 0.05), and body fat percentage (r = -0.380, P < 0.01) and the rating of ability among the intermediate group of surfers. Across all participants, the rating of surfer ability was significantly correlated with endomorphy (r = -0.366, P ? 0.01), mesomorphy (r = 0.442, P < 0.01), sum of six skinfolds (r = -0.274, P < 0.05) and body fat percentage (r = -0.268, P < 0.05). Findings suggest that the levels of adiposity and muscularity may influence the potential for progression between intermediate and professional-level surfing performance. PMID:24444202

Barlow, Matthew John; Findlay, Malcolm; Gresty, Karen; Cooke, Carlton

2014-01-01

374

Assessment of vascular function of hand allografts.  

PubMed

Background Insufficiency of blood vessels supplying a limb allograft may lead to loss of the extremity. Thus, a regular evaluation of perfusion of transplants seems a reasonable approach. The purpose of the present study was assessment of allograft perfusion by means of non-invasive methods. Material and Methods Six hand allografts transplanted in 5 patients were included in the study group. The transplant procedure occurred on average 45 months before. The study group comprised 2 allografts at forearm level, 2 transplants of the arm, and 1 bilateral transplant of the forearm. Parameters of blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography, impedance plethysmography, Doppler measurement of segmental pressures, optical pulse oscillography (OPO), and thermography were performed in all participants. Results DUS revealed increased resistive index in ulnar arteries of transplant hands compared to native hands and an altered blood supply was confirmed by IP. Flow-mediated dilatation within the transplanted extremity was abnormal in most patients and was inversely correlated with number of episodes of acute rejection. Analysis of oscillographic spectrum revealed flattening of the dicrotic notch in transplant hands. A tendency for lower temperature of the skin of transplanted hands compared to native extremities was also observed. Conclusions In asymptomatic patients after limb transplantation, non-invasive methods disclosed discreet abnormalities of graft perfusion. Thus, regular measurement of perfusion parameters using these methods appears to be a promising approach to detect early and potentially reversible disturbances of blood supply. Further observational studies are required to determine its clinical significance. PMID:25434730

Ma?ecki, Rafa?; Gacka, Malgorzata; Boraty?ska, Maria; Dumas, Ilias; Jab?ecki, Jerzy; Che?mo?ski, Adam; Fiodorenko-Dumas, Zanna; Adamiec, Rajmund; Klinger, Marian

2014-01-01

375

Association of Simple Anthropometric Indices and Body Fat with Early Atherosclerosis and Lipid Profiles in Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The discriminatory capability of different adiposity indices for atherosclerosis and lipid abnormalities remains uncertain. This study aimed to identify the best adiposity index for predicting early atherosclerosis and abnormal lipid profiles among anthropometric parameters and body fat measures in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Method A total of 2,063 women and 814 men (57.6±5.2 y) were recruited for this community-based cross-sectional study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were assessed. Body fat mass and its percentage values for the whole body and trunk were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The intima-media thicknesses (IMTs) of the common carotid arteries (CCA), internal carotid arteries (ICA) and bifurcation (BIF) were determined via B-mode ultrasound. The fasting lipid profiles were assessed. Results With per SD increase of adiposity indices, the magnitude of the changes of IMT values and lipid profiles was more substantial for WC, WHR and WHtR in both genders. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that WC, WHR and WHtR were more sensitive in predicting the presence of intima-media thickening at the three segments as well as the lipids disturbances in women and men. In general, BIA-derived measures have no added predictive value for IMT-thickening as opposed to those three traditional abdominal measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest that abdominal anthropometric measures including WC, WHR and WHtR are sensitive for discriminating carotid atherosclerosis and lipids abnormalities. WC is the best index because of its simplicity in routine use. PMID:25090639

Xie, Xiao-yan; Ling, Wen-hua; Deng, Juan; Su, Yi-xiang; Chen, Yu-ming

2014-01-01

376

Sport-specific and anthropometric factors of quality in junior male water polo players.  

PubMed

There is evident lack of studies which examined anthropological determinants of success in water polo. The aim of this investigation was to study the physical fitness differences between two qualitative levels of junior water polo players (males; 16-18 years of age; 6+ year of experience in water polo). The sample (N = 54) comprised of 13 members of the junior national-squad (5 centers and 8 perimeter players), and 41 team-athletes (11 centers and 30 perimeter players). The sample of variables included: four anthropometric measures (body height, body mass, BMI and body fat percentage), and five sport-specific fitness tests (20-meters-sprint-swimming, maximal dynamometric force in eggbeater kick, in-water vertical jump, drive-shoot-speed, and sport-swimming-endurance). Discriminant analysis and t-test revealed no significant differences between national-squad and team-players for center players. The national-squad perimeters were advanced over their team-level peers in most of the fitness capacities and body-height. The result highlights the necessity of the playing-position-specific approach in defining anthropological factors of success in team-sports. PMID:24611343

Idrizovi?, Kemal; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Ban, Divo; Spasi?, Miodrag; Rausavljevi?, Nikola

2013-12-01

377

Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

2012-04-01

378

Automatic method for the dermatological diagnosis of selected hand skin features in hyperspectral imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hyperspectral imaging has been used in dermatology for many years. The enrichment of hyperspectral imaging with image analysis broadens considerably the possibility of reproducible, quantitative evaluation of, for example, melanin and haemoglobin at any location in the patient's skin. The dedicated image analysis method proposed by the authors enables to automatically perform this type of measurement. Material and method As part of the study, an algorithm for the analysis of hyperspectral images of healthy human skin acquired with the use of the Specim camera was proposed. Images were collected from the dorsal side of the hand. The frequency ? of the data obtained ranged from 397 to 1030 nm. A total of 4'000 2D images were obtained for 5 hyperspectral images. The method proposed in the paper uses dedicated image analysis based on human anthropometric data, mathematical morphology, median filtration, normalization and others. The algorithm was implemented in Matlab and C programs and is used in practice. Results The algorithm of image analysis and processing proposed by the authors enables segmentation of any region of the hand (fingers, wrist) in a reproducible manner. In addition, the method allows to quantify the frequency content in different regions of interest which are determined automatically. Owing to this, it is possible to perform analyses for melanin in the frequency range ? E ?(450,600) nm and for haemoglobin in the range ? H ?(397,500) nm extending into the ultraviolet for the type of camera used. In these ranges, there are 189 images for melanin and 126 images for haemoglobin. For six areas of the left and right sides of the little finger (digitus minimus manus), the mean values of melanin and haemoglobin content were 17% and 15% respectively compared to the pattern. Conclusions The obtained results confirmed the usefulness of the proposed new method of image analysis and processing in dermatology of the hand as it enables reproducible, quantitative assessment of any fragment of this body part. Each image in a sequence was analysed in this way in no more than 100 ms using Intel Core i5 CPU M460 @2.5 GHz 4 GB RAM. PMID:24755183

2014-01-01

379

Multi-fingered robotic hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

Ruoff, Carl F. (inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (inventor)

1990-01-01

380

Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

Gallagher, Frank

2011-01-01

381

Hand Preference and Hand Skill in Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of children (ages 3-5 and 11-13) with autism (n=35), learning disabilities (n=26), or no disabilities (n=90) found that the nondisabled children were more lateralized than others in degree and consistency of handedness. No evidence was found of a dissociation of hand skill and hand preference in children with autism, compared to others.…

Cornish, K. M.; McManus, I. C.

1996-01-01

382

The Hands of Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the different ways to measure time and develop their understanding of how to tell time to the hour, half and quarter hours, and then five minute intervals. They identify time on analog and digital clocks and read a clock at the hour or half hour. They participate in timed events and keep time as record keepers. In the final lesson, students make a My Time Book.

Service, National S.

2009-04-22

383

Protecting Your Hands and Feet  

E-print Network

Protecting Your Hands and Feet Treating Feet Though foot skin is similar to hand skin, the problem gardeners usually have to deal with on their feet is wetness. Proper footwear is the best protection. Look for shoes and boots that breathe and absorb perspiration from feet. Dyed leather and canvas absorb

Liskiewicz, Maciej

384

The treatment of hand burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In more than 80% of all burns, the hand is involved. Even if a burned hand does not play a major role for the survival of a patient, its function and aesthetic appearance are of utmost importance for the re-integration into society and professional life. Adequate treatment demands a number of major decisions: necessity of an escharotomy in the early

Lars-Peter Kamolz; Hugo B. Kitzinger; Birgit Karle; Manfred Frey

2009-01-01

385

The Personality of Hand Surgeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate some aspects of motivation to practise hand surgery, psychological mindedness and personality characteristics in a group of 212 Hand Surgeons.The data was obtained by administering the Eysenck Personality Inventory, an especially constructed questionnaire, in a group setting at two conferences in Australia.

DAVID HORNE; J. T. HUESTON

1985-01-01

386

Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

Lovchik, Christopher S.

2005-01-01

387

Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515

2011-01-01

388

The apparent mass and mechanical impedance of the hand and the transmission of vibration to the fingers, hand, and arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although hand-transmitted vibration causes injury and disease, most often evident in the fingers, the biodynamic responses of the fingers, hand, and arm are not yet well understood. A method of investigating the motion of the entire finger-hand-arm system, based on the simultaneous measurement of the biodynamic response at the driving point and the transmissibility to many points on the finger-hand-arm system, is illustrated. Fourteen male subjects participated in an experiment in which they pushed down on a vertically vibrating metal plate with their right forearm pronated and their elbow bent at 90°. The apparent mass and mechanical impedance of the finger-hand-arm system were measured for each of seven different contact conditions between the plate and the fingers and hand. Simultaneously, the vibration of the fingers, hand, and arm was measured at 41 locations using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Transmissibilities showed how the vibration was transmitted along the arm and allowed the construction of spectral operating deflection shapes showing the vibration pattern of the fingers, hand, and arm for each of the seven contact conditions. The vibration patterns at critical frequencies for each contact condition have been used to explain features in the driving point biodynamic responses and the vibration behaviour of the hand-arm system. Spectral operating deflection shapes for the upper limb assist the interpretation of driving point biodynamic responses and help to advance understanding required to predict, explain, and control the various effects of hand-transmitted vibration.

Concettoni, Enrico; Griffin, Michael

2009-08-01

389

When and How to Wash Your Hands  

MedlinePLUS

... gov Share Compartir When & How to Wash Your Hands When should you wash your hands? Before, during, and after preparing food Before eating ... After touching garbage How should you wash your hands? Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm ...

390

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Hand, foot, and ... mouth sores, and a skin rash. Read more ... Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Topics About Hand, Foot, ...

391

Hand preference and hand skill in children with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand preference and hand skill was assessed in two broad age groups of children with autism, children with learning disabilities, and control schoolchildren. The first group comprised children ages 3–5 years and the second group of children ages 11–13 years. Degree of handedness remained relatively stable across age groups, particularly within the autistic and learning-disabled populations. The main difference was

K. M. Cornish; I. C. McManus

1996-01-01

392

Women holding hands.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 80% of the people involved in grassroots environmental protection advocacy in the US are women. One such self-described "average" woman became an activist upon learning that her drinking water was contaminated with uranium leaking from a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility. When DOE officials tried to brush off her concerns and those of her neighbors at a hearing, she presented them with a jar of water from her kitchen tap and challenged them to drink it. They refused. Thus began a long, but ultimately successful, struggle to shut down the offending facility. The efforts of these US women are mirrored all over the world as women have embraced environmental justice as one of their causes. At recent UN conferences, activists have challenged conventional strategies of economic development as being incompatible with equity and environmental sustainability. They have also established that "women's rights are human rights" and added domestic violence and rape to the human rights agenda. The recent International Conference on Population and Development revolved around women's health and rights issues. Throughout the world, women activists have challenged and changed the social dynamics of families, households, communities, and societies in general. One reason for the increased success of women's groups is that they have adopted the tactics of mass communication, including the use of computers, radio, and film. Although the various efforts are arising from diverse circumstances, they have some things in common such as finding personal experience to be a major impetus for action, realizing the self-reinforcing empowering nature of advocacy work, breaking the silence surrounding culturally taboo topics, and challenging the status quo. Such challenges often lead to political backlash or to counter measures taken by fundamentalist religious groups who link improvements in women's status with societal ills. Despite these challenges, the global women's movement continues to grow and to seek democracy and social justice. PMID:12290007

Jacobson, J

1995-01-01

393

A biometric authentication model using hand gesture images  

PubMed Central

A novel hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user’s stationary hand gesture of hand sign language is proposed. The measurement of hand gestures could be sequentially acquired by a low-cost video camera. There could possibly be another level of contextual information, associated with these hand signs to be used in biometric authentication. As an analogue, instead of typing a password ‘iloveu’ in text which is relatively vulnerable over a communication network, a signer can encode a biometric password using a sequence of hand signs, ‘i’ , ‘l’ , ‘o’ , ‘v’ , ‘e’ , and ‘u’. Subsequently the features from the hand gesture images are extracted which are integrally fuzzy in nature, to be recognized by a classification model for telling if this signer is who he claimed himself to be, by examining over his hand shape and the postures in doing those signs. It is believed that everybody has certain slight but unique behavioral characteristics in sign language, so are the different hand shape compositions. Simple and efficient image processing algorithms are used in hand sign recognition, including intensity profiling, color histogram and dimensionality analysis, coupled with several popular machine learning algorithms. Computer simulation is conducted for investigating the efficacy of this novel biometric authentication model which shows up to 93.75% recognition accuracy. PMID:24172288

2013-01-01

394

Prediction of Vertical Jump Height from Anthropometric Factors in Male and Female Martial Arts Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Methods: Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m2. Waist–hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Results: Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P < 0.001). The effect of gender is significant (P < 0.001): on average, males jumped 26% higher than females did. Conclusion: Vertical jump height of martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power. PMID:23785254

Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

2013-01-01

395

Traditional anthropometric parameters still predict metabolic disorders in women with severe obesity.  

PubMed

It is well established that fat distribution rather than the total quantity of fat is the major determinant of cardiovascular risk in overweight subjects. However, it is not known whether the concept of fat distribution still makes sense in severely obese subjects. Particularly, the role of visceral fat accumulation and/or of adipocyte hypertrophy in insulin resistance (IR) has not been studied in this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the determinants of metabolic disorders in severely obese women. We performed a cross-sectional study in 237 severely obese women (BMI >35 kg/m(2)). We assessed total body fat mass and fat distribution by anthropometric measurements (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In 22 women, we measured subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte size on surgical biopsies. Mean BMI was 44 +/- 7 kg/m(2) (range 35-77), mean age 37 +/- 11 years (range 18-61). Lipid parameters (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and IR markers (fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index) correlated with fat distribution, whereas inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen) correlated only with total fat mass. An association was observed between android fat distribution and adipocyte hypertrophy. Visceral adipocyte hypertrophy was associated with both IR and hypertension, whereas subcutaneous fat-cell size was linked only to hypertension. Our results obtained in a large cohort of women showed that fat distribution still predicts metabolic abnormalities in severe obesity. Furthermore, we found a cluster of associations among fat distribution, metabolic syndrome (MS), and adipocyte hypertrophy. PMID:19851304

Ledoux, Séverine; Coupaye, Muriel; Essig, Marie; Msika, Simon; Roy, Carine; Queguiner, Isabelle; Clerici, Christine; Larger, Etienne

2010-05-01

396

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parameters and Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Index among an Adult Iranian Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parameters and lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adult population according to body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and 2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged ?20 years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineate trends in anthropometric

Mohammad Reza Bozorgmanesh; Farzad Hadaegh; Mojgan Padyab; Yadollah Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

397

The rubber hand illusion in action  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the well-known rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked, induces a relocation of the sensed position of one's own hand towards the rubber hand [Botvinick, M., & Cohen, J. (1998). Rubber hands ‘feel’ touch that eyes see. Nature, 391(6669), 756]. As one has lost the veridical location of

M. P. M. Kammers; F. de Vignemont; L. Verhagen; H. C. Dijkerman

2009-01-01

398

Common SNPs in FTO Gene Are Associated with Obesity Related Anthropometric Traits in an Island Population from the Eastern Adriatic Coast of Croatia  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple studies have provided compelling evidence that the FTO gene variants are associated with obesity measures. The objective of the study was to investigate whether FTO variants are associated with a broad range of obesity related anthropometric traits in an island population. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined genetic association between 29 FTO SNPs and a comprehensive set of anthropometric traits in 843 unrelated individuals from an island population in the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia. The traits include 11 anthropometrics (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, bicondilar upper arm width, upper arm circumference, and biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal skin-fold thicknesses) and two derived measures (BMI and WHR). Using single locus score tests, 15 common SNPs were found to be significantly associated with “body fatness” measures such as weight, BMI, hip and waist circumferences with P-values ranging from 0.0004 to 0.01. Similar but less significant associations were also observed between these markers and bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference. Most of these significant findings could be explained by a mediating effect of “body fatness”. However, one unique association signal between upper arm width and rs16952517 (P-value?=?0.00156) could not be explained by this mediating effect. In addition, using a principle component analysis and conditional association tests adjusted for “body fatness”, two novel association signals were identified between upper arm circumference and rs11075986 (P-value?=?0.00211) and rs16945088 (P-value?=?0.00203). Conclusions/Significance The current study confirmed the association of common variants of FTO gene with “body fatness” measures in an isolated island population. We also observed evidence of pleiotropic effects of FTO gene on fat-free mass, such as frame size and muscle mass assessed by bicondilar upper arm width and upper arm circumference respectively and these pleiotropic effects might be influenced by variants that are different from the ones associated with “body fatness”. PMID:20442772

Zhang, Ge; Karns, Rebekah; Narancic, Nina Smolej; Sun, Guangyun; Cheng, Hong; Missoni, Sasa; Durakovic, Zijad; Rudan, Pavao; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Deka, Ranjan

2010-01-01

399

Nonlinear left-handed metamaterials  

E-print Network

We analyze nonlinear properties of microstructured materials with negative refraction, the so-called left-handed metamaterials. We demonstrate that the hysteresis-type dependence of the magnetic permeability on the field intensity allows changing the material properties from left- to right-handed and back. Using the finite-difference time-domain simulations, we study wave transmission through the slab of nonlinear left-handed material, and predict existence of temporal solitons in such materials. We demonstrate also that nonlinear left-handed metamaterials can support both TE- and TM-polarized self-trapped localized beams, spatial electromagnetic solitons. Such solitons appear as single- and multi-hump beams, being either symmetric or antisymmetric, and they can exist due to the hysteresis-type magnetic nonlinearity and the effective domains of negative magnetic permeability.

Ilya V. Shadrivov; Alexander A. Zharov; Nina A. Zharova; Yuri S. Kivshar

2004-10-24

400

[Hand transplantation - fiction or reality?].  

PubMed

Hand transplantation has been indicated in selective patients after traumatic upper extremity amputation and only performed in a few centers around the world for the last decade. In comparison to solid organ transplantation, there is a challenge to overcome the host immunological barrier due to complex antigenicity of the different included tissues, the skin being the most susceptible to rejection. Patients require lifelong immunosuppression for non life-threatening conditions. Minimization of maintenance immunosuppression represents the key step for promoting wider applicability of hand transplantation. Current research is working towards the understanding mechanisms of composite tissue allograft (CTA) rejection. Worldwide, in 51 patients 72 hands (21 double hand transplants) and once both arms have been successfully transplanted since 1998. PMID:22139989

Vögelin, Esther

2011-12-01

401

3D Printed Robotic Hand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machin...

J. M. Schuler, T. C. Lippitt, Y. R. Pizarro

2013-01-01

402

Hand and mind — shaping experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We live in an increasingly virtual, mediated and disembodied world in which the role of our hands, the experience of physical touch, and the sharing of gestures and emotions,has been,diminished by the technology,which pervades so much of our daily lives. We make meaning of our world, develop emotional connections,and communicate,with one another through our senses,and our hands,play a vital

Cathy Treadaway

2009-01-01

403

Robust hand-eye coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial cameras are coupled into robotic systems to increase the flexibility of the robots. Such hand-eye coordination usually requires calibration of the cameras to compute the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of positions in the robot space. This paper describes a new hand-eye coordination approach which does not require camera calibration. Instead, we propose the use of relative stereo disparity to compute

Wei-Yun Yau; Han Wang

1996-01-01

404

Evaluation of four steering wheels to determine driver hand placement in a static environment.  

PubMed

While much research exists on occupant packaging both proprietary and in the literature, more detailed research regarding user preferences for subjective ratings of steering wheel designs is sparse in published literature. This study aimed to explore the driver interactions with production steering wheels in four vehicles by using anthropometric data, driver hand placement, and driver grip design preferences for Generation-Y and Baby Boomers. In this study, participants selected their preferred grip diameter, responded to a series of questions about the steering wheel grip as they sat in four vehicles, and rank ordered their preferred grip design. Thirty-two male participants (16 Baby Boomers between ages 47 and 65 and 16 Generation-Y between ages 18 and 29) participated in the study. Drivers demonstrated different gripping behavior between vehicles and between groups. Recommendations for future work in steering wheel grip design and naturalistic driver hand positioning are discussed. PMID:24674782

Mossey, Mary E; Xi, Yubin; McConomy, Shayne K; Brooks, Johnell O; Rosopa, Patrick J; Venhovens, Paul J

2014-07-01

405

Salivary testosterone levels in left-and right-handed adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that prenatal testosterone (T) may contribute to the development of hand preference and cerebral functional asymmetry in humans. To investigate any persisting association between T and asymmetry in adulthood, left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) men and women were administered a hand preference questionnaire and the Fused Dichotic Words Test. Testosterone was measured in samples of saliva.

Scott D. Moffat; Elizabeth Hampson

1996-01-01

406

Hand Preference for Precision Grasping Predicts Language Lateralization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether or not there is a relationship between hand preference for grasping and hemispheric dominance for language--and how each of these is related to other traditional measures of handedness. To do this we asked right- and left-handed participants to put together two different sets of 3D puzzles made out of big or very small…

Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

2009-01-01

407

Reducing the Spread of Infectious Disease Through Hand Washing  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Centers for Disease Control (2002), hand washing is the simplest, most effective measure for preventing the spread of bacteria, pathogens, and viruses. Recent studies by the American Society for Microbiology (2005) indicate that Americans do not wash their hands after going to the bathroom and before handling or eating food. The study reported here sought to determine

Marcus M. Comer; Mohammad Ibrahim

408

Anthropometrics, body composition, and aerobic fitness in norwegian home guard personnel.  

PubMed

Aandstad, A, Hageberg, R, Holme, IM, and Anderssen, SA. Anthropometrics body composition and aerobic fitness in Norwegian Home Guard personnel. J Strength Cond Res 28(11): 3206-3214, 2014-The Norwegian Home Guard (HG) consists of soldiers and officers who primarily live a civilian life but are typically called in for military training a few days per year. Although full-time soldiers and officers are monitored annually on physical fitness, no such assessments are performed on regular HG personnel. Data on physical fitness of similar forces from other nations are also scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study was to collect reference data on physical fitness in HG personnel. A total of 799 male soldiers and officers from the regular and the rapid reaction HG force participated in this study. Between 13 and 19% of the subjects were obese, according to measured body mass index, waist circumference and estimations of body fat. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated peak oxygen uptake from the 20-m shuttle run test was 50.1 (49.7-50.6) mL·kg·minute. Personnel from the rapid reaction force had a more favorable body composition compared with the regular HG personnel, whereas no differences were found for peak oxygen uptake. The physical demands on HG personnel are not well defined, but we believe that the majority of Norwegian HG soldiers and officers have a sufficient aerobic fitness level to fulfill their planned HG tasks. The gathered data can be used by military leaders to review the ability of the HG to perform expected military tasks, to serve as a future reference material for secular changes in HG fitness level, and for comparison purposes among similar international reserve forces. PMID:24832972

Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

2014-11-01

409

The Relation between Early Pregnancy Anthropometric Indices among Primiparous Women and Macrosomia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in both developed and developing nations. Body mass index (BMI) is the most common index for obesity assessment and its relation with most complications among non-pregnant and pregnant women is known. However, no study has evaluated the relation between abdominal obesity and macrosomia among pregnant women. Methods: In this prospective study, anthropometric indices including weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) of 1140 nulliparous pregnant women during their first trimester of pregnancy (6th-10th weeks) were measured by the researcher. According to the classification of the World Health Organization, women with BMI > 25 kg/m2 were considered as overweight or obese. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ? 88 cm. Finally, mothers were followed up and fetal macrosomia was recorded in a checklist. Data was analyzed in SPSS15. Results: The results showed that 77.5% of women aged 20-35 years and 92.7% were housewives. The mean (SD) values of BMI and WC were 24.32 (4.08) kg/m2 and 81.84 (9.25) cm, respectively. The prevalence of overweight (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI > 29.9 kg/m) was 27.6% and 8.8%, respectively. Abdominal obesity based on WC was found in 34.8% of the subjects. Conclusion: Findings of this study revealed obesity in over one third of nulliparous pregnant women during their first trimester. Moreover, the high prevalence of macrosomia, in these women confirmed the importance of maternal education about obesity-related complications in order to change their lifestyle and prevent obesity.

Mehrabi, Esmat; Kamalifard, Mahin; Yavarikia, Parisa; Ebrahimi Mameghani, Mehrangiz

2012-01-01

410

Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing  

PubMed Central

Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks). Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline) to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5) and 14 days (94.8). Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline) to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1). Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days). Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice. PMID:16476166

Kampf, Gunter; Ennen, Joachim

2006-01-01

411

Reassessing the Standard of Living in the Soviet Union: An Analysis Using Archival and Anthropometric Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses anthropometric and archival data to reassess the standard of living in the Soviet Union. In the prewar period, the population was small in stature and sensitive to the political and economic upheavals experienced in the country. Significant improvements in child height, adult stature, and infant mortality were recorded from approximately 1945 to 1970. While this period of

Elizabeth Brainerd

2010-01-01

412

Ergonomic evaluation and redesign of children bicycles based on anthropometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper bicycle fit is very important for cycling performance, efficiency, comfort and injury prevention. This is especially true in the case of children cyclists that do not have the necessary cycling experience, balance and the fully developed musculoskeletal system of the adults. Bicycle fit depends on both the design and dimensions of the bicycle as well as on the anthropometric

Lambros Laios; John Giannatsis

2010-01-01

413

An anthropometric survey of Indian schoolchildren aged 3–5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergartens of age group 3–5 years, a distinct and small subgroup of Indian schoolchildren, need special emphasis on human factors. The paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on schoolchildren. These data, previously lacking in India, can be of benefit for the designers of kindergartens. A set of 81 different body dimensions was taken from a sample of

G. G. Ray; S. Ghosh; V. Atreya

1995-01-01

414

Head-and-Face Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Respirator Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sizing data generated by the military for use in fitting respirators have been the normative basis for commercial respirator sizing. Anthropometric data developed for males and females of military age in the 1950s and 1960s are still in use today and form the only comprehensive body of information available on this subject. The twofold objective of this study was to:

Ziqing Zhuang; Bruce Bradtmiller

2005-01-01

415

Influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric characteristics on plasma insulin after eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase understanding of the interaction between macronutrients and insulin resistance (IR), this study sought to determine the influence of macronutrient intake and anthropometric differences on IR and inflammation responses to eccentric resistance exercise. Men and women (n = 12, 19-36 years old) participated in a crossover study and completed 6 sets of 10 unilateral maximal eccentric contractions of the

Mary P. Miles; Chris M. Depner; Rochelle D. Kirwan; Sara J. Frederickson

2010-01-01

416

Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

2009-01-01

417

Association of Childhood and Adolescent Anthropometric Factors, Physical Activity, and Diet with Adult Mammographic Breast Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life exposures may influence the development of breast cancer. The authors examined the association of childhood and adolescent anthropometric factors, physical activity levels, and diet with adult mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Women in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study cohort who had undergone mammograms but had not had breast cancer (n ¼ 1,893) formed

T. A. Sellers; C. M. Vachon; V. S. Pankratz; C. A. Janney; Z. Fredericksen; K. R. Brandt; Y. Huang; F. J. Couch; L. H. Kushi; J. R. Cerhan

2007-01-01

418

Impact of physical activity interventions on anthropometric outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Considerable research has tested physical activity (PA) interventions to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. This comprehensive meta-analysis synthesized the anthropometric effects of supervised exercise interventions and motivational interventions to increase PA. Eligible intervention studies included healthy participants with reported anthropometric outcomes [e.g., body mass index (BMI)]. Extensive searching located 54,642 potentially eligible studies. We included data from 535 supervised exercise and 283 motivational interventions in our syntheses, which used random-effects analyses. Exploratory moderator analyses used meta-analytic analogues of ANOVA and regression. We synthesized data from 20,494 participants in supervised exercise and 94,711 undergoing motivational interventions. The overall mean effect sizes (ES, d) for treatment versus control groups in supervised exercise interventions were 0.20 (treatment vs. control within-group comparison) and 0.22 (between-group comparison). The ES of 0.22 represents a post-intervention BMI of 26.7 kg/m(2) for treatment participants relative to 27.7 kg/m(2) for controls. The corresponding mean ES for motivational interventions was significantly smaller (d = 0.09 for between group, d = 0.10 for treatment vs. control within-group). Control group within-group comparisons revealed slightly worsening anthropometric outcomes during study participation (d = -0.03 to -0.04). Moderator analyses identified potential variables for future research. These findings document significant improvements in anthropometric effects from both supervised exercise and motivational interventions. PMID:24852179

Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam; Phillips, Lorraine J; Ruppar, Todd M; Chase, Jo-Ana D

2014-08-01

419

Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer  

E-print Network

for publication in American Journal of Epidemiology following peer review. The definitive publisherAlcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid was negatively associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but no inverse dose-response relationship

Paris-Sud XI, Université de