These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Anthropometric Measurement of the Hands of Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a nationwide anthropometric survey conducted on children in China. Eight hand anthropometric\\u000a dimensions were measured from 20,000 children with age ranged from 4 to 17 years old. Mean values, standard deviations, and\\u000a the 5th, 95th percentile for each dimension were estimated. The dimension difference between age, gender and difference between\\u000a Chinese and Japanese were

Linghua Ran; Xin Zhang; Chuzhi Chao; Taijie Liu; Tingting Dong

2009-01-01

2

Refraction effect analysis of using a hand-held laser scanner with glass support for 3D anthropometric measurement of the hand: A theoretical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) anthropometric measurement provides much more surface information for ergonomic product design and safety considerations than traditional parameter measurement approaches such as using a caliper. However, some challenges remain for 3D measurement, such as measurement uncertainty introduced by shadow areas and involuntary movement of the body. For 3D anthropometric hand measurement with a laser scanner, the problems are more

Zhizhong Li; Chien-Chi Chang; Patrick G. Dempsey; Xiuwen Cai

2008-01-01

3

Error control and calibration in three-dimensional anthropometric measurement of the hand by laser scanning with glass support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthropometric measurement of the hands can provide fundamental data to support ergonomic equipment\\/tool design and thus improves work efficiency, comfort and safety. Three-dimensional (3D) measurement clearly can offer much more surface information than traditional dimension measurement. In this paper, a new approach is proposed of using a low-cost portable hand-held laser scanner along with a piece of glass used

Chien-Chi Chang; Zhizhong Li; Xiuwen Cai; Patrick Dempsey

2007-01-01

4

Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.  

PubMed

Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802

Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

2013-10-01

5

Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method  

PubMed Central

Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

2013-01-01

6

Refraction effect analysis of using a hand-held laser scanner with glass support for 3D anthropometric measurement of the hand: Strategy comparison and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, the general principle of laser scanning through glass was discussed in detail along with four strategies to calculate coordinates of a measured point. In this paper, these strategies are compared from several sensitivity criteria. Operational parameters are examined to give scanning operation guidelines. Alternatives to implement laser scanning through glass, based on the developed models, are

Zhizhong Li; Chien-Chi Chang; Patrick G. Dempsey; Xiuwen Cai

2008-01-01

7

Anthropometric measurements in the elderly: age and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical practice and epidemiological surveys, anthropometric measurements represent an important component of nutritional assessment in the elderly. The anthropometric standards derived from adult populations may not be appropriate for the elderly because of body composition changes occurring during ageing. Specific anthropometric reference data for the elderly are necessary. In the present study we investigated anthropometric characteristics and their relationship

Egle Perissinotto; Claudia Pisent; Giuseppe Sergi; Francesco Grigoletto; Giuliano Enzi

2002-01-01

8

Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

1978-01-01

9

Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of this investigation was to collect statistically-based anthropometry describing the kinematics of the human hand and to model this anthropometry as a function of external hand measurements, so that it may be predicted noninvasively. Joint centres were anatomically estimated as the centre of curvature of the head of the bone proximal to the given joint. Joint centres

BRYAN BUCHHOLZ; THOMAS J. ARMSTRONG; STEVEN A. GOLDSTEIN

1992-01-01

10

Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception.  

E-print Network

Anthropometric measurements and body silhouette of women: validity and perception. B. Tehard1 , M Objective: To examine the validity of self-reported values for current anthropometric measurements in 1990. Subjects: 152 women for the validation study of self-reported anthropometric measurements and 91

Boyer, Edmond

11

An association of dominant hand grip strength with some anthropometric variables in Indian collegiate population.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the correlations of dominant hand grip strength and 12 anthropometric variables, namely, height, weight, BMI, upper arm length, forearm length, total arm length, hand breadth, hand length, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, biceps skinfold and triceps skinfold in randomly selected 303 unrelated, normal, healthy students (151 males and 152 females) aged 18-25 years of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The findings of the present study indicate a strong association of dominant right hand grip strength with all the anthropometric variables, except biceps skinfold in male students and with height (r = 0.200), weight (r = 0.275), BMI (p = 0.217), total arm length (p = 0.218) and upper arm circumference (r = 0.199) in female students. Statistically significant positive correlations were also found between dominant left hand grip strength and height (r = 0.275), weight (p = 0.537), BMI (p = 0.472), hand breadth (p = 0.464), upper arm circumference (r = 0.570), forearm circumference (p = 0.464) and triceps skinfold (p = 0.343) only in male students, but no such association was found between grip strength of left hand dominant female students with any of the twelve anthropometric variables. It may be concluded that hand dominance, especially of the right hand, has some close association with the anthropometric variables related to upper extremities. PMID:19462672

Koley, Shyamal; Singh, Arvinder Pal

2009-03-01

12

Correlations of Handgrip Strength with Selected Hand-Arm-Anthropometric Variables in Indian Inter-university Female Volleyball Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with some hand and arm anthropometric variables in 101 randomly selected Indian inter-university female volleyball players aged 18-25 years (mean age 20.52±1.40) from six Indian universities. Methods Three anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, BMI, two hand anthropometric variables, viz. right and left hand width and length, four arm anthropometric variables, i.e. upper arm length, lower arm length, upper extremity length, upper arm circumference and dominant right and non-dominant handgrip strength were measured among Indian inter-university female volleyball players by standard anthropometric techniques. Results The findings of the present study indicated that Indian female volleyball players had higher mean values in eleven variables and lesser mean values in two variables than their control counterparts, showing significant differences (P<0.032-0.001) in height (t=2.63), weight (t=8.66), left hand width (t=2.10), left and right hand length (t=9.99 and 10.40 respectively), right upper arm length (t=8.48), right forearm length (t=5.41), dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) handgrip strength (t=9.37 and 6.76 respectively). In female volleyball players, dominant handgrip strength had significantly positive correlations (P=0.01) with all the variables studied. Conclusion It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in Indian inter-university female volleyball players. PMID:22375242

Koley, Shyamal; Pal Kaur, Satinder

2011-01-01

13

Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study  

E-print Network

Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study between various anthropometric characteristics and breast cancer. Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort.87) might possibly be confined to obese women. Among postmenopausal women, all anthropometric measurements

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

The Effect of Hand Dimensions, Hand Shape and Some Anthropometric Characteristics on Handgrip Strength in Male Grip Athletes and Non-Athletes  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=?0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with handgrip strength in grip athletes, but not in non-athletes, except for forearm circumference (r=0.406, p=0.010). The results showed that handgrip strength and some of the hand dimensions may be different in athletes who have handgrip movements with an object or opponent in comparison to non-athletes. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between handgrip strength and most of the hand dimensions in grip athletes. Therefore, these can be used in talent identification in handgrip-related sports and in clinical settings as well. PMID:23486361

Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

2011-01-01

15

The effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=-0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with handgrip strength in grip athletes, but not in non-athletes, except for forearm circumference (r=0.406, p=0.010). The results showed that handgrip strength and some of the hand dimensions may be different in athletes who have handgrip movements with an object or opponent in comparison to non-athletes. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between handgrip strength and most of the hand dimensions in grip athletes. Therefore, these can be used in talent identification in handgrip-related sports and in clinical settings as well. PMID:23486361

Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

2011-09-01

16

A study of female Mexican anthropometric measures useful for workstation design in light manufacturing facilities.  

PubMed

As more and more manufacturing is moved to Mexico, the need for anthropometric data describing the Mexican working population becomes more pronounced. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on 21 anthropometric measures that could readily be used to design workplaces in light manufacturing operations. Eighty-seven females, representing 26% of the plant's employees, were sampled. Measurements were made with the shoes on. The mean stature (height) and elbow heights of this sample were 156 cm and 97 cm. Another recently published survey of female factory workers near the U.S. border included 12 anthropometric dimensions. Five of the dimensions were measured in both studies. Hand lengths were nearly identical; however, the 2 to 3 cm differences in the heights measured in the current study are consistent with the incorporation of the footwear in the current measurements. Thus, this study adds to the growing database that can be used when designing these light manufacturing jobs in Mexico. PMID:12173179

Lavender, S A; Marras, W S; Sabol, R J

2002-01-01

17

Impact of anthropometric measurements in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Anthropometry helps to assess nutritional status which is an important determinant of clinical outcome in many patients, including the number of those suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Weight gain after successful kidney transplantation is a well-known phenomenon, therefore we hypothesized that intensive counseling, based of menu analysis by a dietitian of CKD patients with a kidney transplant, can prevent the significant body weight (BW) gain after the transplant operation. The aim of the investigation was to study long-term anthropometrical, biochemical and dual-energy densitometry changes in the kidney transplant patients, to study correlations between the studied parameters and to compare those with the follow-up data. The prospective long-term study was carried out in 28 clinically stable renal transplant patients. Control groups consisted both transplant patients (47 patients), receiving ordinary nutritional counseling, and of healthy population subjects (342). Anthropometry and biochemistry were studied in patients twice: the first follow-up (FU1) data were collected 1.3 +/- 0.2 years, and the second follow-up (FU2) data were collected 2.7 +/- 0.3 years after the transplant. Significant BW gain was found only in renal transplant male patients (FU1 vs. FU2, p < 0.001) but not in females. The mean weight gain in control group patients was significant both in the male and female groups. In males, the mean C-reactive protein was significantly correlated with different body circumferences. But, in females, no clear associations were found. In females, significant correlation was found between mean body weight, body mass index and triglycerides. We conclude that the use of anthropometry in clinical practice, together with intensive and individual counseling by a dietitian, should be regular in the kidney transplant patients' population to prevent overweight. Monitoring of the dynamics of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters are clinically relevant in the post-transplant period together with densitometry. PMID:23390829

Kiisk, Liidia; Kaarma, Helje; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

2012-12-01

18

Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

19

SOME RELATIONSHIPS OF ISOMETRIC STRENGTH, ISOTONIC STRENGTH, AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isometric strength scores, the ability to lift weights before and after a weight training programme, and selected anthropometric measurements in untrained men. The subjects significantly increased the amount of weight they could handle in the training exercises, but there was no accompanying increase in the isometric tension they could

PHILIP J. RASCH; WILLIAM R. PIEKSOX

1963-01-01

20

The Evaluation of Scan-Derived Anthropometric Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3-D whole body scanners has opened new opportunities for effective anthropometric data collection and its numerous applications. Meanwhile, there is a growing concern about whether the scan-derived measurements are comparable with the manual measurements. In this paper, an experiment was first conducted with 263 human subjects to evaluate the scan-derived measurements. By comparing the mean absolute difference

Jun-Ming Lu; Mao-Jiun J. Wang

2010-01-01

21

A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

1982-01-01

22

Anthropometric measurements in Egyptian patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable skeletal disorder with bone fragility and often short stature. This study provides anthropometric measurements in Egyptian children with OI and determine variability among OI types classified according to Sillence et al. [Sillence et al. (1979); J Med Genet 16:101-116]. The study included 124 patients with OI. All were subjected to full clinical and radiological examination. Accordingly they were classified into types OI-I (N = 16), OI-III (N = 86), and OI-IV (N = 22) following Sillence classification. Five anthropometric measurements were taken for each patient including: length or standing height, weight, head circumference, arm span, and sitting height. Three indices were calculated: body mass index, relative head circumference, and relative arm span. Results show that mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) was significantly reduced in OI type III and IV compared to type I. Mean sitting height SDS was significantly reduced in OI-III than that of OI-I. Mean relative head circumference was significantly increased in OI-III than that in OI-I and OI-IV. Using anthropometry, this study was able to quantitatively assess the body physique in the different Sillence types of OI and the variability among them. PMID:22887991

Aglan, Mona S; Zaki, Moushira E; Hosny, Laila; El-Houssini, Rasha; Oteify, Ghada; Temtamy, Samia A

2012-11-01

23

Harmonization of anthropometric measurements for a multicenter nutrition survey in Spanish adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAlthough the need for accurate anthropometric measurement has been repeatedly stressed, reports on growth and physical measurements in human populations rarely include estimates of measurement error. We describe the standardization process and reliability of anthropometric measurements carried out in a pilot study.

Luis A Moreno; María Joyanes; María Isabel Mesana; Marcela González-Gross; Carlos M Gil; Antonio Sarría; Angel Gutierrez; Marta Garaulet; Raúl Perez-Prieto; Manuel Bueno; Ascensión Marcos

2003-01-01

24

Application of alternative anthropometric measurements to predict metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The association between rarely used anthropometric measurements (e.g., mid-upper arm, forearm, and calf circumference) and metabolic syndrome has not been proven. The aim of this study was to assess whether mid-upper arm, forearm, calf, and waist circumferences, as well as waist/height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio, were associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We enrolled 387 subjects (340 women, 47 men) who were admitted to the obesity outpatient department of Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital between September 2010 and December 2010. The following measurements were recorded: waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, mid-upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, calf circumference, and body composition. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma glucose, lipids, uric acid, insulin, and HbA1c. RESULTS: The odds ratios for visceral fat (measured via bioelectric impedance), hip circumference, forearm circumference, and waist circumference/hip circumference were 2.19 (95% CI, 1.30-3.71), 1.89 (95% CI, 1.07-3.35), 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24-4.95), and 2.11(95% CI, 1.26-3.53), respectively. The bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentage correlated with waist circumference only in subjects without metabolic syndrome; the body fat percentage was negatively correlated with waist circumference/hip circumference in the metabolic syndrome group. All measurements except for forearm circumference were equally well correlated with the bioelectric impedance-measured body fat percentages in both groups. Hip circumference was moderately correlated with bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Muscle mass (measured via bioelectric impedance) was weakly correlated with waist and forearm circumference in subjects with metabolic syndrome and with calf circumference in subjects without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference was not linked to metabolic syndrome in obese and overweight subjects; however, forearm circumference, an unconventional but simple and appropriate anthropometric index, was associated with metabolic syndrome and bioelectric impedance-measured visceral fat, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. PMID:24838901

Sagun, Gul; Oguz, Aytekin; Karagoz, Engin; Filizer, Arzu Ti?li; Tamer, Gonca; Mesci, Banu

2014-01-01

25

Quantifying positional plagiocephaly: reliability and validity of anthropometric measurements.  

PubMed

The treatment of positional plagiocephaly is controversial. A confounding factor is the lack of a proven clinically viable measure to quantify severity and change in plagiocephaly. The use of anthropometric measurements is one proposed method. In this study, the reliability and validity for this method of measurement were investigated. Two clinicians independently recorded caliper measurements of cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) for infants referred for plagiocephaly or torticollis, and an unbiased observer recorded visual analysis scores during the same visit. CVA scores were assigned into three predetermined severity categories (normal CVA < 3 mm, mild/moderate CVA 12 mm). CVA measurements and visual analysis scores were recorded for 71 and 54 infants, respectively. Intrarater reliability was established (kappa = 0.98, kappa = 0.99), but inter-rater reliability was not (kappa = 0.42). In addition, the inter-rater reliability for the severity categories based upon these measures was poor (kappa = 0.28) and failed to correlate to the visual analysis (kappa = 0.31). Development of a stable and meaningful measurement system for the extent of plagiocephaly is needed to allow scientific studies of the natural history of plagiocephaly and effectiveness of interventions. PMID:16770174

Mortenson, Patricia A; Steinbok, Paul

2006-05-01

26

Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist\\/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. METHODS: Study

Catherine M Olsen; Maria Celia Hughes; Nirmala Pandeya; Adèle C Green

2006-01-01

27

Evaluation of the laser scanner as a surface measuring tool and its accuracy compared with direct facial anthropometric measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new laser scanning techniques enabling the capture of 3-D images which can be quantitatively assessed permits their use for surface measurements of the face. We used a laser optical surface scanner to study 30 subjects and took 83 facial anthropometric measurements, using 41 identifiable landmarks on the scanned image. These were compared to the standard anthropometric measurements

S. C. Aung; R. C. K. Ngim; S. T. Lee

1995-01-01

28

Are New Generations Getting Bigger in Size? Anthropometric Measurements in Erzurum  

PubMed Central

Objective: When the dimensional measurements of the students who spend most of their time at school are taken into consideration, inappropriate dimensions of school equipment may affect their body and psychological improvements negatively. Anthropometric measurements are necessary for designing the educational equipment of the children at school. It is emphasized that anthropometric measurements of the people living in different climate and altitude conditions will be different. It is mentioned that anthropometric data available for a certain region will be able to change as a result of changing socio-economical conditions and therefore, anthropometric data update is necessary at certain periods. Materials and Methods: In 2000 anthropometric data obtained from the children between the age of seven and fifteen, who were in sitting and standing positions, were measured with a repeated measurement in the same schools in 2007. Results: Mean values of the heights of elbow at standing position of the female students, 8 years old, increased from 72.38 cm in 2000 to 74.67 cm in 2007 (p<0.001). Most of the other measurements in 2007 were larger than those in 2000, giving the impression that new generation children are getting larger in size. Conclusion: As reported in the literature, anthropometric data should be updated at certain period of times. PMID:25610324

Malkoc, ?smail; Kaya, M. Dursun; Erdogan, Osman; Kara, Asli; Yesilyurt, Hakki; Ozkan, Behzat

2014-01-01

29

Classifying children for sports participation based upon anthropometric measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study proposes a classification system for youth sports that is maturation-based, using the anthropometric prediction of vertical jump impulse potential. Methods: Impulse was calculated for children between 8.0 and 17.9 years of age from vertical jump height [I = m × (2 gh)0.5] in a truncated version of the Coquitlam Growth Study database. A series of stepwise regressions

Gregory Anderson; Richard Ward

2002-01-01

30

2.MD Hand Span Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Hand span is a measure of distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger with the hand fully extended. Each student places his or h...

31

Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and

T. Jürimäe; T. Hurbo; J. Jürimäe

2009-01-01

32

INTRAFAMILIAL AND MIDPARENTAL-CHILD CORRELATIONS AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS IN PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME FAMILIES  

PubMed Central

To determine the effects of familial background on anthropometric dimensions in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), we measured weight; height; sitting height; longitude and breadth of the head, hands, and feet; head, arm, and calf circumferences; and triceps and subscapular skinfolds in 28 individuals with the syndrome and their natural parents. Midparental-child correlations were significant for height and foot length, with heritability estimates of 0.52 and 0.68, respectively. Significant mother-child correlations were found for weight, height, foot length, and minimal frontal diameter for the total group; in addition, hand length and breadth, and calf and arm circumferences were significant for the patients age 12.5 years or under. These data provide evidence for maternal effects on several physical characteristics in PWS, particularly in younger patients. PMID:25505360

Butler, Merlin G.; Haynes, Judy L.; Meaney, F. John

2014-01-01

33

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial\\/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures

Hugo Amigo; Patricia Bustos; Jay S Kaufman

2010-01-01

34

Upper extremity soft and rigid tissue mass prediction using segment anthropometric measures and DXA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression equations for predicting bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and wobbling mass (WM) of living people from simple anthropometric measures (segment lengths, circumferences, breadths, and skin folds) have been reported in the literature for the lower extremities, but are lacking for the upper extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate such equations for

Katherine L. Arthurs; David M. Andrews

2009-01-01

35

Predicting body composition by densitometry from simple anthropometric measurements1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

New equations have been developed to predict body fat (percent BF) calculated from body density measured by underwater weighing from simple anthropometric measurements, using stepwise-multiple-regression analysis in 63 men and 84 women. Log1() sum of four skinfold thicknesses explained 80.1% (SE = 3.8) of variance of percent BF in men and 76.4% (SE = 4.6) in women. Alternative equations using

Michael EJ Lean; Thang S Han; Paul Deurenberg

36

Predicting intra-abdominal fatness from anthropometric measures: the influence of stature  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20–51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19–85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra-abdominal fat volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Aberdeen and cross-sectional areas at L4-L5 level by computerised

TS Han; G McNeill; JC Seidell; MEJ Lean

1997-01-01

37

Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men13  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACI' Equations have been developed for the pre- diction of deep abdominal adipose-tissue (AT) accumulation from anthropometric measurements in a sample of 1 10 men. An equation including the waist circumference and age could predict 74% of the variance in the amount of deep abdominal AT with an SEE of29.6 cm2 (29.2% ofthe mean deep abdominal AT value), whereas another

Jean-Pierre Despr; Marie-Christine Pouliot; Angelo Tremblay; Claude Bouchard

38

Association between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in HCV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODS: A total of 160 consecutive patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus and who received treatment at the hepatitis C outpatient unit of our hospital from April 2010 to May 2011 were prospectively evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, anthropometric measurements, and serum lipid profile analysis were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were excluded. A total of 135 patients with a mean age of 49.8±11.4 years were studied. Among these patients, 60% were male. The phase angle and BMI means were 6.5±0.8° and 26.5±4.8 kg/m2, respectively. Regarding anthropometric variables, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area had a positive correlation with phase angle. In contrast, when analyzing the lipid profile, only HDL was inversely correlated with phase angle. However, in multiple regression models adjusted for age and gender, only mid-arm circumference (p?=?0.005), mid-arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.003), and arm muscle circumference (p?=?0.001) were associated with phase angle in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, phase angle is positively correlated with anthropometric measures in our study. However, there is no association between phase angle and lipid profile in these patients. Our results suggest that phase angle is related to lean body mass in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. PMID:24473515

de Souza Dorna, Mariana; Costa, Nara Aline; de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes; de Paiva, Sergio Alberto Rupp; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Silva, Giovanni Faria

2013-01-01

39

Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

2011-01-01

40

Anthropometric measures, cytokines and survival in haemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Lower serum albumin concentration (sAlb) and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported to predict death in patients treated with haemodialysis (HD). SAlb, along with anthropo- metric measures, has been used as a surrogate marker for nutritional status in patients with chronic disease. Though adequate nutrition has been considered an important factor for patients treated with HD, it

Paul L. Kimmel; Lakhmir S. Chawla; Amali Amarasinghe; Rolf A. Peterson; Karen L. Weihs; Samuel J. Simmens; Sylvan Alleyne; Harry B. Burke; Illuminado Cruz; Judith H. Veis

41

Anthropometric data of female farm workers from north eastern India and design of hand tools of the hilly region  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anthropometric survey was carried out for female agricultural workers of two north eastern (NE) hill states of India, namely Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram. For this three tribes from Arunachal Pradesh, viz. Adi, Apatani and Nishi and one Mizo tribe from Mizoram were selected. The age group of subjects ranged 18–60 years. Altogether 400 subjects were selected and 76 body

K. N. Dewangan; C. Owary; R. K. Datta

2008-01-01

42

Anthropometric measurements of the Nilotic tribes in a refugee camp.  

PubMed

The heights and weights of 2,233 randomly selected adult Nilotic immigrants from Southern Sudan (50.8% Dinkas, 43.8% Nuers, 3.4% Anuaks and 2.0% Shilluks) that have settled in Itang, Southwestern Ethiopia were measured. The mean height, weight and body mass index [BMI = weight(kg)/the square of height(m2)] of men (N = 1,1618) were 175.9 + 9 cm) (+/- SD), 59.7 +/- 8 kg, and 19.4 +/- 2, respectively, and those of women (N = 615) were 169.0 +/- 7 cm, 54.0 +/- 8 kg, and 19.1 +/- 3, respectively. The mean height of Dinka men (176.4 +/- 9 cm) and Nuer men (175.7 +/- 9 cm) were significantly higher than that of Anuak men (171.7 +/- 8 cm) and Shilluk men (172.6 +/- 6.1 cm). The Nuer women's mean height, weight and BMI were significantly lower than those of the other tribes'. This study confirms that the Nilotics in Southern Sudan have slender bodies and are amongst the tallest in the world, and may attain greater height if priviledged with favourable environmental conditions during early childhood and adolescence, allowing full expression of the genetic material. PMID:8674486

Chali, D

1995-10-01

43

Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

2014-01-01

44

Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis of Healthy Turkish Young Adults: Anthropometric Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of this study was to establish facial soft tissue norms for Turkish young adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Anthropometric measurements of the facial soft tissue were taken from 281 female and 149 male Turkish adults aged between\\u000a 18 and 24 years. The soft tissue facial profiles were digitally analyzed using linear (17 vertical and 10 horizontal) measurements\\u000a made with standardized photographic records, taken

Senem Turan Ozdemir; Deniz Sigirli; Ilker Ercan; N. Simsek Cankur

2009-01-01

45

Reliability of anthropometric measurements in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.  

PubMed

The ToyBox-study aims to develop and test an innovative and evidence-based obesity prevention programme for preschoolers in six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain. In multicentre studies, anthropometric measurements using standardized procedures that minimize errors in the data collection are essential to maximize reliability of measurements. The aim of this paper is to describe the standardization process and reliability (intra- and inter-observer) of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) measurements in preschoolers. All technical procedures and devices were standardized and centralized training was given to the fieldworkers. At least seven children per country participated in the intra- and inter-observer reliability testing. Intra-observer technical error ranged from 0.00 to 0.03?kg for weight and from 0.07 to 0.20?cm for height, with the overall reliability being above 99%. A second training was organized for WC due to low reliability observed in the first training. Intra-observer technical error for WC ranged from 0.12 to 0.71?cm during the first training and from 0.05 to 1.11?cm during the second training, and reliability above 92% was achieved. Epidemiological surveys need standardized procedures and training of researchers to reduce measurement error. In the ToyBox-study, very good intra- and-inter-observer agreement was achieved for all anthropometric measurements performed. PMID:25047381

De Miguel-Etayo, P; Mesana, M I; Cardon, G; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Gó?d?, M; Socha, P; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Koletzko, B V; Duvinage, K; Androutsos, O; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A

2014-08-01

46

Anthropometric sourcebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

1979-01-01

47

The relationship between anthropometric measurements and the bony pelvis in African American and European American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The bony pelvis anatomy is highly variable. This study aims to examine the relationship between anthropometric measurements\\u000a and the size of the adult female bony pelvis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Three-dimensional points of all pertinent landmarks of 96 adult female bony pelvises were obtained and the true conjugate,\\u000a interspinous distance, intertuberous distance, and pelvic inlet and outlet areas were calculated. The relationship

Beri Ridgeway; Beatriz E. Arias; Matthew D. Barber

2011-01-01

48

Relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among adolescent National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, south India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, India. Materials and Methods: Demographic information like age, sex, and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures like weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference, and dental caries were recorded as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (P = 0.049 and 0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI, and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09, and 1.02, respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (Height, weight, and BMI) and dental caries. Conclusion: There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group. PMID:23633856

Chakravarthy, Pentapati K.; Suresh, Gowtham; Chenna, Deepika; Chenna, Vijay

2013-01-01

49

Anthropometric History: What Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

Komlos, John

1992-01-01

50

Agreement between cranial and facial classification through clinical observation and anthropometric measurement among envigado school children  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the agreement between cranial and facial classification obtained by clinical observation and anthropometric measurements among school children from the municipality of Envigado, Colombia. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among 8-15-year-old children. Initially, an indirect clinical observation was made to determine the skull pattern (dolichocephalic, mesocephalic or brachycephalic), based on visual equivalence of right eurion- left eurion and glabella-opisthocranion anthropometric points, as well as the facial type (leptoprosopic, mesoprosopic and euryprosopic), according to the left and right zygomatic, nasion and gnation points. Following, a direct measurement was conducted with an anthropometer using the same landmarks for cranial width and length, as well as for facial width and height. Subsequently, both the facial index [euryprosopic (?80.9%), mesoprosopic (between 81% - 93%) and leptoprosopic (?93.1%)] and the cranial index [dolichocephalic (index???75.9%), mesocephalic (between 76% - 81%), and brachycephalic (?81.1%)] were determined. Concordance between the indices obtained was calculated by direct and indirect measurement using the Kappa statistic. Results A total of 313 students were enrolled; 172 (55%) were female and 141 (45%) male. The agreement between the direct and indirect facial index measurements was 0.189 (95% CI 0.117-0261), and the cranial index was 0.388 (95% CI 0.304-0.473), indicating poor concordance. Conclusions No agreement was observed between direct measurements conducted with an anthropometer and indirect measurements via visual evaluation. Therefore, the indirect visual classification method is not appropriate to calculate the cranial and facial indices. PMID:24886038

2014-01-01

51

Is it possible to derive a reliable estimate of human visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from simple anthropometric measurements?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to generate equations predicting visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue (AT) from simple anthropometric measurements. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure VAT and SAT cross-sectional areas at the level of L4 in 49 subjects (19 men and 30 women) with a large range of age and body mass index (BMI).

Enzo Bonora; Rocco Micciolo; Abraham A. Ghiatas; Jack L. Lancaster; Abdalmajed Alyassin; Michele Muggeo; Ralph A. Defronzo

1995-01-01

52

Diet quality and change in anthropometric measures: 15-year longitudinal study in Australian adults.  

PubMed

Evidence from longitudinal studies on the association between diet quality and change in anthropometric measures is scarce. We therefore investigated the relationship between a recently developed food-based dietary index and change in measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) in Australian adults (1992-2007). We used data from the Australian population-based Nambour Skin Cancer Study comprising 1231 adults aged 25-75 years at baseline (1992). We applied generalised estimating equations (GEE) to examine the association between diet quality and change in anthropometric measures. Dietary intake was assessed by an FFQ in 1992, 1996 and 2007. Diet quality was estimated using the dietary guideline index (DGI), developed to reflect the dietary guidelines for Australian adults; a higher score indicating increased compliance. Multivariable models, stratified by sex, were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. We show that men with higher diet quality had a lower gain in BMI as compared to those with low diet quality during the 15-year follow-up. In a multivariable adjusted model, as compared to men in quartile 1 (reference), those in the highest quartile had the lowest gain in BMI (mean (95 % CI): 0.05 (0.00, 0.09) v. 0.11 (0.06, 0.16) kg/m2 per year, P =0.01). Diet quality was inversely, but non-significantly associated with change in WC. In women, DGI score was unrelated to change in any body measure. Energy underreporting did not explain the lack of association. We conclude that adherence to a high-quality diet according to Australian dietary guidelines leads to lower gain in BMI and WC in middle-aged men, but not in women. PMID:21867579

Arabshahi, Simin; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Williams, Gail M; Marks, Geoffrey C; Lahmann, Petra H

2012-05-01

53

Anthropometric measurements of the forearm and their correlation with the stature of Bengali adult Muslim females.  

PubMed

Stature or body height is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter that determine the physical identity of an individual. The study was done to estimate stature from the forearm length on one hundred and fifty Bengali adult Muslim females. This descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Anatomy, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. One hundred and fifty Bengali adult Muslim female was collected from BSMMU & some urban region of Dhaka. Measurement of stature and forearm length of right and left side was taken with a standard anthropometer and a slide caliper respectively. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and forearm length. PMID:20639830

Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Nurunnobi, A M; Yesmin, F

2010-07-01

54

EARLY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF BODY MASS INDEX AND OBESITY AMONG OLDER WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study consisting of 18,109 healthy women who participated in the Swedish Mammography Cohort aged ...

55

Threshold values of visceral fat measures and their anthropometric alternatives for metabolic derangement in Japanese obese boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the direct measure of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by computed tomography (CT) is a superior diagnostic criterion to the anthropometric surrogates and more classical criteria of obesity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional, clinical study. Obese boys were classified according to the occurrence of abnormal values in either serum triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase or insulin level. A threshold value of each criterion

K Asayama; K Dobashi; H Hayashibe; K Kodera; N Uchida; T Nakane; T Araki; S Nakazawa

2002-01-01

56

Anthropometric measures of adiposity as correlates of atherogenic index of plasma in non-obese sedentary Nigerian males  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in cardiovascular events has necessitated the identification of possible predictors that can help in predicting atherogenicity. Objective The study sought to identify the anthropometric measures of adiposity that are associated with atherogenic risk in sedentary, non-obese, young male adults. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to recruit a purposive sample of 414 sedentary males in a university campus. Anthropometric measures of adiposity, lipid parameters, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were assessed. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data collected. Alpha level was set at p<0.05. Results There was a high risk of cardiovascular events (AIP=0.36±0.04 SD) among the participants. A significant correlation (p=0.000) was obtained between each of the anthropometric measures (except conicity index) and AIP. Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat were significant predictors accounting for 38.9, 3.1, and 2.2% of the variance due to AIP. Conclusions Sedentary status among young males is associated with high atherogenic risk in the presence of normal lipid and anthropometric parameters. Both central and general measures of adiposity predict less than half of the atherogenic risk in sedentary young males. PMID:24702831

Ezeukwu, Antoninus O.; Agwubike, Elias O.

2014-01-01

57

EARLY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES AND REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF BODY MASS INDEX AND OBESITY AMONG OLDER WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to examine whether early anthropometric measures and reproductive factors were associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. This was a cross-sectional, observational study including 18,109 healthy women aged 49-83 y who participated in the Swedish Mammography Coh...

58

Predicting Football Players' Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Using Standard Anthropometric Measures  

PubMed Central

Context: The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population specific and might not be accurate for football athletes. Objective: To develop multiple regression equations using standard anthropometric measurements to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry %Fat (DEXA%Fat) in collegiate football players. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA football athletes (age ?=? 20 ± 1 years, height ?=? 185.6 ± 6.5 cm, mass ?=? 103.1 ± 20.4 kg, DEXA%Fat ?=? 19.5 ± 9.1%) participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants had the following measures: (1) body composition testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; (2) skinfold measurements in millimeters, including chest, triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal (SFAB), and thigh; and (3) standard circumference measurements in centimeters, including ankle, calf, thigh, hip (AHIP), waist, umbilical (AUMB), chest, wrist, forearm, arm, and neck. Regression analysis and fit statistics were used to determine the relationship between DEXA%Fat and each skinfold thickness, sum of all skinfold measures (SFSUM), and individual circumference measures. Results: Statistical analysis resulted in the development of 3 equations to predict DEXA%Fat: model 1, (0.178 • AHIP) + (0.097 • AUMB) + (0.089 • SFSUM) ? 19.641; model 2, (0.193 • AHIP) + (0.133 • AUMB) + (0.371 • SFAB) ? 23.0523; and model 3, (0.132 • SFSUM) + 3.530. The R2 values were 0.94 for model 1, 0.93 for model 2, and 0.91 for model 3 (for all, P < .001). Conclusions: The equations developed provide an accurate way to assess DEXA%Fat in collegiate football players using standard anthropometric measures so athletic trainers and coaches can monitor these athletes at increased health risk due to increased size. PMID:22892406

Oliver, Jonathan M.; Lambert, Brad S.; Martin, Steven E.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

2012-01-01

59

Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained athletes, women, and in patients who suffer from muscular fatigue. PMID:25109720

Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr

2014-01-01

60

Prenatal DDT exposure in relation to anthropometric and pubertal measures in adolescent males.  

PubMed

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), a pesticide once used widely in agriculture and now limited to public health use, remains a controversial chemical because of a combination of benefits and risks. DDT or its breakdown products are ubiquitous in the environment and in humans. Compounds in the DDT family have endocrine actions and have been associated with reproductive toxicity. A previous study reported associations between prenatal exposure to p,p -DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene] and increased height and weight in adolescent boys. We examined a group with higher exposures to see whether similar associations would occur. Our study group was 304 males born in Philadelphia in the early 1960s who had participated in a previous study. Anthropometric and pubertal measures from one to six visits during their adolescent years were available, as were stored maternal serum samples from pregnancy. We measured p,p -DDE, p,p -DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane], and o,p -DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane] in the maternal serum. Outcomes examined in the boys were height, ratio of sitting height to height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, ratio of subscapular to the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, skeletal age, serum testosterone, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. No associations between prenatal exposure to any of the DDT compounds and any outcome measure were seen. PMID:15579424

Gladen, Beth C; Klebanoff, Mark A; Hediger, Mary L; Katz, Solomon H; Barr, Dana B; Davis, Mark D; Longnecker, Matthew P

2004-12-01

61

Anthropometric measurements to design best-fit femoral stem for the Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background: The standard commercially available marketed prostheses sometimes may not be the best fit to Indian patients because of the large anatomic variation. Orthopedic surgeons always stress the need for a proper implant–patient match in hip joint replacements, in particular, for a cementless femoral stem. The complications of mismatch are aseptic loosening, improper load distribution, and discomfort. The present study was undertaken to compare the differences in dimensions between femurs of elderly Indians and those of populations from other regions in order to solve the problem of a possible geometric mismatch between a selected implant and the hip joint as far as Indian patients are concerned. Materials and Methods: Measurements were made using computer aided design techniques on computed tomography (CT) scanned images of 98 femurs (56 left and 42 right). The software used to convert the CT images into solid models was MIMICS® (Materialize, Inc., Leuven, Belgium). The geometrical parameters, viz., the femoral head offset, femoral head center (HC), femoral head diameter, femoral head relative position, position of shaft isthmus, neck-shaft angle, bow angle, femoral neck length, canal flare index, femoral length, and canal width at various locations, were chosen to design best-fit standard femoral stems for cementless insertion. These data were compared with the published data of other countries. Results: A difference of 16.8% was found in the femoral head offset between Indian and Swiss populations, which can affect soft tissue tension and range of motion. At a distance of 20 mm above the lesser trochanter (LT), the anteroposterior (AP) canal width was found to differ by 45.4%, when compared with a French population which can affect the mechanical stability of femoral stem. Femoral dimensions of Indian male and female subjects have also been compared and differences evaluated. At the LT, the aspect ratio (ratio of mediolateral canal width and AP canal width) in case of males (1.198) is approximately13% higher than that of females (1.059). Conclusions: This study indicates a need for redesign of femoral stems. The obtained anthropometric femoral dimensions can be used to design and develop indigenous hip joint prosthesis in India. The results of this study can also be used in forensic anthropometric studies. PMID:22345806

Rawal, BR; Ribeiro, Rahul; Malhotra, Rajesh; Bhatnagar, Naresh

2012-01-01

62

Innervation zone location of the biceps brachii, a comparison between genders and correlation with anthropometric measurements.  

PubMed

Avoiding the innervation zone (IZ) is important when collecting surface electromyographic data. The purposes of this study were threefold: (1) to examine the precision of two different techniques for expressing IZ location for the biceps brachii, (2) to compare these locations between men and women, and (3) to determine if IZ movement with changes in elbow joint angle is related to different anthropometric measures. Twenty-four subjects (mean+/-SD ages=21.8+/-3.5yr) performed isometric contractions of the right forearm flexors at each of three separate elbow joint angles (90 degrees, 120 degrees, and 150 degrees between the arm and forearm). During each contraction, the location of the IZ for the biceps brachii was visually identified using a linear electrode array. These IZ locations were expressed in both absolute (i.e. as a distance (mm) from the acromion process) and relative (i.e. as a percentage of humerus length) terms. The results suggested that the estimations of IZ location were more precise when expressed in relative versus absolute terms, and were generally different for men and women. The shift in IZ location with changes in elbow joint angle was not, however, related to height, weight, or humerus length. PMID:19028429

DeFreitas, Jason M; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Herda, Trent J; Cramer, Joel T; Beck, Travis W

2010-02-01

63

The development of simple anthropometric measures to diagnose antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy in resource limited settings  

PubMed Central

Background Lipohypertrophy does not appear to be an adverse ART reaction while lipoatrophy is clearly associated with the use of stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (AZT). In low and middle income countries d4T has only recently been phased out and AZT is still widely being used. Several case definitions have been developed to diagnose lipodystrophy, but none of them are generalizable to sub-Saharan Africa where black women have less visceral adipose tissue and more subcutaneous adipose tissue than white women. We aimed to develop a simple, objective measure to define lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy by comparing patient report to anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) -derived variables. Methods DXA and anthropometric measures were obtained in a cross sectional sample of black HIV-infected South African men (n?=?116) and women (n?=?434) on ART. Self-reported information on fat gain or fat loss was collected using a standard questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to describe the performance of anthropometric and DXA-derived variables using patient reported lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy as the reference standard. Results Lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy were more common in women (25% and 33% respectively) than in men (10% and 13% respectively). There were insufficient numbers of men with DXA scans for meaningful analysis. The best predictors of lipoatrophy in women were the anthropometric variables tricep (AUC?=?0.725) and thigh skinfold (AUC =0.720) thicknesses; and the DXA-derived variables percentage lower limb fat (AUC?=?0.705) and percentage lower limb fat/height (AUC?=?0.713). The best predictors of lipohypertrophy in women were the anthropometric variable waist/hip ratio (AUC?=?0.645) and the DXA-derived variable percentage trunk fat/percentage limb fat (AUC?=?0.647). Conclusions We were able to develop simple, anthropometric measures for defining lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, using a sample of black HIV-infected South African women with DXA scans. This is of particular relevance in resource limited settings, where health professionals need simple and inexpensive methods of diagnosing patients with lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. PMID:25143778

2014-01-01

64

Improved Method for Individualization of Head-Related Transfer Functions on Horizontal Plane Using Reduced Number of Anthropometric Measurements  

E-print Network

An important problem to be solved in modeling head-related impulse responses (HRIRs) is how to individualize HRIRs so that they are suitable for a listener. We modeled the entire magnitude head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), in frequency domain, for sound sources on horizontal plane of 37 subjects using principal components analysis (PCA). The individual magnitude HRTFs could be modeled adequately well by a linear combination of only ten orthonormal basis functions. The goal of this research was to establish multiple linear regression (MLR) between weights of basis functions obtained from PCA and fewer anthropometric measurements in order to individualize a given listener's HRTFs with his or her own anthropomety. We proposed here an improved individualization method based on MLR of weights of basis functions by utilizing 8 chosen out of 27 anthropometric measurements. Our objective experiments' results show a superior performance than that of our previous work on individualizing minimum phase HRIRs and a...

Hugeng, W Wahab

2010-01-01

65

The relative influence of physical fitness, acclimatization state, anthropometric measures and gender on individual reactions to heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An experiment was set up to quantify the relative influence of fitness, acclimatization, gender and anthropometric measures on physiological responses to heat stress. For this purpose, 12 male and 12 female subjects were exposed to a neutral [ambient temperature (T\\u000aa) 21°C, relative humidity (r.h. 50%)], a warm, humid (T\\u000aa 34°C, r.h. 80%) and a hot, dry (T\\u000aa

George Havenith; Henk van Middendorp

1990-01-01

66

Mercury (Hg) and oxidative stress status in healthy mothers and its effect on birth anthropometric measures.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to: (a) investigate the antagonistic interaction between selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in mothers and their newborns, (b) delineate the role of oxidative mechanisms induced by Hg exposure and (c) examine the protective effect of Se on Hg-induced oxidative stress and birth outcomes. Levels of Hg and Se were measured in umbilical cord blood and the placentas of 250 healthy mothers who participated in a study between 2006 and 2006 assessing prenatal exposure various pollutants. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in cord and maternal blood and of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in urine were measured for assessing oxidative stress. Tail moment (TM) in the comet assay, as a biomarker of DNA damage was measured in samples of cord and maternal blood. The mean Se levels in umbilical cord blood (67.618±12.897?g/l) were lower than those reported in many countries, but none of the newborns had Se levels <20?g/l (the threshold limit of Keshan disease). More than 80% of the newborns, though, had Se levels below the 80?g/l needed for maximum glutathione peroxidase activity. Even though 18.6% of the newborns had levels of Hg ?5.8?g/l (the reference dose of the Environmental Protection Agency), no relationship was observed with the biomarkers of oxidative stress. The mean placental Hg levels (0.056±0.075?g/g dry wt.) were higher than those reported for newborns with abnormal fetal development. Our study also documented significant placental transfer of Hg and Se to the fetus. The Hg/Se molar ratio in both cord blood and placental tissue was well below 1. The average amount of Se in both matrices was approximately 50-fold in molar excess over Hg. The molar excess of Se in the umbilical cord (0.843?mol/l), however, was lower than in placental tissues (13.098?mol/kg dry wt.). In further support of the relationships of Hg and Se on oxidative stress, we observed significantly lower levels of maternal MDA associated with Se levels in both cord blood and placental tissues and significantly higher TM levels associated with placental Hg in both newborns and their mothers. In contrast, Se/Hg molar ratios in placental tissues were positively associated with MDA and negatively with TM. The disproportion between Hg and Se might be influenced by the length of Hg exposure that in turn might affect Se bioavailability. Each birth anthropometric outcome was modeled as a function of Hg, Se and their interactions. After an adjustment for confounding variables, Hg in cord blood had a significantly positive rather than the expected negative association with crown-heel length. Placental Hg was associated with reduced birth height. Both associations were independent of prematurity. The status of Se in newborns was positively associated with crown-heel length and placental weight, with and without preterm births, and with birth weight, but only without preterm births. In contrast, a lower cephalization index was correlated with Se levels in cord blood, which may be an indicator of a detrimental effect on health. Our study, however, revealed associations between significantly lower levels of placental Se and several birth anthropometric measures (head circumference, birth weight and birth height) but the significance disappeared after excluding preterm births. Regression analyses generally indicated either significant or marginally significant Hg-Se antagonistic interactions that may have moderated the toxic effect of Hg on head circumference and birth weight. This finding may be due to chance or residual confounding and so may not be clinically relevant, but it may also suggest that Hg, Se and Hg-Se interactions are important factors for understanding Hg-induced adverse birth outcomes. Additional research will be necessary to evaluate the biological impact of combined metals in the assessment of fetal growth and development. PMID:24332576

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Obsum, Cercilia Angela; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Billedo, Grisellhi; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Rabbah, Abdullah

2014-01-01

67

A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurement of interpupillary distance  

PubMed Central

Background: A number of techniques are being practiced for the evaluation of VDO, but none of them is scientifically more accurate than other. Each method advocated has its own limitations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and interpupillary distance (IPD). Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 dentate subjects comprising of 200 males and 200 females. Anthropometric measurement of VDO was recorded clinically using modified digital vernier caliper. Also, a standardized digital photograph of face was generated from the frontal aspect using a digital camera for the measurement of IPD in millimeters. Correlation between VDO and IPD was studied using Spearman’s coefficient. For the execution of regression command and preparation of prediction equations to estimate VDO, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software Version 11.5 was used. Results: VDO and IPD was more in males compared to females. VDO was significantly and positively correlated with IPD only in males whereas females showed a weak correlation. Hence, regression equation was derived only for males. VDO estimation using regression equation for IPD had a standard error of ± 3.94 in males. Conclusions: Since the variations between VDO and IPD are within the range of 2-4 mm, VDO prediction through this method is reliable and reproducible for male patients. Also, the method is simple, economic, and non invasive; hence it could be recommended for everyday practice to determine vertical dimension of occlusion in case of male patients. Key words:Anthropometry, interpupillary distance, jaw relation, vertical dimension of occlusion. PMID:25593663

Ladda, Ruchi; Bhandari, Aruna J.

2014-01-01

68

Relation of anthropometric and dynamometric variables to serious postoperative complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of serious postoperative complications by using standard anthropometric and biochemical nutritional variables was attempted in 225 patients admitted for major abdominal surgery. In 102 of the patients hand-grip dynamometry was also measured, and this proved the most sensitive test, predicting complications in 48 of the 55 patients (87%) who developed them (p < 0.001). Arm muscle circumference and forearm

A M Klidjian; K J Foster; R M Kammerling; A Cooper; S J Karran

1980-01-01

69

Estimated anthropometric measurements of Turkish adults and effects of age and geographical regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the anthropometric characteristics of the Turkish population by geographical region, age and gender. A survey of 4205 samples consisting of 2263 male and 1942 female civilian subjects was done in the year of 2007. It contains data from all seven geographical regions of Turkey and from all age groups. In the study,

??eri Ali; Nurullah Arslan

2009-01-01

70

The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training on Abdominal Strength, Endurance, and Selected Anthropometric Measures  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of self-administered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on changes in strength, endurance, selected anthropometric measures, and subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the abdominal wall. Twenty-four adults (experimental group) stimulated their abdominals 5 days per week (20-40 minutes per session) for 8 weeks and refrained from engaging in any additional exercise during the study. A control group (N=16) refrained from exercising the abdominals or engaging in any other exercise training during the study. Subjects were tested at the beginning, mid-point, and end of the study. Isometric strength of the abdominal muscles was tested using a isokinetic dynamometer, endurance was measured using the ACSM curl-up test, abdominal circumference was measured using a steel tape measure, and body shape and satisfaction were assessed via questionnaire. The stimulation group had a 58% increase in abdominal strength, whereas the control group did not change. The stimulation group also had a 100% increase in abdominal endurance versus a 28% increase in the control group. Waist circumference decreased by of 3.5 cm in the stimulation group compared to no significant change in the control group. All 24 subjects in the stimulation group felt that their midsections were more “toned” and “firmed” and 13/24 (54%) felt that their posture had improved as a result of the stimulation. None of the control group subjects reported changes in these parameters. There were no significant differences in body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness over the course of the study in either group. NMES, as used in the current study, resulted in significant improvements in the muscular strength and endurance of the abdominal region, as well as subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the mid-section. Key Points Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) was effective in increasing muscle strength and endurance All subjects perceived their abdominal muscles to be firmer and more toned as a result of EMS Abdominal and waist girth was also significantly reduced, despite no changes in body weight or subcutaneous fat PMID:24431963

Porcari, John P.; Miller, Jennifer; Cornwell, Kelly; Foster, Carl; Gibson, Mark; McLean, Karen; Kernozek, Tom

2005-01-01

71

Anthropometric assessment of muscularity during growth: estimating fat-free mass with 2 skinfold-thickness measurements is superior to measuring midupper arm muscle area in healthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to determine body composition, especially in children. Objective: Our aim was to compare 2 of the simplest anthro- pometry-based equations available for determining nutritional sta- tus and muscularity in children and adolescents, examined in rela- tion to other methodologically independent muscle variables. Design: Midupper arm muscle area (UAMA) and fat-free mass (FFM) according to

Kai R Boye; Triantafillia Dimitriou; Friedrich Manz; Eckhard Schoenau; Christina Neu; Stefan Wudy; Thomas Remer

72

Anthropometric differences among occupational groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demands for anthropometric information for the design of machinery and personal protective equipment to prevent occupational injuries has necessitated an understanding of the anthropometric differences to be found among occupations. This study identified differences in various body measurements between occupational groups in the USA, as determined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Approximately 16,000 of

Hongwei Hsiao; Daniel Long; Karl Snyder

2002-01-01

73

The Association between Primary Tooth Emergence and Anthropometric Measures in Young Adults: Findings from a Large Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Cross sectional studies suggest a link may exist between tooth emergence and obesity. To explore this relationship, we aimed to evaluate the prospective associations between primary tooth emergence and anthropometric measures in young adults. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse relationships between primary tooth emergence, and anthropometric measures measured at 17.8 years, in 2977 participants (1362 males and 1615 females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In minimally adjusted models, ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ (assessed by questionnaire at 15 months) was positively associated with height [change in height (cm) per quintile increase in ‘number of paired teeth’ (?)?=?0.35 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.52) P?=?0.0001] and weight [ratio of geometric mean weight per quintile increase in ‘number of paired teeth’ (RGM)?=?1.015 (95%CI: 1.010, 1.019) P<0.0001]. The relationship with weight was largely driven by fat mass, which showed an equivalent relationship with ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ to that seen for weight [RGM?=?1.036 (95%CI: 1.022, 1.051) P<0.0001] (adjusted for height)]. Conversely, no association was seen between ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ and lean mass. An increase in ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ at age 15 months was associated with a higher Tanner stage at age 13 in girls but not boys, but further adjustment of associations between ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ and anthropometric traits for Tanner stage was without effect. Primary tooth emergence is associated with subsequent fat mass, suggesting these could share common constitutive factors, and that early primary tooth emergence may represent a hitherto unrecognised risk factor for the development of obesity in later life. PMID:24823714

Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Evans, David M.; Tobias, Jonathan H.

2014-01-01

74

CHEN, ROBERTSON, CIPOLLA: BODY SHAPES FROM SINGLE VIEW MEASUREMENTS 1 A Practical System for Modelling Body  

E-print Network

to conveniently extract anthropometric measurements from a single photo, while using readily available scene cues effort for segmentation. Measurement-based systems, on the other hand, use anthropometric measurements (e with silhouettes, anthropometric measurements are relatively invariant to articulation changes (e.g. arm pose

Cipolla, Roberto

75

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as determinants of various anthropometric measures of birth outcome.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are known to induce oxidative stress. There have been several reports about the link between PAH exposure and complications in pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was conducted to: (1) measure the levels of benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Ch), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBahA) in placentas and maternal and -umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery from 1578 women between June 2005 and 2006 in the area of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; (2) assess their influence on various anthropometric measures of birth outcome taking into consideration the carcinogenic properties of these PAHs; and (3) determine the degree of PAH-related oxidative DNA damage and birth outcome. Among the five tested PAHs, only BaP was carcinogenic; therefore, the levels of the other four probable or possible carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, Ch, BaF, and DBahA) were summed as ?4-PAHs. Levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) were determined in maternal urine samples as a biomarker of PAH internal dose. Urinary cotinine (COT) was measured as an index of smoking. The following markers of oxidative stress were selected: malondialdehyde (MDA) in cord (C-MDA) and maternal (M-MDA) serum and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in maternal urine. None of the tested PAHs was found in maternal or cord blood. However, all five PAH compounds were detected in placentas; Ch was the highest (6.582 ?g/kg dry wt.), and BaA was the lowest (0.236 ?g/kg dry wt.). The mean concentration of urinary 1-HP found in this study was 0.216 ± 0.856 ?g/g Cr. After adjusting for gestational age and other confounding variables, regression models revealed an inverse relationship between placental weight, cord length and placental BaP. A similar trend was observed between cord length and ?4-PAHs in placental tissues. Urinary 1-HP, though, cannot be used as an unequivocal biomarker of PAH exposure, but it can be an appropriate indicator of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The data demonstrate that ETS exposure (as measured by urinary COT) may adversely affect birth outcome as shown by reduced head circumference, birth weight, and birth length, as well as increased cephalization index. The positive relationship between 8-OHdG levels and 1-HP in urine provides evidence of an oxidative stress mechanism. Although this study provides no direct evidence of an association between PAH exposure and DNA damage, increased oxidative stress in the form of lipid peroxidation significantly affected various birth measures. Therefore, there is a need for studies regarding PAH exposure and its associated biological effects to determine the extent of potential fetal damage as well as possible long-term effects, such as cancer. PMID:23314068

Al-Saleh, Iman; Alsabbahen, Ammar; Shinwari, Neptune; Billedo, Grisellhi; Mashhour, Abdullah; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Mohamed, Gamal El Din; Rabbah, Abdullah

2013-02-01

76

Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children. PMID:18996520

Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J

2009-01-01

77

Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. Design/Methods 1690 participants (1196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Results Among HIV+ women, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with poorer cognitive performance evidenced by longer Trails A and Trails B and shorter SDMT completion times. An obese BMI (30 kg/m2 or higher) was related to better performance on Trails B and worse performance on the Stroop Interference test. Among HIV- women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop – Color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR and cognition. Conclusion Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV infected women. PMID:24338243

Gustafson, Deborah R.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A.

2014-01-01

78

Motor conduction measurement in myelopathy hand  

PubMed Central

Summary We studied the relationship between intramedullary high signal intensity (IMHSI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and motor conduction in the spinal cords of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients. There was no significant difference between the biceps or triceps central motor conduction times (CMCTs) of the patients who did and did not exhibit IMHSI, whereas the abductor pollicis brevis CMCT was significantly longer in the patients who exhibited IMHSI (p<0.05) than in those who did not. The CMCT of the abductor pollicis brevis is sensitive to the degree of damage in the cervical spinal cord. Hand dysfunction is a characteristic of CSM regardless of the cervical level affected by the condition. The motor fibers innervating the intrinsic muscles of the hand in the long tract of the cervical spinal cord are more sensitive than other motor fibers. For this reason, we consider that myelopathy hand is a characteristic impairment of CSM. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the hand motor cortex is useful for the evaluation of cervical myelopathy. PMID:25473737

Shibuya, Ryoichi; Wada, Eiji; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2014-01-01

79

MediHandTrace ®: a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence.  

PubMed

The proper implementation of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing healthcare-associated infection. Although there are many programmes aimed at enhancing hand hygiene, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains incredibly low. One limiting factor is the lack of standardized measures and reports of hand hygiene opportunities. Direct observational audits have reported the weaknesses in this field. We report here a radiofrequency identification-based real-time automated continuous recording system (MediHandTrace(®)) that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of HCWs that we evaluated against video recordings as being accurate (99.02%), sensitive (95.65%) and specific (100%). The system can also provide information that is useful to understand HCW non-compliance and will allow the evaluation of future intervention studies. PMID:24261513

Boudjema, S; Dufour, J C; Aladro, A S; Desquerres, I; Brouqui, P

2014-01-01

80

An alignment based similarity measure for hand detection in cluttered sign language video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locating hands in sign language video is challenging due to a number of factors. Hand appearance varies widely across signers due to anthropometric variations and varying levels of signer proficiency. Video can be captured under varying illumination, camera resolutions, and levels of scene clutter, e.g., high-res video captured in a studio vs. low-res video gathered by a Web cam in

Ashwin Thangali; Stan Sclaroff

2009-01-01

81

Prognostic significance of the Complex "Visceral Adiposity Index" vs. simple anthropometric measures: Tehran lipid and glucose study  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been suggested to be used as a surrogate of visceral adiposity. We examined if VAI could improve predictive performances for CVD of the Framingham's general CVD algorithm (a multivariate model incorporating established CVD risk factors). We compared the predictive abilities of the VAI with those of simple anthropometric measures i.e. BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) or waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR). Design and methods In a nine-year population-based follow-up, 6 407 (2 778 men) participants, free of CVD at baseline, aged ? 30 years were eligible for the current analysis. The risk of CVD was estimated by incorporating VAI, BMI, WHpR, and WHtR, one at a time, into multivariate accelerated failure time models. Results We documented 534 CVD events with the annual incidence rate (95%CIs) being 7.3 (6.4-8.3) among women and 13.0 (11.7-14.6) among men. Risk of future CVD increased with increasing levels of VAI among both men and women. VAI was associated with multivariate-adjusted increased risk of incident CVD among women. However, the magnitude of risk conferred by VAI was not significantly higher than those conferred by BMI, WHpR, or WHtR. Among men, after adjustment for established CVD risk factors, VAI was no longer associated with increased risk of CVD. VAI failed to add to the predictive ability of the Framingham general CVD algorithm. Conclusions Using VAI instead of simple anthropometric measures may lead to loss of much information needed for predicting incident CVD. PMID:22394430

2012-01-01

82

NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

2010-11-01

83

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 55, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 91 A 3-D Anthropometric-Muscle-Based Active  

E-print Network

Anthropometric-Muscle-Based Active Appearance Model Marius D. Cordea and Emil M. Petriu, Fellow, IEEE Abstract and statistically based anthropometrical controls to model different facial-types. The 3-D anthropometric

Petriu, Emil M.

84

Levels of DDT and its metabolites in placenta, maternal and cord blood and their potential influence on neonatal anthropometric measures.  

PubMed

Previous studies of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have shown mixed results for the harmful effects on fetal growth and development. This cross-sectional study was designed to: (1) examine the extent of DDT exposure in 1578 women, aged 28.5±6.0 who delivered between June 2005 and 2006 in the area of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; and (2) assess its influence on neonatal anthropometric measurement of newly born babies. DDT and its metabolites, namely 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDD) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2' bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in cord and maternal serum as well as placenta by Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD). p,p'-DDE was detected in 28.3% of cord and 54.4% of maternal serum, reflecting past exposure, whereas the p,p'-DDT was only found in 0.46% cord and 1.2% maternal samples. As expected the p,p'-DDE cord levels (0.197±0.961?g/L) were 2.8 times lower than the maternal levels (0.551±1.778?g/L), and both were significantly correlated (r=0.517) suggesting its transplacental transfer. The picture was different in placental tissues. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 84% and 99% of placental tissues, with the highest p,p'-DDT in placental tissues (29.62±158.282µg/kg dry wt.) compare to p,p'-DDE (10.167±18.851?g/kg dry wt.). In general, the presence of DDT metabolites in our participants indicates that these chemicals are still relevant despite the fact that they have been banned or restricted in the study area for many years. Our results support the view for an association between low in utero exposure to DDT and the anthropometric development of the fetus leading to a reduction in its head circumference, crown-heel length, birth weight and birth height. Since the reduction in these measures was independent of gestational age and/or preterm births, our findings suggest a detrimental effect of the DDT exposure on fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometric measures are considered as an important tool to detect newborns at higher risk of morbidity and impairment of growth. Efforts should be made to decrease exposure of women of reproductive age and to examine maternal DDT exposure in relation to long-term impact on health. PMID:22192892

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam; Alsabbaheen, Ammar; Mohamed, Gamal El Din; Rabbah, Abdullah

2012-02-01

85

Effect of exercise on anthropometric measures and serum lipids in older individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Overweight and obesity are increasing in individuals over age 60?years. This systematic review quantifies the effect of exercise on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and lipids in overweight and obese individuals over the age of 60?years. Settings Nine randomised controlled trials conducted in Brazil, Great Britain, Iceland, Japan and the USA compared aerobic and/or resistance exercise with a control group. Participants Final analysis reviewed 1166 participants over the age of 60?years for 3–9?months. Primary outcome measures This study reviewed the effects of exercise on BMI, WC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Results Exercise produced a significant reduction in BMI (?1.01?kg/m2, 95% CI ?2.00 to ?0.01) and WC (?3.09?cm, 95% CI ?4.14 to ?2.04) but not LDL cholesterol (?0.31?mg/dL, 95% CI ?0.81 to 0.19). Analyses revealed substantial heterogeneity likely due to the type and intensity of exercise. Data on adverse effects were minimal. The overall level of evidence is moderate due to imprecision and heterogeneity. Conclusions Exercise in overweight and obese older individuals improves anthropometric measures such as BMI and WC. The effect of exercise on serum lipids is unclear. PMID:24928594

Kuhle, Carol L; Steffen, Mark W; Anderson, Paul J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

2014-01-01

86

Heritability of anthropometric phenotypes in caste populations of Visakhapatnam, India  

E-print Network

In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phenotypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste differences. We obtained...

Arya, Rector; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Puppala, Sobah; Modem, Saileela; Busi, Bhaskara R.; Crawford, Michael H.

2002-06-01

87

3D head anthropometric analysis Reyes Enciso*ab  

E-print Network

3D head anthropometric analysis Reyes Enciso*ab , Alex Shawa , Ulrich Neumannb , and James Maha develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model demonstrated 3-dimensional facial imaging in a clinical setting however some of the anthropometric measurements

Shahabi, Cyrus

88

Increase in cognitive eating restraint predicts weight loss and change in other anthropometric measurements in overweight/obese premenopausal women.  

PubMed

In modern societies characterized by food abundance, dietary restraint may serve as a factor in the successful control of weight or facilitation of weight loss. This secondary analysis of data examined whether changes in cognitive eating restraint (CER) and disinhibition predicted weight loss in a sample of 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women [mean?±?SD, age?=?35.9?±?5.8?y; weight?=?84.4?±?13.1?kg; body mass index (BMI)?=?31.0?±?4.3?kg/m(2)]. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) were examined in relation to changes in CER, disinhibition and hunger as measured by the Eating Inventory questionnaire at baseline and week 18 of an 18-week dietary intervention. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of weight loss and changes in other anthropometric variables from baseline to study completion. Increase in CER was found to be the most robust predictor of reduction in weight (P?

Urbanek, J Kalina; Metzgar, Catherine J; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Piehowski, Kathryn E; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

2015-04-01

89

Photographic facial soft tissue analysis of healthy Iranian young adults: anthropometric and angular measurements  

PubMed Central

Background: Soft tissue profile can be widely different in various populations. Furthermore, this profile can be also continues to change throughout life. However, there are few studies that quantitatively evaluate the soft tissue profile in Iranian population. In order to determine normal reference values of facial parts in our populations, we aimed to measure standards for facial soft tissue parameters in Iranian young population. Methods: The study samples included 155 medical students at the Firouzgar hospital in winter 2011. The soft tissue facial profiles were digitally analyzed using linear measurements and angles made with standardized photographic records, taken in a natural head position, to determine the average soft tissue facial profile for males and females. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between males and females in 21 of our 26 measurements. The most prominent differences between the genders were observed in the measurements taken from the face region. Minimum frontal breadth and supraorbital breadth were larger in males than in females. Except for middle face height measurement, other horizontal and vertical measurements for the face were larger in males than in females, indicating wider and higher faces in men than in women. Some measurements of facial angles are discrepant between the two genders. Conclusion: Due to the specific features of Iranian facial soft tissue values and also observable differences in facial measurements and angles between men and women, the Iranian standard values on facial measurements and angles should be given more attention, especially by plastic and cosmetic surgeons. PMID:25405115

Asghari, Alimohamad; Rajaeih, Shahin; Hassannia, Fatemeh; Tavakolifard, Negah; Fattahi Neisyani, Hamed; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Jalessi, Maryam; Omidian, Parisa

2014-01-01

90

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2010-10-01

91

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2013-10-01

92

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2012-10-01

93

48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015...225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools. As prescribed in...clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005)...

2011-10-01

94

Prediction of Resection Weight in Reduction Mammaplasty Based on Anthropometric Measurements  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to develop a simple, clinically useful method to accurately predict resection weight in women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Patients and Methods 39 women undergoing breast reduction participated in the study. Sternal notch to nipple distance, nipple to inframammary fold distance (NIMF), medial end point to nipple distance (MN), lateral endpoint to nipple distance (LN), superior border of the breast to nipple distance (SN), breast circumference (BC), and chest circumference (CC) were measured. 5 other predicting variables were also derived; horizontal breast measurement (H) by adding MN to LN, vertical breast measurement (V) by adding NIMF to SN, the product of H and V (H*V), the product of H and NIMF (H*NIMF), and the difference between BC and CC (D). Regression analysis was used to compose a formula for predicting resection weight. Results Among the predicting variables, H*NIMF measurements had the highest correlation coefficient value (Pearson correlation = 0.809) with the resection weight. The following formula was obtained with regression analysis: Predicted resection weight = (1.45 × H*NIMF) + (31.5 × D) – 576. Conclusion Breast resection weights can be accurately predicted by the presented method based on anthropomorphic measurements. PMID:24803886

Kececi, Yavuz; Sir, Emin

2014-01-01

95

Anthropometric measurement of muscle mass: revised equations for calculating bone-free arm muscle area13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arm muscle area (AMA, cm2) is currently calculated from triceps skinfold thickness (TSF. cm), and midarm circumference (MAC, cm). In assessing the accuracy of the current equation by comparison to AMA measured by computerized axial tomography, error in each of the four approximations made was found to result in a 20 to 25% overestimate of AMA. Two correctible error sources

Steven B Heymsfield; Janet Smith; Victoria Stevens; Daniel W Nixon

96

Anthropometric measures of abdominal adiposity for the identification of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.  

PubMed

Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) was obtained in 65 adolescents referred for assessment of cardiometabolic risk. We found that SAD was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independent of BMI in males, but that SAD was not superior to BMI or other measures of abdominal adiposity for the detection of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24552682

Weber, David R; Levitt Katz, Lorraine E; Zemel, Babette S; Gallagher, Paul R; Murphy, Kathryn M; Dumser, Susan M; Lipman, Terri H

2014-03-01

97

Comparisons of Measured and Self-Reported Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Hong Kong Female Nurses  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the validity of self-reported weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure compared with standardized clinical measurements and to determine the classification accuracy in overweight/obesity and central adiposity. Methods This pilot study was integrated into a life-course study entitled “Hong Kong Women's Health Study” among 1,253 female nurses in Hong Kong who were aged 35 years to 65 years. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires that were mailed to the respondents. Of these participants, we obtained the standard body measurements of 144 (11.5%) at our research center. We then compared the self-reported anthropometric variables and blood pressure with the measured data to assess validity based on the level of misreporting, percentage of agreement, consistency, sensitivity and specificity. Results The self-reported and measured values were highly correlated in terms of anthropometry and blood pressure (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.96). Height was overestimated at an average of 0.42 cm, and waist circumference was underestimated at 2.33 cm (both P<0.05), while no significant differences were observed from weight, blood pressure and BMI (all P>0.05). The proportions of overweight, obesity, and central adiposity by self-reported data did not vary greatly from the measured data (all P>0.05). The self-reporting resulted in correct classifications of BMI, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure in 85%, 78%, and 87% of women, with corresponding Kappa index values of 0.79, 0.55, and 0.82, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 95.7%, respectively, with respect to overweight/obesity detection, whereas those for central adiposity detection were 70.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Conclusion In a sample of female Hong Kong nurses, the self-reported measures of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were generally valid. Furthermore, the classification accuracies of overweight/obesity and central adiposity were acceptable. PMID:25222707

Xie, Yao Jie; Ho, Suzanne C.; Liu, Zhao Min; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

2014-01-01

98

Anthropometric measurements of Australian Aboriginal adults living in remote areas: comparison with nationally representative findings.  

PubMed

To compare body size measurements in Australian Aboriginals living in three remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia with those of the general Australian population. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and derivative values of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHT), and waist-weight ratios (WWT) of adult Aboriginal volunteers (n = 814), aged 25 to 74 years were compared with participants in the nationally representative 'AusDiab' survey (n = 10,434). The Aboriginal body habitus profiles differed considerably from the Australian profile. When compared to Australian females, Aboriginal females were taller and had lower hip circumference but had higher WC, WHR, WHT, and WWT (P < 0.01 for all). When compared with their Australian counterparts, Aboriginal males were shorter, had lower body weight, WC, hip circumference, BMI, and WHT but had higher WHR and WWT (P < 0.001 for all). Significantly more Aboriginal females were classified as overweight and or obese using cutoffs defined by WC and by WHR than by BMI. Aboriginal males were less often overweight and/or obese by BMI than their counterparts, but were significantly more often overweight or obese by WHR. There were significant variations in body size profiles between Aboriginal communities. However, the theme of excess waist measurements relative to their weight was uniform. Aboriginal people had preferential central fat deposition in relation to their overall weight. BMI significantly underestimated overweight and obesity as assessed by waist measurements among Aboriginals. This relationship of preferential central fat deposition to the current epidemic of chronic diseases needs to be explored further. PMID:18203125

Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Briganti, Esther; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Chadban, Steven; Shaw, Jonathan

2008-01-01

99

NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients

C. Veres; J. P. Garsi; C. Rubino; F. Pouzoulet; F. Bidault; J. Chavaudra; A. Bridier; M. Ricard; I. Ferreira; D. Lefkopoulos; F. de Vathaire; I. Diallo

2010-01-01

100

Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic difference, discretionary salt use and blood pressures. PMID:22808349

Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong

2012-01-01

101

A new anthropometric phantom for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the human leg using X-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead deposited in bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape of the mid shaft of the adult human leg and is fabricated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to produce materials that exhibit the same density, energy transmission, and calcium content as cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle. The phantom includes a removable tibia fabricated using simulants for cortical bone and bone marrow to which a precise amount of stable lead has been added to cortical bone. The formulations used in fabricating the new anthropometric phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the conventional phantom made from Plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster-of-Paris. The energy spectrum from an x-ray fluorescence measurement of the phantom using a {sup 109}Cd source is indistinguishable from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement of the human leg, demonstrating that the materials used in the phantom exhibit the same radiological properties as human tissue. Likewise, results from x-ray fluorescence measurements of the phantom exhibit the same positional dependency as the human leg and vary by approximately 36% when, for example, the phantom containing 54 ppm of stable lead in the tibia was rotated by only 15 degrees. The detection limit for a 30 min {sup 109}Cd K shell x-ray fluorescence in vivo measurement is approximately 20 ppm determined from a background measurement using the new phantom containing no added lead in the muscle, bone, or bone marrow. The new anthropometric phantom significantly improves in vivo x-ray fluorescence calibration measurements by (1) faithfully reproducing the anatomy of the human leg, (2) having components that exhibit radiological properties similar to that of human tissue, and (3) providing a realistic calibration standard that can be used for in vivo x-ray fluorescence intercomparison measurements.

Spitz, H.; Jenkins, M.; Lodwick, J.; Bornschein, R.

2000-02-01

102

A study of the anthropometric correlations between upper limb measurements for personal identification in Sudanese population.  

PubMed

The presence of multiple isolated commingled fleshed limbs or limb parts generates a significant challenge for forensic investigators in wars, mass disasters, and criminal assaults in the process of identification. Although upper limb measurements have been used to establish individual identity in terms of sex and stature with high success, there is a scarcity of data concerning the correlations within upper limb parts. Hence, this study aims to assess the relationships within upper limb parts and develop regression formulae to reconstruct the parts from one another. The study participants were 376 Sudanese adults (187 males and 189 females). The results of this study indicated significant sexual dimorphism for all variables. The results indicated a significant correlation within the upper limb parts. Linear and multiple regression equations were developed to reconstruct the upper limb parts in the presence of a single or multiple dimension(s) from the identical limb. Multiple regression equations generated better reconstructions than simple equations. These results are significant in forensics and orthopedic reconstructive surgery. PMID:25277498

Ahmed, A A

2014-12-01

103

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

2010-12-01

104

A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

2010-11-01

105

An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

106

Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

1977-01-01

107

Anthropometric evaluation of internal horizontal circulation environments.  

PubMed

The relevant research is questioning the essence of the existence of an adequate internal circulation to human dimensions. The research was based on the method of anthropometric assessment of internal circulation de Barros (2009), which was applied in three different sizes of apartments in the city of Caruaru-PE. These apartments were evaluated through the floor plans and furniture layouts, suggested by the builders, with the use of anthropometric models in simulation of movement. The study found that traffic problems are not just a consequence of small rooms, but projects that do not bother to match the anthropometric measurements to the space environment. PMID:22317306

Seabra, Sadi; Barros, Bruno

2012-01-01

108

A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

2013-04-01

109

HandSCAPE: a vectorizing tape measure for on-site measuring applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce HandSCAPE, an orientation-aware digital tape measure, as an input device for digitizing field measurements, and visualizing the volume of the resulting vectors with computer graphics. Using embedded orientation-sensing hardware, HandSCAPE captures relevant vectors on each linear measurements and transmits this data wirelessly to a remote computer in real-time. To guide us in design, we have closely studied the

Jay Lee; Victor Su; Sandia Ren; Hiroshi Ishii

2000-01-01

110

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2011-10-01

111

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2010-10-01

112

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2012-10-01

113

48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2013-10-01

114

(appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational Techniques  

E-print Network

(appeared in Proceedings SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 67-74) An Anthropometric Face Model using Variational measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements, the science dedicated to the measurement of the human face. Anthropometric studies like [11, 12] report statis

DeCarlo, Doug

115

Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

1997-01-01

116

Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps.  

PubMed

The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a 6-month, community-engaged, multicomponent, noncontrolled intervention targeting hypertension risk factors. Descriptive indicators were constructed using two participant adherence measures, education session attendance (ESA) and weekly steps/day pedometer diary submission (PDS), separately and in combination. Analyses, based on data from 269 primarily African American adult participants, included bivariate tests of association and multivariable linear regression to determine significant relationships between seven adherence indicators and health outcome changes, including clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and PA measures. ESA indicators were significantly correlated with four health outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and PA (-.29 ? r ? .23, p < .05). PDS indicators were significantly correlated with PA (r = .27, p < .001). Combination ESA/PDS indicators were significantly correlated with five health outcomes: BMI, percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass, LDL, and PA (r = -.26 to .29, p < .05). Results from the multivariate models indicated that the combination ESA/PDS indicators were the most significant predictors of changes for five outcomes-%BF, fat mass, LDL diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PA-while ESA performed best for BMI only. For DBP, a one-unit increase in the continuous-categorical ESA/PDS indicator resulted in 0.3 mm Hg decrease. Implications for assessing participant adherence in community-based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention research are discussed. PMID:24986913

Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

2015-02-01

117

[Secular trends in anthropometrical measurements observed in three to 11-year-old French children between 1953 and 2005].  

PubMed

This study covers a fifty-year period between 1953 and 2005 and looks at secular trends in stature, weight and sitting height sizes among French boys and girls between the ages of 3 and 11. A special modelling in function to the age and variable for each child was established so that a comparison could be made in the kinetic growth patterns over these same two periods. Statistical analysis shows a significant increase in growth, of 0.8cm per decade in stature, characterised by a certain increase in the lower limbs and the weight (0.8kg per decade) together with a proportional increase on the body mass index. Positive secular trends of this anthropometric nature are generally thanks to improved eating and sanitary habits and this study enables us to build and elaborate new standards in growth patterns essential for monitoring auxological development in 3 to 11-year-old children in the years 2000 and onwards. PMID:22325566

Lalys, Loïc; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Serre, Thierry; Bartoli, Christophe; Leonetti, Georges

2012-02-01

118

An anthropometric face model using variational techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system that automatically generates varied geomet- ric models of human faces. A collection of random measurements of the face is generated according to anthropometric statistics for likely face measurements in a population. These measurements are then treated as constraints on a parameterized surface. Variational modeling is used to find a smooth surface that satisfies these con- straints

Douglas DeCarlo; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Matthew Stone

1998-01-01

119

Presurgical Unilateral Cleft Lip Anthropometrics and the Presence of Dental Anomalies.  

PubMed

Objective : To investigate associations between cleft lip anthropometrics and dental anomalies in the permanent dentition in unilateral cleft lip patients. Design : Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients : Children with unilateral clefts of the lip, with or without cleft palate. Methods : Anthropometric lip measurements, made immediately prior to lip repair, were available for each patient. The presence of dental anomalies in the permanent dentition was assessed radiographically. The presence of associations between anthropometric lip measurements and prevalence rates of different dental anomalies were determined using logistic regression analyses. Results : In the 122 included patients, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 80% and in transverse length in 84% of patients. Patients with more deficient cleft side lateral lip height and less deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with cleft side maxillary lateral incisor agenesis. On the other hand, patients with a less deficient cleft side lateral lip height and more deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with a cleft side supernumerary maxillary lateral incisor. When looking only at incomplete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip transverse length deficiency was more predictive of the presence of supernumerary maxillary lateral incisors (P = .030), while for complete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip height deficiency was more predictive of the presence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (P = .035). Conclusions : In patients with unilateral clefts, cleft lip anthropometrics have a predictive role in determining the occurrence of dental anomalies. PMID:24437562

Antonarakis, Gregory S; Fisher, David M

2014-01-17

120

DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric  

E-print Network

DHM 2006-01-2356 A Footwear Fit Classification Model Based on Anthropometric Data B. Nácher, S foot anthropometric measures or by analyzing 3D foot shapes [7] [8]. 3D foot shape models form another anthropometric measures had the greatest relevance for shoe fitting, and by Mochimaru et al [8], Luximon et al

Juan, Alfons

121

Effects of English admixture and geographic distance on anthropometric variation and genetic structure in 19th-century Ireland.  

PubMed

The analysis of anthropometric data often allows investigation of patterns of genetic structure in historical populations. This paper focuses on interpopulational anthropometric variation in seven populations in Ireland using data collected in the 1890s. The seven populations were located within a 120-km range along the west coast of Ireland and include islands and mainland isolates. Two of the populations (the Aran Islands and Inishbofin) have a known history of English admixture in earlier centuries. Ten anthropometric measures (head length, breadth, and height; nose length and breadth; bizygomatic and bigonial breadth; stature; hand length; and forearm length) on 259 adult Irish males were analyzed following age adjustment. Discriminant and canonical variates analysis were used to determine the degree and pattern of among-group variation. Mahalanobis' distance measure, D2, was computed between each pair of populations and compared to distance measures based on geographic distance and English admixture (a binary measure indicating whether either of a pair of populations had historical indications of admixture). In addition, surname frequencies were used to construct distance measures based on random isonymy. Correlations were computed between distance measures, and their probabilities were derived using the Mantel matrix permutation method. English admixture has the greatest effect on anthropometric variation among these populations, followed by geographic distance. The correlation between anthropometric distance and geographic distance is not significant (r = -0.081, P = .590), but the correlation of admixture and anthropometric distance is significant (r = 0.829, P = .047). When the two admixed populations are removed from the analysis the correlation between geographic and anthropometric distance becomes significant (r = 0.718, P = .025). Isonymy distance shows a significant correlation with geographic distance (r = 0.425, P = .046) but not with admixture distance (r = -0.052, P = .524). The fact that anthropometrics show past patterns of gene flow and surnames do not reflects the greater impact of stochastic processes on surnames, along with the continued extinction of surnames. This study shows that 1) anthropometrics can be extremely useful in assessing population structure and history, 2) differential gene flow into populations can have a major impact on local genetic structure, and 3) microevolutionary processes can have different effects on biological characters and surnames. PMID:3044134

Relethford, J H

1988-05-01

122

Relations of anthropometric parameters with scores on basic and specific motor tasks in young handball players.  

PubMed

The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relations of anthropometric variables with scores on basic and specific motor tests for 133 young male handball players. These Estonian boys were divided into four age groups: 10-11 years (n = 34), 12-13 years (n = 39), 14-15 years (n = 39), and 16-17 years (n = 21). The anthropometric parameters were body height, sitting height, height with outstretched hands, arm span, leg length, and body mass. Body Mass Index (kg x m2) was calculated. Basic motor ability tests were 30-m run from standing position, vertical jump with hands on hip and with arm swing, medicine ball (1 kg) overhand throw with dominant hand from sitting position, and handgrip strength. Specific motor ability tests were 4- x 10-m shuttle-run, slalom dribble test, 30-m dribbling test, handball throw with dominant hand from sitting position, vertical jump from one step run-up on dominant leg, and passing the handball on speed and precision. Relatively few anthropometric parameters were significantly associated with scores on basic motor tasks in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, but sitting height was significantly associated with scores on all measured basic motor tests for the 14- to 15-yr.-old group (16.5-52.4%; R2 x 100) and also with specific motor tests for 12- to 13-yr.-olds and 14- to 15-yr.-olds (13.4-41.6%; R2 x 100). The anthropometric parameters are then relatively poor predictors for basic and specific motor ability test scores of young handball players. PMID:19725303

Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo

2009-06-01

123

THE VALIDITY OF PLANTARFLEXOR STRENGTH MEASURES OBTAINED THROUGH HAND?HELD DYNAMOMETRY MEASUREMENTS OF FORCE  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: Hand?held dynamometers are commonly used to assess plantarflexor strength during rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of measuring plantarflexion force using a hand?held dynamometer (HHD) as compared to an electromechanical dynamometer as the gold standard. The hypothesis was that plantarflexor forces obtained using a hand?held dynamometer would not show absolute agreement with a criterion standard. Design: Concurrent validity assessment for a diagnostic strength testing device. Setting: Institutional clinic and research laboratory Participants: Volunteer sample of healthy university students (N=20, 10 women, 10 men; 25.9±4.1 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximal plantarflexion strength was measured using both a HHD and an electromechanical dynamometer (EMD) as a criterion measure. Results: Plantarflexor force measures with the HHD were significantly different (p<0.01) and not correlated with plantarflexor forces measured using the EMD for either limb (R2 ? 0.09). Conclusions: Plantarflexor strength measurements acquired using HHD are different from those acquired using an EMD and are likely influenced by the strength of the examiner. Level of Evidence: Prospective cohort study, level II PMID:24377068

Pozzi, Federico; Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

124

SNCF experience in anthropometrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lecturer describes the methods and the means to design in relation with anthropometrics datas the driving cab of modern SNCF vehicles such as the SYBIC universal locomotive and the TGV-Atlantique power car vehicle is to operate in the end of the decade.

Boutonnet, J. C.

1986-07-01

125

Statistical method to identify key anthropometric parameters in hrtf individualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in a direct physical way using statistical analysis on HRTF measured data. Principle component analysis is separately performed on the head-related impulse responses of all subjects at each direction for each ear to extract the individual information. Then the individual information, along with all anthropometric

M. Zhang; R. A. Kennedy; T. D. Abhayapala; W. Zhang

2011-01-01

126

Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

2009-01-01

127

Anthropometric growth study of normal human auricle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal the anthropometric growth of auricula from birth to the age of 18 years and to bring out the dynamics of ear growth. Material and methods: A total of 1552 children in 50 groups were evaluated. Six surface measurements were performed directly on the right auricle of the subjects: the length from

M. Tayyar Kalcioglu; M. Cem Miman; Yuksel Toplu; Cengiz Yakinci; Orhan Ozturan

2003-01-01

128

Croatian anthropometric system meeting the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Anthropometry as one of anthropology methods is concerned with the measurement of the human body and determining the relationship of the size and proportions of the human body. Aims to outline the main features of the Croatian anthropometric system (HAS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper provides a description of the major characteristics included in HAS, the STIRP project supported

Darko Ujevi?; Dubravko Rogale; Mirko Drenovac; Dinko Pezelj; Marijan Hrastinski; Nina Smolej Naran?i?; Željko Mimica; Renata Hrženjak

2006-01-01

129

Body Configuration as a Predictor of Mortality: Comparison of Five Anthropometric Measures in a 12 Year Follow-Up of the Norwegian HUNT 2 Study  

PubMed Central

Background Distribution of body fat is more important than the amount of fat as a prognostic factor for life expectancy. Despite that, body mass index (BMI) still holds its status as the most used indicator of obesity in clinical work. Methods We assessed the association of five different anthropometric measures with mortality in general and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in particular using Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive properties were compared by computing integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for two different prediction models. The measures studied were BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The study population was a prospective cohort of 62,223 Norwegians, age 20–79, followed up for mortality from 1995–1997 to the end of 2008 (mean follow-up 12.0 years) in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2). Results After adjusting for age, smoking and physical activity WHR and WHtR were found to be the strongest predictors of death. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality per increase in WHR of one standard deviation were 1.23 for men and 1.27 for women. For WHtR, these HRs were 1.24 for men and 1.23 for women. WHR offered the greatest integrated discrimination improvement to the prediction models studied, followed by WHtR and waist circumference. Hip circumference was in strong inverse association with mortality when adjusting for waist circumference. In all analyses, BMI had weaker association with mortality than three of the other four measures studied. Conclusions Our study adds further knowledge to the evidence that BMI is not the most appropriate measure of obesity in everyday clinical practice. WHR can reliably be measured and is as easy to calculate as BMI and is currently better documented than WHtR. It appears reasonable to recommend WHR as the primary measure of body composition and obesity. PMID:22028926

Petursson, Halfdan; Sigurdsson, Johann A.; Bengtsson, Calle; Nilsen, Tom I. L.; Getz, Linn

2011-01-01

130

The Flinders Handedness survey (FLANDERS): a brief measure of skilled hand preference.  

PubMed

Knowing whether an individual prefers the left or right hand for skilled activities is important to researchers in experimental psychology and neuroscience. The current study reports on a new measure of skilled hand preference derived from the Provins and Cunliffe (1972) handedness inventory. Undergraduates (n = 3324) indicated their lateral preference for their hands, feet, eyes and ears. A measure of hand performance and familial handedness was also obtained. Factor analysis identified ten items that loaded on skilled hand preference and these were included in the new FLANDERS questionnaire. Cluster analysis of the new questionnaire revealed three distinct groups (left-, mixed- & right-handed). The new test showed a strong association with other measures of lateral preference and hand performance. Scores on the test were also related to the sex of the respondent and the hand preference of their parents. The FLANDERS provides a measure of skilled hand preference that is easy to administer and understand and should be useful for experimenters wanting to screen for hand preference. PMID:23498655

Nicholls, Michael E R; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias; Grimshaw, Gina M

2013-01-01

131

Ethnic differences in anthropometric and lifestyle measures related to coronary heart disease risk between South Asian, Italian and general-population British women living in the west of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To compare anthropometric measurements and to define their behavioural associations in migrant and British-born South Asians (who have increased cardiovascular risk) or Italians (who have reduced cardiovascular risk), and in the general population of British women living in the west of Scotland.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of women aged 20–42 y, selected mainly from birth registration data, which included 63

MEJ Lean; TS Han; H Bush; AS Anderson; H Bradby; R Williams

2001-01-01

132

Asians have lower body mass index (BMI) but higher percent body fat than do whites: comparisons of anthropometric measurements?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the correlations between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (fat%) measured by dual- photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 445 white and 242 Asian adults aged 18-94 y. In addition, comparisons in six circumferences and eight skinfold-thickness measurements between whites and Asians were made to explain the discrepancies. Although Asians had lower BMI, they were fatter than whites

Jack Wang; John C Thornton; Mary Russell; Santiago Burastero; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N Pierson Jr

133

CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

Rajulu, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

134

The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and  

E-print Network

The Relationship between Anthropometric Variables and Features of Electromyography Signal for Human anthropometric variables to calibrate EMG recognition system automatically/semi-automatically is proposed EMG signals and twelve related anthropometric variables. The strong and significant associations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Anthropometry and hand performance evaluation of minority population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research was to evaluate the hand anthropometrics and hand performances of the US minority population. This study had three specific objectives (1) to evaluate the anthropometrics of the US minority population and understand their variability within the general US population (2) to evaluate performance variation of the minority population for different hand conditions and (3) to

V. Gnaneswaran; R. R. Bishu

2011-01-01

136

Reliability assessment of isometric knee extension measurements with a computer-assisted hand-held dynamometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess clinically relevant indexes of measurement error of hand-held dynamometer measurements using a computer-assisted hand-held dynamometer (CAHN-DY).Design: In separate sessions, different physical therapists performed repeated measurements of maximal isometric knee extension.Setting: Four physical therapy practices and outpatient departments.Patients: Consecutive samples of 30 male and 28 female patients aged 13 to 77 years, with isolated orthopedic knee disorders participated

Marij E. Roebroeck; Jaap Harlaar; Gustaaf J. Lankhorst

1998-01-01

137

Evaluation of an anthropometric shape model of the human scalp.  

PubMed

This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 ± 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. PMID:25683533

Lacko, Daniël; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan

2015-05-01

138

Anthropometric characteristics evolution in elite rhythmic gymnasts.  

PubMed

The aims of this research were to assess anthropometric characteristics of high-level senior and junior rhythmic gymnasts; and was to investigate the changes of anthropometric characteristics over a 4 years period, in different senior and junior groups of the same technical level. Twenty anthropometric variables of 63 participants were collected and body composition and sitting-height-to-stature-ratio measures were calculated. The two-way (gymnast category and time) ANOVA of the anthropometric characteristics showed significant main effect of time period for biacromial and bicristal diameters indicating that the majority of variables had similar values in 2002 and 2006. A significant main effect of category (junior or senior) was present in most the analyzed variables with higher values in senior gymnasts than juniors. The significant category by time interaction for height, weight, limbs' length, and fat-free mass, indicated that some differences between junior and senior gymnasts increased over the 4 yr time period. The training hours per week were significantly higher in seniors, but did not differ over the 4 yr period. The study shows that the criteria, followed for the recruitment of elite gymnasts, in the two different periods considered (2002 and 2006) were almost the same. Moreover, higher differences between seniors and juniors of FFM values in 2006 indicated the more intensive training of the second period for seniors. PMID:18491452

di Cagno, Alessandra; Baldari, Carlo; Battaglia, Claudia; Guidetti, Laura; Piazza, Marina

2008-01-01

139

Reliability of measurements of hip abduction strength obtained with a hand-held dynamometer.  

PubMed

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate intrarater and interrater reliability when measuring hip abductor strength in the supine position using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) (Study 1), and to elucidate the relationships between measured values and examiners' physical characteristics (Study 2). Three healthy examiners (1 female, 24 y.o. and 2 males 23 and 27 y.o) and 12 subjects (6 females, 24.5?±?2.8 years and 6 males, 27.7?±?3.5 years) participated in Study 1, and 20 healthy examiners (7 females, 22.3?±?1.3 years and 13 males, 29.4?±?8.2 years) and 2 subjects (1 female, 24 y.o. and 1 male 27 y.o) participated in Study 2. All healthy examiners were hospital employees. Hip abductor strength was measured by HHD with hand fixation and with belt fixation, and examiner age, sex, height, weight, BMI, and dominant hand grip strength were evaluated. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (1,1), a measure of intrarater reliability, was 0.89-0.95 with hand fixation and 0.96-0.97 with belt fixation. ICC (2,1), a measure of interrater reliability, was 0.76-0.79 and 0.90-0.93, respectively. In subjects with high muscle strength (the examiner's hand was moved), the examiner's dominant hand grip strength affected muscle strength values with hand fixation (standardized partial regression coefficient?=?0.78, determination coefficient R(2?)=?0.61, p?hand was not moved), no variables had effect. When the muscle strength of the subject is weak, both methods can be used. When the muscle strength of the subject is strong, it is necessary to adjust the value obtained by the examiner's dominant hand grip strength in the hand fixation method. PMID:25264015

Ieiri, Akira; Tushima, Eiki; Ishida, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanno, Taiki; Masuda, Takeshi

2015-02-01

140

Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

2015-01-01

141

The effect of almonds on anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in overweight and obese females in a weight reduction program: A randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Due to the wholesome benefits of nuts increased consumption of them has been recommended. However, because of nut's high energy density, the role of them in the treatment of overweight and obesity is vague. This current clinical trial study aims to investigate the effects of a balanced hypocaloric almond-enriched diet (AED) (almond group) in comparison to a balanced hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD) (nut-free group) on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with body mass index (BMI) >25 for 3-month. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 overweight and obese women were assigned in our 3-month randomized controlled trial. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups regarding a balanced hypocaloric diet with or without almond. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the almond group who consumed 50 g of almonds daily. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements of the participants who completed the study were made prior to and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 100 subjects completed the study. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip circumference ratio, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, total: High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood sugar and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the almond group compared to the nut-free group (P > 0.001). Greater reduction in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P > 0.002) and systolic blood pressure (P > 0.001) and greater increase in HDL-C (P = 0.001) were found in the nut-free group. Conclusion: The balanced hypocaloric AED in comparison to the balanced hypocaloric NFD led to a greater weight-loss and overall better improvements in studied cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:25097630

Abazarfard, Zohreh; Salehi, Mousa; Keshavarzi, Sareh

2014-01-01

142

Association between anthropometric hormonal measurements and bone mineral density in puberty and constitutional delay of growth and puberty.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the acquisition of bone mineral in healthy children throughout puberty and in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP), and to relate changes in bone mass to age, weight, height, sitting height, body mass index and sex hormones in healthy boys. A total of 90 boys: 15 boys with CDGP and 75 healthy boys in different pubertal stages were examined. The number of children assigned to each Tanner stages was 15. Although bone age, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were significantly higher in stages II, III, IV V compared to stage I and CDGI mean height and sitting height values were higher in stages III, IV V compared to stage I and CDGP Also, serum FSH, LH, oestradiol, total and free testosterone levels progressively increased, although serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels decreased, in healthy children with progression of sexual development. Significant increase was observed for serum oestradiol levels at stage II and above (p < 0.001), for serum total and free testosterone levels at stage III and above (p < 0.001), for serum FSH and LH levels at stage IV and above (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) respectively. Also, it was shown that bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were significantly higher for pubertal stage III and above groups according to both the CDGP group and stage I group. When BMD and BMC measurements of children with CDGP (0.62 +/- 0.05 gr/cm2 and 23.4 +/- 2.8 gr) were compared with bone age, age, BMI and height-matched controls, there was no significant difference between children with CDGP and controls, except for age. Bone mineral density and BMC measurements in children with CDGP were significantly lower than those of age-matched controls (for pubertal stage III: p < 0.05, for pubertal stage IV: p < 0.01). The strongest correlation coefficients were found between BMD and height among auxological parameters (r = 0.63, p < 0.001) and serum oestradiol levels among hormones (r = 0.55, p < 0.001). The most important findings of this investigation was the determination of body composition and hormonal measurement changes during puberty in boys; oestradiol was the most potent determinant of BMD among pubertal boys. We suggested that there is a critical age period for accumulation of bone mass according to the results. Longitudinal studies will elucidate why sufficient mineralization does take place after puberty starts in CDGP PMID:21275115

Doneray, H; Orbak, Z

2010-03-01

143

Functional assessment of the hand: reproducibility, acceptability, and utility of a new system for measuring strength.  

PubMed Central

A new system for measuring strength of the hand using a torsion dynamometer linked to a microprocessor is described. The system permits analysis of timed squeezes of both grip and pinch and is adjustable to all sizes of hand and degrees of hand deformity. Results obtained with the system were found to be reproducible, and the rigid device was acceptable to a group of patients with arthritic hands. In rheumatoid arthritis there is a marked reduction in maximum grip and pinch strength, together with a prolongation of the time taken to reach this maximum, and increased fatigue. The limitations of grip strength as a measure of function of the hand are discussed. Images PMID:3579383

Helliwell, P; Howe, A; Wright, V

1987-01-01

144

Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

1994-01-01

145

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

SciTech Connect

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku (Japan))

1994-04-01

146

Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study  

PubMed Central

Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

Kumar, Arun

2014-01-01

147

Smartphone-based evaluation of parkinsonian hand tremor: Quantitative measurements vs clinical assessment scores.  

PubMed

With an ever-growing number of technologically advanced methods for the diagnosis and quantification of movement disorders, comes the need to assess their accuracy and see how they match up with widely used standard clinical assessment tools. This work compares quantitative measurements of hand tremor in twenty-three Parkinson's disease patients, with their clinical scores in the hand tremor components of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which is considered the "gold standard" in the clinical assessment of the disease. Our measurements were obtained using a smartphone-based platform, which processes the phone's accelerometer and gyroscope signals to detect and measure hand tremor. The signal metrics used were mainly based on the magnitude of the acceleration and the rotation rate vectors of the device. Our results suggest relatively strong correlation (r>0.7 and p<;0.01) between the patients' UPDRS hand tremor scores and the signal metrics applied to the measured signals. PMID:25570106

Kostikis, N; Hristu-Varsakelis, D; Arnaoutoglou, M; Kotsavasiloglou, C

2014-08-01

148

Outcome measurements in hand and upper limb surgery.  

PubMed

Of marginal importance only 20 years ago, outcome measurement has become one of the most widely published topics in medical literature. The concept of global health is described by the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Today, the surgeon's perspective is no longer sufficient to evaluate global health condition of a patient. The patient cannot be reduced to an organ. Outcome measurement must take into consideration body structures and function (symptoms, organ function) as reviewed by a professional, the individual's functional health status in terms of activity and evaluated by the patient himself, and his participation in his social environment. These principles are now being applied to our specialty and it is essential to know them to be able to collect, analyze and publish valid results. This review article defines the rules for using clinical outcome tools, provides the most widely used clinical and self-evaluation forms for our specialty as well as instructions for their use. Global outcome is usually obtained by arithmetic addition of scores; which is a simple but questionable method. The sieving and radar charts can be used for a more comprehensible representation showing areas of relative strength and relative weakness on a graph, as well as depicting general overall performance. The reliability of data is also affected by declaration of conflicts of interest, negligence or fraud. The level of evidence is questionable as long as a data verification system is not implemented. PMID:24993591

Dubert, T

2014-09-01

149

Auxological and anthropometric evaluation in skeletal dysplasias.  

PubMed

Anthropometry is the technique of expressing body shape in quantitative terms. The measurements are compared with the standard growth curves for the general population and expressed as a SD score or percentiles. The comparison of the different parameters with normal standards requires: standardized landmarks on the body, standardized methods of taking measurements, and standard equipment. Skeletal dysplasias generally present with disproportionate short stature, that may be caused primarily by a short trunk or short limbs. If short limbs are observed, the reduction may affect the proximal (rhizomelic), the middle (mesomelic) or distal (acromelic) segments. Anthropometric measurements should include all the segments of the arms and the legs with a comparison with the normal standards for height age. Short stature homeobox- containing (SHOX) gene defects determine a highly variable phenotype, that includes an osteochondrodysplasia with mesomelic short stature and Madelung deformity, but also presentations without evident malformations. Anthropometric indicators of SHOX deficiency are: disproportionate short stature, reduction of lower limb, reduction of the ratio between arm span and forearm length with respect to height, increase in the sitting/ height stature ratio, increase in limb circumference (arm, forearm, thigh, and leg) with respect to height and increased body mass index. In some forms of skeletal dysplasias and in particular in SHOX gene anomalies that have many characteristics superimposable to idiopathic short stature, only an accurate auxo-anthropometric and dysmorphologic evaluation enable us to propose, fairly accurately, the subjects for the gene study. PMID:21057181

Mazzanti, L; Matteucci, C; Scarano, E; Tamburrino, F; Ragni, M C; Cicognani, A

2010-06-01

150

Complex hand dexterity: a review of biomechanical methods for measuring musical performance  

PubMed Central

Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social, and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation. The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities. PMID:24860531

Metcalf, Cheryl D.; Irvine, Thomas A.; Sims, Jennifer L.; Wang, Yu L.; Su, Alvin W. Y.; Norris, David O.

2014-01-01

151

Complex hand dexterity: a review of biomechanical methods for measuring musical performance.  

PubMed

Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social, and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation. The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities. PMID:24860531

Metcalf, Cheryl D; Irvine, Thomas A; Sims, Jennifer L; Wang, Yu L; Su, Alvin W Y; Norris, David O

2014-01-01

152

Comparison of anthropometric characteristics between professional triathletes and cyclists.  

PubMed

Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

Brunkhorst, L; Kielstein, H

2013-12-01

153

COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS  

PubMed Central

Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

Brunkhorst, L.

2013-01-01

154

Measurement of Discharge Current through Hand-held Metal Piece from Charged Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge currents through a hand-held metal piece from a charged human body were measured with respect to approaching speeds and charge voltages. A circuit approach for calculating the discharge current has also been shown. As a result, we have found that in case of 300 V charge voltage, the current waveform is not affected by the metal piece approaching speed, while in case of 800 V charge voltage, the fast approach gives the higher current peak. These current waveforms can be predicted from the time invariant spark resistance and the measured frequency characteristics of a human body impedance seen from a hand-held metal piece.

Taka, Yoshinori; Mori, Ikuko; Fujiwara, Osamu

155

Perioral aging--an anthropometric appraisal.  

PubMed

To adequately perform perioral rejuvenation procedures, it is necessary to understand the morphologic changes caused by facial aging. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate such changes. Photographs of 346 male individuals were evaluated using 12 anthropometric indices. Data from two groups of health subjects, the first exhibiting a mean age of nearly 20 and the second of nearly 60 years, were compared. To evaluate the influence of combined nicotine and alcohol abuse, the data of the second group were compared to a third group exhibiting a similar mean age who were known alcohol and nicotine abusers. Comparison of the first to the second group showed significant decrease of the vertical height of upper and lower vermilion and relative enlargement of the cutaneous part of upper and lower lips. This effect was stronger in the upper vermilion and medial upper lips. The sagging of the upper lips led to the appearance of an increased mouth width. In the third group the effect of sagging of the upper lips, and especially its medial portion was significantly higher compared to the second group. The photo-assisted anthropometric measurements investigated gave reproducible results related to perioral aging. PMID:24286862

Raschke, Gregor F; Rieger, Ulrich M; Bader, Rolf-Dieter; Schaefer, Oliver; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

2014-07-01

156

Grading body fatness from limited anthropometric data1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements relevant to body fatness are made commonly in clinical settings. However, associations between these measurements and body fatness are poorly known and procedures are needed to facilitate the interpretation of these measurements. Consequently, data from 405 white children and adults aged 6 to 49 yr were used to calculate correlations between selected anthropometric measurements and estimates of percentage body

Alex F. Roche; Roger M. Siervogel; Paul Webb

157

End-Point Impedance Measurements Across Dominant and Nondominant Hands and Robotic Assistance with Directional Damping.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the endpoint, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance. PMID:25148680

Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

2014-08-19

158

Accuracy of plantar electrodes compared with hand and foot electrodes in fat-free-mass measurement.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM) by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI) with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI. PMID:24918180

Jaffrin, Michel Y; Bousbiat, Sana

2014-01-01

159

Estimation of chronological age from different body segments in boys and girls aged 4-19 years, using anthropometric and photogrammetric techniques.  

PubMed

Data obtained from measuring different body segments (stature, sitting height, upper limb, upper arm, forearm, leg, hand and foot length), were used to construct equations for estimating the chronological age of children with unknown date of birth. About 18,510 sets of measurements were taken on boys and 11,568 sets on girls. All were healthy British children aged 4-19 years and participating in three longitudinal studies at the Department of Growth and Development, Institute of Child Health, University of London. Both anthropometric and photogrammetric techniques of measurement were used to construct 35 anthropometric and 49 photogrammetric equations using the multiple linear regression model. These equations give the most likely estimated value for age together with its error. The accuracy of the equations and its applicability both on live children and on postmortem material is discussed. PMID:2747476

Attallah, N L; Marshall, W A

1989-04-01

160

The squares test as a measure of hand function in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Deterioration of hand function can be important in multiple sclerosis (MS). The standard way of assessing hand function in MS is the 9-hole peg test (9HPT), one of the three components of the MS functional composite measure. In this study we examine the squares test (ST), a test of hand function that is used extensively in handedness research. We evaluated reproducibility of the ST in 49 healthy controls, and both discriminatory power and concurrent validity of the ST in 38 MS patients and 18 age and gender matched controls. The ST proved to be a reliable and easy to administrate paper-and-pencil test of hand function. The ST showed a high and highly significant correlation with the standard 9HPT over a broad range of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and had high discriminatory power, also comparable to the 9HPT. Therefore, the ST is a candidate test for use in composite measures of MS related functional deficits for clinical practice and in clinical trials. PMID:25012012

Gielen, Jeroen; Laton, Jorne; Van Schependom, J; De Deyn, P P; Nagels, Guy

2014-08-01

161

Morphologic outcome of bimaxillary surgery–An anthropometric appraisal  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, bimaxillary surgery, anthropometry, Class III. PMID:25475769

Rieger, Ulrich M.; Peisker, Andre; Djedovic, Gabriel; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Guentsch, Arndt; Schaefer, Oliver; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

2015-01-01

162

Morphologic outcome of bimaxillary surgery-An anthropometric appraisal.  

PubMed

Objectives: To adequately perform orthognathic surgery procedures, it is from basic interest to understand the morphologic changes caused by orthognathic surgery. Anthropometric analyses of standardized frontal view and profile photographs could help to investigate and understand such changes. Study Design: We present a pre- to postoperative evaluation of orthognathic surgery results based on anthropometric indices described by Farkas and cephalometric measurements. 30 Class III patients undergoing maxillary advancement by Le Fort I Osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were evaluated. Preoperative as well as three and nine months postoperative lateral cephalograms as well as standardized frontal view and profile photographs were taken. On the photographs 21 anthropometric indices given by Farkas were evaluated. In cephalograms SNA and SNB angle as well as Wits appraisal were investigated. Results: The investigated anthropometric indices showed a significant increase of the vertical height of the upper lip without changing the relation of the upper vermilion to the cutaneous upper lip. The lower vermilion height increased relatively to the cutaneous lower lip without vertical changes in the lower lip. Due to maxillary advancement the upper face height increased meanwhile the lower face height decreased due to mandibular setback. SNA and SNB angle and Wits appraisal showed typical changes related to surgery. Conclusions: The investigated photo-assisted anthropometric measurements presented reproducible results related to bimaxillary surgery. PMID:25475769

Raschke, G; Rieger, U-M; Peisker, A; Djedovic, G; Gomez-Dammeier, M; Guentsch, A; Schaefer, O; Schultze-Mosgau, S

2014-12-01

163

Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not…

Bohannon, R. W.

1996-01-01

164

Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration.  

PubMed Central

The measurement of hand-transmitted vibration converts oscillatory movements to a form in which they can be evaluated with respect to human responses and assessed for their acceptability. This paper presents methods of measurement, evaluation, and assessment currently advocated in standards and other forms of guidance. The degree to which the methods of evaluating different frequencies, directions, and durations of vibration affect the assessment of vibration on different tools is illustrated. With the frequency weighting currently used to allow for the effects of different frequencies there is little need to measure vibration at frequencies as high as 1000 Hz; this has significant implications to the design and evaluation of proposed antivibration devices, including gloves. Without the current frequency weighting, vibration at frequencies greater than 250 Hz can contribute to the magnitude of the vibration, but many common causes of injury from hand-transmitted vibration have their dominant components of vibration below 250 Hz. On many powered tools, although the dominant frequency of vibration is the same before and after frequency weighting, the reported magnitude of vibration is greatly affected by the frequency weighting. On tools with dominant low frequencies, their vibration is rated as being of far greater importance relative to other tools when considering frequency-weighted acceleration than when considering unweighted acceleration. It is shown that the effect of considering three axes of vibration as opposed to one axis has a greater effect on some tools than on others. The uncertainties and assumptions involved in the measurement, evaluation, and assessment of hand-transmitted vibration are reviewed. It is suggested that whereas current decisions on health and welfare should be based on current assessment methods, the measurement and evaluation of hand-transmitted vibration should involve the collection and reporting of data which allow other interpretations in the future. PMID:9072014

Griffin, M J

1997-01-01

165

New portable hand-held radiation instruments for measurements and monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Hand-held radiation monitors are often used to search pedestrians and motor vehicles for special nuclear material (SNM) as part of a physical protection plan for nuclear materials. Recently, the Los Alamos Advanced Nuclear Technology group has commercialized an improved hand-held monitor that can be used for both physical-protection monitoring and verification measurements in nuclear material control and waste management. The new monitoring instruments are smaller and lighter; operate much longer on a battery charge; are available with NaI(Tl) or neutron and gamma-ray sensitive plastic scintillation detectors; and are less expensive than other comparable instruments. They also have a second operating mode for making precise measurements over counting times as long as 99 s. This mode permits making basic verification measurements that may be needed before transporting nuclear material or waste outside protected areas. Improved verification measurements can be made with a second new hand-held instrument that has a stabilized detector and three separate gamma-ray energy windows to obtain spectral information for SNM quantity, enrichment, or material-type verification.

Fehlau, P.E.

1987-01-01

166

Prediction of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or albuminuria using simple anthropometric indexes in Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: It is important to determine what values of simple anthropometric measurements are associated with the presence of adverse cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes or hypertension to provide an indication for further detailed investigations. In this analysis, we aimed to assess which anthropometric cutoff values are best at predicting the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria in Hong

GTC Ko; JCN Chan; CS Cockram; J Woo; Gary TC Ko

1999-01-01

167

Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators  

SciTech Connect

Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

You-Hin Liau

1982-12-01

168

Kinetic measurements of hand motor impairments after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate quantitative outcome measurements of hand motor performance for subjects after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks and characterize abnormal flexion synergy of upper extremities after stroke. Methods A customized dynamometer with force sensors was used to measure grip force and calculate rotation torque during the sub-maximal grip control tasks. The paretic and nonpartic sides of eleven subjects after stroke and the dominant sides of ten healthy persons were tested. Their maximal voluntary grip force was measured and used to set sub-maximal grip control tasks at three different target force levels. Force control ability was characterized by the maximal grip force, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation (CV), target deviation ratio (TDR), and rotation torque ratio (RTR). The motor impairments of subjects after stroke were also evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Results Maximal grip force of the paretic side was significantly reduced as compared to the nonparetic side and the healthy group, while the difference of maximal grip force between the nonparetic side and the healthy group was not significant. TDR and RTR increased for all three groups with increasing target force level. There were significant differences of CV, TDR and RTR between the paretic side and the healthy group at all the force levels. CV, TDR and RTR showed significant negative correlations with FMA-UE and WMFT at 50% of maximum grip force. Conclusions This study designed a customized dynamometer together with an innovative measurement, RTR, to investigate the hand motor performance of subjects after mild to moderate stroke during force control tasks. And stroke-induced abnormal flexion synergy of wrist and finger muscles could be characterized by RTR. This study also identified a set of kinetic parameters which can be applied to quantitatively assess the hand motor function of subjects after mild to moderate stroke. PMID:24886085

2014-01-01

169

Exploring the Use of Sensors to Measure Behavioral Interactions: An Experimental Evaluation of Using Hand Trajectories  

PubMed Central

Humans appear to be sensitive to relative small changes in their surroundings. These changes are often initially perceived as irrelevant, but they can cause significant changes in behavior. However, how exactly people’s behavior changes is often hard to quantify. A reliable and valid tool is needed in order to address such a question, ideally measuring an important point of interaction, such as the hand. Wearable-body-sensor systems can be used to obtain valuable, behavioral information. These systems are particularly useful for assessing functional interactions that occur between the endpoints of the upper limbs and our surroundings. A new method is explored that consists of computing hand position using a wearable sensor system and validating it against a gold standard reference measurement (optical tracking device). Initial outcomes related well to the gold standard measurements (r?=?0.81) showing an acceptable average root mean square error of 0.09 meters. Subsequently, the use of this approach was further investigated by measuring differences in motor behavior, in response to a changing environment. Three subjects were asked to perform a water pouring task with three slightly different containers. Wavelet analysis was introduced to assess how motor consistency was affected by these small environmental changes. Results showed that the behavioral motor adjustments to a variable environment could be assessed by applying wavelet coherence techniques. Applying these procedures in everyday life, combined with correct research methodologies, can assist in quantifying how environmental changes can cause alterations in our motor behavior. PMID:24516583

Bergmann, Jeroen H. M.; Langdon, Patrick M.; Mayagoitia, Ruth E.; Howard, Newton

2014-01-01

170

Isometric muscle strength and anthropometric characteristics of a Chinese sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to collect isometric muscle strength data and anthropometric dimensions from a sample of the Chinese population. These basic data are important for workplace, task, and equipment design. The study involved collecting data from a sample of 146 male and 47 female subjects in the city of Ningbo in China. Five measures of muscle strength

Guobing Xiao; Ling Lei; Patrick G. Dempsey; Beibei Lu; Youxin Liang

2005-01-01

171

Characterizing human shape variation using 3D anthropometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizing the vari- ations of the human body shape is fundamentally important in many ap- plications ranging from animation to product design. 3D scanning technol- ogy makes it possible to digitize the complete surfaces of a large number of human bodies, providing much richer information about the body shape than traditional anthropometric measurements. This technology opens up opportunities to extract

Zouhour Ben Azouz; Marc Rioux; Chang Shu; Richard Lepage

2006-01-01

172

Conceptual design of a device to measure hand swelling in a micro-gravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design of pressurized suits for use by astronauts in space, proper fit is an important consideration. One particularly difficult aspect of the suit design is the design of the gloves. If the gloves of the suit do not fit properly, the grip strength of the astronaut can be decreased by as much as fifty percent. These gloves are designed using an iterative process and can cost over 1.5 million dollars. Glove design is further complicated by the way the body behaves in a micro-gravity environment. In a micro-gravity setting, fluid from the lower body tends to move into the upper body. Some of this fluid collects in the hands and causes the hands to swell. Therefore, a pair of gloves that fit well on earth may not fit well when they are used in space. The conceptual design process for a device which can measure the swelling that occurs in the hands in a micro-gravity environment is described. This process involves developing a specifications list and function structure for the device and generating solution variants for each of the sub functions. The solution variants are then filtered, with the variants that violate any of the specifications being discarded. After acceptable solution variants are obtained, they are combined to form design concepts. These design concepts are evaluated against a set of criteria and the design concepts are ranked in order of preference. Through this process, the two most plausible design concepts were an ultrasonic imaging technique and a laser mapping technique. Both of these methods create a three dimensional model of the hand, from which the amount of swelling can be determined. In order to determine which of the two solutions will actually work best, a further analysis will need to be performed.

Hysinger, Christopher L.

1993-01-01

173

Relation between hand grip strength, respiratory muscle strength and spirometric measures in male nursing home residents.  

PubMed

Adverse-outcomes related to sarcopenia are mostly mentioned as physical disability. As the other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles may also be affected by sarcopenia. Respiratory muscle strength is known to affect pulmonary functions. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relations between extremity muscle strength, respiratory muscle strengths and spirometric measures in a group of male nursing home residents. Among a total of 104 male residents, residents with obstructive measures were excluded and final study population was composed of 62 residents. Mean age was 70.5?±?6.7 years, body mass index: 27.7?±?5.3?kg/m2 and dominant hand grip strength: 29.7?±?6.5?kg. Hand grip strength was positively correlated with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) (r?=?0.35, p?hand grip strength; among spirometric measures only parameter significantly related to grip strength was peak cough flow (PCF). The association of PCF with grip strength disappeared when MIP alone or "MIP and MEP" were included in the regression analysis. In the latter case, PCF was significantly associated only with MIP. We found peripheric muscle strength be associated with MIP and PCF but not with MEP or any other spirometric parameters. The relation between peripheral muscle strength and PCF was mediated by MIP. Our findings suggest that sarcopenia may affect inspiratory muscle strength earlier or more than the expiratory muscle strength. Sarcopenia may cause decrease in PCF in the elderly, which may stand for some common adverse respiratory complications. PMID:24993454

Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Asli; Ozkaya, Hilal; Tufan, Fatih; Akpinar, Timur Selçuk; Akin, Sibel; Bahat, Zumrut; Kaya, Zuleyha; Kiyan, Esen; Erten, Nilgün; Karan, Mehmet Akif

2014-09-01

174

Sampling and analytical method development and hand wipe measurements of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media by first contaminating the hands of a small number of volunteers with UGEO, followed by applying a small amount of corn oil to the palms, and by wiping the skin with a Whatman cellulostic filter paper or a polyester fabric wipe (i.e., Alpha wipes). In summary, using either Whatman or Alpha wipes, the mean recovery of pyrene from the UGEO that was applied to the hands and contained within three consecutive wipes was 69% and 54%, respectively. However, the relative recovery of the first to second wipe was on average 47% and 75% for the two media, respectively. These results indicate that the Alpha wipes were more efficient at recovering pyrene in the first wipe but less efficient overall when all three consecutive samples were included. Even though this sampling was performed in a controlled laboratory environment, the minimum and maximum amount of pyrene recovered in the individual composite samples using either method spanned a range of twofold. Overall, intra-and interpersonal variability, as measured by coefficient of variation, were 22% and 19%, respectively, and were not statistically different by type of media used. This method was used in a pilot field survey to sample the hands of 18 automotive repair technicians and 18 office workers. Detectable amounts of pyrene (>0.2 microg/sample) were found on the hands of 61% and 0% of these two groups, respectively, with the highest measured quantity equal to 1.06 microg. Samples from the upper surfaces of automobile motors were generally low to nondetectable (<0.027 microg/sample), while the median value of 0.047 mkcrlg/50 cm(2)(CV = 160%) and up to 0.640 microg were found on the drip pans. PMID:18464095

Boeniger, Mark; Neumeister, Charles; Booth-Jones, Angela

2008-07-01

175

Hand controller commonality evaluation process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

1990-01-01

176

An anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population with ethnic diversity.  

PubMed

This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets. PMID:25683535

Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab

2015-05-01

177

Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 µg g-1 Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 µg Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4? detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation was constrained to be less than 150 mSv as opposed to the previously imposed dose equivalent limit of 20 mSv. A maximum beam current, which could be delivered on the lithium target to produce neutrons, was restricted to 500 µA. The length of irradiation intervals larger than 10 min, was considered inconvenient and impractical to implement with Mn measurements in humans. To fulfil the requirements for developing a protocol for in vivo bone Mn measurements, a revised estimate of the dose equivalent has been presented here. Beam energy of 1.98 MeV was determined to be optimal to complete the irradiation procedure within 10 min using 500 µA beam current. The local dose equivalent given to hand was estimated as 118 mSv, which is lower by a factor of 1.5 compared to that of 2.00 MeV. The optimized beam parameters are expected to improve the currently obtained detection limit of 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to 0.6 µg Mn/g Ca. Using this dose equivalent delivered to the central location of the hand, the average dose equivalent to the hand of 74 mSv and an effective dose of approximately 70 µSv will be accompanying the non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone Mn, which is little over the chest radiograph examination dose.

Aslam; Chettle, D. R.; Pejovi?-Mili?, A.; Waker, A. J.

2009-01-01

178

HAND WIPE SUBSAMPLING METHOD FOR USE WITH BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Dermal exposure studies incorporating urinary biomarker measurements are complicated because dermal sampling may intercept or remove the target chemical before it is absorbed. A hand wipe subsampling method has been developed using polyurethane foam-tipped (PUF) swabs to minim...

179

Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

Zehner, Gregory F.

1994-01-01

180

STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION M. Zhang, R, Australia ABSTRACT This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence information, along with all anthropometric parameters, is intro- duced in the multiple linear regression

Zhang, Wen

181

Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  

PubMed

In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G

1989-09-01

182

Intradiscal pressure together with anthropometric data – a data set for the validation of models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To provide a database of intradiscal pressure measurements together with anthropometric data as basis for the validation of models that predict spinal loads.Design. Intradiscal pressure was measured in a non-degenerated L4-5 disc of a volunteer. The anthropometric characteristics of this subject were extensively determined.Background. Since it is usually impossible to quantify the load in the spine directly, it is

Hans-Joachim Wilke; Peter Neef; Barbara Hinz; Helmut Seidel; Lutz Claes

2001-01-01

183

Computer Assisted Estimation of Anthropometric Parameters from Whole Body Scanner Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we describe a tool for the semi-automatic evaluation of anthropometric parameters from whole body scanner data.\\u000a It is based on a user friendly interface allowing the interactive visualization of the mesh and the use of specifically designed\\u000a measurements tools able to obtain standardized anthropometric estimates that can be compared with manually acquired data.\\u000a The “virtual” measurements procedures

Christian Lovato; Umberto Castellani; Simone Fantoni; Chiara Milanese; Carlo Zancanaro; Andrea Giachetti

2009-01-01

184

Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

1993-01-01

185

Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual

K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

2002-01-01

186

Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study.  

PubMed

New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. PMID:25311106

Short, D F; Gilsanz, V; Kalkwarf, H J; Lappe, J M; Oberfield, S; Shepherd, J A; Winer, K K; Zemel, B S; Hangartner, T N

2014-10-14

187

Is three-dimensional anthropometric analysis as good as traditional anthropometric analysis in predicting junior rowing performance?  

PubMed

With the use of three-dimensional whole body scanning technology, this study compared the 'traditional' anthropometric model [one-dimensional (1D) measurements] to a 'new' model [1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) measurements] to determine: (1) which model predicted more of the variance in self-reported best 2000-m ergometry rowing performance; and (2) what were the best anthropometric predictors of ergometry performance, for junior rowers competing at the 2007 and 2008 Australian Rowing Championships. Each rower (257 females, 16.3 ± 1.4 years and 243 males, 16.6 ± 1.5 years) completed a performance and demographic questionnaire, had their mass, standing and sitting height physically measured and were landmarked and scanned using the Vitus Smart® 3D whole body scanner. Absolute and proportional anthropometric measurements were extracted from the scan files. Partial least squares regression analysis, with anthropometric measurements and age as predictor variables and self-reported best 2000-m ergometer time as the response variable, was used to first compare the two models and then to determine the best performance predictors. The variance explained by each model was similar for both male [76.1% (new) vs. 73.5% (traditional)] and female [72.3% (new) vs. 68.6% (traditional)] rowers. Overall, absolute rather than proportional measurements, and 2D and 3D rather than 1D measurements, were the best predictors of rowing ergometry performance, with whole body volume and surface area, standing height, mass and leg length the strongest individual predictors. PMID:22734897

Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Tim; Petkov, John; Hahn, Allan G

2012-01-01

188

Participant adherence indicatiors predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose. To evaluate several adherence indicators, created using 2 measures, separately and in combination, for predicting health outcome changes. Design. Non-experimental with pre-post measures. Setting. Mid-sized city in southern region of United States. Subjects. 269 primarily African-America...

189

Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

Denny, Kevin

2008-01-01

190

The influence of basic body and hand anthropometry on the results of different throwing tests in young handball and basketball players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between basic body and specific hand anthropometric parameters with some specific and non-specific throw test results in young male handball and basketball players. The subjects included 34 handball and 38 basketball players of the 10-11 years old age group, 39 handball and 22 basketball players of the 12-13 years old age group and 39 handball players of the 14-15 years old age group. Body height and body mass, arms' span, height with outstretched hands and sitting height were the basic anthropometric parameters to be measured. For hand anthropometry, 15 specific hand parameters were measured using the method presented by Visnapuu & Jürimäe (2007). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that medicine ball throw results in the youngest age group are highly dependent on the body height (handball players) and body mass (basketball players). In the middle age group, the most important parameter from the hand anthropometry is TL (handball) or height with outstretched hands (basketball). In the oldest group of handball players, the medicine ball throw results were dependent on the P2 from hand anthropometry and sitting height. Quite different anthropometric parameters appeared to influence the handball or basketball throw results. In the youngest age group, most important were body height (handball) or LFL (basketball). In the middle age group, the most important was height with outstretched hands and in the oldest handball players LFL and sitting height. Handball or basketball pass on speed depended on the combination of body mass and FS5 and body height with height with outstretched hands (even 61.40%, R2 x 100) in the oldest age group. The results of passing the handball or basketball on precision were dependent on body height and P3 or P1 among basketball players in the youngest group. In the middle age group the combination of FS3 and body mass and LFL and height with outstretched hands were the most influential. Anthropometric parameters influence on the passing of the ball on speed or precision is lower in handball players compared with basketball players. Our conclusion is that the basic anthropometric parameters are slightly more important than hand anthropometry that influenced different throw tests results in young handball and basketball players. PMID:18712161

Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo

2008-06-01

191

Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to under- stand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, rela- tive stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m\\/s) using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension

Pui W. Kong; Hendrik de Heer

2008-01-01

192

PHYSIOLOGICAL, ANTHROPOMETRIC, STRENGTH, AND MUSCLE POWER CHARACTERISTICS CORRELATE WITH RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG RUNNERS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, strength, and muscle power variables and a 5 km time trial (5kmT) in young runners. Twenty-three runners volunteered to participate in this study. Height, body mass (BM), body fat (BF), and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured. The subjects underwent laboratory testing to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), velocity at ventilatory threshold (VVT), running economy (RE), velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max), and peak velocity (PV). Peak torque (PT), total work (TW), and power (PW) were measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·s and 240° s angular velocities. Right and left knee flexor and extensor torques were evaluated. Finally, the participants performed a 5kmT. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to determine the variables that significantly related to 5kmT. Strength and muscle power variables did not correlate with 5kmT. On the other hand, most physiological variables were associated with 5kmT. VVT alone explains 40% of the variance in 5kmT. The addition of the RE at speed 11.2 km.h (RE11.2) and FFM to the prediction equation allowed for 71% of the adjusted variance in 5kmT to be predicted. These results show that strength and muscle power variables are not good predictors of 5kmT; however, the physiological variables presented high prediction capacity in the 5kmT. Moreover, the anthropometric measures showed significant influence in performance prediction. PMID:25474331

Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme A; Santos, Bruno V; Hernandez, Sara G; Silva, SÉrgio G; Campos, Wagner DE

2014-12-01

193

Anthropometric Variation Among Bering Sea Natives  

E-print Network

Recent research indicates that anthropometrics can be used to study microevolutionary forces acting on humans. We examine the use of morphological traits in reconstructing the population history of Aleuts and Eskimos of the Bering Sea. From 1979...

Justice, Anne E.; Rubicz, Rohina C.; Chittoor, Greetha; Jantz, Richard; Crawford, Michael H.

2010-01-01

194

Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

2003-05-01

195

A knowledge based anthropometric data associate  

E-print Network

A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. REII'MEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989... Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A KNOWLEDGE BASED ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ASSOCIATE A Thesis by PETER B. ~YER Approved as to style and content by: Newton C. Ellis (Chair of Committee) Dick B. Simmons (Member) Waym . Johnston ( ember) G...

Reitmeyer, Peter B.

1989-01-01

196

Anthropometric risk factors for patellar tendon injury among volleyball players  

PubMed Central

Objective Abnormal imaging in the patellar tendon reveals pathology that is often associated with knee pain. Anthropometric measures of body size and mass, such as height, weight and waist?to?hip ratio (WHR), have been individually associated with abnormal imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropometric factors that have the strongest relationship with abnormal imaging in volleyball players. Methods Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist girth, hip girth and WHR were measured in a cohort of 113 competitive volleyball players (73 men, 40 women). The univariate (ANOVA) and multivariable (discriminant function analysis) association between abnormal imaging and these anthropometric factors were investigated. Results No significant association was found in the female volleyball players. A significant univariate association was observed between abnormal imaging and heavier weight, greater BMI, larger waist and hip girth and larger WHR in the male volleyball players. Waist girth was the only factor that retained this association in a multivariable model (p<0.05). Conclusions Men with a waist girth greater than 83?cm seem to be at greater risk of developing patellar tendon pathology. There may be both mechanical and biochemical reasons for this increased risk. PMID:16920767

Malliaras, P; Cook, J L; Kent, P M

2007-01-01

197

Young swimmers' classification based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F=53.680; P<.001), followed by the dv (F=28.506; P<.001), CDa (F=21.025; P<.001), S (F=6.297; P<.01) and v (F=5.375; P=.01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers' profiles. PMID:24043707

Barbosa, Tiago M; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mário J; Goncalves, José; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J

2014-04-01

198

Hand-handle interface force and torque measurement system for pneumatic assembly tool operations: suggested enhancement to ISO 6544.  

PubMed

A hand-handle interface force and torque measurement system is introduced to fill the void acknowledged in the international standard ISO 6544, which governs pneumatic, assembly tool reaction torque and force measurement. This system consists of an instrumented handle with a sensor capable of measuring grip force and reaction hand moment when threaded, fastener-driving tools are used by operators. The handle is rigidly affixed to the tool in parallel to the original tool handle allowing normal fastener-driving operations with minimal interference. Demonstration of this proposed system was made with tools of three different shapes: pistol grip, right angle, and in-line. During tool torque buildup, the proposed system measured operators exerting greater grip force on the soft joint than on the hard joint. The system also demonstrated that the soft joint demanded greater hand moment impulse than the hard joint. The results demonstrate that the measurement system can provide supplemental data useful in exposure assessment with power hand tools as proposed in ISO 6544. PMID:17454501

Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Chang, Chien-Chi

2007-05-01

199

Control strategy for a myoelectric hand: measuring acceptable time delay in human intention discrimination.  

PubMed

In order to enhance controllability of a myoelectric hand, we focus on a gap between the time when a human intends to move a myoelectric hand and the time when the hand actually moves (i.e., time delay). Normally, the myoelectric hand users dislike the time delay because it makes them feel uncomfortable. However, the users learn the time delay within some time ranges and, eventually, get feel comfortable to operate the hand. Thus, we assume, if we reveal the acceptable delay time (i.e., the time the users accept the gap with their learning ability), we can provide more time in a human intention discrimination process, and enhance its success rate. Therefore, we developed a mobile myoelectric hand system with an embedded linux computer, and conducted a ball catch experiment: we investigate the acceptable delay time by adding the delay time (i.e., 120[ms], 170[ms], 220[ms], 270[ms], 320[ms]) into the human intention discrimination process. As a result, we confirmed that the max accept delay time was approximately 170 [ms] that achieves 61% success rate. PMID:19964377

Nakamura, Tatsuhiro; Kita, Kahori; Kato, Ryu; Matsushita, Kojiro; Hiroshi, Yokoi

2009-01-01

200

Measurement of forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography: Influence of hand blood flow during sustained and intermittent isometric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The requirement for using an arterial occlusion cuff at the wrist when measuring forearm blood flows by plethysmography was tested on a total of 8 subjects at rest and during and after sustained and intermittent isometric exercise. The contribution of the venous effluent from the hand to the forearm flow during exercise was challenged by immersing the arm in water

Carole A. Williams; Alexander R. Lind

1979-01-01

201

Effect of Cigarette Smoking in Pregnancy on Infants Anthropometric Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Aim: The main goal of this research is to correlate anthropometric characteristics of newborns in pregnant women who consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics Clinic of the Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. Methods: The retrospective study covered a period of two years. Main inclusion criteria for the study was that pregnant women consume cigarettes during pregnancy. The research included respondents who had a singleton pregnancy, without pathological conditions that can affect the outcome and duration of pregnancy. Results: At the Obstetrics Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. In that period 393 pregnant women completed labor who in the personal history had data on smoking during pregnancy. Of the total number of subjects enrolled in this study 38.17% smoked up to 10 cigarettes a day, 33.08 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes a day, while up to 30 cigarettes per day smoked 28.75 % of respondents. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the average values of all anthropometric parameters, in relation to the number of cigarettes consumed by the subjects during the day. We also found negative correlation in the average values of anthropometric measures and the number of cigarettes consumed (p <0.05). PMID:25126013

El–Ardat, Mohammad Abou; Izetbegovic, Sebija; El-Ardat, Khalil A. Abou

2014-01-01

202

Hand hygiene audits utilising medical student observers and measuring product consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand hygiene is critical in controlling hospital-acquired infection. Traditional methods of surveillance are resource-intensive. They are often influenced by the awareness of being observed (the Hawthorne effect) and so observers must be unobtrusive. In Singapore, medical students are not part of the ward team and are potentially excellent auditors. Utilising students may have additional benefits such as infection control training

Toon Mae Ng; Paul A. Tambyah; Corinna Scharmer

2008-01-01

203

Isometric exercise, isometric strength and anthropometric measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a1. \\u000a29 young adult male subjects practiced 15 sec. of maximal isometric contractions of the elbow flexors three times a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. They achieved greater increases in strength than have been claimed for a single two-thirds maximal contraction once a day, although the latter has been said to provide the maximal stimulus for

Philip J. Rasch; William R. Pierson

1963-01-01

204

Apportionment of Genetic Variation in Contemporary Aleut and Eskimo Populations of Alaska Using Anthropometrics and Classical Genetic Markers  

E-print Network

anthropometric measurements and classical genetic markers. Relethford-Blangero method was applied to athropometrics of the study populations. Results were compared to Nei's genetic distance matrix of classical genetic markers. Multivariate analyses were used...

Justice, Anne E.

2007-12-27

205

Anthropometric characteristics of men in Antarctica.  

PubMed

Thirty anthropometric and ten physiological parameters were evaluated over a 10-month period during 1985-86 in 66 polar explorers at an Antarctic station (Mirny observatory), all of them males aged 25-61 years. The evaluations were made in the months of April, September and January, which corresponded to the following Antarctic seasons: the beginning of the polar night, an intermediate period, and the beginning of the polar day; the necessary measurements were performed on subjects belonging to three occupational groups, namely: administrative, scientific, and manual workers. Significant changes in the pattern of skinfold thickness were observed using ANOVA with repeated measurements during the winter period (p < 0.05). Despite the fact that body weight and BMI of subjects remained unchanged, the mean sum of skinfold thickness and subcutaneous fat mass increased over the studied period at the expense of muscle mass. In participants engaged in high levels of outdoor physical activity (e.g. construction workers, drivers, technicians), an increase in fat mass, significant fall in muscle mass on wrist dynamometry, and protracted time of the simple motor response time was documented. Systolic blood pressure showed a downward trend during the winter in the group of manual workers, while significant rises in the diastolic pressure (p < 0.05) were found in the group of scientists at the end of the polar night. The present findings may be interpreted as evidence for destabilization in the studied individuals, and for an adaptation response to the Antarctic environment, which results in apparent increase in body fat and decrease in muscle mass. PMID:10528466

Belkin, V; Karasik, D

1999-07-01

206

Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.  

PubMed

Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments. PMID:25203584

Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

2014-09-01

207

Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics  

E-print Network

Person Identification Using Full-Body Motion and Anthropometric Biometrics from Kinect Videos Brent,quc,songwang}@cec.sc.edu Abstract. For person identification, motion and anthropometric bio- metrics are known to be less sensitive method that uses motion and anthropometric biometrics acquired from an inexpensive Kinect RGBD sensor

Wang, Song

208

Hand Washing  

MedlinePLUS

... News Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine Hand Washing KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Skin Stuff > Hand Washing ... or from animals and animal waste. Continue Defensive Hand Washing In 2010 the American Society for Microbiology ...

209

Anthropometric Modeling of Faces from Range Scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents new techniques for generating varied realistic geometric models of human faces by synthesizing local facial features according to anthropometric control parameters, and for generating a full-head texture from a face image of the scanned data for realistic rendering. We automatically register 3D face scans in a large database by deforming a generic head mesh to fit

Yu Zhang; Chew Lim Tan

2007-01-01

210

A hand-held, high-resolution 3D shape measurement system using structured and unstructured illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a high-resolution 3D shape acquisition method for developing hand-held 3D measurement system by projecting structured and unstructured patterns. The structured patterns consist of three-step phase-shifting fringe patterns, and the phase can be computed pixel by pixel to achieve high-resolution 3D measurement, and the phaseshifting method commonly requires many additional images to implement a phase unwrapping procedure for obtaining absolute phase value and removing the correspondence ambiguity, but it would slow down the measurement speed and limits its applications in fast 3D measurement. To address this problem, an unstructured pattern using random speckle is employed to reject wrong correspondence and promises a correct 3D result. Therefore, only four images are required to reconstruct one 3D point cloud, which is suitable for fast 3D measurement in hand-held systems. Moreover, the proposed method can be speed up by parallel computing technology for real-time data processing. The experiments verify the performance of the proposed method.

Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Zhou, Xiaohui; Shi, Yusheng; Wang, Congjun

2014-11-01

211

Anthropometric and strength variables to predict freestyle performance times in elite master swimmers.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine in elite master swimmers of both genders whether, using anthropometric variables and the hand grip strength measure, it was possible to predict freestyle performance time, whether the considered predictors were related similarly to different events (50, 100, 200, 400, 800 m), and whether they were the same in male and female master swimmers. The relationships between performance times and age, body mass, height, arm length, forearm length, forearm muscle volume, and hand grip strength were examined in 135 elite master swimmers. Pearson's simple correlation coefficients were calculated and then prediction equations were developed. Age, height, and hand grip strength were the best predictors in short-distance events, whereas only age and height were predictors in middle- and long-distance events. The corresponding coefficient of determination (R) of performance times were 0.84 in the 50-m event, 0.73 in the 100-m event, 0.75 in the 200-m event, 0.66 in the 400-m event, and 0.63 in the 800-m event. These regression equations were then cross-validated in a control group of 126 nonelite, age-matched swimmers, obtaining significant and good correlations for all distances (range, r = 0.67 and 0.83; p < 0.01), indicating that predictors are valid in an extended sample of master swimmers. Differences between sexes were not found in 50-m event, but were present in all other events. These models might be useful to determine individual performance times by contributing to improving the individual's training program and the selection of master swimmers. Coaches could have better accuracy in determining whether an athlete needs a strength training program in order to optimize performance time. PMID:18545175

Zampagni, Maria L; Casino, Daniela; Benelli, Piero; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio; De Vito, Giuseppe

2008-07-01

212

Extracting Main Modes of Human Body Shape Variation from 3-D Anthropometric Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizing the variations of the human body shape is fundamentally important to many applications ranging from animation to product design. 3D scanning technology makes it possible to digitize the complete surfaces of a large number of human bodies, providing much richer information about the body shape than the traditional anthropometric measurements. This technology opens up opportunities to extract new measurements

Zouhour Ben Azouz; Chang Shu; Richard Lepage; Marc Rioux

2005-01-01

213

Estimation of stature from hand and handprint dimensions in a Western Australian population.  

PubMed

As part of the formulation of a biological profile, the estimation of stature is an important element that provides useful data towards narrowing the pool of potentially matching identities. Recent literature has demonstrated that anthropometry of the hand has considerable promise for the accurate estimation of stature; although the technique has only been tested in a relatively limited range of populations. The aim of the present study, therefore, is to assess the reliability and accuracy of using anthropometric hand measurements for the estimation of stature in a contemporary Western Australian population; we also evaluate whether stature can be accurately estimated from the measurement of handprints. The study sample comprises 91 male and 110 female adult individuals. Following the measurement of stature, seven measurements are taken on each hand and its corresponding print. To establish the reliability of acquiring these measurements, a precision study was performed prior to primary data collection. Measurements data are analysed using basic univariate statistics and simple and multiple regression analyses. Our results show that the degree of measurement error and reliability are well within accepted standards. Stature prediction accuracy using hand and handprint measurements ranges from ±4.74 to 6.53cm, which is comparable to established skeletal standards for the hand. This study provides new forensic standards for the estimation of stature in a Western Australian population and also demonstrates that the measurement and analysis of handprints affords a novel source of profiling data that is statistically quantified. PMID:21993056

Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Hemy, Naomi; Franklin, Daniel

2012-03-10

214

Relation of in utero lead exposure with insulin-like growth factor-I levels and neonatal anthropometric parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to establish whether independent relationships exist between either anthropometric parameters or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and cord blood lead levels in newborns. Umbilical cord blood samples and anthropometric data were obtained at delivery. Cord blood lead levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. IGF-I levels were measured using RIA. Blood lead levels ?100?g\\/l were considered elevated in

Mehmet Emre Atabek; Selim Kurtoglu; Ozgur Pirgon; Kaz?m Uzum; Recep Saraymen

2007-01-01

215

The effects of hand preference side and hand preference switch history on measures of psychological and physical well-being and cognitive performance in a sample of older adult right-and left-handers.  

PubMed

Claims have been made that left-handedness often arises from pathological causes, and that owing to this underlying pathology, the presence of sinistrality may entail disadvantages for both the length and quality of life. A prime implication of these claims is that left-handers, as a group, should display signs of poorer fitness than right-handers. This poorer fitness might take the form of an increased incidence of illnesses and/or accidents. In addition, it might also be predicted that left-handers would experience a psychological and, perhaps, cognitive quality of life that is inferior to that of right-handers. In the present study, we measured a large sample (N=1277) of older adults on four indexes of lateral preference (hand, foot, eye, and ear), on whether or not they experienced pressure to switch their preferred writing hand, and variables related to psychological well-being, physical health, and cognitive performance. The results revealed that the presence of left hand writing, in isolation, did not predict decreases in quality of life factors; however, in conjunction with left-handed writing, the presence of a hand preference switch report was shown to be important. In particular, one subset of left-handers-those who attempted to change their preferred writing hand but were unsuccessful-was found to have a lower quality of psychological and physical well-being on multiple measures. PMID:12208004

Porac, Clare; Searleman, Alan

2002-01-01

216

Hand controller commonality evaluation process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

1993-01-01

217

[Food intake, and anthropometrical and biological parameters in adult Tunisians during fasting at Ramadan].  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of fasting during Ramadan on nutritional intake and plasma lipoproteins in 20 healthy adults of normal weight. A 5-day food questionnaire was completed for every participant. Clinical investigations, anthropometrical measurements and laboratory analysis were also undertaken. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose were not influenced by fasting but there were non-significant modifications in the plasma lipid fractions. The total cholesterol remained unchanged. Total daily energy intake was comparable before, during and after Ramadan despite the decrease in meal frequency during fasting. Thus fasting in Ramadan did not affect dietary intake, clinical, anthropometrical and most biological parameters. PMID:15603043

Beltaifa, L; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C; Jabrane, H; El-Khadhi, A; Ben Rayana, M C; Doghri, T

2002-01-01

218

Food security and anthropometric failure among tribal children in Bankura, West Bengal.  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional study among 188 tribal children aged 6-59 months using two-stage sampling in Bankura-I Block of Bankura district, West Bengal, India, to assess their nutritional status and its relation with household food security. Weight and height/length were measured and analyzed as per new WHO Growth Standards. Mothers of the study children were interviewed to obtain relevant information. Prevalence of Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure was 69.1%; and multiple anthropometric failures were more likely among tribal children aged 24-59 months with irregular utilization of supplementary nutrition and from households with severe grades of food security. PMID:21169653

Mukhopadhyay, D K; Biswas, A B

2011-04-01

219

Estimation of stature using hand and foot dimensions in Slovak adults.  

PubMed

Hand and foot dimensions used for stature estimation help to formulate a biological profile in the process of personal identification. Morphological variability of hands and feet shows the importance of generating population-specific equations to estimate stature. The stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 250 young Slovak males and females, aged 18-24years, were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test for sex and bilateral differences. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for assessing relationship between stature and hand/foot parameters, and subsequently linear regression analysis was used to estimate stature. The results revealed significant sex differences in hand and foot dimensions as well as in stature (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between stature and all measurements in both sexes (p<0.01). The highest correlation coefficient was found for foot length in males (r=0.71) as well as in females (r=0.63). Regression equations were computed separately for each sex. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ±4.6 to ±6.1cm. The results of this study indicate that hand and foot dimension can be used to estimate stature for Slovak for the purpose of forensic field. The regression equations can be of use for stature estimation particularly in cases of dismembered bodies. PMID:25459368

Uhrová, Petra; Be?uš, Radoslav; Masnicová, So?a; Obertová, Zuzana; Kramárová, Daniela; Kyselicová, Klaudia; Dörnhöferová, Michaela; Bodoriková, Silvia; Neš?áková, Eva

2014-10-22

220

Descriptive Anthropometric Reference Data for Older Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To present selected anthropometric data derived from adults aged 60 years and older examined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design NHANES III used a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Persons aged 60 years and older, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans were oversampled

MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR

2000-01-01

221

Using data mining technique to explore anthropometric data towards the development of sizing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anthropometric survey of 629 girls aged between 7and 12 years old were conducted covering major ethnic groups namely Malays, Chinese and Indians from schools in rural and urban districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. 33 different body dimensions were taken from each subject following the ISO8559-1998 standard for body measurement. Firstly, the whole data was analysed using descriptive analysis

Norsaadah Zakaria; Jamil Salleh Mohd; Nasir Taib; Yong Yuan Tan; Yap Bee Wah

2008-01-01

222

Anthropometric variation and the population history of Ireland.  

PubMed

Genetic variation among human populations can reflect a combination of contemporary patterns of gene flow and genetic drift as well as long-term population relationships due to population history. We examine the likely impact of past history and contemporary structure on the patterns of anthropometric variation among 31 counties in Ireland (made up of the two nations of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). Data for 17 anthropometric measures and parent-offspring migration on 7,214 adult Irish males were taken from the large data set originally collected by Dupertuis and Dawson in the mid-1930s (Hooton et al., 1955). Patterns of genetic similarity among 31 counties were assessed using R matrix methods that allow estimation of minimum genetic distances. These distances were compared to distances reflecting history, geography, and migration using matrix permutation methods. The results indicate that among-group variation in Ireland reflects past population history to a much greater extent than contemporary patterns of migration and population size. The midland counties are distinct from other populations, and their history suggests greater genetic input from early Viking invasions. A second major pattern in biological variation is a longitudinal gradient separating western and eastern counties. This gradient appears related to patterns of early settlement and/or a concentration in the east of later immigrants, particularly from England. Comparison of regional means with published data for several other European nations confirms these hypotheses. PMID:7726293

Relethford, J H; Crawford, M H

1995-01-01

223

Anthropometric and training variables related to 10km running performance.  

PubMed Central

Sixty male distance athletes were divided into three equal groups according to their personal best time for the 10km run. The runners were measured anthropometrically and each runner completed a detailed questionnaire on his athletic status, training programme and performance. The runners in this study had similar anthropometric and training profiles to other distance runners of a similar standard. The most able runners were shorter and lighter than those in the other two groups and significantly smaller skinfold values (P less than 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for either bone widths or circumferences but the elite and good runners had significantly higher ponderal indices (P less than 0.05) than the average runners, indicating that they are more linear. Elite and good runners were also less endomorphic but more ectomorphic than the average runners. The elite runners trained more often, ran more miles per week and had been running longer (P less than 0.05) than good or average runners. A multiple regression and discriminant function analysis indicated that linearity, total skinfold, the type and frequency of training and the number of years running were the best predictors of running performance and success at the 10km distance. PMID:3814989

Bale, P; Bradbury, D; Colley, E

1986-01-01

224

Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed. PMID:24893195

Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H

2012-01-01

225

Claw hand  

MedlinePLUS

Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. See ... Claw hand can be something that someone is born with (congenital) or that they develop because of certain disorders, ...

226

A 3D Anthropometric Analysis of the Orolabial Region in Chinese Young Adults  

PubMed Central

The orolabial region frequently undergoes significant changes following trauma, orthognathic surgery or orthodontics. Ethnicity, age and gender specific normative data are needed during the planning phase before surgical interventions in this region. In 2008 the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery published anthropometric lip measurements of Chinese children; however such reference data for Chinese young adults are currently unavailable. Therefore this cross-sectional study using 3-D facial photographs acquired from 103 healthy Chinese young adults with Class I skeletal pattern was conducted to deliver normative data for this age group. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these 3-D images and linear, angular measurements as well as proportions were calculated. It was found that all orolabial measurements were significantly higher in males other than the labiomental angle. No gender differences were found in the anthropometric proportions. This study established the orolabial anthropometric normative data for Chinese young adults. These norms can be used to objectively evaluate the morphology of the lips during diagnosis, treatment planning and assessment of treatment outcomes. PMID:24094549

Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

2014-01-01

227

Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict “normal” MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for

Ke Li; David J. Hewson; Jacques Duchêne; Jean-Yves Hogrel

2010-01-01

228

Wideband Measurement of Discharge Current Caused by Air Discharge through Hand-Held Metal Piece from Charged Human-Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In IEC 61000-4-2 for electrostatic discharge (ESD) immunity testing, an ESD-gun is used to simulate the ESD events from a charged human body. The gun of this kind injects into a device under test the discharge current through a lumped resistor from a charged lumped capacitor. In actual ESD events from charged human bodies, however, the charge distributed on the body surface is discharged through a spark from the fingertip, and its situation is essentially different from that of the ESD-gun. To understand the behavior of the above-mentioned discharge current, using a 6GHz digital oscilloscope, we previously measured the current through a hand-held metal piece from a charged human body, and proposed an equivalent circuit model for calculating the discharge current with a time invariant spark resistance. In this study, with respect to the approaching speed of the hand-held metal piece, we measured discharge currents through a metal piece from a human-body with a charge voltage raging from 200V to 1000V, and estimated the resultant voltage waveforms from the above-mentioned equivalent circuit model. Through these results, in conjunction with the metal piece speed, we demonstrated the dependence on the charge voltage of current peak, current rise time, time-varying spark resistance, spark length and breakdown field. We confirmed also that the spark resistance value at the current peak time enables one to calculate the discharge current, which supports the validity of the previously proposed circuit model.

Mori, Ikuko; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

229

Quenching and Cold-Work Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings : Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction  

SciTech Connect

The cold-compression stress relief process used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings does not fully relieve the stresses. This study measured and predicted the residual stress in 7050-T74 (solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially overaged) and 7050-T7452 (cold compressed prior to aging) hand forgings. The manufacturing process was simulated by finite element analysis. First, a thermal analysis simulated the quench using appropriate thermal boundary conditions and temperature dependent material properties. Second, a structural analysis used the thermal history and a temperature and strain-rate dependent constitutive model to predict the stresses after quenching. Third, the structural analysis was continued to simulate the multiple cold compressions of the stress relief process. Experimentally, the residual stresses in the forgings were mapped using the contour method, which involved cutting the forgings using wire EDM and then measuring the contour of the cut surface using a CMM. Multiple cuts were used to map different stress components. The results show a spatially periodic variation of stresses that results from the periodic nature of the cold work stress relief process. The results compare favorably with the finite element prediction of the stresses.

Prime, M. B. (Michael B.); Newborn, M. A. (Mark A.); Balog, J. A. (John A.)

2003-01-01

230

Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

2007-01-01

231

Anthropometric and physiological factors predicting young adults' motor skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that performance of motor skills is influenced by a diversity of physiological parameters, such as weight status, aerobic capacity, endurance and muscular strength, but the scientific determinants of physical performance are very specific. The aim was to identify the anthropometric and physiological determinants of motor skills in young adults. The authors studied anthropometric and physiological factors (as

E I Iconaru; C Ciucurel; M M Ciucurel; L Georgescu; S Toma; M I Tudor

2010-01-01

232

Hands On??  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the facilities and programs of two major hands-on learning centers for children: the Capitol Children's Museum in Washington, D.C. and Sesame Place in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Computer-oriented activities are emphasized. A table describing several other hands-on learning centers accompanies the text. (JL)

Wrege, Rachael

1982-01-01

233

The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Is Not Related to Any Physical Fitness Component in Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13,5–18 y) was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance) was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index) are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.925±0.019) was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9,2% (flexibility) and 33,9% (static strength) of variance. Conclusion Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls. PMID:23565167

Peeters, Maarten W.; Van Aken, Katrijn; Claessens, Albrecht L.

2013-01-01

234

The interdisciplinary effect of hands-on science as measured by the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the difference in scale scores from Tennessee's standardized test the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP). Archival data from the years 2002 and 2005 were compared using ANOVA tests at < .01 and < .05 levels. TCAP/NCE Scale Scores for academic subjects of Science, Math, Social Studies and Reading were used. 3922 student test results were divided into groups based on the number of years the student had a trained hands-on science teacher. Trained hands-on science teachers were identified from Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools (MNPS) Science Department inservice records, which gave information on the teacher's participation in The Hands-on Science Initiative, Biology Gateway and Physical Science training. This information included not only that the teacher had be trained but also the dates of training. The study revealed 1600 students who attended MNPS between the years 2002 and 2005; in grades five through seven that never had a hands-on science trained teacher. About 1600 students in those same years had a hands-on science teacher for only one year, and 588 students had a hands-on science teacher for two of the three years. Lastly of the 3922 students in the study there were 44 students who had a hands-on science teacher for all three years. The results of the ANOVA test showed statistically significant gains in science, math and social studies but not in reading for students who had trained hands-on science teachers for at least one year.

Cherry, Elvis H.

235

Anthropometric Comparison of World-Class Sprinters and Normal Populations  

PubMed Central

The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM) distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women) were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation) among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish), while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI) than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length. Key Points The male sprinters were less variable in height, body mass and body mass index than the normal populations The sprinters were lighter than the normal populations. The sprinters were taller than the American normal population. The female sprinters were less variable in body mass and body mass index than the normal population. PMID:24501574

Uth, Niels

2005-01-01

236

A comparison of 4 common methods of hand-measured techniques with a computerized technique to measure the first intermetatarsal angle.  

PubMed

Measurement of the intermetatarsal (IM) angle on plain dorsoplantar radiographs is considered a standard in the surgical evaluation of hallux valgus. The angle formed in this measurement helps determine the selection of surgical procedure. A study was performed to determine the most consistent method to radiographically measure the first IM angle. The IM angle was measured manually with a tractograph by using 4 different techniques on 50 preoperative dorsoplantar radiographs. The techniques used were 1) bisecting the shaft of the first and second metatarsals, 2) bisecting the head and base of the first and second metatarsals (center-of-head method), 3) measuring the angle from the tangent of the medial aspect of the first and the second metatarsal shaft, and 4) measuring the angle formed by the tangent of the lateral aspects of the first and second metatarsal shafts. In addition, the same 50 radiographs were evaluated by a Java software program designed by 1 of the authors to specifically measure the IM angle by bisecting the areas of the first and second metatarsals. A statistical analysis was applied to determine which IM angle of the 4 methods measured by hand was most consistent with the computer-generated IM angle. The median absolute deviation error test was applied to interpret the results. The results showed that the bisection of the shaft of the first and second metatarsals had the smallest mean absolute value of 2.8 degrees (22.37% error), with the other techniques ranging from 3.0 degrees to 3.8 degrees. It appears that the method of bisection of the shafts of the first and second metatarsals provides the most accurate technique compared with the computer-determined technique. PMID:15605052

Van Vo, Ha; Safiedine, Ali M; Short, Tim; Merrill, Thomas

2004-01-01

237

Hallowed hands  

E-print Network

Human hand transplantation became a medical reality at the turn of the 2 1st century. Often hailed by media and the general public as miraculous, these life-changing surgeries are also highly controversial. Many doctors, ...

Ruppel, Emily (Emily C.)

2011-01-01

238

Hand Battery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about chemistry and electricity, learners form a battery by placing their hands onto plates of different metals. Learners detect the current by reading a DC microammeter attached to the metal plates. Learners experiment with different metals to find out what combination produces the most current as well as testing what happens when they press harder on the plates or wet their hands. Learners also investigate what happens when they wire the plates to a voltmeter.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-05

239

Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

Zehner, Gregory Franklin

240

A stereo-photogrammetric method to measure the facial dysmorphology of children in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In diagnosing a child with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), anthropometric measurements of the face are conventionally performed by highly trained dysmorphologists using a hand-held ruler. This renders the screening of large populations of children for the facial features characteristic of FAS very time-consuming and costly. This study proposes a new, cost-effective, and non-intrusive method to measure in three dimensions the

E. M. Meintjes; T. S. Douglas; F. Martinez; C. L. Vaughan; L. P. Adams; A. Stekhoven; D. Viljoen

2002-01-01

241

Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved human?–?tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information

H. Hsiao; J Whitestone; B Bradtmiller; R Whisler; J Zwiener; C Lafferty; T-Y Kau; M. Gross

2005-01-01

242

A systematic review and meta-analysis of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI).  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the use of the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) to measure strength and endurance of the tongue and hand in healthy populations and those with medical conditions. A systematic search of the scientific literature published since 1991 yielded 38 studies that addressed this purpose. The IOPI was used primarily for tongue strength (38 studies) and endurance (15 studies) measurement; relatively few studies measured hand strength (9 studies) or endurance (6 studies). The majority of the studies identified used the IOPI as an evaluation tool, although four used it as an intervention tool. Half the studies were conducted in healthy people, primarily adults. Most of the other participants had disorders with dysphagia, primarily Parkinson's disease or head or neck cancer. Age and gender, as well as a number of medical conditions, influence the values of tongue and hand strength. There is sufficient evidence to support the use of the IOPI as a suitable tool for measuring tongue strength and endurance and as an assessment tool for intervention studies, and there is growing support for its use to assess hand strength and endurance in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:23468283

Adams, Valerie; Mathisen, Bernice; Baines, Surinder; Lazarus, Cathy; Callister, Robin

2013-09-01

243

DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

244

The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT?=?-144.66?+?1.84X1?+?1.35X2?+?0.52X3 (r?=?0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P?

2014-01-01

245

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods  

PubMed Central

Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

2013-01-01

246

Estimation of sex from the upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults.  

PubMed

Sex estimation is the first biological attribute needed for personal identification from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts in medical-legal autopsies. Populations have different sizes and proportions that affect the anthropometric assessment of sex. Relatively few published works assess the accuracy of sex estimation from soft tissue measurements of upper limb parts, except for the hand and its components, but these studies involve a limited range of global populations. The current study aimed to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper limb measurements and the accuracy of using these measurements for sex estimation in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, and hand breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured by international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who composed the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The ulnar length, wrist breadth and hand breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Forearm dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than hand dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78.5% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 77.5% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:24237816

Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

2013-11-01

247

Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

2001-01-01

248

A comparison of cephalometric measurements: a picture archiving and communication system versus the hand-tracing method--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Traditionally, cephalometric analysis has been carried out using a hand-tracing manual method. In imaging, picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are information management systems used for the capture and measurement of medical and dental radiographs. Although not customized for lateral cephalometry, this study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric measurements made on screen using PACS compared with the conventional hand-tracing method. Six angular and four liner parameters were measured on five radiographs of four females and one male with an age range of 14-20 years. Analysis was completed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. For the electronic method, SNB (P=0.04) and lower incisor angle (P=0.05) were the only parameters found to be significantly different between the two operators. There was no significant difference between operators 1 and 2 for the hand-tracing method for any measurement. All measurements were comparable between the two methods. This preliminary study would suggest that using PACS may be an acceptable method for obtaining cephalometric measurements for treatment planning; however, further evaluation is necessary with a larger sample size. PMID:20923935

Singh, Parmjit; Davies, Terence Ian

2011-08-01

249

Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins using Machine Learning.  

PubMed

Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of the present study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13014 subjects participated in the present study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. Logistic regression (LR) and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p = <0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 1.895; area under curve (AUC) = 0.681) in women and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.624; AUC = 0.633) in men. In women, the strongest indicator of LDL was age (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.662; AUC by NB = 0.653; AUC by LR = 0.636). Among the anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.369; AUC by NB = 0.594; AUC by LR = 0.595). The predictive power of almost all individual anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol. The best indicator for HDL and LDL might differ according to the type of cholesterol and the gender. In women, but not men, age was the variable that strongly predicted HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. Our findings provide new information for the development of better initial screening tools for HDL and LDL cholesterol. PMID:25148675

Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

2014-08-20

250

Three-dimensional anthropometric techniques applied to the fabrication of burn masks and the quantification of wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropometric surveys conducted by the military provide comprehensive human body measurement data that are human interface requirements for successful mission performance of weapon systems, including cockpits, protective equipment, and clothing. The application of human body dimensions to model humans and human-machine performance begins with engineering anthropometry. There are two critical elements to engineering anthropometry: data acquisition and data analysis. First,

Jennifer J. Whitestone; Glen R. Geisen; Barbara K. McQuiston

1997-01-01

251

Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to Assess Motor Imagery: A Study of Practice Effects in Repeated Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the…

Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

2012-01-01

252

Kinematics and force analysis of a robot hand based on an artificial biological control scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial biological control scheme (ABCS) is used to study the kinematics and statics of a multifingered hand with a view to developing an efficient control scheme for grasping. The ABCS is based on observation of human grasping, intuitively taking it as the optimum model for robotic grasping. A final chapter proposes several grasping measures to be applied to the design and control of a robot hand. The ABCS leads to the definition of two modes of the grasping action: natural grasping (NG), which is the human motion to grasp the object without any special task command, and forced grasping (FG), which is the motion with a specific task. The grasping direction line (GDL) is defined to determine the position and orientation of the object in the hand. The kinematic model of a redundant robot arm and hand is developed by reconstructing the human upper extremity and using anthropometric measurement data. The inverse kinematic analyses of various types of precision and power grasping are studied by replacing the three-link with one virtual link and using the GDL. The static force analysis for grasping with fingertips is studied by applying the ABCS. A measure of grasping stability, that maintains the positions of contacts as well as the configurations of the redundant fingers, is derived. The grasping stability measure (GSM), a measure of how well the hand maintains grasping under the existence of external disturbance, is derived by the torque vector of the hand calculated from the external force applied to the object. The grasping manipulability measure (GMM), a measure of how well the hand manipulates the object for the task, is derived by the joint velocity vector of the hand calculated from the object velocity. The grasping performance measure (GPM) is defined by the sum of the directional components of the GSM and the GMM. Finally, a planar redundant hand with two fingers is examined in order to study the various postures of the hand performing pinch grasping by applying the GSM and the GMM.

Kim, Man Guen

253

Hand Eczema  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hand eczema is a common disease in the general population and one of the most frequent diagnoses in dermatology. It affects\\u000a occupational as well as private aspects of life, and the severity varies from mild and transient to severe and chronic disease.\\u000a Being a disease that affects mainly young people, often interfering with their professional career, the disease is a

Tove Agner

254

Finger kinematic modeling and real-time hand motion estimation.  

PubMed

This paper describes methods and experimental studies concerned with quantitative reconstruction of finger movements in real-time, by means of multi-camera system and 24 surface markers. The approach utilizes a kinematic model of the articulated hand which consists in a hierarchical chain of rigid body segments characterized by 22 functional degrees of freedom and the global roto-translation. This work is focused on the experimental evaluation of a kinematical hand model for biomechanical analysis purposes. From a static posture, a completely automatic calibration procedure, based on anthropometric measures and geometric constraints, computes axes, and centers of rotations which are then utilized as the base of an interactive real-time animation of the hand model. The motion tracking, based on automatic marker labeling and predictive filter, is empowered by introducing constraints from functional finger postures. The validation is performed on four normal subjects through different right-handed motor tasks involving voluntary flexion-extension of the thumb, voluntary abduction-adduction of the thumb, grasping, and finger pointing. Performances are tested in terms of repeatability of angular profiles, model-based ability to predict marker trajectories and tracking success during real-time motion estimation. Results show intra-subject repeatability of the model calibration both to different postures and to re-marking in the range of 0.5 and 2 mm, respectively. Kinematic estimation proves satisfactory in terms of prediction capability (index finger: maximum RMSE 2.02 mm; thumb: maximum RMSE 3.25 mm) and motion reproducibility (R (2) coefficients--index finger: 0.96, thumb: 0.94). During fast grasping sequence (60 Hz), the percentage of residual marker occlusions is less than 1% and processing and visualization frequency of 50 Hz confirms the real-time capability of the motion estimation system. PMID:17701355

Cerveri, P; De Momi, E; Lopomo, N; Baud-Bovy, G; Barros, R M L; Ferrigno, G

2007-11-01

255

Hand preference, performance abilities, and hand selection in children  

PubMed Central

It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioral assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge. PMID:24600414

Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

2014-01-01

256

Validity and test-retest reliability of a measure of hand sensibility and manual dexterity in people with multiple sclerosis: the ReSense test.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the concurrent validity and reliability of the ReSense tool, a new clinical test aimed at determining sensory and functional deficits of the hand in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Methods: Study participants included 90 PwMS, 58 women, characterized by significant sensory symptoms in one or both hands. Thirty healthy subjects, 19 women, served as controls. The ReSense evaluation tool measures the ability to perceive and recognize texture and spatial properties of specific elements. ReSense scores were compared with the two-point discrimination (2PD), Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), Box and Block Test (BBT) and the Functional dexterity (FDT) tests. Results: The Cronbach alpha value for the ReSense test for PwMS was 0.84. The ReSense was significantly correlated with the 9-HPT; Pearson's R?=?-0.44 and FDT; Pearson's R?=?-0.35. Significant correlations were demonstrated between the ReSense score to SWM and 2PD. The strongest correlation was found with the 2PD performed on the dominant hand; Pearson's R?=?-0.55. Conclusions: The ReSense is a valid tool developed for testing sensing properties of the hand in PwMS. We believe that the sensitivity and specificity values of this tool will assist the clinician to formulate decisions related to rehabilitation management of his/her patient. Implication for Rehabilitation The ReSense, a valid and reliable tool was developed for testing sensing properties of elements with hand manipulation in the clinic. The ReSense test score was significantly correlated with scores of manual dexterity and traditional sensibility tests. A continuous scale such as the ReSense test may provide clinicians with more precise information relating to hand performance in PwMS than traditional sensory tools. PMID:25095901

Kalron, Alon; Greenberg-Avrahami, Michal; Achiron, Anat

2014-08-01

257

Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

2012-03-01

258

Anthropometric and physiological characteristics in young afro-Caribbean swimmers. A preliminary study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young Guadeloupian competitive swimmers in relation to swimming performance and compared the abilities of these children with those of the young white swimmers reported in the literature. All 2004 competitive swimmers between 10 and 14 y old (126 children, 61 boys and 65 girls, 12.0 ± 1.3 y) from Guadeloupe underwent anthropometric measurements and physiological and performance testing. Six boys on the French national swimming team are referred to hereafter as the 2011 elite subgroup. Anthropometric parameters, a jump-and-reach test, glide, and estimated aerobic power (eVO2max) were assessed in terms of swimming-performance analysis through a 400-m test. This study demonstrated that the Guadeloupian swimmers had more body fat than most age-matched white swimmers but had very poor hydrostatic lift; they had higher peak jump height and they swam as well as their white counterparts. The variability in 400-m performance between subjects was best described by glide, age, and eVO2max. Compared with the group of boys with the same age, the 2011 elite subgroup was significantly better for arm span, peak jump height, glide, and 400-m and 15-m performances. Further research is needed to investigate motor organization and energy cost of swimming in Afro-Caribbean swimmers. PMID:23006763

Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Galy, Olivier; Blonc, Stephen

2013-05-01

259

Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623

Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

2011-10-01

260

Effect of Forward and Backward Locomotion Training on Anaerobic Performance and Anthropometrical Composition  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 ± 2.54?years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10° inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition.

Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

2014-01-01

261

Physiological, Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Predictors of Sprint Swimming Performance in Adolescent Swimmers  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (?La). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ?La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90.3% of variability in performance), followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. Two selected variables (stroke index and stroke rate) explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance in these adolescent swimmers. PMID:24149633

Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jürimäe, Toivo

2010-01-01

262

Responsiveness of the Manual Ability Measure-36 (MAM-36): changes in hand function using self-reported and clinician-rated assessments.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To examine the responsiveness of the Manual Ability Measure-36 (MAM-36) compared with a clinician-administered functional assessment. METHOD. The MAM-36 was administered to 46 patients (Cohort A, n = 20; Cohort B, n = 26) with various upper-extremity conditions. All patients received occupational therapy intervention for 2-37 wk and were retested at discharge. Additionally, the Smith Hand Function Test (SHFT), including task performance speeds and grip strength measurements, was administered to Cohort B at intake and discharge. RESULTS. Manual ability improved significantly at discharge in all patients. Patients also showed significant improvement on the SHFT. The correlation between gain in MAM-36 and gain in grip strength was moderate. The standardized response mean for the MAM-36 was 1.18. CONCLUSION. The MAM-36 was responsive to changes in hand function in patients receiving occupational therapy services. MAM-36 results correlated positively with improvements in task performance speeds and grip strength. PMID:24581405

Chen, Christine C; Palmon, Orit; Amini, Debbie

2014-01-01

263

Hidden Hands  

E-print Network

Hands Detail (quilt with panel) 8 The flood and spotlights brightly and evenly light the wall panels and quilt, but the workspace is lit mostly by a small table lamp (Fig. 6). This is to create a close interior space that does not feel... is installed in a way that creates a juxtaposition between the finished work and the workspace. The viewer is initially drawn to the brightly colored wall panels (Fig. 3), only to be led to the workspace (Fig. 4) by the flow of the piece. The viewer thus...

Wegren, Allison Felice

2013-05-31

264

Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg; lean body weight, 74 kg; body fat, 12%, endurance sit-ups, 50/min; vertical jump height, 51 cm; anaerobic power output, 132 m.kg.s-1 (1.32 kw); anaerobic capacity, 2247 m.kp/40s (22.5 kJ); maximum heart rate, 186 beats/min; maximum ventilation, 175 l/min-1; maximum respiratory quotient 1.23; and maximum oxygen uptake, 56.6 ml.kg-1 min-1. In comparison with other rugby players studied these players had higher maximum oxygen uptake values, were similar in endurance sit-up and vertical jump ability, exhibited less upper body strength, and the forwards had lower body fat percentages. They were generally within the range of scores found to describe the aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and body composition of other élite amateur and professional intermittent sport athletes. Images p16-a p19-a PMID:6850200

Maud, P. J.

1983-01-01

265

Physiological and anthropometric parameters that describe a rugby union team.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physiological parameters that apply to a USA amateur rugby union club team. Fifteen players who were members of the club's first team were evaluated for body composition, muscular strength, power and endurance, flexibility, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and cardio-respiratory function shortly after completion of the regular season. Means for some of the variables measured include: age, 29 yr; height, 180 cm; weight, 84 kg; lean body weight, 74 kg; body fat, 12%, endurance sit-ups, 50/min; vertical jump height, 51 cm; anaerobic power output, 132 m.kg.s-1 (1.32 kw); anaerobic capacity, 2247 m.kp/40s (22.5 kJ); maximum heart rate, 186 beats/min; maximum ventilation, 175 l/min-1; maximum respiratory quotient 1.23; and maximum oxygen uptake, 56.6 ml.kg-1 min-1. In comparison with other rugby players studied these players had higher maximum oxygen uptake values, were similar in endurance sit-up and vertical jump ability, exhibited less upper body strength, and the forwards had lower body fat percentages. They were generally within the range of scores found to describe the aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and body composition of other élite amateur and professional intermittent sport athletes. PMID:6850200

Maud, P J

1983-03-01

266

Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

1989-01-01

267

Development and evaluation of a quantitative video-fluorescence imaging system and fluorescent tracer for measuring transfer of pesticide residues from surfaces to hands with repeated contacts.  

PubMed

A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfer of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as the tracer compound to simulate the transfer from surfaces to hands of pesticide residues deposited on carpeted and laminate surfaces of a residence. The system was designed around the unique properties of riboflavin. Excitation energy was centered near 440 nm (in the blue region of the visible spectrum); emitted energy was measured at 600 nm (in the red/orange region), well beyond the significant fluorescence peak maximum of natural skin. A video camera system with an image intensifier was interfaced to an image processing analysis software system. Quantification utilized chemometric techniques to account for the non-linearity of pixel detectivity and non-linear excitation strength. Method quantification and detection limits were approximately 0.1 and 0.02 micro g/cm(2), respectively. The relative error was approximately 100% at the quantification limit, but <20% at higher levels. Transfer of riboflavin to hands, resulting in dermal loadings in the range 0.1-2.0 micro g/cm(2), were measured with this system from surfaces whose loadings approximated the pesticide levels that occur in homes after broadcast application. PMID:15298849

Ivancic, William A; Nishioka, Marcia G; Barnes, Russell H; Hubal, Elaine Cohen; Morara, Michele; Bortnick, Steven M

2004-08-01

268

Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. Objectives: To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. Results: The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Conclusions: Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. PMID:24696694

Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Katragadda, Anuradha; Addepally, Uma; Hasan, Qurratulain

2014-01-01

269

Prediction of Kinematic and Kinetic Performance in a Drop Vertical Jump with Individual Anthropometric Factors in Adolescent Female Athletes: Implications for Cadaveric Investigations.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range <0.01-0.95). However, none of the anthropometric relationships accounted for clinical variance or provided substantive univariate accuracy needed for clinical prediction algorithms (r (2) < 0.20). Mass and BMI demonstrated models that were significant (p < 0.05) and predictive (r (2) > 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions. PMID:25266933

Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

2014-09-30

270

A hand gesture interface device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of a hand to machine interface device that provides real-time gesture, position and orientation information. The key element is a glove and the device as a whole incorporates a collection of technologies. Analog flex sensors on the glove measure finger bending. Hand position and orientation are measured either by ultrasonics, providing five degrees of

Thomas G. Zimmerman; Jaron Lanier; Chuck Blanchard; Steve Bryson; Young Harvill

1986-01-01

271

Optimum Anthropometric Criteria for Ideal Body Composition Related Fitness  

PubMed Central

Objectives The three aims of this study were to establish equations for ideal body composition related fitness to be used by adults willing to gain optimum body composition related fitness; to predict the possible symmetrical major muscle circumference, and to compute the ideal body fat percentage (BFP) with ideal body weight (IBW) based on the body mass index (BMI). Methods Twenty-four athletes were intentionally selected, with heights of 166–190 cm and aged 20–42 years, according to a judging committee that used modified International Fitness Federation criteria for the Mr. Fitness competition “super body category”. Common anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken for the following independent variables: body height, upper limb length, lower limb length, thigh length, arm length, shoulder width, forearm length, shank length, and wrist girth; and for the following dependent variables: circumferences of shoulder, thigh, waist, hip, chest, biceps, forearm, shank, and neck. Skin fold thickness was measured at three sites by a Harpenden caliper to calculate BFP. Results The findings indicate that there was a predictive correlation between major independent variables and body circumferences. The mean range used to find out the ideal BFP percentage which was 5.6–6.7 %. The BMI equation used to find the IBW was H2 × 23.77 ± 2 SE. Stepwise multiple regressions were also used to derive predictive equations. The most predictive independent variables were wrist girth and height. Conclusion It is suggested that the above equations, the ideal BFP percentage and the IBW be used as criteria in training sessions to achieve ideal body composition related fitness. PMID:21509084

Kilani, Hashem; Abu-Eisheh, Asem

2010-01-01

272

Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics.  

PubMed

The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (?) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

2014-10-01

273

Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (?) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

2014-01-01

274

Running performance, not anthropometric factors, is associated with race success in a Triple Iron Triathlon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To investigate the influence of anthropometric parameters on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes.Design:Descriptive field study.Setting:The Triple Iron Triathlon Germany 2006 in Lensahn over 11.6 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running.Subjects:17 male Caucasian triathletes (mean (SD) 39.2 (7.5) years, 80.7 (8.9) kg, 178 (5) cm, BMI 25.4 (2.4) kg\\/m2).Interventions:None.Main outcome measurements:Determination of body mass, body height, skin fold

B Knechtle; G Kohler

2009-01-01

275

Simple anthropometric indices associated with ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case-control study of 217 hospitalized incident cases of ischemic heart disease and 261 controls we compared various anthropometric indices for the strength of their associations to the outcome event. The ratio of supine sagittal abdominal diameter to midthigh girth (“abdominal diameter index”; ADI) was the simple index that best discriminated cases from controls for both men (standardized difference,

Henry S. Kahn; Harland Austin; David F. Williamson; Daniel Arensberg

1996-01-01

276

Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

2013-01-01

277

Evaluation of the validity of anthropometric design assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some designers assume that if an individual's stature is a certain population percentile, his\\/her other body dimensions will also be the same population percentile. It is also frequently assumed that anthropometric dimensions are normally distributed. This study aimed at evaluating the validity of these two assumptions. The subjects, 70 male and 70 female, were grouped according to their stature in

M. Vasu; A. Mital

2000-01-01

278

Head-and-Face Anthropometric Survey of Chinese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of workers in China rely on respirators and other personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of injury and occupational diseases. However, it has been >25 years since the first survey of facial dimensions for Chinese adults was published, and it has never been com- pletely updated. Thus, an anthropometric survey of Chinese civilian workers was conducted in 2006.

LILI DU; ZIQING ZHUANG; HONGYU GUAN; JINGCAI XING; XIANZHI TANG; LIMIN WANG; ZHENGLUN WANG; HAIJIAO WANG; YUEWEI LIU; WENJIN SU; STACEY BENSON; SEAN GALLAGHER; DENNIS VISCUSI; WEIHONG CHEN

2008-01-01

279

Development of anthropometric work environment for Taiwanese workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first-stage extended results of an anthropometry survey project that has been done recently in Taiwan. The purpose of the anthropometry survey project was to construct a static and dynamic anthropometric database for local workers, for use by designers and engineers involved in designing the work-related facilities. Local human factors researchers and specialists were involved in this

Eric Min-yang Wang; Mao-Jiun Wang; Wen-Yu Yeh; Yu-Chuan Shih; Yu-Cheng Lin

1999-01-01

280

Reliability of Isometric Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements of Healthy Elderly Subjects Made with a Hand-held Dynamometer and a Belt.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79?years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from -5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements. PMID:25540481

Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji

2014-12-01

281

Reliability of Isometric Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements of Healthy Elderly Subjects Made with a Hand-held Dynamometer and a Belt  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79?years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from ?5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements.

Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji

2014-01-01

282

Evaluation and treatment of chronic hand conditions.  

PubMed

Hand and wrist problems are frequently the cause of patients' complaints in the primary care setting. Common problems include hand numbness, pain, loss of motion, or unexplained masses in the hand. Many problems can be successfully managed or treated with nonoperative measures. This article focuses on commonly encountered causes of chronic hand pain. PMID:24994053

Darowish, Michael; Sharma, Jyoti

2014-07-01

283

Hand transmitted vibrations caused by orbital hand sanding machines.  

PubMed

The paper reports and analyses results of vibration measurement carried out on orbital hand sanding machines. Vibrations were measured on the front and rear handles of the FESTO LRB-W1 and LRB-T1 orbital hand sanding machines and at two points on the holding handle of the FESTO RTL-F1 hand sanding machine. The measured levels of the weighted vibration accelerations were compared to the daily exposure limits according to ISO 5349, ISO/TC 108/SC4/14 and NF E90-402. Daily exposures for each type of sanding machine were determined according to the same standards. PMID:7575142

Goglia, V; Risovi?, S; Beljo, R

1995-03-01

284

Wash Your Hands  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Wash Your Hands Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Keeping hands ... more about when and how to wash your hands. When should you wash your hands? Before , during, ...

285

Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy  

PubMed Central

This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (?60°C for 30 seconds, ?110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (?Tsk) were calculated. ?Tsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = ?3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ?Tsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ?Tsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

2014-01-01

286

Evaluating accuracy of structural geometry by DXA methods with an anthropometric proximal femur phantom.  

PubMed

DXA-derived bone structural geometry has been reported extensively but lacks an accuracy standard. In this study, we describe a novel anthropometric structural geometry phantom that simulates the proximal femur for use in assessing accuracy of geometry measurements by DXA or other X-ray methods. The phantom consists of seven different interchangeable neck modules with geometries that span the range of dimensions in an adult human proximal femur, including those representing osteoporosis. Ten repeated hip scans of each neck module using two current DXA scanner models were performed without repositioning. After scanner specific calibration, hip structure analysis was used to derive structural geometry. Scanner performance was similar for the two manufacturers. DXA-derived HSA geometric measurements were highly correlated with values derived directly from phantom geometry and position; R² between DXA and phantom measures were greater than 94% for all parameters, while precision error ranged between 0.3 and 3.9%. Despite high R² there were some systematic geometry errors for both scanners that were small for outer diameter, but increasing with complexity of geometrical parameter; e.g. buckling ratio. In summary, the anthropometric phantom and its fabrication concept were shown to be appropriate for evaluating proximal femoral structural geometry in two different DXA systems. PMID:23836197

Khoo, B C C; Beck, T J; Brown, K; Price, R I

2013-09-01

287

Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

2010-01-01

288

Anthropometric indices associated with dyslipidemia in obese children and adolescents: a retrospective study in isfahan  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Central obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Preventive interventions from childhood are necessary due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WSR) are anthropometric indices for measurement of obesity. This study aimed to assess the association between these anthropometric indices and dyslipidemia in obese children and adolescents. METHODS This retrospective study was done on the records of 2064 obese children and adolescents aged 6-18 years at the obesity clinic, in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research center. Age, gender, weight, height, WC, hip circumference (HC), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), Fasting blood sugar (FBS), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were taken from patients’ record. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. RESULTS 2064 girls and boys aged 6-18 years were divided into 3 age groups of 6-9.9 years, 10-13.9 years and 14-18 years. Prevalence of high LDL-C, TC, TG, FBS, SBP, DBP and low HDL-C was higher among the boys compared to the girls. There was a significant association between TC, LDL-C, TG and FBS with BMI, WC, WHR and WSR. However, no significant correlation was seen between HDL-C and the four anthropometric indices. CONCLUSION Our study showed a significant correlation between BMI, WC and WSR with high levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in children and adolescents. Correlation between WHR and dyslipidemia in this study was significant but its predictive value was weaker than other three indices. PMID:22577442

Soghrati, Mahnaz; Malek Ahmadi, Mohammad; Soghrati, Mojgan

2011-01-01

289

Anthropometric and Nutritional Profile of People Living with HIV and AIDS in India: an Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART) center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including height, weight, waist, hip, mid arm, and calf circumferences, were collected; 1-day 24-h dietary recall was done to gather nutrient intake from which nutrient adequacy ratios were computed. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was also conducted. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 19.73 ± 3.55 kg/m2 with around 40% having BMI <18.5 kg/m2 . All anthropometric measurements were found to correlate positively and significantly with CD4 count (P < 0.05). The sample consumed poor quality of diet as they could not meet even the 2/3rd of the Indian Council of Medical Research (2010) requirements for energy, protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12, copper, and zinc. Classification of subjects according to MNA indicated that more than 50% of the sample was at-risk of malnutrition and 34% were malnourished. With 40% of sample having BMI less than normal, 50% at risk of malnutrition together with poor nutrient intakes over a long period of time could contribute to further worsening of the nutritional status. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a database on nutritional profile of PLHIV in India which reinforces the need for development of effective strategies to improve their nutritional status. PMID:25136157

Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

2014-01-01

290

General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

Kondri?, Miran; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Konti?, Dean; Sekuli?, Damir

2012-01-01

291

Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and atopic dermatits were studied and compared. In healthy volunteers increased baseline TEWL and increased light reflection from the skin, interpreted as "fair" skin, was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to SLS. Hand eczema patients were found to have fairer and thinner skin than matched controls. Increased susceptibility to SLS was found only in patients with acute eczema. Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased baseline TEWL as well as increased skin susceptibility as compared to controls. Skin susceptibility is thus influenced by individual- as well as environment-related factors. Knowledge of determinants of skin susceptibility may be useful for the identification of high-risk subjects for development of irritant contact dermatitis, and may help to prevent the formation of the disease. PMID:1636360

Agner, T

1992-01-01

292

Anthropometric measures at different ages and endometrial cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI), but the influence of BMI history and of different types of obesity is uncertain. Ethods: M A case–control study was carried out in Italy including 454 cases and 908 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-hormone-related conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariate logistic and spline regression models. Results: The OR for BMI >30 at diagnosis compared with 20 to <25?kg?m?2 was 4.08 (95% CI: 2.90–5.74). The association for BMI was monotonic with a possible steeper increase for BMI above 28. Conversely, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) showed a bell shaped curve with increased OR (2.10; 95% CI: 1.43–3.09) in the intermediate tertile only. After stratification by BMI at diagnosis, history of weight loss and BMI at age 30 did not influence endometrial cancer risk. History of obesity in middle age had a weak and not significant adverse effect among obese women (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 0.52–4.96). Conclusion: The predominant importance of recent weight compared to lifetime history, justifies encouraging weight reduction in women at any age. PMID:21386846

Maso, L Dal; Tavani, A; Zucchetto, A; Montella, M; Ferraroni, M; Negri, E; Polesel, J; Decarli, A; Talamini, R; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S

2011-01-01

293

The relationship between anthropometric measurements and fractures in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a population-based, retrospective study involving post-menopausal women, we investigated the relation between fracture prevalence (risk) and present as well as previous body height and weight. A questionnaire was mailed to 46,353 postmenopausal women aged 50–80 years and there were 29,802 (64.3%) responses. Questions were asked about body height and weight and fractures after the age of 25 and at

M. Gunnes; E. H. Lehmann; D. Mellstrom; O. Johnell

1996-01-01

294

Anthropometric definitions of dysmorphic facial signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoanthropometric method is presented, which enables an objective definition of facial structures. It may support the clinical description of patients with dysmorphic syndromes. Eighteen parameters were studied. The measuring points were elected on the base of anthropological criteria. The measurements were related to reference values in the same face. The obtained indices were compared to an age related control

S. Stengel-Rutkowski; P. Schimanek; A. Wernheimer

1984-01-01

295

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

296

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

297

Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report  

SciTech Connect

The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

Parris, H.L.

1981-07-01

298

LESSONS LEARNED FROM CAESAR: A 3-D ANTHROPOMETRIC SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAESAR project (Robinette et al. 2002) was the first anthropometric survey to provide 3-D human models. It was a multi-million dollar collaboration of more than 35 companies, several government agencies, and with representatives from 6 countries. Data were gathered in North America, The Netherlands, and Italy and two different 3-D scanning technologies were used. More than 13,000 3-D scans

Kathleen M. Robinette; Hein Daanen

299

Three-dimensional anthropometric techniques applied to the fabrication of burn masks and the quantification of wound healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropometric surveys conducted by the military provide comprehensive human body measurement data that are human interface requirements for successful mission performance of weapon systems, including cockpits, protective equipment, and clothing. The application of human body dimensions to model humans and human-machine performance begins with engineering anthropometry. There are two critical elements to engineering anthropometry: data acquisition and data analysis. First, the human body is captured dimensionally with either traditional anthropometric tools, such as calipers and tape measures, or with advanced image acquisition systems, such as a laser scanner. Next, numerous statistical analysis tools, such as multivariate modeling and feature envelopes, are used to effectively transition these data for design and evaluation of equipment and work environments. Recently, Air Force technology transfer allowed researchers at the Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to work with the Dayton, Ohio area medical community in assessing the rate of wound healing and improving the fit of total contract burn masks. This paper describes the successful application of CARD Lab engineering anthropometry to two medically oriented human interface problems.

Whitestone, Jennifer J.; Geisen, Glen R.; McQuiston, Barbara K.

1997-03-01

300

Age trends in anthropometric characteristics among 6-9 years old Bengalee Hindu school girls of Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of 431 6-9 years old urban Bengalee Hindu schoolgirls of Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study age trends in anthropometric characteristics including regional and subcutaneous adiposity. The anthropometric variables measured included height, weight, sitting height (SH), waist (WC), hip (HPC), thigh (TC), mid-upper arm (MUAC) and medial calf (MC) circumferences as well as triceps (TSF), biceps (BSF), subscapular SUBSF), suprailliac (SUPSF) and medial calf (MCASF) skinfolds. The results revealed, that there was a significant increasing age trend for all the anthropometric variables including the two derived variables: body mass index (BMI) and subischial leg length (SLL). For all variables, the lowest and the highest means were observed at the age of 6 and 9 years, respectively. The maximum increase in weight, BMI, all linear measurements, WC and HPC were observed during the period 6-7 years of age. In general, all skinfolds recorded similar yearly increments. More importantly, this study clearly indicated that among Bengalee girls aged 6-9 years, the highest amount of linear growth (height, SH and SLL) was observed at 6 years of age. The overall adiposity (BMI) also recorded the maximum increment during this period. The unique data presented here can be used as reference values for urban Bengalee Hindu girls aged 6-9 years. PMID:16402594

Bose, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, Sharbani; Basu, Kamalika; Ghosh, Sampa; Mukhopadhyay, Asish; Bhadra, Mithu; Bhara, Mithu

2005-12-01

301

An investigation on the anthropometry profile and its relationship with selected physical performance measurements of elite Chinese women volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to determine the anthropometric characteristics and physical performance in selected measurements of elite Chinese women volleyball players, identify the differences between the anthropometry and performance profiles of the players at different playing positions, and examine the correlations between the anthropometric characteristics and the physical performance of the players. Thirty anthropometric indices and four physical

Yuyi Zhang; Xiaorong Chen; Qin Zhang; Ji Li; Shi Zhou

2009-01-01

302

Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the association between serum 25 – hydroxy vitamin D concentration and anthropometric indices in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross – sectional study which was carried out on women with PCOS aged 19-39 years old referred to an infertility clinic of Alzahra Hospital, Rasht, Iran during September2011- March2012. The study was conducted based on the Rotterdam criteria. Exclusion criteria were hyperandrogeniema and thyroid dysfunction. The data were gathered through an interview with focus on demographic characteristics and history of infertility. The height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and BMI had been calculated. Also, blood sample had been checked to indicate the level of hydroxy vitamin D. While all statistical analyses were carried out using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 16 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Over 68% of patients had vitamin D deficiency (Vit D<15). Level of vitamin D had a significant correlation with waist circumference (p<0.02), height (p<0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p<0.007). Conclusion: Based on the anthropometric indices, it seems that we can predict the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women with PCOS. PMID:25628722

Faraji, Roya; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Zahiri, Ziba; Asgharni, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Shirin

2014-01-01

303

ANTHROPOMETRIC DETERMINANTS OF ROWING ERGOMETER PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICALLY INACTIVE COLLEGIATE FEMALES  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR – 0.1130 LR2 – 0.0589 LN2 + 29.2157 CPI2 + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI – 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

Choszcz, DJ; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

2014-01-01

304

Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

2014-12-01

305

Chapped hands (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

306

Proper hand washing (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... handwashing include: Take off any jewelry Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to ... Steps for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to 30 seconds. ...

307

Seasonal Hand Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Media ACEP in Social Media Take Care Seasonal Hand Injuries Studies show that many people visit the ... the ladder. BREAKING A FALL WITH AN OUTSTRETCHED HAND Use both hands to help catch yourself so ...

308

Arthritis of the Hand  

MedlinePLUS

... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Arthritis of the Hand The hand and wrist have multiple small joints that work ... Arthritis can occur in many areas of the hand and wrist and can have more than one ...

309

Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones  

SciTech Connect

Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H. [Telecom Research Labs., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Electromagnetic Compatibility Section

1995-05-01

310

Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

2008-01-01

311

The Multicomponent Anthropometric Model for Assessing Body Composition in a Male Pediatric Population: A Simultaneous Prediction of Fat Mass, Bone Mineral Content, and Lean Soft Tissue  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to propose and cross-validate an anthropometric model for the simultaneous estimation of fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), and lean soft tissue (LST) using DXA as the reference method. A total of 408 boys (8–18 years) were included in this sample. Whole-body FM, BMC, and LST were measured by DXA and considered as dependent variables. Independent variables included thirty-two anthropometrics measurements and maturity offset determined by the Mirwald equation. From a multivariate regression model (Ymn = x(r + 1)(r + 1)n?m + ?nm), a matrix analysis was performed resulting in a multicomponent anthropometric model. The cross-validation was executed through the sum of squares of residuals (PRESS) method. Five anthropometric variables predicted simultaneously FM, BMC, and LST. Cross-validation parameters indicated that the new model is accurate with high RPRESS2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 and standard error of estimate ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. The newly proposed model represents an alternative to accurately assess the body composition in male pediatric ages. PMID:23555052

Machado, Dalmo; Oikawa, Sérgio; Barbanti, Valdir

2013-01-01

312

Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with nonprogressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Method: Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Results: Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Conclusions: Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. PMID:25479849

Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

2014-01-01

313

Anthropometric data error detecting and correction with a computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained with automated anthropometric data aquisition equipment was examined for short term errors. The least squares curve fitting technique was used to ascertain which data values were erroneous and to replace them, if possible, with corrected values. Errors were due to random reflections of light, masking of the light rays, and other types of optical and electrical interference. It was found that the signals were impossible to eliminate from the initial data produced by the television cameras, and that this was primarily a software problem requiring a digital computer to refine the data off line. The specific data of interest was related to the arm reach envelope of a human being.

Chesak, D. D.

1981-01-01

314

Hand grip strength and associated factors in non-institutionalised men and women 50 years and older in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the prevalence, predictors and gender differences in hand grip strength of older adults in Africa. This study aims to investigate social and health differences in hand grip strength among older adults in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 men and women aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and anthropometric measurements. Linear multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the association of social factors, health variables and grip strength. Results The mean overall hand grip strength was 37.9 kgs for men (mean age 61.1 years, SD?=?9.1) and 31.5 kgs for women (mean age 62.0 years, SD?=?9.7). In multivariate analysis among men, greater height, not being underweight and lower functional disability was associated with greater grip strength, and among women, greater height, better cognitive functioning, and lower functional disability were associated with greater grip strength. Conclusions Greater height and lower functional disability were found for both older South African men and women to be significantly associated with grip strength. PMID:24393403

2014-01-01

315

Sex differences in the inheritance of some anthropometric characters in twins.  

PubMed

Biometrical genetical techniques have been applied to the analysis of certain anthropometric characters measured in 134 pairs of adult twins. After allowing for assortative mating it appears that there is a family environment (E2) component for variation in height larger than previously reported. "Fatness" traits - weight, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness - all show higher heritabilities in males and substantial E2 components in females, and reasons for this are discussed. The same is true for cephalic index and forearm length but the reason for these differences is not so obvious. Head length shows a much higher heritability than head breadth. A larger sample of DZ opposite-sex pairs would allow more powerful discrimination, but the variety of patterns of variation revealed by the model-fitting approach used here justify its use over more traditional techniques. PMID:7196668

Clarke, P; Jardine, R; Martin, N G; Stark, A E; Walsh, R J

1980-01-01

316

Anthropometric and Dietary Evaluations in a Sample of “Healthy” Mexican Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric, metabolic, and nutritional characteristics in healthy elderly adults in a primary health care setting. It was conducted through a cross-sectional study of 80 subjects 60 years of age and older. After confirming healthy status, clinical, biochemical, dietetic, and anthropometric evaluations were performed. The findings indicated 22% had anemia, 22% had impaired

Fabiola Martín-Del-Campo; David Nava-Jiménez; Carolina Batis-Ruvalcaba; Laura Cortés-Sanabria; Enrique Rojas-Campos; Héctor R. Martínez-Ramírez; Alfonso M. Cueto-Manzano

2009-01-01

317

[Hand and endocrine diseases].  

PubMed

The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism… Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. PMID:24148694

Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amélie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

2013-12-01

318

The abilities of new anthropometric indices in identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities, and influence of residence area and lifestyle on these anthropometric indices in a Chinese community-dwelling population  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic abnormalities, the influence of residence area, occupation, and lifestyle on new anthropometric indices, and the relationship between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic abnormalities in a Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods The study included 4,868 residents through a large health check-up program in Beijing. Results Overall obesity existed in 22.2% of men and 28.1% of women. 67.1% of men and 65.2% of women were overweight. 65.99% of men and 65.97% of women had central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers had significantly higher anthropometric indices. The power of each anthropometric index varied for identifying different cardiometabolic abnormalities, and the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to identify participants with greater than one or two cardiometabolic abnormalities was optimal. The appropriate cut-off values of all anthropometric indices for cardiometabolic abnormalities were obtained. Conclusion Overweight is common for both sexes in the People’s Republic of China, as are general and central obesity. Residents of rural areas, manual workers, and smokers have significantly higher anthropometric indices. Waist-to-height ratio has the ability to reflect the compound risk of different cardiometabolic abnormalities and the greatest potential to be widely applied in clinical practice. PMID:24477219

Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie

2014-01-01

319

Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (?0.50 vs. ?0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and associated cardiovascular disease. PMID:19625881

Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

2010-01-01

320

Hands-Only CPR  

MedlinePLUS

... and Videos Media Center Survivor Stories Contact Us Hands Only CPR Two Steps to Staying Alive with ... Mobile Tour Event Toolkit Spotify Playlist Contact Us Hands-Only™ CPR Can Save Lives. Most people who ...

321

Hand and Finger Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

322

Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

1993-01-01

323

Anthropometric predictors of gestational hypertensive disorders in a remote aboriginal community: a nested case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Australian Aboriginal women tend to have body shape and pregnancy risk profiles different from other Australian women. This study aims to examine the associations of anthropometric indices with gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD), and to determine the index that can best predict the risk of this condition occurring during pregnancy. Methods This is a nested case–control study. Baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured as part of a broader health screening program between 1992 and 1995 in a remote Aboriginal community. All subsequent pregnancies among the original participants were identified during 20 year follow-up period through hospital records (up to May 2012). Twenty eight women were diagnosed as having GHD, each of whom were individually matched by age at baseline with five women who were hospitalised for other pregnancy-related conditions and were free from GHD (n?=?140). The associations of the baseline anthropometric measurements with GHD were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results The best predictor of GHD was WC (OR?=?1.8; (95% CI, 1.1-2.9) for one standard deviation increase in WC), followed by BMI with the corresponding OR?=?1.7 (95% CI, 1.1- 2.6). Other measurements, HC, WHR, and WHtR, were also positively associated with GHD, but those associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions WC and BMI prior to pregnancy are anthropometric predictors of GHD in Aboriginal women, and WC is the best predictor. These findings imply the importance of early weight control in preventing GHD in Aboriginal women. PMID:24593885

2014-01-01

324

Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques  

SciTech Connect

The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

1987-10-01

325

Itchy Hands or Feet  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Itchy Hands or Feet A A A A skin condition that is limited to the hands and/or feet can have several possible causes. Many of these conditions on the hands or feet are itchy, but, in some people, ...

326

Hand x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

327

Compact Telerobot Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anthropomorphic telerobotic hand contains actuators, joints, sensors, and complex wiring harnesses. Glove protects interior components of hand from dirt and damage. Imitates motions of human fingers and wrist in lifelike and dexterous way. Incorporates pitch/yaw joints in wrist and head knuckles. Hand modular; so fingers removable, interchangeable units. Feature simplifies servicing and maintenance, which must be done frequently in such complex mechanism.

Rosheim, Mark; Trechsel, Hans

1993-01-01

328

Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.  

PubMed

Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

2013-09-01

329

Anthropometric features in infants of mothers with gestational diabetes: relationship with treatment modalities.  

PubMed

We compared the effects of two treatment strategies (diet alone versus a combination of insulin and diet) on neonatal anthropometric measurements and the outcome of a full-term white infant sample born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Study subjects included 217 consecutive nonrandomized women with GDM with term singleton pregnancies. Insulin therapy was administered on the basis of anamnestic and maternal-fetal criteria. One hundred and twenty-one patients (group 1) received a combination of insulin and diet, and 96 (group 2) underwent diet alone. All 1,052 white patients with term singleton pregnancies without GDM, screened at the same time as the study group, formed the control group. The incidence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants was significantly higher in group 2 (18.8%) compared with group 1 (9.9%) and the control group (8.3%). Male and female infants born to diabetic mothers of group 2 had significantly greater mean birth weights, ponderal indices, thoracic circumferences, weight/length ratios and significantly smaller mean cranial/thoracic circumference ratios than male and female infants in group 1 and the control group (p < 0.05, Scheffe test). Treatment of GDM mothers with insulin and diet has been shown to be able not only to normalize the incidence of LGA infants but also to influence the anthropometric characteristics of the infants born to these mothers to such an extent that they showed no significant differences compared to infants born to non-diabetic mothers. PMID:9313831

Mello, G; Parretti, E; Mecacci, F; Carbone, C; Lucchetti, R; Lagazio, C; Pratesi, M; Scarselli, G

1997-01-01

330

Anthropometric and physical performance profiles of elite karate kumite and kata competitors.  

PubMed

KARATE TOURNAMENTS CONSIST OF TWO EQUALLY IMPORTANT KARATE DISCIPLINES: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility ("T"- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors. PMID:23486746

Koropanovski, Nenad; Berjan, Bobana; Bozic, Predrag R; Pazin, Nemanja; Sanader, Aleksandra; Jovanovic, Srecko; Jaric, Slobodan

2011-12-01

331

Associations between anthropometric characteristics, physical activity, and breast cancer risk in a Canadian cohort.  

PubMed

Obesity, physical inactivity, and sedentary behavior, concomitants of the modern environment, are potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factors. This study investigated the association of anthropometric measurements, physical activity and sedentary behavior, with the risk of incident, invasive breast cancer using a prospective cohort of women enrolled in the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle and Health. Using a case-cohort design, an age-stratified subcohort of 3,320 women was created from 39,532 female participants who returned completed self-administered lifestyle and dietary questionnaires at baseline. A total of 1,097 incident breast cancer cases were identified from the entire cohort via linkage to the Canadian Cancer Registry. Cox regression models, modified to account for the case-cohort design, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between anthropometric characteristics, physical activity, and the risk of breast cancer. Weight gain as an adult was positively associated with risk of post-menopausal breast cancer, with a 6 % increase in risk for every 5 kg gained since age 20 (HR 1.06; 95 % CI 1.01-1.11). Women who exercised more than 30.9 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week had a 21 % decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women who exercised less than 3 MET hours per week (HR  0.79; 95 % CI 0.62-1.00), most evident in pre-menopausal women (HR  0.62; 95 % CI 0.43-0.90). As obesity reaches epidemic proportions and sedentary lifestyles have become more prevalent in modern populations, programs targeting adult weight gain and promoting physical activity may be beneficial with respect to reducing breast cancer morbidity. PMID:24781974

Catsburg, Chelsea; Kirsh, Victoria A; Soskolne, Colin L; Kreiger, Nancy; Bruce, Erin; Ho, Thi; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rohan, Thomas E

2014-06-01

332

Measurement of regional forearm muscle haemodynamics via the near-infrared spectroscopy venous occlusion technique: the impact of hand circulatory occlusion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether circulatory occlusion of the hand impacts on regional forearm muscle haemodynamics as determined by the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) venous occlusion technique (NIRSVOT). Twenty-five young, healthy participants (18 males and 7 females; 28 ± 4 years; 71 ± 7 kg) completed two experimental protocols that were performed on the dominant arm: (1) a series of five venous occlusion trials with a suprasystolic cuff (>260 mmHg) applied to the wrist and (2) five venous occlusion trials without hand-occlusion. Both protocols were performed twice in a counterbalanced manner. NIRS data were obtained from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle using a dual wavelength, continuous-wave spectrophotometer. FDS muscle blood flow (Q(FDS)), vascular conductance (C(FDS)), O2 consumption (Vo(2FDS)), and venous O2 saturation (SvO2) were calculated from NIRS data during the initial 5 s of venous occlusion. Circulatory occlusion of the hand via wrist cuffing significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Q(FDS) (-36 ± 23%), CFDS (-37 ± 23%), Vo2(FDS) (-14 ± 31%) and SvO2 (-14 ± 12%). These findings indicate that hand-occlusion, via wrist cuffing, adversely impacts on regional forearm haemodynamics as determined by the NIRS-VOT. Consequently, it is recommended that future investigators avoid hand-occlusion when using the NIRS-VOT to quantify spontaneous haemodynamics of regional forearm muscle. PMID:25419965

Cross, T J; van Beekvelt, M; Constantini, K; Sabapathy, S

2014-12-01

333

Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review  

PubMed Central

A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurto?lu, Selim

2013-01-01

334

Hand development in trisomy 21.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate hand size and maturity in fetuses with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Twenty-five fetuses, crown-rump length (CRL) 55-222 mm, foot length (FL) 8-42 mm, were included in the study. After whole-body radiography (Hewlett Packard Faxitron), special radiographs of the hand and foot were taken. Hand length was measured as the length of the third finger from the distal tip of the distal phalanx to the proximal tip of the metacarpal bone, the digital-metacarpal length (DML). The lengths of the proximal phalangeal bone (PPL) and the metacarpal bone (MCL) of the third finger were also measured. The DML, PPL, and MCL values of each fetus were related to CRL and FL. The individual hand bones were evaluated with regard to time of appearance on radiographs, sequence in comparison with the normal sequence of appearance, and morphology. The hand length is normal during the first half of the fetal period, whereas the length of individual bones in the third finger is reduced. The normal sequence of ossification, with the middle phalanx of the fifth finger last to ossify, also occurred in Down syndrome; however, this bone appeared later in Down syndrome. In four of the fetuses it did not appear. PMID:9779798

Kjaer, M S; Keeling, J W; Andersen, E; Fischer Hansen, B; Kjaer, I

1998-10-12

335

Left-handed coplanar waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new version of a left-handed coplanar waveguide. The line has a fully uniplanar structure without vias and lumped elements. The series capacitors are represented by interdigital capacitors and the parallel inductors by short circuited CPW stubs connected to a ground metallization. The measured frequency dependences of S21 and S11 agree well with the data predicted by

J. Machae; M. Hudlieka; J. Zehentner; N. G. Spiliotis; A. S. Omar

2005-01-01

336

Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah)

Nancy Daher; Rawad Saleh; Ezzat Jaroudi; Hiba Sheheitli; Thérèse Badr; Elizabeth Sepetdjian; Mariam Al Rashidi; Najat Saliba; Alan Shihadeh

2010-01-01

337

Digital Radiogrammetry of the Hand in a pediatric and Adolescent Dutch Caucasian Population: Normative Data and Measurements in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the applicability of a new Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry (DXR) system in a Dutch Caucasian pediatric population. For this study we enrolled 535 healthy participants who all signed an informed consent form. In addition, 20 children suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were enrolled. Radiographs of the left hand were obtained from all

R. R. van Rijn; D. S. Grootfaam; M. H. Lequin; A. M. Boot; R. D. van Beek; W. C. J. Hop; C. van Kuijk

2004-01-01

338

Measuring functioning in patients with hand osteoarthritis—content comparison of questionnaires based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. When selecting a questionnaire, researchers and clinicians need to know whether or not a questionnaire covers the relevant outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the content of questionnaires that have been used to assess functioning in patients with hand osteoarthritis (OA) based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Method. Questionnaires

Tanja Stamm; Szilvia Geyh; Alarcos Cieza; Klaus Machold; Barbara Kollerits; Margreet Kloppenburg; Josef Smolen; Gerold Stucki

2006-01-01

339

Measurement of Body Composition in Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines common methods for measuring body composition in obesity. These methods range from simple anthropometric\\u000a measures that indirectly assess adiposity to more complex measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography\\u000a (CT) that are able to directly measure numerous tissues in vivo. Anthropometric measurements are inexpensive, and are readily\\u000a used in clinical settings and epidemiological studies,

Jennifer L. Kuk; Robert Ross

340

An Anthropometric and Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Two-Point Fixation of Zygomatic Complex Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Maintaining stability and restoring the aesthetic appearance are the fundamental goals when managing zygomatic fractures. We aimed to evaluate the stability and anthropometric outcomes of zygomatic fracture patients who underwent two-point fixation involving the infraorbital rim and zygomaticomaxillary buttress via the transconjunctival and gingivobuccal approaches without any skin incisions. Methods We examined 15 zygomatic fracture patients who underwent two-point fixation during a 3-year period. Stability was evaluated using three-dimensional facial bone computed tomography. Superoinferior and anteroposterior displacement of the zygoma was quantified. The aesthetic appearance of the periorbital region was evaluated using indirect anthropometry with standardized clinical photographs. The ratios between the eye fissure height and width, and lower iris coverage ratio were used to evaluate aesthetical changes. The bony displacement and aesthetic ratios were analyzed using Wilcoxon or Friedman tests. The correlation between the preoperative zygoma position and anthropometric values was analyzed. Results The positions of the zygoma were similar to those on the contralateral side at the long-term follow-up. The preoperative anthropometric measurements on the fractured side differed from those on the contralateral side, although these values were close to the normal values at the long-term follow-up. Furthermore, we noted that the anteroposterior displacement strongly positively correlated with the lower iris coverage rate (Spearman's coefficient= 0.678, P=0.005). Conclusions Two-point fixation of zygomatic fractures achieved stable outcomes on long-term follow-up, and also appeared to be reliable in restoring the aesthetic appearance of the periorbital region. PMID:25276640

Jo, Taehee

2014-01-01

341

Tuberculosis of the hand.  

PubMed

There has been recent interest in tuberculosis of the hand because of a rising incidence owing to increasing numbers of immigration, an aging population, and immunosuppressed people including affected patients with human immunodeficiency virus. In this article, we review the epidemiology, bacteriology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and principles of treatment of tuberculosis of the hand. The second part of the report emphasizes the classification of hand tuberculosis (cutaneous lesions, tenosynovitis, bursitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, and tuberculous hypersensitivity reactions) along with the classic presentations of each of these hand lesions. PMID:21764526

Al-Qattan, M M; Al-Namla, A; Al-Thunayan, A; Al-Omawi, M

2011-08-01

342

An anthropometric analysis of facial height, arch length, and palatal rugae in the Indian and Nepalese population  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A country such as India abounds with diverse population groups with distinct anthropometric characteristics. Among these, numerous Nepalese population groups are present in different states of India comprising one of the most common immigrant races. The aim of the study is to compare two distinct races, Indians and Nepalese on the basis of facial height proportions, arch length and palatal rugae patterns and assess their significance in racial identification. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 Indians and 60 Nepalese were selected, with each group including 30 males and 30 females. Facial heights were measured using sliding digital calipers, arch lengths with the help of a brass wire and rugae patterns were traced on dental casts obtained with alginate impressions. Results: Facial height measurements did not give significant results for racial or gender identification of given races. Differences between arch length parameters were found to be significant between the two population groups. Secondary and fragmentary palatal rugae forms were found to be more common in Nepalese than Indians. Conclusion: The Indian and Nepalese have similar anthropometric characteristics with regard to facial height. However, arch length and palatal rugae characteristics vary between the two races. PMID:22022137

Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Desai, Ami; Kasetty, Sowmya; Sudheendra, US; Joshi, Prathamesh

2011-01-01

343

Do anthropometric and fitness characteristics vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth academy soccer players?  

PubMed

We examined whether maturity, anthropometric profiles and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite, under-14 youth academy soccer players. The selection year was divided into four quarters, with 160 male players grouped according to individual birth date. Players had their skeletal age determined and were assessed using a battery of standard anthropometric and physical performance tests. Players born across all quarters of the year were investigated for differences in the various performance characteristics using multi- and univariate analyses. An uneven birth distribution was observed, with players born early in the selection year highly represented (P<0.01). A significant difference in height was observed across quarters (P<0.01) with higher values reported in the earlier-born players. No significant differences were observed across any of the fitness measures, although the trend was for players born in the first quarter to out-perform peers born in the later quarters. These findings suggest that the relative age of the performer may not always be linked to a significant advantage in physical components. The selection criteria for entry into the academy may explain the present results. PMID:19000100

Carling, C; le Gall, F; Reilly, T; Williams, A M

2009-02-01

344

Development and validation of anthropometric prediction equations for estimation of lean body mass and appendicular lean soft tissue in Indian men and women.  

PubMed

Lean body mass (LBM) and muscle mass remain difficult to quantify in large epidemiological studies due to the unavailability of inexpensive methods. We therefore developed anthropometric prediction equations to estimate the LBM and appendicular lean soft tissue (ALST) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Healthy volunteers (n = 2,220; 36% women; age 18-79 yr), representing a wide range of body mass index (14-44 kg/m(2)), participated in this study. Their LBM, including ALST, was assessed by DXA along with anthropometric measurements. The sample was divided into prediction (60%) and validation (40%) sets. In the prediction set, a number of prediction models were constructed using DXA-measured LBM and ALST estimates as dependent variables and a combination of anthropometric indices as independent variables. These equations were cross-validated in the validation set. Simple equations using age, height, and weight explained >90% variation in the LBM and ALST in both men and women. Additional variables (hip and limb circumferences and sum of skinfold thicknesses) increased the explained variation by 5-8% in the fully adjusted models predicting LBM and ALST. More complex equations using all of the above anthropometric variables could predict the DXA-measured LBM and ALST accurately, as indicated by low standard error of the estimate (LBM: 1.47 kg and 1.63 kg for men and women, respectively), as well as good agreement by Bland-Altman analyses (Bland JM, Altman D. Lancet 1: 307-310, 1986). These equations could be a valuable tool in large epidemiological studies assessing these body compartments in Indians and other population groups with similar body composition. PMID:23950165

Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Taylor, Amy; Wells, Jonathan C; Radhakrishna, K V; Kinra, Sanjay; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

2013-10-15

345

Mandibular bone mineral density measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: relationship to hip bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound at calcaneus and hand phalanges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this cross-sectional study was the estimation of relationships between mandibular bone mineral density (m-BMD), hip bone mineral densities (BMDs) and quantitative ultrasound at calcaneus and hand phalanges. Correlations between m-BMD and age, years since menopause (YSM) and body size were also evaluated. 42 edentulous persons (36 females and 6 males aged 60.5¡6.9 years) were evaluated. In

W PLUSKIEWICZ; B TARNAWSKA; B DROZDZOWSKA

346

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101  

E-print Network

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101 Hand washing may be a simple task, but it is extremely important in preventing the spread of contagious illnesses. Wash your hands often to remove disease-causing germs. Wash your hands: Wet hands with warm water. When warm water isn't available, wash for a longer

347

A Helping Hand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

Renner, Jason M.

2000-01-01

348

On the Other Hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief overview of the past and current state of handedness research illustrating some of the controversies. It emphasizes two aspects: the lack of agreement on the behavior that indicates to which hand-use group (left or right) an individual belongs, and the reasons for preferring one hand rather than the other for various manual activities.

Ira B. Perelle; Lee Ehrman

2005-01-01

349

Analysis of Multifingered Hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses three fundamental problems relating to grasping and manipulating objects within an articulated, multifingered hand: determining how hard to squeeze an ob ject in order to ensure a secure grasp, determining the finger- joint motions required to produce a desired motion of the object, and determining the workspace of the hand.Squeezing the object, or the application of internal

Jeffrey Kerr; Bernard Roth

1986-01-01

350

Anthropometrical parameters and markers of obesity in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine anthropometrical parameters in male adult Wistar rats. We tested the hypothesis that the anthropometrical index may identify obesity and may predict its adverse effects on lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats. Two experimental protocols were performed. In the first experiment, 50 male Wistar rats, 21 days old and fed a control chow were studied up to 150 days of age. In the second experiment, male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 8): control (C) given free access to a control chow; (S) receiving the control chow and drinking 30% sucrose ad libitum and (HC) fed a high-carbohydrate diet ad libitum. The first experiment showed that food consumption, energy intake and body weight increased with increasing age, while specific rate of body mass gain was significantly decreased. There were no significant differences in body length and thoracic circumference of rats from 60 days of age. The abdominal circumference (AC) and body mass index (BMI) significantly increased with enhancing age in rats up to 90 days of age and remained constant thereafter. In the second experiment, after 30 days of dietary treatment, the final body weight, body mass gain, carcass fat and BMI were higher in S and HC rats than in C. There were no significant alterations in body length and carcass protein among the groups. Triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (CT), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipid hydroperoxide (LH) were higher in S and HC rats than in C. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in HC rats and total antioxidant substances (TAS) decreased in S and HC rats. There were positive correlations between BMI with carcass fat, BMI with LH and BMI and serum TG concentration. In conclusion, the BMI for male adult Wistar rats ranged between 0.45 and 0.68 g/cm(2). Obesity may be easily estimated from the BMI in rats. Alterations in BMI were associated with dyslipidemic profile and oxidative stress in serum of rats and BMI may predict these adverse consequences of the obesity in rats. PMID:17234057

Novelli, E L B; Diniz, Y S; Galhardi, C M; Ebaid, G M X; Rodrigues, H G; Mani, F; Fernandes, A A H; Cicogna, A C; Novelli Filho, J L V B

2007-01-01

351

Health Tip: Easing Hand Eczema  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Easing Hand Eczema Gloves can help protect the skin (*this ... chemicals or doing heavy-duty work with your hands can worsen hand eczema, leaving hands dry and ...

352

American Association for Hand Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... View Preliminary Program Download Annual Meeting Mobile App HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND is the ... access to HAND via the Members' Only webpage. HAND Journal Featured Article Overcoming short gaps in peripheral ...

353

[Hand surgery training].  

PubMed

Training of the hand surgeon HAND SURGEON A CONCEPT: The hand surgeon is supposed to be in charge of all the hand lesions regarding, skeleton, muscles, tendons, nerves and vessels. He has to be able to insure reparation and coverage of all of them. So he is involved in all the structures, which insure integrity and function of the hand. PURPOSE AND WAYS OF TRAINING: To obtain the asked ability, the hand surgeon training has to be global and sustained by two underlying surgical specialities: orthopedic surgery and plastic and reconstructive surgery. From 2000 after many years of dealings, a Right to the Title in Hand Surgery was born. This Right to the Title wants to be the formal recognition of the specific training of the hand surgeon. For the well-recognized ancient hand surgeons they need to be confirmed by one's peers. Now a day the hand surgeon has to satisfy to this specific training: Passed the complete training and exam of the Orthopedic or Plastic surgery board. Spent at least 6 months as resident in the other underlying specialty. Passed a microsurgery examination. Passed one of the four national Hand Surgery diplomas (DIU/Inter-Universitary Diploma). The examinations have been harmonized. A common formation is delivered regarding hand surgery, the way of examination is the same and the formation is 2 years long. The final exam is presented in front of board of examiners where a teacher of one of the other three national diplomas is present. Spent at least 2 years in a formative hand surgery unit, listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons, as senior surgeon. Those requirements are heavy to assume and need a heavy personal involvement. That seems to be necessary to have an ability level as high as possible. Emergency surgery practice is absolutely necessary in this training. All the 17 university formative hand surgery units listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons are members of the FESUM (European Federation of the Emergency Hand Units). Unfortunately it is non-sufficient to train the necessary number of hand surgeons needed in France today. So we try to obtain from the authority the formal recognition of a training period in private practice. Eleven out of the 28 hand units listed as formative by the French College of Hand Surgeons are in private practice and may be recognized as formative in the hand surgeon training. That needs to create an official agreement between university and private Units. This part of the training is yet accepted by the Right to the Title commission for a 6-month training period. But this needs a legal modification or adaptation of the private units legal status so they will be able to offer a quite equivalent conditions of training. Now a days 233 surgeons in France passed the Right to the Title. Among them, the oldest do not have emergency practice any more. So unfortunately, out of 1,400,000 hand injuries a year in France, only few are actually cared by hand surgeons. The emergency training needs at least a three to four senior surgeons team, operating and caring emergencies, 24 h a day, 365 days a year. They need to be surrounded by high-level technical facilities for this type of surgery. Only this type of unit may have a frequent severe hand traumatology practice, especially regarding microsurgery. But on the other hand a less complex hand unit operating only planed surgery and less complicated emergencies, may also be definitively formative. This only depends on the hand surgeon's qualification. It is only with a very demanding and high-level training program that our credibility as hand surgeon may be definitively established. The mainstay of this training is the combined action of the FESUM, the French College of Hand Surgeons and the DIU diploma. The Right to the Title formally confirms that training. For university or private unit, to be a member of the FESUM, must continue to guarantee a high level training regarding emergencies as in number as in complexity. We proposed as minimum level of practice (a year) to be a formative hand surgery unit: 10-15 hand and up

Moutet, F; Haloua, J P

2003-10-01

354

"Measuring Me": Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Measuring Me" is an introductory activity developed to be used while collecting pre-study anthropometric data for the Food Math and Science Teacher Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative. Using "Measuring Me" as an introductory activity for collecting anthropometric measurements in the classroom was feasible and well received by students…

McLeod, Sara; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Duffrin, Melani

2012-01-01

355

Multivariate quantitative genetics of anthropometric traits from the Boas data.  

PubMed

The use of multivariate quantitative trait information to address questions of population relationships and evolutionary issues has a long-standing history in human anthropometry. Previous analyses have usually rested on a number of explicit or implicit assumptions that allow phenotypic information to be used as a proxy for quantitative genetic information. One (usually implicit) assumption is that the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) among traits is proportional to the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P). In this study we discuss the implications of this assumption, demonstrating that if it is true that G = h2P, where h2 is some constant of proportionality, then (1) the biological (phenotypic) Mahalanobis distance will be proportional to genetic distance, (2) phenotypic and genetic allometry coefficients will be equal, and (3) evolutionary models will become simplified. We then use a multivariate quantitative genetic analysis of 12 anthropometric traits in 5 tribes to demonstrate that G = h2P for at least a portion of the Boas data. PMID:7541775

Konigsberg, L W; Ousley, S D

1995-06-01

356

[Socioeconomic, anthropometric and food intake characterization of severely obese people].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to characterize morbid obese patients treated at bariatric surgery clinics in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, analyzed by socioeconomic, anthropometric and food intake aspects. Based on an exploratory, transversal and analytical design, this survey interviewed fifty patients being treated at one private and two public bariatric surgery clinics; 74% were female and 26% male. Their average age was 35 +/- 8.6 years old, with an average family income of 9.32 +/- 14.14 minimum wages; with an average family income of 4.69 +/- 3.78 minimum wages for the group treated at public clinics, and an 15.18 +/- 12.63 minimum wages for the obese patients seen at the private clinic; at least 70% of the participants held high school diplomas. The average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 47.5 +/- 7.2 Kg/m2;, with their food intake standard characterized largely by the consumption of high-energy, high-fat, low carbohydrate items, high in cholesterol and dietary staple fibers. It is concluded that the patients have a food intake standard that offers the risk of worsening their weight situation, requiring more intensive educational actions in preparation for bariatric surgery. PMID:17680159

de Lima, Laydiane Pereira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho

2007-01-01

357

Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

Mundermann, Lars; Mundermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

2005-01-01

358

Conditions that influence the accuracy of anthropometric parameter estimation for human body segments using shape-from-silhouette  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropometric parameters are fundamental for a wide variety of applications in biomechanics, anthropology, medicine and sports. Recent technological advancements provide methods for constructing 3D surfaces directly. Of these new technologies, visual hull construction may be the most cost-effective yet sufficiently accurate method. However, the conditions influencing the accuracy of anthropometric measurements based on visual hull reconstruction are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conditions that influence the accuracy of 3D shape-from-silhouette reconstruction of body segments dependent on number of cameras, camera resolution and object contours. The results demonstrate that the visual hulls lacked accuracy in concave regions and narrow spaces, but setups with a high number of cameras reconstructed a human form with an average accuracy of 1.0 mm. In general, setups with less than 8 cameras yielded largely inaccurate visual hull constructions, while setups with 16 and more cameras provided good volume estimations. Body segment volumes were obtained with an average error of 10% at a 640x480 resolution using 8 cameras. Changes in resolution did not significantly affect the average error. However, substantial decreases in error were observed with increasing number of cameras (33.3% using 4 cameras; 10.5% using 8 cameras; 4.1% using 16 cameras; 1.2% using 64 cameras).

Mündermann, Lars; Mündermann, Annegret; Chaudhari, Ajit M.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.

2004-12-01

359

Acute hand infections.  

PubMed

The continued emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the development of only a few new classes of antibiotics over the past 50 years have made the treatment of acute hand infections problematic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important, because hand stiffness, contractures, and even amputation can result from missed diagnoses or delayed treatment. The most common site of hand infections is subcutaneous tissue and the most common mechanism is trauma. An immunocompromised state, intravenous drug abuse, diabetes mellitus, and steroid use all predispose to infections. PMID:25070032

Osterman, Meredith; Draeger, Reid; Stern, Peter

2014-08-01

360

A Myoelectric Hand Splint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of a myoelectrically controlled hand splint permitting ambulating mobility of the user is discussed. The role of occupational therapy in the research and design of the device and the training of the patient are emphasized. (Authors)

Silverstein, Frances; And Others

1974-01-01

361

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101  

E-print Network

Hand WashingHand Washing Germ Fighting 101 Hand washing may be a simple task, but it is extremely important in preventing the spread of contagious illnesses in child-care settings. Wash your hands often to remove disease-causing germs. Wash your hands upon arrival to the child-care setting in addition to: Wet

362

Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

2012-04-01

363

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Multiple Anthropometric Indices of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity among young adults. A total of 2911 college students in Thailand participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken by trained research staff. Overall, 6.3% of college students had OSA determined by the Berlin Questionnaire, 9.6% were overweight (BMI: 25–29 kg/m2), 4.5% were obese (BMI?30 kg/m2); 12.4% had abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference?90 cm; women: waist circumference?80 cm). There were significant associations between OSA and overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04–1.85) and obesity (OR=24.23; 95% CI=15.20–38.61), independent of demographic and lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and psychological distress. Students with OSA were more likely to have abdominal obesity than those without OSA (OR=2.09; 95% CI=1.19–3.67). OSA was significantly related to joint effects of general and abdominal obesity. The OSA-obesity associations were robust and evident for both genders, individuals with normal and elevated blood pressure, and those with and without psychological distress. This study shows independent associations of OSA with general and abdominal obesity among young adults. OSA could be a risk factor for obesity and consequent cardiovascular morbidities. OSA screening and treatment might be important for young adults.

Chen, Xiaoli; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

364

Sport-specific and anthropometric factors of quality in junior male water polo players.  

PubMed

There is evident lack of studies which examined anthropological determinants of success in water polo. The aim of this investigation was to study the physical fitness differences between two qualitative levels of junior water polo players (males; 16-18 years of age; 6+ year of experience in water polo). The sample (N = 54) comprised of 13 members of the junior national-squad (5 centers and 8 perimeter players), and 41 team-athletes (11 centers and 30 perimeter players). The sample of variables included: four anthropometric measures (body height, body mass, BMI and body fat percentage), and five sport-specific fitness tests (20-meters-sprint-swimming, maximal dynamometric force in eggbeater kick, in-water vertical jump, drive-shoot-speed, and sport-swimming-endurance). Discriminant analysis and t-test revealed no significant differences between national-squad and team-players for center players. The national-squad perimeters were advanced over their team-level peers in most of the fitness capacities and body-height. The result highlights the necessity of the playing-position-specific approach in defining anthropological factors of success in team-sports. PMID:24611343

Idrizovi?, Kemal; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Ban, Divo; Spasi?, Miodrag; Rausavljevi?, Nikola

2013-12-01

365

Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea.  

PubMed

The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed >/= Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok; Driskell, Judy A

2008-01-01

366

Anthropometric assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children in Cape Verde  

PubMed Central

The nutritional status of preschool-age children (0-6 years old) in Cape Verde was assessed using anthropometric measurements in a survey that involved 17 017 children from all regions of the country. About 26% of the estimated population in the target age group was included. Data were collected through primary health care centres during the latter part of 1983. The nutritional indicators weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age were compared with reference data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Values of the indicators below -2 standard deviations of the median were considered to represent moderate undernutrition, while values below -3 standard deviations were taken to indicate severe malnutrition. The prevalence of low weight-for-height (wasting) was 2.5%, while that of severe wasting was 0.6%. The corresponding prevalences of low height-for-age and weight-for-age were 13.1% and 17.2%, respectively, with severe categories representing 2.3% and 6.1%, respectively, of the cases in the total sample. There is therefore a relatively strong tendency towards growth retardation or chronic, moderate nutritional deprivation in preschool-age children in Cape Verde, although there exist interregional variations. PMID:3262443

Wennberg, A.

1988-01-01

367

Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

2009-01-01

368

Hand Hygiene: When and How  

MedlinePLUS

RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED How to handrub? Duration of the entire procedure: 20-30 seconds Apply a palmful ... Dry hands thoroughly with a single use towel; Hand Hygiene August 2009 When and How WHO acknowledges the ...

369

The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive results that encompass the variation within the entire population. The current EMU does not accommodate humans at the extremes of the anthropometric spectrum. To account for this and to ensure that these requirements cover the population, another phase of testing will be conducted in a differential pressure glove box. This phase will focus on smaller females and very large males that do not have a properly fitted EMU suit. Instead, they would wear smaller or larger gloves and be tested in the glove box as a means to compare and contrast their strength capabilities against the EMU accommodated hand size subjects. The glove box s ability to change pressures easily will also allow for a wider range of glove pressures to be tested. Compared to the data collected on the subjects wearing the EMU suit, it is expected that there will be similar ratios to bare-hand. It is recommended that this topic be sent to the Physical Ergonomics Board for review.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

2009-01-01

370

Inspections of hand washing supplies and hand sanitizer in public schools.  

PubMed

Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In November 2008, 90 schools (97%) reported their inspection results. Among 697 total bathrooms, 88.8% had soap and 91.7% had paper towels or hand dryers. Hand sanitizer was reported in 1.2% of bathrooms and 15.2% of cafeterias. No difference was observed between boys' and girls' bathrooms, or primary and secondary schools, in the prevalence of soap or paper towels/hand dryers. Hand washing supplies were generally available in public school bathrooms. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer in school bathrooms was reported occasionally and should be discouraged. Hand sanitizer in a supervised setting, the school cafeteria, was not often reported and should be promoted. PMID:20457946

Ramos, Mary M; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

2010-10-01

371

Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515

2011-01-01

372

Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.  

PubMed

This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

2012-02-01

373

Considerations of anthropometric, tissue volume, and tissue mass scaling for improved patient specificity of skeletal S values.  

PubMed

It is generally acknowledged that reference man (70 kg in mass and 170 cm in height) does not adequately represent the stature and physical dimensions of many patients undergoing radionuclide therapy, and thus scaling of radionuclide S values is required for patient specificity. For electron and beta sources uniformly distributed within internal organs, the mean dose from self-irradiation is noted to scale inversely with organ mass, provided no escape of electron energy occurs at the organ boundaries. In the skeleton, this same scaling approach is further assumed to be correct for marrow dosimetry; nevertheless, difficulties in quantitative assessments of marrow mass in specific skeletal regions of the patient make this approach difficult to implement clinically. Instead, scaling of marrow dose is achieved using various anthropometric parameters that presumably scale in the same proportion. In this study, recently developed three-dimensional macrostructural transport models of the femoral head and humeral epiphysis in three individuals (51-year male, 82-year female, and 86-year female) are used to test the abilities of different anthropometric parameters (total body mass, body surface area, etc.) to properly scale radionuclide S values from reference man models. The radionuclides considered are 33P, 177Lu, 153Sm, 186Re, 89Sr, 166Ho, 32P, 188Re, and 90Y localized in either the active marrow or endosteal tissues of the bone trabeculae. S value scaling is additionally conducted in which the 51-year male subject is assigned as the reference individual; scaling parameters are then expanded to include tissue volumes and masses for both active marrow and skeletal spongiosa. The study concludes that, while no single anthropometric parameter emerges as a consistent scaler of reference man S values, lean body mass is indicated as an optimal scaler when the reference S values are based on 3D transport techniques. Furthermore, very exact patient-specific scaling of radionuclide S values can be achieved if measurements of spongiosa volume and marrow volume fraction (high-resolution CT with image segmentation) are known in both the patient and the reference individual at skeletal sites for which dose estimates are sought. However, the study indicates that measurements of the spongiosa volume alone may be sufficient for reasonable patient-specific scaling of S values for the majority of radionuclides of interest in internal-emitter therapy. PMID:12094975

Bolch, W E; Patton, R W; Shah, A R; Rajon, D A; Jokisch, D W

2002-06-01

374

Dexterity analysis and robot hand design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding about a dexterous robot hand's motion ranges is important to the precision grasping and precision manipulation. A planar robot hand is studied for object orientation, including ranges of motion, measures with respect to the palm, position reaching of a point in the grasped object, and rotation of the object about the reference point. The rotational dexterity index and dexterity chart are introduced and an analysis procedure is developed for calculating these quantities. A design procedure for determining the hand kinematic parameters based on a desired partial or complete dexterity chart is also developed. These procedures have been tested in detail for a planar robot hand with two 2- or 3-link fingers. The derived results are shown to be useful to performance evaluation, kinematic parameter design, and grasping motion planning for a planar robot hand.

Li, LU; Soni, A. H.; Chunsheng, Cai; Brown, Max

1988-01-01

375

Age-Related Attenuation of Dominant Hand Superiority  

PubMed Central

Background The decline of motor performance of the human hand-arm system with age is well-documented. While dominant hand performance is superior to that of the non-dominant hand in young individuals, little is known of possible age-related changes in hand dominance. We investigated age-related alterations of hand dominance in 20 to 90 year old subjects. All subjects were unambiguously right-handed according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. In Experiment 1, motor performance for aiming, postural tremor, precision of arm-hand movement, speed of arm-hand movement, and wrist-finger speed tasks were tested. In Experiment 2, accelerometer-sensors were used to obtain objective records of hand use in everyday activities. Principal Findings Our data confirm previous findings of a general task-dependent decline in motor performance with age. Analysis of the relationship between right/left-hand performances using a laterality index showed a loss of right hand dominance with advancing age. The clear right-hand advantage present at younger ages changed to a more balanced performance in advanced age. This shift was due to a more pronounced age-related decline of right hand performance. Accelerometer-sensor measurements supported these findings by demonstrating that the frequency of hand use also shifted from a clear right hand preference in young adults to a more balanced usage of both hands in old age. Despite these age-related changes in the relative level of performance in defined motor tasks and in the frequency of hand use, elderly subjects continued to rate themselves as unambiguous right-handers. Conclusion The discrepancy between hand-specific practical performance in controlled motor tests as well as under everyday conditions and the results of questionnaires concerning hand use and hand dominance suggests that most elderly subjects are unaware of the changes in hand dominance that occur over their lifespan, i.e., a shift to ambidexterity. PMID:17183722

Kalisch, Tobias; Wilimzig, Claudia; Kleibel, Nadine; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

2006-01-01

376

A Helping Hand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes steps schools can take to provide cleaner and safer washrooms. Emphasizes hand-washing to battle germs and asserts that creating a comfortable and user-friendly washroom is a critical and often overlooked aspect for encouraging better hygiene habits. (EV)

Wilke, Arnie

2003-01-01

377

Hands-On Calculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we discuss manipulatives and hands-on investigations for Calculus involving volume, arc length, and surface area to motivate and develop formulae which can then be verified using techniques of integration. Pre-service teachers in calculus courses using these activities experience a classroom in which active learning is encouraged and…

Sutherland, Melissa

2006-01-01

378

Learning "Hands On."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a computer teacher's incorporation of hand-held computer technology into her third- and fifth-grade students' study of acid rain. The project successfully brought two grade levels together for cross-grade research, provided an opportunity for classroom teachers and technology specialists to work collaboratively, and enhanced students'…

Ritter, Janice T.

2001-01-01

379

Hands On Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

380

Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

1991-01-01

381

Moving Hands, Moving Entities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

2009-01-01

382

Hands-On History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asserts that interactive exhibits are more than just hands-on activities but utilize a range of techniques. The variety of techniques is explained with examples of various types of exhibits to involve the visitor in learning more about the exhibit. The paper presents several examples that strike a balance between educating in history…

Eldridge, Rachel M.

383

Hands-On Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally marketed as a personal organizer for mobile business executives and ardent technophiles, the handheld computer is beginning to catch educators' notice. A handful of school districts are piloting large-scale use of these portable devices, ranging in price from $149 to $450. (MLH)

Stover, Del

2001-01-01

384

Hand Biometrics Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers incorporate biometric technologies into products as well as the challenges of engineers who must weigh privacy, security and other issues when designing a system. Learners examine different biometric techniques, find their own hand geometry biometrics, and then work in teams of "engineers" to design a high-tech security system for a museum.

Ieee

2014-03-10

385

Hands-On Hydrology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

2004-01-01

386

Hands-on Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

Science Activities, 1987

1987-01-01

387

Anthropometric profile and body composition of Irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.  

PubMed

The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis. PMID:23539077

Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S

2013-12-01

388

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parameters and Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Index among an Adult Iranian Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parameters and lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adult population according to body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and 2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged ?20 years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineate trends in anthropometric

Mohammad Reza Bozorgmanesh; Farzad Hadaegh; Mojgan Padyab; Yadollah Mehrabi; Fereidoun Azizi

2008-01-01

389

Hand hygiene among health care workers.  

PubMed

Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control. PMID:20427920

Mani, Ameet; Shubangi, A M; Saini, Rajiv

2010-01-01

390

Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination. PMID:24760731

Luby, Stephen P; Lu, Xiaoyan; Cromeans, Theresa; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Erdman, Dean D

2014-12-01

391

Subjective and objective evaluation of sense of space for vehicle occupants based on anthropometric data.  

PubMed

At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the "feeling of space" of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection, the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values. PMID:22316731

Hiamtoe, Pitarn; Steinhardt, Florian; Köhler, Uwe; Bengler, Klaus

2012-01-01

392

Hand Washing in Emergency Situations  

E-print Network

it dry rather than rubbing it. ? If you use a disposable towel, throw it in the trash. Using alcohol-based products If soap and water are unavailable, use an alcohol-based product to clean your hands. Alcohol-based hand rubs can quickly reduce... on how much to use. When using an alcohol-based hand rub: ? Apply the product to the palm of one hand. ? Rub your hands together, making sure that all surfaces of your hands and fingers are covered with the hand rub, until they are dry...

Schoessow, Courtney

2005-09-30

393

Hands-on-CERN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the Hands-On CERN project is to increase understanding of the most fundamental processes inside matter, and to explain modern research about particle collisions. The site includes many lab activities, interactive resources, and background information for teachers and learners. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It's primary function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Its laboratory houses the LHC (Large Hadron Collider).

2011-09-13

394

Pediatric Hand Fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Pediatric hand fractures are common childhood injuries. Identification of the fractures in the emergency room setting can be challenging owing to the physes and incomplete ossification of the carpus that are not revealed in the xrays. Most simple fractures can be treated with appropriate immobilization through buddy taping, finger splints, or casting. If correctly diagnosed, reduced and immobilized, these fractures usually result in excellent clinical outcomes. However, fractures may require operative stabilization if they have substantial angulation or rotation, extend into the joint, or cannot be held in a reduced position with splinting alone. Most fractures can be treated operatively with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning if addressed within the first week following the injury. In children, the thick, vascular-rich periosteum and bony remodeling potential make anatomic reductions and internal fixation rarely necessary. Most fractures complete bony healing in 3-4 weeks, with the scaphoid being a notable exception. Following immobilization, children rarely develop hand stiffness and formal occupational therapy is usually not necessary. Despite the high potential for excellent outcomes in pediatric hand fractures, some fractures remain difficult to diagnose and treat. PMID:24209954

Nellans, Kate W.; Chung, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

395

Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

396

A prototype hand geometry-based verification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric measurements of the human hand have been used for identity authentication in a number of commercial systems. Yet, there is not much open public literature addressing research issues underly- ing hand geometry-based identity authentication. This work is our attempt to draw attention to this important biometric by designing a prototype hand geometry- based identity authentication system. We also present

Anil K. Jain; Arun Ross; Sharath Pankanti

1999-01-01

397

Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph  

DOEpatents

A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2001-01-01

398

Improving Global Vascular Risk Prediction with Behavioral and Anthropometric Factors: The Multi-ethnic Northern Manhattan Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To improve global vascular risk prediction with behavioral and anthropometric factors. Background Few cardiovascular risk models are designed to predict the global vascular risk of MI, stroke, or vascular death in multi-ethnic individuals, and existing schemes do not fully include behavioral risk factors. Methods A randomly-derived, population-based, prospective cohort of 2737 community participants free of stroke and coronary artery disease were followed annually for a median of 9.0 years in the Northern Manhattan Study (mean age 69 years; 63.2% women; 52.7% Hispanic, 24.9% African-American, 19.9% white). A global vascular risk score (GVRS) predictive of stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death was developed by adding variables to the traditional Framingham cardiovascular variables based on the likelihood ratio criterion. Model utility was assessed through receiver operating characteristics, calibration, and effect on reclassification of subjects. Results Variables which significantly added to the traditional Framingham profile included waist circumference, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Continuous measures for blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were used instead of hypertension and diabetes. Ten -year event-free probabilities were 0.95 for the first quartile of GVRS, 0.89 for the second quartile, 0.79 for the third quartile, and 0.56 for the fourth quartile. The addition of behavioral factors in our model improved prediction of 10 -year event rates compared to a model restricted to the traditional variables. Conclusion A global vascular risk score that combines both traditional, behavioral, and anthropometric risk factors, uses continuous variables for physiological parameters, and is applicable to non-white subjects could improve primary prevention strategies. PMID:19958966

Sacco, Ralph L.; Khatri, Minesh; Rundek, Tatjana; Xu, Qiang; Gardener, Hannah; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Paik, Myunghee C

2010-01-01

399

Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices with Evaluation of Physical Efficiency Among Female College Students of Kolkata  

PubMed Central

Background: The available information regarding the obesity pattern of the undergraduate female students of Kolkata is inadequate, though there are several reports which indicate the complications and/or awful consequences of obesity on female health particularly, during the reproductive years. Aim: The present investigation has thus been carried out to report their present physiological status along with the prevalence of obesity, based on their body mass index (BMI), some direct and derived anthropometric indices, and physical fitness. Subjects and Methods: This small-scale cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected 100 female students of different colleges of Kolkata with the age of 18-22 [mean age 20.4 (2.3)] years. Measurements of body composition included total 24 variables, with thirteen direct and eleven derived anthropometric variables; while physical efficiency parameters were physical fitness index, VO2max, energy expenditure and anaerobic power. The data of the experimental group were compared with those of the control group by t-test, using SPSS v.15.0 and MS-Excel v.2013. Results: Analysis of collected data showed majority of the students have normal range of BMI (67.95%), but, 21.95% of students found to be overweight and 3.84% are obese. They also showed higher fat mass [14.40 (4.11)], but, lower waist-to-hip ratio and conicity index. They were found to have poor to moderate physical fitness [57.60 (3.90)] and higher energy expenditure [5.61 (0.72)]. Conclusion: The findings of the present obesity screening reports almost one of four female students (24 out of 100 participants) are overweight/obese, indicated higher body fat distribution and increased propensity of being obese with age. Thus, the overall data along with their low physical fitness points out to health risks among female undergraduates of Kolkata. PMID:24380001

Sengupta, P; Chaudhuri, P; Bhattacharya, K

2013-01-01

400

Vitamin D deficiency and anthropometric indicators of adiposity in school-age children: a prospective study123  

PubMed Central

Background: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that vitamin D serostatus is inversely associated with adiposity. It is unknown whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for the development of adiposity in children. Objective: We investigated the associations between vitamin D serostatus and changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), skinfold-thickness ratio (subscapular-to-triceps), waist circumference, and height in a longitudinal study in children from Bogota, Colombia. Design: We quantified plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in baseline samples of a randomly selected group of 479 schoolchildren aged 5–12 y and classified vitamin D status as deficient [25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/L], insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations ?50 and <75 nmol/L], or sufficient [25(OH)D concentrations ?75 nmol/L]. We measured anthropometric variables annually for a median of 30 mo. We estimated the average change in each anthropometric indicator according to baseline vitamin D status by using multivariate mixed linear regression models. Results: Vitamin D–deficient children had an adjusted 0.1/y greater change in BMI than did vitamin D–sufficient children (P for trend = 0.05). Similarly, vitamin D–deficient children had a 0.03/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.05/y) greater change in subscapular-to-triceps skinfold-thickness ratio and a 0.8 cm/y (95% CI: 0.1, 1.6 cm/y) greater change in waist circumference than did vitamin D–sufficient children. Vitamin D deficiency was related to slower linear growth in girls (?0.6 cm/y, P = 0.04) but not in boys (0.3 cm/y, P = 0.34); however, an interaction with sex was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Vitamin D serostatus was inversely associated with the development of adiposity in school-age children. PMID:20926524

Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Baylin, Ana; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Arsenault, Joanne E; Hughes, Michael D; Willett, Walter C; Villamor, Eduardo

2010-01-01

401

Gender-specific anthropometric markers of adiposity, metabolic syndrome and visceral adiposity index (VAI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea often coexists with visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we analysed gender-related differences in anthropometrics according to sleep apnea severity and metabolic abnormalities. In addition, the visceral adiposity index, a recently introduced marker of cardiometabolic risk, was analysed. Consecutive subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (n = 528, 423 males, mean age ± standard deviation: 51.3 ± 12.8 years, body mass index: 31.0 ± 6.2 kg m(-2) ) were studied by full polysomnography (apnea-hypopnea index 43.4 ± 27.6 h(-1) ). Variables of general and visceral adiposity were measured (body mass index, neck, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio). The visceral adiposity index was calculated, and metabolic syndrome was assessed (NCEP-ATP III criteria). The sample included controls (apnea-hypopnea index <10 h(-1) , n = 55), and patients with mild-moderate (apnea-hypopnea index 10-30 h(-1) , n = 144) and severe sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index >30 h(-1) , n = 329). When anthropometric variables were entered in stepwise multiple regression, body mass index, waist circumference and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were associated with the apnea-hypopnea index in men (adjusted R(2)  = 0.308); by contrast, only hip circumference and height-normalized neck circumference were associated with sleep apnea severity in women (adjusted R(2)  = 0.339). These results changed little in patients without metabolic syndrome; conversely, waist circumference was the only correlate of apnea-hypopnea index in men and women with metabolic syndrome. The visceral adiposity index increased with insulin resistance, but did not predict sleep apnea severity. These data suggest gender-related interactions between obstructive sleep apnea, obesity and metabolic abnormalities. The visceral adiposity index was a good marker of metabolic syndrome, but not of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:24118617

Mazzuca, Emilia; Battaglia, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Marotta, Anna M; Castrogiovanni, Alessandra; Esquinas, Cristina; Barcelò, Antonia; Barbé, Ferran; Bonsignore, Maria R

2014-02-01

402

Forces applied to large hand wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of a study conducted to establish the population isometric strength capabilities of subjects generating force using a hand wheel. Wheel force strength of 125 males and 125 females was measured using two different handgrip configurations: grasping the rim of the wheel and grasping the spoke. In addition, two separate procedures for generating and measuring strength were

Jeffrey C. Woldstad; Mark L. McMulkin; Carolyn A. Bussi

1995-01-01

403

Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

404

Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness— a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of visceral fat. Many of the studies, however, suffer from methodological limitations: they

A Molarius; JC Seidell

1998-01-01

405

Anthropometric Changes in Elite Male Water Polo Players: Survey in 1980 and 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. To assess the differences in anthropometric parameters, body fat, body mass index (BMI), and body density in- duced by sport-specific morphological optimization (adaptation) between two generations (1980 and 1995) of male elite water polo players. Methods. The survey included a total of 160 elite male water polo players, all members of the top clubs in Croatia. The 1980's generation

Vinko Lozovina; Leo Pavièiæ

2004-01-01

406

Correlation between Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Anthropometrical Parameters in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since we have recently found that regular exercise increased erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in adolescents with Down syndrome, these programs may be recommended. This study was designed to assess the role of anthropometrical parameters as easy, economic and non-invasive biomarkers of GPX. Thirty-one…

Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

2007-01-01

407

Steps/day ability to predict anthropometric changes is not affected by its plausibility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated whether treating steps/day data for implausible values (30,000) affected the ability of these data to predict intervention-induced anthropometric (waist circumference, body mass index, percent body fat, and fat mass) changes. Data were from 269 African American participants wh...

408

Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with greater playing experience (r = 0.36), dual-task draw and pass proficiency (r = 0.54), reactive agility (r = 0.29), and pattern recall (r = 0.32) and prediction (r = 0.28) ability, while faster speed over 40 m (r = -0.42) was associated (P < 0.05) with a higher number of tries scored. Greater age and playing experience, better lower body muscular power, and faster 10 m and 40 m speed were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the number of tackle attempts (positive), tackles completed (positive), and proportion of missed tackles (negative). These findings demonstrate that well-developed physical and skill qualities are associated with effective playing performance in National Rugby League players. PMID:22092276

Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

2011-12-01

409

Human hand impedance characteristics during maintained posture.  

PubMed

The present paper examines human hand impedance characteristics, including inertia and viscosity as well as stiffness, in multi-joint arm movements. While a subject maintains a given hand location, small external disturbances are applied to his hand by a manipulandum. The corresponding force-displacement vectors are measured and sampled over time in order to estimate the hand impedance by means of a second-order linear model. The experimental results in different subjects and hand locations are summarized as follows: (1) the estimated inertia matrices of the human hand well agrees with computed values using a two-joint arm model, (2) spatial variations of the stiffness ellipses are consistent with the experimental results of Mussa-Ivaldi et al. (1985), (3) hand stiffness and viscosity increase with the grip force of the subject, and (4) viscosity and stiffness ellipses tend to have similar orientation. The accuracy of the impedance estimation method is validated with a mechanical spring-mass system with known parameters. PMID:7612720

Tsuji, T; Morasso, P G; Goto, K; Ito, K

1995-01-01

410

The hand-reversal illusion revisited  

PubMed Central

The hand-reversal illusion is a visuomotor illusion that is commonly seen in children's play. When participants attempt to lift a designated finger while their hands are cross-folded, they are likely to erroneously lift the matched finger of the other hand; however, such errors are rare when subjects close their eyes. Based on the fact that the illusion disappears without visual input, researchers previously concluded that the illusion depends upon visual and proprioceptive conflict (Van Riper, 1935). Here, we re-evaluated this visual-proprioceptive conflict hypothesis by obtaining reaction time measurements because, in the original study, subjects might have relied on a strategy of responding more slowly to minimize making errors. We found that the impairment due to cross-folding one's hand persisted in the absence of the visual input, as evidenced by delayed response times (RTs). Further, we found that such impairment occurred when the fingers of only one hand were tested, indicating that the impairment was not due to left-right confusions of the hands during tactile identification or response selection. Based on these results, we suggest that the illusion is not solely due to the conflict between visual and proprioceptive information. Instead, we propose that the unusual configuration itself that involves a reversal of the left and right hands in external space also contributes to the impaired motor response. PMID:23055958

Hong, Sang W.; Xu, Linda; Kang, Min-Suk; Tong, Frank

2012-01-01

411

Automatic method for the dermatological diagnosis of selected hand skin features in hyperspectral imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hyperspectral imaging has been used in dermatology for many years. The enrichment of hyperspectral imaging with image analysis broadens considerably the possibility of reproducible, quantitative evaluation of, for example, melanin and haemoglobin at any location in the patient's skin. The dedicated image analysis method proposed by the authors enables to automatically perform this type of measurement. Material and method As part of the study, an algorithm for the analysis of hyperspectral images of healthy human skin acquired with the use of the Specim camera was proposed. Images were collected from the dorsal side of the hand. The frequency ? of the data obtained ranged from 397 to 1030 nm. A total of 4'000 2D images were obtained for 5 hyperspectral images. The method proposed in the paper uses dedicated image analysis based on human anthropometric data, mathematical morphology, median filtration, normalization and others. The algorithm was implemented in Matlab and C programs and is used in practice. Results The algorithm of image analysis and processing proposed by the authors enables segmentation of any region of the hand (fingers, wrist) in a reproducible manner. In addition, the method allows to quantify the frequency content in different regions of interest which are determined automatically. Owing to this, it is possible to perform analyses for melanin in the frequency range ? E ?(450,600) nm and for haemoglobin in the range ? H ?(397,500) nm extending into the ultraviolet for the type of camera used. In these ranges, there are 189 images for melanin and 126 images for haemoglobin. For six areas of the left and right sides of the little finger (digitus minimus manus), the mean values of melanin and haemoglobin content were 17% and 15% respectively compared to the pattern. Conclusions The obtained results confirmed the usefulness of the proposed new method of image analysis and processing in dermatology of the hand as it enables reproducible, quantitative assessment of any fragment of this body part. Each image in a sequence was analysed in this way in no more than 100 ms using Intel Core i5 CPU M460 @2.5 GHz 4 GB RAM. PMID:24755183

2014-01-01

412

[Erosive hand osteoarthritis].  

PubMed

Erosive hand osteoarthritis is common and debilitating. Diagnosis is based on the presence of bone erosions which can appear late. Ultrasonography allows earlier diagnosis. The presence of apatite deposits could be of poor prognosis. Non pharmacological treatment includes the explanation of the inflammatory phenomena involved and the use of splints and physical therapy. Drug therapy includes analgesics, NSAIDs and infiltration of a steroid. Chondroitin sulfates have an analgesic and functional effect proven. DMARDs such as hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate have been used successfully. Some patients also benefited from isotope synoviortheses. New therapeutic ways, based on the pathophysiology of the disease, are new under evaluation. PMID:23534244

Van Linthoudt, D; Gabay, C; So, A K L

2013-03-13

413

Hands-On Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hands-On Meteorology is a collection of interactive concept models and active learning materials for meteorology instruction. The concept models illustrate conceptually difficult processes in atmospheric science. Users change parameters in the concept models and examine the outcomes of such changes. Concept models allow for student note keeping and data export. Active learning exercises are provided as guided instruction to the concept models and to assist teachers in developing lessons. Active learning exercises are also available for meteorology topics that currently do not have a concept model.

Charlevoix, Donna

2002-01-01

414

Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

Bryfogle, Mark D.

1991-01-01

415

Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

2011-05-01

416

Artificial dexterous hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

417

Hand action preparation influences the responses to hand pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between stimuli triggering a hand grasping movement and the subsequent action were studied in normal human participants. Participants were instructed to prepare to grasp a bar, oriented either clockwise or counterclockwise, and to grasp it as fast as possible on presentation of a visual stimulus with their right hand. The visual stimuli were pictures of the right hand

Laila Craighero; Arianna Bello; Luciano Fadiga; Giacomo Rizzolatti

2002-01-01

418

Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

2006-01-01

419

American Society of Hand Therapists  

MedlinePLUS

... ago "The Sensorimotor System and its Relationship to Hand Therapy: Current Evidence and Clinical Application": http://t. ... 1 day 6 hours ago #Job opportunity: Certified Hand Therapist - Litchfield Hills Orthopedic Associates - Torrington, CT http:// ...

420

Hand-foot-mouth disease  

MedlinePLUS

Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children ...

421

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Button CDC Features Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Hand, foot, and mouth ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

422

Anthropometric approaches and their uncertainties to assigning computational phantoms to individual patients in pediatric dosimetry studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current efforts to reconstruct organ doses in children undergoing diagnostic imaging or therapeutic interventions using ionizing radiation typically rely upon the use of reference anthropomorphic computational phantoms coupled to Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. These phantoms are generally matched to individual patients based upon nearest age or sometimes total body mass. In this study, we explore alternative methods of phantom-to-patient matching with the goal of identifying those methods which yield the lowest residual errors in internal organ volumes. Various thoracic and abdominal organs were segmented and organ volumes obtained from chest-abdominal-pelvic (CAP) computed tomography (CT) image sets from 38 pediatric patients ranging in age from 2 months to 15 years. The organs segmented included the skeleton, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs and spleen. For each organ, least-squared regression lines, 95th percentile confidence intervals and 95th percentile prediction intervals were established as a function of patient age, trunk volume, estimated trunk mass, trunk height, and three estimates of the ventral body cavity volume based on trunk height alone, or in combination with circumferential, width and/or breadth measurements in the mid-chest of the patient. When matching phantom to patient based upon age, residual uncertainties in organ volumes ranged from 53% (lungs) to 33% (kidneys), and when trunk mass was used (surrogate for total body mass as we did not have images of patient head, arms or legs), these uncertainties ranged from 56% (spleen) to 32% (liver). When trunk height is used as the matching parameter, residual uncertainties in organ volumes were reduced to between 21 and 29% for all organs except the spleen (40%). In the case of the lungs and skeleton, the two-fold reduction in organ volume uncertainties was seen in moving from patient age to trunk height—a parameter easily measured in the clinic. When ventral body cavity volumes were used, residual uncertainties were lowered even further to a range of between 14 and 20% for all organs except the spleen, which continued to remain at around 40%. The results of this study suggest that a more anthropometric pairing of computational phantom to individual patient based on simple measurements of trunk height and possibly mid-chest circumference or thickness (where influences of subcutaneous fat are minimized) can lead to significant reductions in organ volume uncertainties: ranges of 40-50% (based on patient age) to between 15 and 20% (based on body cavity volumes tied to trunk height). An expanded series of non-uniform rational B-spine (NURBS) pediatric phantoms are being created at the University of Florida to allow the full application of this new approach in pediatric medical imaging studies.

Whalen, Scott; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2008-01-01

423

Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives When & How to Wash Hands — Key times and tips Show Me the Science — ... more about when and how to wash your hands, the importance of using soap and water, and ...

424

Altered Vision Near the Hands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

2008-01-01

425

Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting  

PubMed Central

Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

2014-01-01

426

Hands-On Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past four years, with support from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense, Hands-On Universe (HOU) has developed and piloted an educational program that enables high school students to request their own observations from professional observatories. HOU students download CCD images from automated telescopes to their classroom computers and use the HOU- IP image processing software to visualize and analyze their data. HOU also provides comprehensive curriculum that integrates many of the topics and skills outlined in the national goals for science and math education into open-ended astronomical investigations. Over the next several years HOU will be implemented in undergraduate programs, middle schools, and informal science education centers.

Hoette, V.; Pack, H.; Spuck, T.; Rodriguez, B.; Lohman, R.; Toler, D.; Morin, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Gordon, S.; Marshall, A.; Refling, J.; Asbell-Clarke, J.; Barclay, T.

1996-12-01

427

Hands-On Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hands-On Universe (HOU) is an educational program that enables students to investigate the Universe while applying tools and concepts from science, math, and technology. Using the Internet, HOU participants around the world request observations from an automated telescope, download images from a large image archive, and analyze them with the aid of image processing software. Student resources include a tutorial on finding asteroids in a pair of images and an astronomical tool to find constellations of stars. Teacher resources include a middle school solar system curriculum and teacher courses. There are also activities such as creating a model of the Moon, a star finder, and a flip-book animation of Jupiter.