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Sample records for hand producing intrinsic

  1. Extrinsic versus intrinsic hand muscle dominance in finger flexion.

    PubMed

    Al-Sukaini, A; Singh, H P; Dias, J J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns of dominance of extrinsic or intrinsic muscles in finger flexion during initiation of finger curl and mid-finger flexion. We recorded 82 hands of healthy individuals (18-74 years) while flexing their fingers and tracked the finger joint angles of the little finger using video motion tracking. A total of 57 hands (69.5%) were classified as extrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 25 (30.5%) were classified as intrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The distribution of age, sex, dominance, handedness and body mass index was similar in the two groups. This knowledge may allow clinicians to develop more efficient rehabilitation regimes, since intrinsic dominant individuals would not initiate extrinsic muscle contraction till later in finger flexion, and might therefore be allowed limited early active motion. For extrinsic dominant individuals, by contrast, initial contraction of extrinsic muscles would place increased stress on the tendon repair site if early motion were permitted. PMID:26744509

  2. An Analysis of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscle EMG for Improved Pattern Recognition Control

    PubMed Central

    Adewuyi, Adenike A.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for partial-hand applications. PMID:25955989

  3. An Analysis of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscle EMG for Improved Pattern Recognition Control.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A

    2016-04-01

    Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for application to partial-hand prosthetic control. PMID:25955989

  4. Exercise effect on strength and range of motion of hand intrinsic muscles and joints.

    PubMed

    Less, M; Krewer, S E; Eickelberg, W W

    1977-08-01

    The intrinsic muscles of the hand are largely neglected in training, mainly because certain biomechanical principles must be applied in order for these muscles to be involved in hand exercises. Following these principles, a system of stretching and isometric exercises was developed. Twelve men exercised for four weeks, three times daily. Significant improvement in seven out of the 12 strength measurements was noted. Exercise seemed to affect just the metacarpophalangeal joints range of motion, while distal and proximal interphalangeal joints remained largely unaffected. PMID:880015

  5. Characteristics of corticospinal projections to the intrinsic hand muscles in skilled harpists.

    PubMed

    Buick, Alison R; Kennedy, Niamh C; Carson, Richard G

    2016-01-26

    The process of learning to play a musical instrument necessarily alters the functional organisation of the cortical motor areas that are involved in generating the required movements. In the case of the harp, the demands placed on the motor system are quite specific. During performance, all digits with the sole exception of the little finger are used to pluck the strings. With a view to elucidating the impact of having acquired this highly specialised musical skill on the characteristics of corticospinal projections to the intrinsic hand muscles, focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in three muscles (of the left hand): abductor pollicis brevis (APB); first dorsal interosseous (FDI); and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) in seven harpists. Seven non-musicians served as controls. With respect to the FDI muscle-which moves the index finger, the harpists exhibited reliably larger MEP amplitudes than those in the control group. In contrast, MEPs evoked in the ADM muscle-which activates the little finger, were smaller in the harpists than in the non-musicians. The locations on the scalp over which magnetic stimulation elicited discriminable responses in ADM also differed between the harpists and the non-musicians. This specific pattern of variation in the excitability of corticospinal projections to these intrinsic hand muscles exhibited by harpists is in accordance with the idiosyncratic functional demands that are imposed in playing this instrument. PMID:26673887

  6. Intrinsic hand proportions of euarchontans and other mammals: implications for the locomotor behavior of plesiadapiforms.

    PubMed

    Kirk, E Christopher; Lemelin, Pierre; Hamrick, Mark W; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I

    2008-08-01

    Arboreal primates have distinctive intrinsic hand proportions compared with many other mammals. Within Euarchonta, platyrrhines and strepsirrhines have longer manual proximal phalanges relative to metacarpal length than colugos and terrestrial tree shrews. This trait is part of a complex of features allowing primates to grasp small-diameter arboreal substrates. In addition to many living and Eocene primates, relative elongation of proximal manual phalanges is also present in most plesiadapiforms. In order to evaluate the functional and evolutionary implications of manual similarities between crown primates and plesiadapiforms, we measured the lengths of the metacarpal, proximal phalanx, and intermediate phalanx of manual ray III for 132 extant mammal species (n=702 individuals). These data were compared with measurements of hands in six plesiadapiform species using ternary diagrams and phalangeal indices. Our analyses reveal that many arboreal mammals (including some tree shrews, rodents, marsupials, and carnivorans) have manual ray III proportions similar to those of various arboreal primates. By contrast, terrestrial tree shrews have hand proportions most similar to those of other terrestrial mammals, and colugos are highly derived in having relatively long intermediate phalanges. Phalangeal indices of arboreal species are significantly greater than those of the terrestrial species in our sample, reflecting the utility of having relatively long digits in an arboreal context. Although mammals known to be capable of prehensile grips demonstrate long digits relative to palm length, this feature is not uniquely associated with manual prehension and should be interpreted with caution in fossil taxa. Among plesiadapiforms, Carpolestes, Nannodectes, Ignacius, and Dryomomys have manual ray III proportions that are unlike those of most terrestrial species and most similar to those of various arboreal species of primates, tree shrews, and rodents. Within Euarchonta

  7. Simultaneous intrinsic and extrinsic parameter identification of a hand-mounted laser-vision sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kiho; Lee, Yongseok; Jeong, Taikyeong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simultaneous intrinsic and extrinsic parameter identification of a hand-mounted laser-vision sensor (HMLVS). A laser-vision sensor (LVS), consisting of a camera and a laser stripe projector, is used as a sensor component of the robotic measurement system, and it measures the range data with respect to the robot base frame using the robot forward kinematics and the optical triangulation principle. For the optimal estimation of the model parameters, we applied two optimization techniques: a nonlinear least square optimizer and a particle swarm optimizer. Best-fit parameters, including both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the HMLVS, are simultaneously obtained based on the least-squares criterion. From the simulation and experimental results, it is shown that the parameter identification problem considered was characterized by a highly multimodal landscape; thus, the global optimization technique such as a particle swarm optimization can be a promising tool to identify the model parameters for a HMLVS, while the nonlinear least square optimizer often failed to find an optimal solution even when the initial candidate solutions were selected close to the true optimum. The proposed optimization method does not require good initial guesses of the system parameters to converge at a very stable solution and it could be applied to a kinematically dissimilar robot system without loss of generality. PMID:22164104

  8. Utility of Dissociated Intrinsic Hand Muscle Atrophy in the Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Parvathi; Vucic, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The split hand phenomenon refers to predominant wasting of thenar muscles and is an early and specific feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A novel split hand index (SI) was developed to quantify the split hand phenomenon, and its diagnostic utility was assessed in ALS patients. The split hand index was derived by dividing the product of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles by the CMAP amplitude recorded over the abductor digiti minimi muscle. In order to assess the diagnostic utility of the split hand index, ALS patients were prospectively assessed and their results were compared to neuromuscular disorder patients. The split hand index was significantly reduced in ALS when compared to neuromuscular disorder patients (P<0.0001). Limb-onset ALS patients exhibited the greatest reduction in the split hand index, and a value of 5.2 or less reliably differentiated ALS from other neuromuscular disorders. Consequently, the split hand index appears to be a novel diagnostic biomarker for ALS, perhaps facilitating an earlier diagnosis. PMID:24637778

  9. Grasping primate development: Ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W; Heard-Booth, Amber N

    2016-09-01

    Young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. We test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella). If selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes would be longer early in life and proportionally decline with age. We measured the lengths of manual and pedal metapodials and phalanges in a mixed-longitudinal radiographic sample. Bone lengths were (a) converted into phalangeal indices (summed non-distal phalangeal length/metapodial length) to test for age-related changes in intrinsic proportions and (b) fit to Gompertz models of growth to test for differences in the dynamics of phalangeal versus metapodial growth. Manual and pedal phalangeal indices nearly universally decreased with age in capuchin monkeys. Growth curve analyses revealed that metapodials generally grew at a faster rate, and for a longer duration, than corresponding phalanges. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that primates are under selection for increased grasping ability early in life. Relatively long digits may be functionally adaptive for growing capuchins, permitting a more secure grasp on both caregivers and arboreal supports, as well as facilitating early foraging. Additional studies of primates and other mammals, as well as tests of grasping performance, are required to fully evaluate the adaptive significance of primate hand and foot growth. PMID:27324663

  10. Unilateral Left-Hand Contractions Produce Widespread Depression of Cortical Activity after Their Execution

    PubMed Central

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Gröpel, Peter; Doppelmayr, Michael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The execution of unilateral hand contractions before performance has been reported to produce behavioral aftereffects in various tasks. These effects have been regularly attributed to an induced shift in activation asymmetry to the contralateral hemisphere produced by the contractions. An alternative explanation proposes a generalized state of reduced bilateral cortical activity following unilateral hand contractions. The current experiment contrasted the above explanation models and tested the state of cortical activity after the termination of unilateral hand contractions. Twenty right-handed participants performed hand contractions in two blocks, one for each hand. Using electroencephalogram (EEG), the broad alpha band and its asymmetry between hemispheres before, during, and after hand contractions were analyzed. During contractions, significant bilateral decrease in alpha amplitudes (indicating cortical activation) emerged for both hands around sensory-motor regions. After contractions, alpha amplitudes increased significantly over the whole scalp when compared to baseline, but only for the left hand. No modulation of hemispheric asymmetry was observed at any phase. The results suggest that unilateral hand contractions produce a state of reduced cortical activity after their termination, which is more pronounced if the left hand was used. Consequently, we propose that the reduced cortical activity (and not the persistent activation asymmetry) may facilitate engagement in subsequent behavior, probably due to preventing interference from other, nonessential cortical regions. PMID:26709832

  11. Different Stimulation Frequencies Alter Synchronous Fluctuations in Motor Evoked Potential Amplitude of Intrinsic Hand Muscles—a TMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Martin V.; Rogasch, Nigel C.; Nordstrom, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs. PMID:27014031

  12. Relation between isometric muscle force and surface EMG in intrinsic hand muscles as function of the arm geometry.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Francesco; Gelli, Francesca; Ginanneschi, Federica; Popa, Traian; Rossi, Alessandro

    2007-08-13

    Evidence exists that shoulder joint geometry influences recruitment efficiency and force-generating capacity of hand muscles [Ginanneschi, F., Del Santo, F., Dominici, F., Gelli, F., Mazzocchio, R., Rossi, A., 2005. Changes in corticomotor excitability of hand muscles in relation to static shoulder positions. Exp. Brain Res. 161 (3), 374-382; Dominici, F., Popa, T., Ginanneschi, F., Mazzocchio, R., Rossi, A., 2005. Cortico-motoneural output to intrinsic hand muscles is differentially influenced by static changes in shoulder positions. Exp. Brain Res. 164 (4), 500-504]. The present study was designed to examine the impact of changing shoulder joint position on the relation between surface EMG amplitude and isometric force production of the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADM). EMG-force relation of ADM was examined in two shoulder positions: 30 degrees adduction (ANT) and 30 degrees abduction (POST) on the horizontal plane, i.e. under higher and lower force-generating capacity, respectively. The relation was studied over the full range isometric force (10-100% of maximum force in 10% increments, 3 s duration) by analysing root mean square (RMS), median frequency (Mf) of the power spectrum and non-linear recurrence quantification analysis (percentage of determinism: %DET) of the surface EMG signals. We found that in POST, the slope of the RMS-force relation was significantly higher than in ANT, while its general shape (strictly linear) was preserved. Averaged Mf of the EMG power spectrum was significantly higher in POST that in ANT, while no difference in %DET was observed between the two shoulder positions. The higher slope of the EMG-force relation in POST than in ANT is interpreted in terms of increased gain of the excitatory drive-firing rate relation. It is concluded that discharge from sensory receptors signalling shoulder position may act to regulate the gain of the excitatory drive-firing rate relation of motoneurones in order to compensate for reduced

  13. Vertex intrinsic fitness: How to produce arbitrary scale-free networks

    SciTech Connect

    Servedio, Vito D.P.; Caldarelli, Guido; Butta, Paolo

    2004-11-01

    We study a recent model of random networks based on the presence of an intrinsic character of the vertices called fitness. The vertex fitnesses are drawn from a given probability distribution density. The edges between pairs of vertices are drawn according to a linking probability function depending on the fitnesses of the two vertices involved. We study here different choices for the probability distribution densities and the linking functions. We find that, irrespective of the particular choices, the generation of scale-free networks is straightforward. We then derive the general conditions under which scale-free behavior appears. This model could then represent a possible explanation for the ubiquity and robustness of such structures.

  14. No evidence hip joint angle modulates intrinsically produced stretch reflex in human hopping.

    PubMed

    Gibson, W; Campbell, A; Allison, G

    2013-09-01

    Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip joint angle/phase of the gait cycle. Previous work has focussed on reflex activity induced by an artificial perturbation or by induction of H-reflexes. As such, it is currently unknown if stretch reflex activity induced intrinsically (as part of the task) is modulated by changes in hip joint angle. This study investigated whether hip joint angle modulated reflex EMG 'burst' activity during a hopping task performed on a custom-built partially reclined sleigh. Ten subjects participated; EMG and kinematic data (VICON motor capture system) was collected for each hop cycle. Participants completed 5 sets of 30s of self-paced hopping in (1) hip neutral and (2) hip 60° flexion conditions. There was no difference in EMG 'burst' activity or in sagittal plane kinematics (knee/ankle) in the hopping task between the two conditions. The results indicate that during a functional task such as hopping, changes in hip angle do not alter the stretch reflex-like activity associated with landing. PMID:23791780

  15. Investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects effective role on producing intense red emission in ZnO:Eu nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, Mehrdad Haratizadeh, Hamid

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective role of defects on producing red emission at indirect excitation. • V{sub Zn} and V{sub O} defects have important role on energy transfer. • Mg related defects and Zn{sub i} defects were responsible for blue emission. • Extrinsic and intrinsic defects mediated energy transfer to sensitize Eu{sup 3+} ions. • Decrease of red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. - Abstract: Europium doped ZnO nanorads and nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Effects of Mg doping, morphology and annealing in oxygen ambient on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermo gravimetry (DTG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). This study recommends that both of intrinsic and extrinsic defects facilitate energy transfer (ET) from the ZnO host to Eu{sup 3+} ions and consequently have efficient role on producing intense red emission at indirect excitation. The results also showed that annealing process improved the crystal structure of ZnO nanosheets due to decrease of surface defects; however decreased ET and red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. In addition in ZnO nanorods sample with more surface area in comparison with ZnO nanosheets sample deep level emissions are enhanced.

  16. A Cell Line Producing Recombinant Nerve Growth Factor Evokes Growth Responses in Intrinsic and Grafted Central Cholinergic Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernfors, Patrik; Ebendal, Ted; Olson, Lars; Mouton, Peter; Stromberg, Ingrid; Persson, Hakan

    1989-06-01

    The rat β nerve growth factor (NGF) gene was inserted into a mammalian expression vector and cotransfected with a plasmid conferring resistance to neomycin into mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. From this transfection a stable cell line was selected that contains several hundred copies of the rat NGF gene and produces excess levels of recombinant NGF. Such genetically modified cells were implanted into the rat brain as a probe for in vivo effects of NGF on central nervous system neurons. In a model of the cortical cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer disease, we demonstrate a marked increase in the survival of, and fiber outgrowth from, grafts of fetal basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as well as stimulation of fiber formation by intact adult intrinsic cholinergic circuits in the cerebral cortex. Adult cholinergic interneurons in intact striatum also sprout vigorously toward implanted fibroblasts. Our results suggest that this model has implications for future treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Norovirus Transmission between Hands, Gloves, Utensils, and Fresh Produce during Simulated Food Handling

    PubMed Central

    Aho, E.; Mikkelä, A.; Ranta, J.; Tuominen, P.; Rättö, M.; Maunula, L.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

  18. Producing K indices by the interactive method based on the traditional hand-scaling methodology - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, Fridrich; Váczyová, Magdaléna; Revallo, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an interactive computer method for producing K indices. The method is based on the traditional hand-scaling methodology that had been practised at Hurbanovo Geomagnetic Observatory till the end of 1997. Here, the performance of the method was tested on the data of the Kakioka Magnetic Observatory. We have found that in some ranges of the K-index values our method might be a beneficial supplement to the computer-based methods approved and endorsed by IAGA. This result was achieved for both very low (K=0) and high (K ≥ 5) levels of the geomagnetic activity. The method incorporated an interactive procedure of selecting quiet days by a human operator (observer). This introduces a certain amount of subjectivity, similarly as the traditional hand-scaling method.

  19. Directional variability of the isometric force vector produced by the human hand in multijoint planar tasks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jason; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined control of force magnitude, but relatively little research has considered force direction control. The subjects applied isometric forces to a handle and the authors compared within-trial variability when force is produced in different directions. The standard deviation of the force parallel to the prescribed direction of force production increased linearly with the targeted force level, as did the standard deviation of the force perpendicular to the instructed direction. In contrast, the standard deviation of the angle of force production decreased with increased force level. In the 4 (of 8) instructed force directions where the endpoint force was generated due to a joint torque in only 1 joint (either the shoulder or elbow) the principal component axes in force space were well aligned with the prescribed direction of force production. In the other directions, the variance was approximately equal along the 2 force axes. The variance explained by the first principal component was significantly larger in torque space compared to the force space, and mostly corresponded to positive correlation between the joint torques. Such coordinated changes suggest that the torque variability was mainly due to the variability of the common drive to the muscles serving 2 joints, although this statement needs to be supported by direct studies of muscle activation in the future. PMID:22017526

  20. Characterization of Skin Aging-Associated Secreted Proteins (SAASP) Produced by Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Intrinsically Aged Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Waldera Lupa, Daniel M; Kalfalah, Faiza; Safferling, Kai; Boukamp, Petra; Poschmann, Gereon; Volpi, Elena; Götz-Rösch, Christine; Bernerd, Francoise; Haag, Laura; Huebenthal, Ulrike; Fritsche, Ellen; Boege, Fritz; Grabe, Niels; Tigges, Julia; Stühler, Kai; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Most molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence have been identified in studies of cells aged in vitro by driving them into replicative or stress-induced senescence. Comparatively, less is known about the characteristic features of cells that have aged in vivo. Here we provide a systematic molecular analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) that were isolated from intrinsically aged human skin of young versus middle aged versus old donors. Intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture exhibited more frequently nuclear foci positive for p53 binding protein 1 and promyelocytic leukemia protein reminiscent of 'DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS)'. Formation of such foci was neither accompanied by increased DNA double strand breaks, nor decreased cell viability, nor telomere shortening. However, it was associated with the development of a secretory phenotype, indicating incipient cell senescence. By quantitative analysis of the entire secretome present in conditioned cell culture supernatant, combined with a multiplex cytokine determination, we identified 998 proteins secreted by intrinsically aged NHDFs in culture. Seventy of these proteins exhibited an age-dependent secretion pattern and were accordingly denoted 'skin aging-associated secreted proteins (SAASP)'. Systematic comparison of SAASP with the classical senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) revealed that matrix degradation as well as proinflammatory processes are common aspects of both conditions. However, secretion of 27 proteins involved in the biological processes of 'metabolism' and 'adherens junction interactions' was unique for NHDFs isolated from intrinsically aged skin. In conclusion, fibroblasts isolated from intrinsically aged skin exhibit some, but not all, molecular hallmarks of cellular senescence. Most importantly, they secrete a unique pattern of proteins that is distinct from the canonical SASP and might reflect specific processes of skin aging

  1. ECG boy: low-cost medical instrumentation using mass-produced, hand-held entertainment computers. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rohde, M M; Bement, S L; Lupa, R S

    1998-01-01

    A prototype low-cost, portable ECG monitor, the "ECG Boy," is described. A mass produced hand-held video game platform is the basis for a complete three-lead, driven right-leg electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG circuitry is planned to fit in a standard modular cartridge that is inserted in a production Nintendo "Gameboy." The combination is slightly smaller than a paperback book and weighs less than 500 g. The unit contains essential safety features such as optical isolation and is powered by 9-V and AA batteries. Functionally, the ECG Boy permits viewing ECG recordings in real time on the integrated screen. The user can select both the lead displayed on the screen and the time scale used. A 1-mV reference allows for calibration. Other ECG enhancements such as data transmission via telephone can be easily and inexpensively added to this system. The ECG Boy is intended as a proof of concept for a new class of low-cost biomedical instruments. Rising health care costs coupled with tightened funding have created an acute demand for low-cost medical equipment that satisfies safety and quality standards. A mass-produced microprocessor-based platform designed for the entertainment market can keep costs low while providing a functional basis for a biomedical instrument. PMID:9800006

  2. Combining a PagP fusion protein system with nickel ion-catalyzed cleavage to produce intrinsically disordered proteins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Somaya; Pan, Jonathan S; Liu, Philip B; Hwang, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions that are highly solvent-exposed and susceptible to post-translational modifications. Studying these protein segments is critical to understanding their physiologic regulation, but proteolytic degradation can make them difficult to express and purify. We have designed a new protein expression vector that fuses the target protein to the N-terminus of the integral membrane protein, PagP. The two proteins are connected by a short linker containing the sequence SRHW, previously shown to be optimal for nickel ion-catalyzed cleavage. The methodology is demonstrated for an intrinsically disordered segment of cardiac troponin I. cTnI[135-209]-SRHW-PagP-His6 fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, accumulating in insoluble inclusion bodies. The protein was solubilized, purified using nickel affinity chromatography, and then cleaved with 0.5mM NiSO4 at pH 9.0 and 45 °C, all in 6M guanidine-HCl. Nickel ion-catalyzed peptide bond hydrolysis is an effective chemical cleavage technique under denaturing conditions that preclude the use of proteases. Moreover, nickel-catalyzed cleavage is more specific than the most commonly used agent, cyanogen bromide, which cleaves C-terminal to methionine residues. We were able to produce 15 mg of purified cTnI[135-209] from 1L of M9 minimal media using this protocol. The methodology is more generally applicable to the production of intrinsically disordered protein segments. PMID:26297994

  3. Intrinsic dreams are not produced without REM sleep mechanisms: evidence through elicitation of sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Inugami, M; Yamamoto, Y

    2001-03-01

    The hypothesis that there is a strict relationship between dreams and a specific rapid eye movement (REM) sleep mechanism is controversial. Many researchers have recently denied this relationship, yet none of their studies have simultaneously controlled both sleep length and depth prior to non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep awakenings, due to the natural rigid order of the NREM--REM sleep cycle. The failure to control sleep length and depth prior to arousal has confounded interpretations of the REM-dreams relationship. We have hypothesised that different physiological mechanisms underlie dreaming during REM and NREM sleep, based on recent findings concerning the specificity of REM sleep for cognitive function. Using the Sleep Interruption Technique, we elicited sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) from 13 normal subjects to collect SOREMP and sleep onset NREM (NREMP) dreams without the confounds described above. Regression analyses showed that SOREMP dream occurrences were significantly related to the amount of REM sleep, while NREMP dream occurrences were related to arousals from NREM sleep. Dream properties evaluated using the Dream Property Scale showed qualitative differences between SOREMP and NREMP dream reports. These results support our hypothesis and we have concluded that although 'dreaming' may occur during both REM and NREM periods as previous researchers have suggested, the dreams obtained from these distinct periods differ significantly in their quantitative and qualitative aspects and are likely to be produced by different mechanisms. PMID:11285054

  4. Transport properties of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by the hot-wire technique investigated by the photomixing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Tang, Y.; Liebe, J.; Braunstein, R.; Crandall, R. S.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.

    1997-07-01

    The transport properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with a hydrogen content ranging from 12% to less than 1%, which were produced by the hot-wire technique, varying the deposition substrate temperature, 290 °C

  5. Intra-operative ultrasound hand-held strain imaging for the visualization of ablations produced in the liver with a toroidal HIFU transducer: first in vivo results

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jérémy; Melodelima, David; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Souchon, Rémi; Rivoire, Michel; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    The use of hand-held ultrasound strain imaging for intra-operative real-time visualization of HIFU ablations produced in the liver by a toroidal transducer was investigated. A linear 12 MHz ultrasound imaging probe was used to obtain radiofrequency signals. Using a fast cross-correlation algorithm, strain images were calculated and displayed at 60 frames/s, allowing the use of hand-held strain imaging intra-operatively. Fourteen HIFU lesions were produced in 4 pigs. Intra-operative strain imaging of HIFU ablations in the liver was feasible owing to the high frame rate. The correlation between dimensions measured on gross pathology and dimensions measured on B-mode images and on strain images were R = 0.72 and R = 0.94 respectively. The contrast between ablated and non-ablated tissue was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the strain images (22 dB) than in the B-mode images (9 dB). Strain images allowed equivalent or improved definition of ablated regions when compared with B-mode images. Real-time intra-operative hand-held strain imaging seems to be a promising complement to conventional B-Mode imaging for the guidance of HIFU ablations produced in the liver during an open procedure. These results support that hand-held strain imaging outperforms conventional B-mode ultrasound and could potentially be used for assessment of thermal therapies. PMID:20479514

  6. Development of a Prototype Over-Actuated Biomimetic Prosthetic Hand

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Matthew R.; Walter, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results. PMID:25790306

  7. A mimic of soft tissue infection: intra-arterial injection drug use producing hand swelling and digital ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Sean D.; Lyons, Michael S.; Runyan, Christopher M.; Otten, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inadvertent intra-arterial injection of illicit substances is a known complication of injection drug use and can lead to severe complications, including infection, ischemia and compartment syndrome. Identifying complications of intra-arterial injection can be difficult, as clinical manifestations overlap with other more common conditions such as cellulitis and soft tissue infection, and a history of injection drug use is frequently not disclosed. METHODS: A 37-year-old male patient presented with 24 hours of right hand pain, erythema and swelling. Despite classic “track marks”, he denied a history of injection drug use, and vascular insults were not initially considered. After failing to respond to three days of aggressive treatment for suspected deep-space infection, an arteriogram demonstrated findings consistent with digital ischemia of embolic etiology. RESULTS: As a result of the delay in diagnosis, the lesion was not amenable to reperfusion and the patient required amputation of the distal digit. CONCLUSION: Practitioners should be alert to the possibility of intra-arterial injection and resulting complications when evaluating unusual extremity infections or unexplained ischemic symptoms, even in the absence of a definite history of injection drug use. PMID:26401188

  8. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  9. A single-degree-of-freedom dynamic model predicts the range of human responses to impulsive forces produced by power hand tools.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G; Richard, Terry G

    2003-12-01

    The human operator is modelled as a single-degree-of-freedom dynamic mechanical system for predicting the response to impulsive torque reaction forces produced by rotating spindle power hand tools such as nutrunners or screwdrivers. The model uses mass, spring and damping elements to represent the standing operator supporting the tool in the hand. It was hypothesized that these mechanical elements are affected by work location and vary among individuals. These elements were ascertained by measuring the resulting frequency and amplitude of a freely oscillating defined mechanical system when externally loaded using maximal effort to oppose its motion. Twenty-five subjects (13 female, 12 male) participated in the full factorial experiment that measured the effects of gender, vertical and horizontal work location for various tool shapes (in-line, pistol, right angle), and orientations (horizontal and vertical). The mean operator stiffness decreased from 1721 to 1195 N/m when the horizontal work location increased from 30 to 90 cm in front of the ankles for a pistol-grip handle used on a vertical surface. Males had greater mass moment of inertia of (0.0099 kg m2) than females (0.0072 kg m2) for an in-line handle used on a horizontal surface. Internal validation by independently measuring apparatus torque found that the model satisfactorily explained the measured operator dynamics with an average error of 2.86%. Group variance reflects the range of operator capacities to react against power hand tool generated forces for the sample group and therefore it may also be useful for understanding the range of capacities among a group of operators performing similar tasks. PMID:14614938

  10. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  11. Intrinsic n

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S.-H.; Zunger, Alex

    2001-02-15

    ZnO typifies a class of materials that can be doped via native defects in only one way: either n type or p type. We explain this asymmetry in ZnO via a study of its intrinsic defect physics, including Zn{sub O}, Zn{sub i}, V{sub O}, O{sub i}, and V{sub Zn} and n-type impurity dopants, Al and F. We find that ZnO is n type at Zn-rich conditions. This is because (i) the Zn interstitial, Zn{sub i}, is a shallow donor, supplying electrons; (ii) its formation enthalpy is low for both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, so this defect is abundant; and (iii) the native defects that could compensate the n-type doping effect of Zn{sub i} (interstitial O, O{sub i}, and Zn vacancy, V{sub Zn}), have high formation enthalpies for Zn-rich conditions, so these ''electron killers'' are not abundant. We find that ZnO cannot be doped p type via native defects (O{sub i},V{sub Zn}) despite the fact that they are shallow (i.e., supplying holes at room temperature). This is because at both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, the defects that could compensate p-type doping (V{sub O},Zn{sub i},Zn{sub O}) have low formation enthalpies so these ''hole killers'' form readily. Furthermore, we identify electron-hole radiative recombination at the V{sub O} center as the source of the green luminescence. In contrast, a large structural relaxation of the same center upon double hole capture leads to slow electron-hole recombination (either radiative or nonradiative) responsible for the slow decay of photoconductivity.

  12. Localization of intrinsic factor and complement fixing intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody complex in parietal cell of man

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Elizabeth; Glass, G. B. J.

    1971-01-01

    In an attempt to localize intrinsic factor in the human parietal cell, and to study its intracellular union with the intrinsic factor antibody and complement, intrinsic factor antibody was separated from coexisting parietal cell antibody in pernicious anaemia sera by gel filtration. Intrinsic factor antibody of both `binding' and `blocking' type was also produced in rabbits by immunization with semi-purified human intrinsic factor–[57Co]B12 complex. Intrinsic factor antibody obtained from both sources produced fluorescence in the human parietal cells in the indirect Coons' test in the presence of fluoresceinated anti-human IgG. The fluorescence was localized peripherally, at the cell membrane. When instead of the fluoresceinated anti-human IgG a fluoresceinated anti-human complement (C) serum and normal complement containing serum were used, intrinsic factor antibody from both sources produced fluorescence of the entire parietal cell cytoplasm of the human mucosa. Thus, intrinsic factor was localized at highest concentration at the membrane of the parietal cell in man, the intrinsic factor antibody–intrinsic factor complex was demonstrated within the human parietal cell, and evidence was obtained that this antigen–antibody complex fixes complement (C). The possible role of the intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody–complement complex in the development of gastric atrophy in pernicious anaemia has been considered. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4995933

  13. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  14. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  15. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  16. Intrinsically disordered proteins and biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, biomineralization is controlled by the cell and the proteins they produce. A large number of these proteins are intrinsically disordered, gaining some secondary structure when they interact with their binding partners. These partners include the component ions of the mineral being deposited, the crystals themselves, the template on which the initial crystals form, and other intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides. This review speculates why intrinsically disordered proteins are so important for biomineralization, providing illustrations from the SIBLING (small integrin binding N-glycosylated) proteins and their peptides. It is concluded that the flexible structure, and the ability of the intrinsically disordered proteins to bind to a multitude of surfaces is crucial, but details on the precise-interactions, energetics and kinetics of binding remain to be determined. PMID:26807759

  17. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tokmakov, Alexander A.; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis. PMID:26359642

  18. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  19. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  20. Combination hand rejuvenation procedures.

    PubMed

    Shamban, Ava T

    2009-01-01

    Although the hands age at the same rate as the face, the aging process differs and requires a combination treatment approach for optimal rejuvenation. Photoaging causes epidermal changes such as lentigines, actinic keratoses, fine wrinkles, and crepe-like textural change. Thinning of the dermis and subcutaneous fat occurs as a result of both ultraviolet light exposure and intrinsic aging. This process can lead to a skeletal appearance of the hands, with prominent veins and bulging tendons. The combination approach addresses all of these issues, employing lasers, intense pulsed light devices, fractional devices, fillers, peels, vein sclerotherapy, and an effective at-home skin care program as indicated for individual needs and concerns. PMID:19825471

  1. Geometric intrinsic symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, A. Szulerecka, A.; Pedrak, A.

    2013-08-15

    The problem of geometric symmetries in the intrinsic frame of a many-body system (nucleus) is considered. An importance of symmetrization group notion is discussed. Ageneral structure of the intrinsic symmetry group structure is determined.

  2. Effector-Independent Motor Sequence Representations Exist in Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reference Frames

    PubMed Central

    Wiestler, Tobias; Waters-Metenier, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Many daily activities rely on the ability to produce meaningful sequences of movements. Motor sequences can be learned in an effector-specific fashion (such that benefits of training are restricted to the trained hand) or an effector-independent manner (meaning that learning also facilitates performance with the untrained hand). Effector-independent knowledge can be represented in extrinsic/world-centered or in intrinsic/body-centered coordinates. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to determine the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic finger sequence representations across the human neocortex. Participants practiced four sequences with one hand for 4 d, and then performed these sequences during fMRI with both left and right hand. Between hands, these sequences were equivalent in extrinsic or intrinsic space, or were unrelated. In dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we found that sequence-specific activity patterns correlated higher for extrinsic than for unrelated pairs, providing evidence for an extrinsic sequence representation. In contrast, primary sensory and motor cortices showed effector-independent representations in intrinsic space, with considerable overlap of the two reference frames in caudal PMd. These results suggest that effector-independent representations exist not only in world-centered, but also in body-centered coordinates, and that PMd may be involved in transforming sequential knowledge between the two. Moreover, although effector-independent sequence representations were found bilaterally, they were stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. This indicates that intermanual transfer relies on motor memories that are laid down during training in both hemispheres, but preferentially draws upon sequential knowledge represented in the trained hemisphere. PMID:24695723

  3. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. PMID:26117153

  4. Importance and challenges of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrinsic foot muscle weakness has been implicated in a range of foot deformities and disorders. However, to establish a relationship between intrinsic muscle weakness and foot pathology, an objective measure of intrinsic muscle strength is needed. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy and role of intrinsic foot muscles, implications of intrinsic weakness and evaluate the different methods used to measure intrinsic foot muscle strength. Method Literature was sourced from database searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PEDro and CINAHL up to June 2012. Results There is no widely accepted method of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength. Methods to estimate toe flexor muscle strength include the paper grip test, plantar pressure, toe dynamometry, and the intrinsic positive test. Hand-held dynamometry has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and limits toe curling, which is an action hypothesised to activate extrinsic toe flexor muscles. However, it is unclear whether any method can actually isolate intrinsic muscle strength. Also most methods measure only toe flexor strength and other actions such as toe extension and abduction have not been adequately assessed. Indirect methods to investigate intrinsic muscle structure and performance include CT, ultrasonography, MRI, EMG, and muscle biopsy. Indirect methods often discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, but lack the ability to measure muscle force. Conclusions There are many challenges to accurately measure intrinsic muscle strength in isolation. Most studies have measured toe flexor strength as a surrogate measure of intrinsic muscle strength. Hand-held dynamometry appears to be a promising method of estimating intrinsic muscle strength. However, the contribution of extrinsic muscles cannot be excluded from toe flexor strength measurement. Future research should clarify the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles

  5. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  6. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections. PMID:24709731

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic switching in molecular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Sense Jan; Trouwborst, Marius L.

    2015-01-01

    The details of metal-molecule coupling play a pivotal role in the functionality of molecular junctions. Molecules that have intrinsic switchable properties may lose this capability after coupling to electrodes. On the other hand, connecting passive molecules to electrodes may lead to a switchable molecular device ('extrinsic switching'). Here, we first discuss this general matter, and then focus on two specific cases, one of intrinsic switching (for photochromic diarylethenes) and one of extrinsic switching (for hydrogen molecules) in gold-molecule-gold structures.

  8. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or hand cream. This article is for information only. DO ... These ingredients in hand lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols

  9. Hand Positions Alter Bistable Visual Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Gyoba, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    We found that a hand posture with the palms together located just below the stream/bounce display could increase the proportion of bouncing perception. This effect, called the hands-induced bounce (HIB) effect, did not occur in the hands-cross condition or in the one-hand condition. By using rubber hands or covering the participants’ hands with a cloth, we demonstrated that the visual information of the hand shapes was not a critical factor in producing the HIB effect, whereas proprioceptive information seemed to be important. We also found that the HIB effect did not occur when the participants’ hands were far from the coincidence point, suggesting that the HIB effect might be produced within a limited spatial area around the hands. PMID:27433332

  10. Hand Positions Alter Bistable Visual Motion Perception.

    PubMed

    Saito, Godai; Gyoba, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    We found that a hand posture with the palms together located just below the stream/bounce display could increase the proportion of bouncing perception. This effect, called the hands-induced bounce (HIB) effect, did not occur in the hands-cross condition or in the one-hand condition. By using rubber hands or covering the participants' hands with a cloth, we demonstrated that the visual information of the hand shapes was not a critical factor in producing the HIB effect, whereas proprioceptive information seemed to be important. We also found that the HIB effect did not occur when the participants' hands were far from the coincidence point, suggesting that the HIB effect might be produced within a limited spatial area around the hands. PMID:27433332

  11. Intrinsic time quantum geometrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo; Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-08-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl curvature hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational "arrows of time" point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's general relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of gravitation and quantum mechanics.

  12. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  13. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.]. PMID:27018604

  14. Crystal Structures of Yeast-Produced Enterovirus 71 and Enterovirus 71/Coxsackievirus A16 Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Provide the Structural Basis for Novel Vaccine Design against Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Ke; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Hao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the two major causative agents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Previously, we demonstrated that a virus-like particle (VLP) for EV71 produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a potential vaccine candidate against EV71 infection, and an EV71/CVA16 chimeric VLP can elicit protective immune responses against both virus infections. Here, we presented the crystal structures of both VLPs, showing that both the linear and conformational neutralization epitopes identified in EV71 are mostly preserved on both VLPs. The replacement of only 4 residues in the VP1 GH loop converted strongly negatively charged surface patches formed by portions of the SP70 epitope in EV71 VLP into a relatively neutral surface in the chimeric VLP, which likely accounted for the additional neutralization capability of the chimeric VLP against CVA16 infection. Such local variations in the amino acid sequences and the surface charge potential are also present in different types of polioviruses. In comparison to EV71 VLP, the chimeric VLP exhibits structural changes at the local site of amino acid replacement and the surface loops of all capsid proteins. This is consistent with the observation that the VP1 GH loop located near the pseudo-3-fold junction is involved in extensive interactions with other capsid regions. Furthermore, portions of VP0 and VP1 in EV71 VLP are at least transiently exposed, revealing the structural flexibility of the VLP. Together, our structural analysis provided insights into the structural basis of enterovirus neutralization and novel vaccine design against HFMD and other enterovirus-associated diseases. IMPORTANCE Our previous studies demonstrated that the enterovirus 71 (EV71) virus-like particle (VLP) produced from yeast is a vaccine candidate against EV71 infection and that a chimeric EV71/coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) VLP with the replacement of 4 amino acids in the VP1 GH loop can confer

  15. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  16. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  17. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. PMID:25916736

  19. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the ... specific questions. More Information CDC's Handwashing Work Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Water-related Hygiene Hand Hygiene to Help Prevent Flu ...

  20. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  1. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  2. Rubber hands feel the touch of light.

    PubMed

    Durgin, Frank H; Evans, Laurel; Dunphy, Natalie; Klostermann, Susan; Simmons, Kristina

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments involving a total of 220 subjects are reported. The experiments document that "stroking" a false hand with the bright beam of light from a laser pointer can produce tactile and thermal sensations when the hand can be seen as one's own. Overall, 66% of subjects reported somatic sensations from the light. Felt hand location was recalibrated toward the location of the false hand for those subjects who felt the light. Moreover, the proprioceptive recalibration from the laser experience was comparable to that produced by actual coordinated brushing of the false hand and of the unseen real hand after 2 min of stimulation. The illusion may be experienced on one's real hand as well. The results are discussed in terms of multisensory integration. PMID:17425536

  3. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  4. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  5. Intrinsically disordered energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such 'intrinsically disordered' landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an α-helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  6. Predicting intrinsic brain activity.

    PubMed

    Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P; LaConte, Stephen M

    2013-11-15

    Multivariate supervised learning methods exhibit a remarkable ability to decode externally driven sensory, behavioral, and cognitive states from functional neuroimaging data. Although they are typically applied to task-based analyses, supervised learning methods are equally applicable to intrinsic effective and functional connectivity analyses. The obtained models of connectivity incorporate the multivariate interactions between all brain regions simultaneously, which will result in a more accurate representation of the connectome than the ones available with standard bivariate methods. Additionally the models can be applied to decode or predict the time series of intrinsic brain activity of a region from an independent dataset. The obtained prediction accuracy provides a measure of the integration between a brain region and other regions in its network, as well as a method for evaluating acquisition and preprocessing pipelines for resting state fMRI data. This article describes a method for learning multivariate models of connectivity. The method is applied in the non-parametric prediction accuracy, influence, and reproducibility-resampling (NPAIRS) framework, to study the regional variation of prediction accuracy and reproducibility (Strother et al., 2002). The resulting spatial distribution of these metrics is consistent with the functional hierarchy proposed by Mesulam (1998). Additionally we illustrate the utility of the multivariate regression connectivity modeling method for optimizing experimental parameters and assessing the quality of functional neuroimaging data. PMID:23707580

  7. On Configuration Trajectory Formation in Spatiotemporal Profile for Reproducing Human Hand Reaching Movement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbin; Xiong, Caihua; Yue, Shigang

    2016-03-01

    Most functional reaching activities in daily living generally require a hand to reach the functional position in appropriate orientation with invariant spatiotemporal profile. Effectively reproducing such spatiotemporal feature of hand configuration trajectory in real time is essential to understand the human motor control and plan human-like motion on anthropomorphic robotic arm. However, there are no novel computational models in literature toward reproducing hand configuration-to-configuration movement in spatiotemporal profile. In response to the problem, this paper presents a computational framework for hand configuration trajectory formation based on hierarchical principle of human motor control. The composite potential field is constructed on special Euclidean Group to induce time-varying configuration toward target. The dynamic behavior of hand is described by a second-order kinematic model to produce the external representation of high-level motor control. The multivariate regression relation between intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates of arm, is statistically analyzed for determining the arm orientation in real time, which produces the external representation of low-level motor control. The proposed method is demonstrated in an anthropomorphic arm by performing several highly curved self-reaching movements. The generated configuration trajectories are compared with actual human movement in spatiotemporal profile to validate the proposed method. PMID:25850100

  8. Attitudes toward Money, Intrinsic Job Satisfaction, and Voluntary Turnover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Tang, Theresa Li-Na

    A study was conducted to determine whether employees' attitudes toward money (money ethic endorsement) moderates the relationships between intrinsic job satisfaction on the one hand and thoughts of withdrawal and voluntary turnover on the other. Data were collected from workers in the Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation in a…

  9. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  10. Intrinsic anion oxidation potentials.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Anions of lithium battery salts have been investigated by electronic structure calculations with the objective to find a computational measure to correlate with the observed (in)stability of nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes vs oxidation often encountered in practice. Accurate prediction of intrinsic anion oxidation potentials is here made possible by computing the vertical free energy difference between anion and neutral radical (Delta Gv) and further strengthened by an empirical correction using only the anion volume as a parameter. The 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set, the VSXC functional, and the C-PCM SCRF algorithm were used. The Delta Gv calculations can be performed using any standard computational chemistry software. PMID:17078600

  11. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  12. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  13. Find a Hand Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  14. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of hand fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  15. Hands-Only CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR In Schools Hands-Only CPR Community CPR Tracker AED Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Hands-Only CPR Program Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE ...

  16. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  17. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

  18. HandsFree TLCMS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-07-30

    The HandsFreeTLCMS software is able to - control an x,y,z stage connected to the computer via USB interface - automatically form and maintain the liquid junction between a TLC plate and the sampling probe of a TLC/MS surface sampler unit - automatically accomplish multiple-lane scans over a TLC plate making able to sample the whole surface by a pre-defined, reproducible, automated method - analyze mass spectrometric data collected during the surface scans and make datafilesmore » those contain x,y coordinates of surface spots (collected during the surface scans) and the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at those spots to produce 3-dimensional plots later in external graphic programs. - produce and save greyscale or color 2D pictures where X and Y axises of the picture correspond to the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) range of the scanned surface area and the color of a pixel is determined by the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at that X,Y spot« less

  19. HandsFree TLCMS

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-30

    The HandsFreeTLCMS software is able to - control an x,y,z stage connected to the computer via USB interface - automatically form and maintain the liquid junction between a TLC plate and the sampling probe of a TLC/MS surface sampler unit - automatically accomplish multiple-lane scans over a TLC plate making able to sample the whole surface by a pre-defined, reproducible, automated method - analyze mass spectrometric data collected during the surface scans and make datafiles those contain x,y coordinates of surface spots (collected during the surface scans) and the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at those spots to produce 3-dimensional plots later in external graphic programs. - produce and save greyscale or color 2D pictures where X and Y axises of the picture correspond to the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) range of the scanned surface area and the color of a pixel is determined by the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at that X,Y spot

  20. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  1. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  2. Transversity and intrinsic motion of the constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.; Zavada, P.

    2004-09-01

    The probabilistic model of parton distributions, previously developed by one of the authors, is generalized to include the transversity distribution. When interference effects are attributed to quark level only, the intrinsic quark motion produces the transversity, which is about twice as large as the usual polarized distribution. The applicability of such a picture is considered and possible corrections, accounting for interference effects at the parton-hadron transition stage are discussed.

  3. Computational Image Analysis Reveals Intrinsic Multigenerational Differences between Anterior and Posterior Cerebral Cortex Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Winter, Mark R; Liu, Mo; Monteleone, David; Melunis, Justin; Hershberg, Uri; Goderie, Susan K; Temple, Sally; Cohen, Andrew R

    2015-10-13

    Time-lapse microscopy can capture patterns of development through multiple divisions for an entire clone of proliferating cells. Images are taken every few minutes over many days, generating data too vast to process completely by hand. Computational analysis of this data can benefit from occasional human guidance. Here we combine improved automated algorithms with minimized human validation to produce fully corrected segmentation, tracking, and lineaging results with dramatic reduction in effort. A web-based viewer provides access to data and results. The improved approach allows efficient analysis of large numbers of clones. Using this method, we studied populations of progenitor cells derived from the anterior and posterior embryonic mouse cerebral cortex, each growing in a standardized culture environment. Progenitors from the anterior cortex were smaller, less motile, and produced smaller clones compared to those from the posterior cortex, demonstrating cell-intrinsic differences that may contribute to the areal organization of the cerebral cortex. PMID:26344906

  4. Computational Image Analysis Reveals Intrinsic Multigenerational Differences between Anterior and Posterior Cerebral Cortex Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Mark R.; Liu, Mo; Monteleone, David; Melunis, Justin; Hershberg, Uri; Goderie, Susan K.; Temple, Sally; Cohen, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Time-lapse microscopy can capture patterns of development through multiple divisions for an entire clone of proliferating cells. Images are taken every few minutes over many days, generating data too vast to process completely by hand. Computational analysis of this data can benefit from occasional human guidance. Here we combine improved automated algorithms with minimized human validation to produce fully corrected segmentation, tracking, and lineaging results with dramatic reduction in effort. A web-based viewer provides access to data and results. The improved approach allows efficient analysis of large numbers of clones. Using this method, we studied populations of progenitor cells derived from the anterior and posterior embryonic mouse cerebral cortex, each growing in a standardized culture environment. Progenitors from the anterior cortex were smaller, less motile, and produced smaller clones compared to those from the posterior cortex, demonstrating cell-intrinsic differences that may contribute to the areal organization of the cerebral cortex. PMID:26344906

  5. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  6. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  7. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  8. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  9. Two Task-Specific Dystonias in One Hand

    PubMed Central

    Linssen, Manon; Delnooz, Cathérine; van de Warrenburg, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Background Dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that lead to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. Task-specific dystonia only manifests during a specific activity. Case report We report a case of a female with writer's cramp who developed a second task-specific hand dystonia (tremor and abnormal posturing of the hand while using a computer mouse) many years after the initial onset. Discussion This observation is in agreement with the concept that task-specific hand dystonia is induced by repetitive, skilled hand movements in those who have an intrinsic vulnerability towards developing “dystonic” motor programs. PMID:23961337

  10. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sangeeta; Chauhan, Ashutosh; Sethi, N T

    2008-10-01

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS) is a terminology used to describe a specific complication affecting patients with diabetes mellitus in the tropics. The syndrome encompasses a localized cellulitis with variable swelling and ulceration of the hands to progressive, fulminant hand sepsis, potentially fatal. Since this syndrome is less recognized it is often under-reported. Authors present two cases of TDHS and emphasize on aggressive glycemic control and surgical therapy to prevent potential crippling or fatal complications. PMID:20165601

  11. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. PMID:27515139

  12. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  13. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  14. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  15. Direct probe of the intrinsic charm content of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Tom; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Measurement of Z bosons produced in association with charm jets (Z c ) in proton-proton collisions in the forward region provides a direct probe of a potential nonperturbative (intrinsic) charm component in the proton wave function. We provide a detailed study of the potential to measure Z c production at the LHCb experiment in Runs 2 and 3 of the LHC. The sensitivity to valence-like (sea-like) intrinsic charm is predicted to be ⟨x ⟩IC≳0.3 %(1 %). The impact of intrinsic charm on Higgs production at the LHC, including H c , is also discussed in detail.

  16. Intrinsic Feedback Factors Producing Inertial Compensation in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Lloyd D.

    1967-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the factors causing the load-inertia compensation that has been observed in skeletal muscle. Cat skeletal muscle force output was determined as a function of the two variables, length and stimulus pulse rate. The results were represented in a system diagram from which it becomes apparent that: (a) the length-tension relationship in muscle forms a functional, non-neural servo feedback; (b) the force-velocity curve appears as an oscillation-damping, velocity feedback in the muscle servo; (c) the nonlinear action of pulse rate on response is, in effect, in the input element to the muscle servo system. For purpose of analysis of the motor system it appears that these signal handling characteristics of muscle make it more nearly a “position servo” than a “force motor.” ImagesFigure 3 PMID:19211001

  17. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  18. [The hand and rheumatism].

    PubMed

    Lioté, F; Chicheportiche, V

    1997-01-01

    The hand is a major site of musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical features to be studied include the patient's age and sex, pain, stiffness, range of motion of the various joints of the wrists and hands, soft tissue swelling (particularly tendons sheaths), bone excrescences, skin changes. Radiological abnormalities in the hands, if any, may confirm the clinical diagnosis. The main features of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, erosive degenerative changes, Südeck syndrome, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease, etc., are reviewed. PMID:9810076

  19. Facial and Hand Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pomahac, Bohdan; Gobble, Ryan M.; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients suffering from limb loss or severe facial disfigurement. To date, 72 hand and 19 facial transplantations have been performed worldwide. VCA in hand and facial transplantation is a complex procedure requiring a multidisciplinary team approach and extensive surgical planning. Despite good functional outcome, courses after hand and facial transplantation have been complicated by skin rejection. Long-term immunosuppression remains a necessity in VCA for allograft survival. To widen the scope of these quality-of-life-improving procedures, minimization of immunosuppression to limit risks and side effects is needed. PMID:24478387

  20. Intrinsic magnetization of antiferromagnetic textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveten, Erlend G.; Müller, Tristan; Linder, Jacob; Brataas, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) exhibit intrinsic magnetization when the order parameter spatially varies. This intrinsic spin is present even at equilibrium and can be interpreted as a twisting of the homogeneous AFM into a state with a finite spin. Because magnetic moments couple directly to external magnetic fields, the intrinsic magnetization can alter the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures under such influence. Starting from the discrete Heisenberg model, we derive the continuum limit of the free energy of AFMs in the exchange approximation and explicitly rederive that the spatial variation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter is associated with an intrinsic magnetization density. We calculate the magnetization profile of a domain wall and discuss how the intrinsic magnetization reacts to external forces. We show conclusively, both analytically and numerically, that a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field can move and control the position of domain walls in AFMs. By comparing our model to a commonly used alternative parametrization procedure for the continuum fields, we show that the physical interpretations of these fields depend critically on the choice of parametrization procedure for the discrete-to-continuous transition. This can explain why a significant amount of recent studies of the dynamics of AFMs, including effective models that describe the motion of antiferromagnetic domain walls, have neglected the intrinsic spin of the textured order parameter.

  1. Vestibular contributions to a right-hemisphere network for bodily awareness: combining galvanic vestibular stimulation and the "Rubber Hand Illusion".

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Berlot, Eva; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    An altered sense of one's own body is a common consequence of vestibular damage, and also of damage to vestibular networks in the right hemisphere. However, few experimental studies have investigated whether vestibular signals contribute to bodily awareness. We addressed this issue by combining an established experimental model of bodily awareness (Rubber Hand Illusion -RHI) with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in healthy participants. Brief left anodal and right cathodal GVS (which predominantly activates vestibular networks in the right hemisphere), or right anodal and left cathodal GVS, or sham stimulation were delivered at random, while participants experienced either synchronous or asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of a rubber hand and their own hand. The drift in the perceived position of the participant's hand towards the rubber hand was used as a proxy measure of the resulting multisensory illusion of body ownership. GVS induced strong polarity-dependent effects on this measure of RHI: left anodal and right cathodal GVS produced significantly lower proprioceptive drift than right anodal and left cathodal GVS. We suggest that vestibular inputs influence the multisensory weighting functions that underlie bodily awareness: the right hemisphere vestibular projections activated by the left anodal and right cathodal GVS increased the weight of intrinsic proprioceptive signals about hand position, and decreased the weight of visual information responsible for visual capture during the RHI. PMID:25619847

  2. Versatile impact hand tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodil, E. R.

    1968-01-01

    Improved cartridge-actuated impact hand tool includes a common power head and four attachments to punch holes, drive forced entry fasteners, hammer, and shear. The attachments are self-contained and easily fitted to the power head assembly.

  3. Arthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hand and wrist arthritis. (Note: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not test dietary supplements. These compounds may cause negative interactions with other medications. Always consult your doctor before taking dietary supplements.) ...

  4. Kinesin tail domains are intrinsically disordered.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The nonmotor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the nonmotor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. On the basis of these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  5. Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  6. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  7. Intrinsic disorder in transcription factors†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Perumal, Narayanan B.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Su, Eric W.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is highly abundant in eukaryotes, which reflect the greater need for disorder-associated signaling and transcriptional regulation in nucleated cells. Although several well-characterized examples of intrinsically disordered proteins in transcriptional regulation have been reported, no systematic analysis has been reported so far. To test for a general prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcriptional regulation, we used the Predictor Of Natural Disorder Regions (PONDR) to analyze the abundance of intrinsic disorder in three transcription factor datasets and two control sets. This analysis revealed that from 94.13% to 82.63% of transcription factors posses extended regions of intrinsic disorder, relative to 54.51% and 18.64% of the proteins in two control datasets, which indicates the significant prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcription factors. This propensity of transcription factors for intrinsic disorder was confirmed by cumulative distribution function analysis and charge-hydropathy plots. The amino acid composition analysis showed that all three transcription factor datasets were substantially depleted in order-promoting residues, and significantly enriched in disorder-promoting residues. Our analysis of the distribution of disorder within the transcription factor datasets revealed that: (a) The AT-hooks and basic regions of transcription factor DNA-binding domains are highly disordered; (b) The degree of disorder in transcription factor activation regions is much higher than that in DNA-binding domains; (c) The degree of disorder is significantly higher in eukaryotic transcription factors than in prokaryotic transcription factors; (d) The level of α-MoRFs (molecular recognition feature) prediction is much higher in transcription factors. Overall, our data reflected the fact that the eukaryotes with well-developed gene transcription machinery require transcription factor flexibility to be more efficient. PMID:16734424

  8. [Dissociated Small Hand Muscle Atrophy Occurs in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Split Hand].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kazumoto

    2016-05-01

    Split hand is a peculiar atrophy of hand muscle and was named by Willbourn in 1992. In this phenomenon, the hypothenar muscle is relatively preserved, but the thenar and the first dorsal interossei (FDI) muscles are preferentially involved. Some studies have measured compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes of intrinsic hand muscles in various neurological diseases and have revealed that this phenomenon is a specific feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The measurements of CMAP amplitude in intrinsic hand muscles may be useful for diagnosis of ALS. FDI and thenar muscles are innervated by the same ulnar nerve and same spinal segments (C8 and Th1), although atrophies of these muscles are dissociated. Anatomical innervations are not enough to explain this phenomenon. Motor neuronal hyperexcitability potentially contributes to motor neuron death in ALS, and in several articles, it is reported to be the possible mechanism of this phenomenon. In healthy controls and ALS patients, cortical and peripheral motor nerves, which project to the thenar and FDI muscles, may be more excitable than those of the hypothenar muscle. This article reviews the findings of previous articles about the utility of this phenomenon as a diagnostic marker, and its potential mechanisms. PMID:27156503

  9. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  10. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  11. Phylogeny of major intrinsic proteins.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jonas A H; Johanson, Urban

    2010-01-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form a large superfamily of proteins that can be divided into different subfamilies and groups according to phylogenetic analyses. Plants encode more MIPs than o ther organisms and se ven subfamilies have been defined, whereofthe Nodulin26-like major intrinsic proteins (NIPs) have been shown to permeate metalloids. In this chapter we review the phylogeny of MIPs in general and especially of the plant MIPs. We also identify bacterial NIP-like MIPs and discuss the evolutionary implications of this finding regarding the origin and ancestral transport specificity of the NIPs. PMID:20666221

  12. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  13. Portable hand hold device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  14. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    PubMed

    Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  15. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation using two samples (Ns=1,217 and 151) of smokers. Analysis on Reasons for Quitting scale supported intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction, defining four-factor model with two intrinsic and two extrinsic dimensions. Found that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative…

  16. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  17. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Wrist Injuries: A Brief Literature Update HAND Journal HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND is the official peer-reviewed Journal of AAHS, featuring articles written by clinicians worldwide ...

  18. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  19. Learning "Hands On."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Janice T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a computer teacher's incorporation of hand-held computer technology into her third- and fifth-grade students' study of acid rain. The project successfully brought two grade levels together for cross-grade research, provided an opportunity for classroom teachers and technology specialists to work collaboratively, and enhanced students'…

  20. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries.

    PubMed

    Momcilović, Dragan; Prokes, Bela; Janjić, Zlata

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25%) in their active age (84.44%). These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%). By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%). After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%). Data concerning education and trainig for operating agricultural machines (96.38%--patients without training) and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures) are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, inclulding public health services and media. Use of contempoarary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking. PMID:16526250

  1. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  2. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Arnie

    2003-01-01

    Describes steps schools can take to provide cleaner and safer washrooms. Emphasizes hand-washing to battle germs and asserts that creating a comfortable and user-friendly washroom is a critical and often overlooked aspect for encouraging better hygiene habits. (EV)

  3. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  4. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  5. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  6. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  7. Reading: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much debate centers on motivating student in reading achievement. Should students feel motivated from within (intrinsic motivation), or is it better to have extrinsic motivation whereby external stimuli are used to help learners achieve optimally in reading? This paper aims to analyze the two points of view about motivating students in reading…

  8. Individual Patterns in Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Harry L., Jr.; Maxwell, Frederick R.

    The effects of extrinsic reward on students' intrinsic interest was investigated using a single-subject design in a behavior disorders classroom. Baseline measures of the interest level of five children (ages 9-11 years) were collected for academic and non-academic tasks. Assessment was then made of each subject's response hierarchy or level of…

  9. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  10. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

  11. Reduction method for intrinsic random coincidence events from (176)Lu in low activity PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-07-01

    For clinical studies, the effects of the intrinsic radioactivity of lutetium-based scintillators such as LSO used in PET imaging can be ignored within a narrow energy window. However, the intrinsic radioactivity becomes problematic when used in low-count-rate situations such as gene expression imaging or in-beam PET imaging. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement capability promises not only to improve PET image quality, but also to reduce intrinsic random coincidences. On the other hand, we have developed a new reduction method for intrinsic random coincidence events based on multiple-coincidence information. Without the energy window, an intrinsic random coincidence is detected simultaneously with an intrinsic true coincidence as a multiple coincidence. The multiple-coincidence events can serve as a guide to identification of the intrinsic coincidences. After rejection of multiple-coincidence events detected with a wide energy window, data obtained included a few intrinsic random and many intrinsic true coincidence events. We analyzed the effect of intrinsic radioactivity and used Monte Carlo simulation to test both the TOF-based method and the developed multiple-coincidence-based (MC-based) method for a whole-body LSO-PET scanner. Using the TOF- and MC-based reduction methods separately, we could reduce the intrinsic random coincidence rates by 77 and 30 %, respectively. Also, the intrinsic random coincidence rate could be reduced by 84 % when the TOF+MC reduction methods were applied. The developed MC-based method showed reduced number of the intrinsic random coincidence events, but the reduction performance was limited compared to that of the TOF-based reduction method. PMID:24496884

  12. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okpara, TC; Ezeala-Adikaibe, BA; Omire, O; Nwonye, E; Maluze, J

    2015-01-01

    Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence. A diagnosis of TDHS in a patient with hyperosmolar state was made. She was managed accordingly and subsequently underwent aggressive debridement and desloughing. Two fingers were amputated and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. PMID:27057390

  13. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okpara, T C; Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Omire, O; Nwonye, E; Maluze, J

    2015-01-01

    Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence. A diagnosis of TDHS in a patient with hyperosmolar state was made. She was managed accordingly and subsequently underwent aggressive debridement and desloughing. Two fingers were amputated and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. PMID:27057390

  14. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  15. Hand tools: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

  16. Pediatric hand treadmill injuries.

    PubMed

    Banever, Gregory T; Moriarty, Kevin P; Sachs, Barry F; Courtney, Richard A; Konefal, Stanley H; Barbeau, Lori

    2003-07-01

    The great popularity of physical fitness in modern society has brought many pieces of exercise equipment into our homes for convenience and privacy. This trend has come with an increasing rate of injuries to children who curiously touch moving parts, including treadmill belts. Experience with a recent series of treadmill contact burns to children's hands is described in this article. A retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center from June 1998 until June 2001 found six children sustaining hand burns from treadmills. The patients' ages at presentation ranged from 15 to 45 months (average of 31 months, three boys and three girls). All injuries occurred in the home while a parent was using the treadmill. Burns involved the palmar aspect of the hand, mostly confined to the fingers, and the severity ranged from partialto full-thickness burns. All patients were initially managed with collagenase and bacitracin zinc/polymyxin B powder dressings to second- and third-degree burns, along with splinting and range-of-motion exercises. Two patients required skin grafting at 2 weeks and 2 months for full-thickness tissue loss and tight joint contracture, respectively. At an average follow-up of 12 months, all patients had full range of motion and no physical limitation. The rate of children injured by exercise equipment is expected to increase. Friction burns to the hands remain a concern, although early recognition and appropriate management are associated with excellent functional outcomes. Protective modification of exercise machines seems to be the best approach to eliminating these injuries. PMID:12867861

  17. Intrinsic electronic and transport properties of graphyne sheets and nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenzhi; Guo, Wanlin; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2013-10-01

    Graphyne, a two-dimensional carbon allotrope like graphene but containing doubly and triply bonded carbon atoms, has been proven to possess amazing electronic properties as graphene. Although the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of graphyne and graphyne nanoribbons (NRs) have been previously studied, their electron transport behaviors have not been understood. Here we report a comprehensive study of the intrinsic electronic and transport properties of four distinct polymorphs of graphyne (α, β, γ, and 6,6,12-graphynes) and their nanoribbons (GyNRs) using density functional theory coupled with the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. Among the four graphyne sheets, 6,6,12-graphyne displays notable directional anisotropy in the transport properties. Among the GyNRs, those with armchair edges are nonmagnetic semiconductors whereas those with zigzag edges can be either antiferromagnetic or nonmagnetic semiconductors. Among the armchair GyNRs, the α-GyNRs and 6,6,12-GyNRs exhibit distinctive negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior. On the other hand, the zigzag α-GyNRs and zigzag 6,6,12-GyNRs exhibit symmetry-dependent transport properties, that is, asymmetric zigzag GyNRs behave as conductors with nearly linear current-voltage dependence, whereas symmetric GyNRs produce very weak currents due to the presence of a conductance gap around the Fermi level under finite bias voltages. Such symmetry-dependent behavior stems from different coupling between π* and π subbands. Unlike α- and 6,6,12-GyNRs, both zigzag β-GyNRs and zigzag γ-GyNRs exhibit NDR behavior regardless of the symmetry. PMID:23949158

  18. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  19. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  20. [Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells].

    PubMed

    Skorkovská, K; Skorkovská, Š

    2015-06-01

    Recently discovered intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells contribute to circadian photoentrainment and pupillary constriction; recent works have also brought new evidence for their accessory role in the visual system in humans. Pupil light reaction driven by individual photoreceptors can be isolated by means of the so called chromatic pupillography. The use of chromatic stimuli to elicit different pupillary responses may become an objective clinical pupil test in the detection of retinal diseases and in assessing new therapeutic approaches particularly in hereditary retinal degenerations like retinitis pigmentosa. In advanced stages of disease, the pupil light reaction is even more sensitive than standard electroretinography for detecting residual levels of photoreceptor activity. This review summarizes current knowledge on intrinsically photosensitive retinal cells and highlights its possible implications for clinical practice. PMID:26201360

  1. Intrinsic Control of Axon Regeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Zhigang; Jin, Yishi

    2016-05-01

    A determinant of axon regeneration is the intrinsic growth ability of injured neurons, which dictates a battery of injury responses in axons and cell bodies. While some of these regulatory mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved, others are unique to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where spontaneous regeneration usually does not occur. Here we examine our current understanding of these mechanisms at cellular and molecular terms and discuss their potential implications for promoting axon regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury. PMID:27151637

  2. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  3. Decoherence: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamp, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Environmental decoherence times have been difficult to predict in solid-state systems. In spin systems, environmental decoherence is predicted to arise from nuclear spins, spin-phonon interactions, and long-range dipolar interactions [1]. Recent experiments have confirmed these predictions quantitatively in crystals of Fe8 molecules [2]. Coherent spin dynamics was observed over macroscopic volumes, with a decoherence Q-factor Qφ= 1.5 x10^6 (the upper predicted limit in this system being Qφ= 6 x10^7). Decoherence from dipolar interactions is particularly complex, and depends on the shape and the quantum state of the system. No extrinsic ``noise'' decoherence was observed. The generalization to quantum dot and superconducting qubit systems is also discussed. We then discuss searches for ``intrinsic'' decoherence [3,4], coming from non-linear corrections to quantum mechanics. Particular attention is paid to condensed matter tests of such intrinsic decoherence, in hybrid spin/optomechanical systems, and to ways of distinguishing intrinsic decoherence from environmental and extrinsic decoherence sources. [4pt] [1] Morello, A. Stamp, P. C. E. & Tupitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 207206 (2006).[0pt] [2] S. Takahashi et al., Nature 476, 76 (2011).[0pt] [3] Stamp, P. C. E., Stud. Hist. Phil. Mod. Phys. 37, 467 (2006). [0pt] [4] Stamp, P.C.E., Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A (to be published)

  4. Troponins, intrinsic disorder, and cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Na, Insung; Kong, Min J; Straight, Shelby; Pinto, Jose R; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac troponin is a dynamic complex of troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T (TnC, TnI, and TnT, respectively) found in the myocyte thin filament where it plays an essential role in cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in troponin subunits are found in inherited cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The highly dynamic nature of human cardiac troponin and presence of numerous flexible linkers in its subunits suggest that understanding of structural and functional properties of this important complex can benefit from the consideration of the protein intrinsic disorder phenomenon. We show here that mutations causing decrease in the disorder score in TnI and TnT are significantly more abundant in HCM and DCM than mutations leading to the increase in the disorder score. Identification and annotation of intrinsically disordered regions in each of the troponin subunits conducted in this study can help in better understanding of the roles of intrinsic disorder in regulation of interactomes and posttranslational modifications of these proteins. These observations suggest that disease-causing mutations leading to a decrease in the local flexibility of troponins can trigger a whole plethora of functional changes in the heart. PMID:27074551

  5. Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Lee, Hang-Ho; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Joo-Yong; Dhawan, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All were men and the mean age was 26.6 years. The mean follow-up period was 26.8 months. At the time of replantation, the wrist joint was stabilized with transarticular fixation using three to four Kirschner’s wires after performing proximal row carpectomy. Postoperatively, functional results such as muscle strength, range of motion of the wrist and fingers, and sensory recovery were assessed according to Chen’s criteria. Joint width and arthritic changes of the radio-capitate joint were evaluated with radiologic tools. According to Chen’s criteria, the overall results in five cases were classified as grade II. Intrinsic muscle power of hands was found to be grade 4. The mean grip and pinch powers were 41% and 45%, respectively, compared to contralateral hand. The mean arc of flexion–extension of wrist was 53°. Total mean active motion of fingers was 215 degrees. Static two-point discrimination of fingertip ranged from 8 to 13 mm. On the follow-up, computerized tomography showed well-preserved radio-capitate joint space without any arthritic changes. While performing hand replantation after amputation at the radiocarpal or midcarpal level, proximal row carpectomy is a useful procedure to preserve joint motion of the wrist in selected cases. PMID:18855073

  6. European Hands-on Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa; Ferlet, Roger; Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Hill, Robert; Horellou, Cathy; Mankiewicz, Lech; Melchior, Anne-Laure; Metaxa, Margarita; Zanazzi, Alessandra

    2007-08-01

    Hands-on Universe is a project born at UC@Berkeley. A project devoted to enrich the teaching of Astronomy within the classroom environment with a different approach, more connected to the new technologies. Its main goals are not only to promote the use of such technologies but also to reawaken on students the taste for STEM (Science, technologies, engineering and math) related issues and also to increase their scientific culture. Eight countries in Europe decided to adopt the method and, funded by MINERVA, formed the European Hands-on Universe. Several resources were produced and a data reduction software developed http://www.euhou.net/.Other European countries are interested and should join this coordinated effort in the near future. At an international level there are 20 countries using this approach. There are plans to develop scientific cooperation among these countries. Pilot scientific research projects in schools are being tested in EU-HOU schools, Russia and USA. There is also a game being developed to be used as a new tool for teaching scientific content in the classroom environment. An effort to develop an international network of scientific / educational collaboration is the next step.

  7. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  8. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. PMID:24209795

  9. Intrinsic topological superfluidity - fluctuations and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, K.; Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon; Boyack, Rufus

    Recent interest in topological superconductivity is based primarily on exploiting proximity effects to obtain this important phase. However, in cold gases it is possible to contemplate ``intrinsic'' topological superfluidity produced with a synthetic spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field. It is important for such future experiments to establish how low in temperature one needs to go to reach the ordered phase. Similarly, it will be helpful to have a probe of the normal (pseudogap) phase to determine if the ultimate superfluid order will be topological or trivial. In this talk, we address these issues by considering fluctuation effects in such a superfluid, and calculate the critical transition temperature and response functions. We see qualitative signatures of topological superfluidity in spin and charge response functions. We also explore the suppression of superfluidity due to fluctuations, and importantly find that the temperature scales necessary to reach topological superfluidity are reasonably accessible

  10. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

  11. Intraday Variability: Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma Kuchibhotla, Huthavahana; Lister, Matthew; Homan, Dan; Kellermann, Ken; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; Agudo, Ivan; Arshakian, Tigran; Kovalev, Yuri; Lobanov, Andrew; Pushkarev, Alexander; Ros, Eduardo; Savolainen, Tuomas; Zensus, Tony; Kadler, Matthias; Vermeulen, Rene; Gehrels, Neil; McEnery, Julie; Sambruna, Rita; Tueller, Jack; Cohen, Marshall; Hovatta, Talvikki; Kharb, Preeti; Cooper, Nathan; Hogan, Brandon; Cara, Mihai

    A significant fraction of flat spectrum AGN exhibit rapid variability both in total intensity as well as polarization at cm wavelengths, on time scales ranging from a few hours to a few days, a phenomenon termed Intra Day Variability (IDV). The physical process responsible for this behavior is not well understood, though various models ranging from source-intrinsic (e.g., shock-in-jet) to source-extrinsic (e.g., scintillation due to electron density fl uctuations in the interstellar medium) have been proposed. The absence of multi-epoch data (especially at 2 cm) further exacerbates the situation. We present the results of analysis of archival VLBA data for a flux density limited sample of bright, flat spectrum AGN located predominantly in the north-ern sky, collected under the MOJAVE program. We find a clear detection of IDV in 25% of the 365 sources analyzed. We find significant differences in the IDV properties of quasars and true BL Lacs. Intermediate BL Lac objects, so classified due to the presence of broad lines in their optical spectra, have IDV characteristics similar to those of quasars. As expected, the presum-able weakly beamed CSS/GPS sources show no IDV. We find IDV properties to be correlated with source intrinsic properties such as Brightness temperature/Doppler factor and apparent speed. Episodes of IDV activity associated with radio flaring and/or component ejection have also been observed, suggesting an intrinsic mechanism at work. However, we also find IDV to be strongly correlated with the galactic latitude position of the source, indicative of a scintil-lation mechanism. However, we find no correlation between IDV and the observing day of the year, IDV and redshift of the source. We propose a qualitative model to explain all these results. The program is supported under the NSF grant 080786-AST and NASA grant NNX08AV67G.

  12. Pair breaking and ``intrinsic`` {Tc}

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.A.; Kresin, V.Z.; Ovchinnikov, Y.N.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the temperature dependence of the upper critical field in several cuprate families leads to the conclusion that magnetic impurities are present even in samples with the maximum observed value of T{sub c}. A new parameter, intrinsic T{sub c} (T{sub c;intr}) which is its value in the absence of magnetic impurities, is introduced. The maximum value of T{sub c;intr}, which corresponds to the maximum doping level, appears to be similar for different cuprates and to be equal to 160--170 K. This is an upper limit of T{sub c} in the cuprates.

  13. Nuclear Filtering of Intrinsic Charm

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-11-12

    Nuclei are transparent for a heavy intrinsic charm (IC) component of the beam hadrons, what leads to an enhanced nuclear dependence of open charm production at large Feynman x{sub F}. Indeed, such an effect is supported by data from the SELEX experiment published recently [1]. Our calculations reproduce well the data, providing strong support for the presence of IC in hadrons in amount less than 1%. Moreover, we performed an analysis of nuclear effects in J/{Psi} production and found at large x{sub F} a similar, albeit weaker effect, which does not contradict data.

  14. Econophysical visualization of Adam Smith’s invisible hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Morrel H.; Eliazar, Iddo I.

    2013-02-01

    Consider a complex system whose macrostate is statistically observable, but yet whose operating mechanism is an unknown black-box. In this paper we address the problem of inferring, from the system’s macrostate statistics, the system’s intrinsic force yielding the observed statistics. The inference is established via two diametrically opposite approaches which result in the very same intrinsic force: a top-down approach based on the notion of entropy, and a bottom-up approach based on the notion of Langevin dynamics. The general results established are applied to the problem of visualizing the intrinsic socioeconomic force-Adam Smith’s invisible hand-shaping the distribution of wealth in human societies. Our analysis yields quantitative econophysical representations of figurative socioeconomic forces, quantitative definitions of “poor” and “rich”, and a quantitative characterization of the “poor-get-poorer” and the “rich-get-richer” phenomena.

  15. Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

  16. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  17. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  18. Metalworking fluid hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Saori; Shiomi, Yuko; Yokota, Kozo

    2002-07-01

    In a household appliance plant, several rinse-free lubricating fluids have been used instead of neat mineral oils since 1994: mixtures of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons with 9 to 14 carbons per molecule. As such they denature keratin, irritate and defat the skin, and remove water from it. Work gloves have been worn over plastic gloves and separate, reusable, cotton inner gloves have been added to absorb sweat since skin problems were first recognized in 1994. All 74 males (mean +/- SD, 38.8 +/- 8.0 years) who work with the fluids were interviewed and given cutaneous examinations when indicated. While 4 cases of severe dermatitis and 31 cases of mild dermatitis were identified, 28 individuals gave a history of similar problems since the use of lubricating fluids. Their symptoms were typical of primary skin irritation. The hands were the commonly affected region (63 of 63 cases: 100%), followed by the thighs (15.9%) and trunk (11.1%). The work-related skin symptoms identified were less common in workers who immediately removed the liquid with soap and water, when it is spilled on the hands, than in those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (7/23 (30.4%) vs. 28/51 (54.9%), p=0.051 by chi-square test). Since skin contact with metalworking fluids (MWF) is often unavoidable, good personal hygiene is important in minimizing potential adverse health effects. Health education thus remains the most important preventive measure against irritant contact dermatitis among workers handling MWFs. PMID:12141380

  19. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 are most ...

  20. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  1. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, I. K.

    2008-02-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed.

  2. Altered Vision Near the Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

  3. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOILED Duration of the entire procedure: 20-30 seconds WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED! OTHERWISE, USE HANDRUB Duration of the entire procedure: 40-60 seconds 1 a 1 b 2 012 Apply a palmful of the product in a cupped hand, covering all surfaces; Rub hands palm to palm; ...

  4. Computer control by hand gestures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemel, Intidhar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2015-12-01

    This work fits into the context of the interpretation of automatic gestures based on computer vision. The aim of our work is to transform a conventional screen in a surface that allows the user to use his hands as pointing devices. These can be summarized in three main steps. Hand detection in a video, monitoring detected hands and conversion paths made by the hands to computer commands. To realize this application, it is necessary to detect the hand to follow. A classification phase is essential, at the control part. For this reason, we resorted to the use of a neuro-fuzzy classifier for classification and a pattern matching method for detection.

  5. Prosthetic helping hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  6. Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Ivan

    2012-05-15

    The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.

  7. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics. PMID:25532152

  8. Intelligent, self-contained robotic hand

    DOEpatents

    Krutik, Vitaliy; Doo, Burt; Townsend, William T.; Hauptman, Traveler; Crowell, Adam; Zenowich, Brian; Lawson, John

    2007-01-30

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  9. Proprioceptive bimanual test in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Iandolo, Riccardo; Squeri, Valentina; De Santis, Dalia; Giannoni, Psiche; Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Is there any difference between matching the position of the hands by asking the subjects to move them to the same spatial location or to mirror-symmetric locations with respect to the body midline? If the motion of the hands were planned in the extrinsic space, the mirror-symmetric task would imply an additional challenge, because we would need to flip the coordinates of the target on the other side of the workspace. Conversely, if the planning were done in intrinsic coordinates, in order to move both hands to the same spot in the workspace, we should compute different joint angles for each arm. Even if both representations were available to the subjects, the two tasks might lead to different results, providing some cue on the organization of the "body schema". In order to answer such questions, the middle fingertip of the non-dominant hand of a population of healthy subjects was passively moved by a manipulandum to 20 different target locations. Subjects matched these positions with the middle fingertip of their dominant hand. For most subjects, the matching accuracy was higher in the extrinsic modality both in terms of systematic error and variability, even for the target locations in which the configuration of the arms was the same for both modalities. This suggests that the matching performance of the subjects could be determined not only by proprioceptive information but also by the cognitive representation of the task: expressing the goal as reaching for the physical location of the hand in space is apparently more effective than requiring to match the proprioceptive representation of joint angles. PMID:25741268

  10. Proprioceptive Bimanual Test in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Iandolo, Riccardo; Squeri, Valentina; De Santis, Dalia; Giannoni, Psiche; Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Is there any difference between matching the position of the hands by asking the subjects to move them to the same spatial location or to mirror-symmetric locations with respect to the body midline? If the motion of the hands were planned in the extrinsic space, the mirror-symmetric task would imply an additional challenge, because we would need to flip the coordinates of the target on the other side of the workspace. Conversely, if the planning were done in intrinsic coordinates, in order to move both hands to the same spot in the workspace, we should compute different joint angles for each arm. Even if both representations were available to the subjects, the two tasks might lead to different results, providing some cue on the organization of the “body schema”. In order to answer such questions, the middle fingertip of the non-dominant hand of a population of healthy subjects was passively moved by a manipulandum to 20 different target locations. Subjects matched these positions with the middle fingertip of their dominant hand. For most subjects, the matching accuracy was higher in the extrinsic modality both in terms of systematic error and variability, even for the target locations in which the configuration of the arms was the same for both modalities. This suggests that the matching performance of the subjects could be determined not only by proprioceptive information but also by the cognitive representation of the task: expressing the goal as reaching for the physical location of the hand in space is apparently more effective than requiring to match the proprioceptive representation of joint angles. PMID:25741268

  11. Hand, foot, and mouth disease on the soles (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is cause by a coxsackie virus. It produces mouth ulcers and small blisters (vesicles) on the hands and feet. The vesicles often have a reddish border with a white or lighter colored area in the center.

  12. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  13. Hands in the air

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Raedy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Including gesture in instruction facilitates learning. Why? One possibility is that gesture points out objects in the immediate context and thus helps ground the words learners hear in the world they see. Previous work on gesture’s role in instruction has used gestures that either point to or trace paths on objects, thus providing support for this hypothesis. Here we investigate the possibility that gesture helps children learn even when it is not produced in relation to an object but is instead produced “in the air.” We gave children instruction in Piagetian conservation problems with or without gesture and with or without concrete objects. We found that children given instruction with speech and gesture learned more about conservation than children given instruction with speech alone, whether or not objects were present during instruction. Moreover, children who received instruction in speech and gesture were more likely to give explanations for how they solved the problems that they were not taught during the experiment; this advantage was found only when objects were absent during instruction. Gesture in instruction can thus help learners learn even when those gestures do not direct attention to visible objects, suggesting that gesture can do more for learners than simply ground arbitrary, symbolic language in the physical, observable world. PMID:18793062

  14. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  15. Hands-On Fractals and the Unexpected in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluchoff, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on project in which unusual fractal images are produced using only a photocopy machine and office supplies. The resulting images are an example of the contraction mapping principle.

  16. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  17. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  18. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training. PMID:21096021

  19. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  20. Intrinsic ductility of glassy solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunfeng; Luo, Jian; Yuan, Fenglin; Huang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Glasses are usually brittle, seriously limiting their practical usage. Recently, the intrinsic ductility of glass was found to increase with the Poisson's ratio (v), with a sharp brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition at vBTD = 0.31-0.32. Such a correlation between far-from-equilibrium fracture and near-equilibrium elasticity is unexpected and not understood. Molecular dynamics simulations, on three families of glasses (metallic glasses, amorphous silicon, and silica) with controlled bonding, processing, and testing conditions, show that glasses with low covalency and high structural disorder have high v and ductility, and vice versa. The BTD transitions triggered by the aforementioned causes in each system correspond to a unified vBTD value, which increases with its average coordination number (CN). The vBTD-CN relation can be comprehended by recognizing v as a measure of covalency and disorder, and the BTD transition as a competition between shear and cleavage. Our results provide guidelines for developing new recipes and processes for tough glasses.

  1. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  2. Intelligent Viscoelastic Polyurethane Intrinsic Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal Khan, M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyurethanes are multiphase systems comprising intrinsically variant nanodomains. The material properties can be tailored by adjusting the relative proportions and organizing the structure of the hard and soft segments akin to the spring-dashpot system in an automobile. This article describes how an intelligent polyurethane (PU) system is created to offer smart response to mechanical and vibration stimuli. In this work, unidirectional, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), acoustic, and impact testing results are qualified with the unique viscoelastic character that determines the rate-temperature response of the nanocomposite. Attenuated total reflection- infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and DMTA offer a logical explanation of the observed viscoelastic behavior in terms of the nanodomains. Enhanced nanophase segregation between the polymer building blocks (hard and soft segments) is the primary mechanism that leads to a higher loss tangent peak in DMTA at a lower glass transition temperature ( T g ) for greater energy dissipation in the polymer matrix. Acoustic and impact attenuation are correlated with the mechanical modulus and loss tangent of the polymer. Finally, autodyne simulation reveals the unique shock absorbent behavior of the material layer when retrofitted to concrete structure. Typically, shock overpressure spikes of the order of 9.97 × 104 MPa experienced by the unprotected surface are entirely evened out at a lower overpressure threshold.

  3. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  4. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri Hoang; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-10-01

    Life on earth is subject to alternating cycles of day and night imposed by the rotation of the earth. Consequently, living things have evolved photodetective systems to synchronize their physiology and behavior with the external light-dark cycle. This form of photodetection is unlike the familiar "image vision," in that the basic information is light or darkness over time, independent of spatial patterns. "Nonimage" vision is probably far more ancient than image vision and is widespread in living species. For mammals, it has long been assumed that the photoreceptors for nonimage vision are also the textbook rods and cones. However, recent years have witnessed the discovery of a small population of retinal ganglion cells in the mammalian eye that express a unique visual pigment called melanopsin. These ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and drive a variety of nonimage visual functions. In addition to being photoreceptors themselves, they also constitute the major conduit for rod and cone signals to the brain for nonimage visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Here we review what is known about these novel mammalian photoreceptors. PMID:20959623

  5. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  6. Dynamics of intrinsic axial flows in unsheared, uniform magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-05-01

    A simple model for the generation and amplification of intrinsic axial flow in a linear device, controlled shear decorrelation experiment, is proposed. This model proposes and builds upon a novel dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism, using a simple theory of drift wave turbulence in the presence of axial flow shear. This mechanism does not require complex magnetic field structure, such as shear, and thus is also applicable to intrinsic rotation generation in tokamaks at weak or zero magnetic shear, as well as to linear devices. This mechanism is essentially the self-amplification of the mean axial flow profile, i.e., a modulational instability. Hence, the flow development is a form of negative viscosity phenomenon. Unlike conventional mechanisms where the residual stress produces an intrinsic torque, in this dynamical symmetry breaking scheme, the residual stress induces a negative increment to the ambient turbulent viscosity. The axial flow shear is then amplified by this negative viscosity increment. The resulting mean axial flow profile is calculated and discussed by analogy with the problem of turbulent pipe flow. For tokamaks, the negative viscosity is not needed to generate intrinsic rotation. However, toroidal rotation profile gradient is enhanced by the negative increment in turbulent viscosity.

  7. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  8. Force reflecting hand controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaffee, Douglas A. (Inventor); Snow, Edward R. (Inventor); Townsend, William T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A universal input device for interfacing a human operator with a slave machine such as a robot or the like includes a plurality of serially connected mechanical links extending from a base. A handgrip is connected to the mechanical links distal from the base such that a human operator may grasp the handgrip and control the position thereof relative to the base through the mechanical links. A plurality of rotary joints is arranged to connect the mechanical links together to provide at least three translational degrees of freedom and at least three rotational degrees of freedom of motion of the handgrip relative to the base. A cable and pulley assembly for each joint is connected to a corresponding motor for transmitting forces from the slave machine to the handgrip to provide kinesthetic feedback to the operator and for producing control signals that may be transmitted from the handgrip to the slave machine. The device gives excellent kinesthetic feedback, high-fidelity force/torque feedback, a kinematically simple structure, mechanically decoupled motion in all six degrees of freedom, and zero backlash. The device also has a much larger work envelope, greater stiffness and responsiveness, smaller stowage volume, and better overlap of the human operator's range of motion than previous designs.

  9. Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

  10. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  11. Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

  12. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  13. The Work of the Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludick, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing Maria and Mario Montessori's reverence for the hand, Pat Ludick takes the reader into the wonder of the human body, mind, and spirit and across the planes of education, into the making of a whole personality and grounded intelligence that is ready for the adult world. Putting the hand front and center, she lyrically evolves an overview…

  14. The Left-Handed Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  15. Rapid identification of microorganisms by intrinsic fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Hemant; Goldys, Ewa M.; Learmonth, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Microbial contamination has serious consequences for the industries that use fermentation processes. Common contaminants such as faster growing lactic acid bacteria or wild yeast can rapidly outnumber inoculated culture yeast and produce undesirable end products. Our study focuses on a rapid method of identification of such contaminants based on autofluorescence spectroscopy of bacterial and yeast species. Lactic acid bacteria (Lac-tobacillus casei), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were cultured under controlled conditions and studied for variations in their autofluorescence. We observed spectral differences in the spectral range representative of tryptophan residues of proteins, with excitation at 290 nm and emission scanned in the 300 nm - 440 nm range. Excitation scans between 240 nm and 310 nm were also performed for the emission at 340 nm. Moreover, we observed clearly pronounced differences in the excitation and emission in the visible range, with 410 nm excitation. These results demonstrate that bacterial and yeast species can be differentiated using their intrinsic fluorescence both in UV and in the visible region. The comparative spectroscopic study of selected strains of Saccharomyces yeast showed clear differences between strains. Spectrally-resolved laser scanning microscopy was carried out to link the results obtained using ensembles of cells with spectral properties of individual cells. Strongly fluorescent subpopulation were observed for all yeast strains with excitation at 405 nm. The fluorescence spectra showed variations correlated with cell brightness. The presented results demonstrate that using autofluorescence, it is possible to differentiate between yeast and lactic acid bacteria and between different yeast species.

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic psychosis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolters, E C

    2001-09-01

    Direct and indirect signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease are a major cause of disability in the elderly. Intrinsic symptoms comprise not only the well-known clinical hallmarks of this disease with motor behavioral abnormalities, such as bradykinesia, hypokinesia, rigidity and tremor, but also autonomic failure with orthostatic hypotension, urinal incontinence and impotence as well as non-motor behavioral abnormalities: mental dysfunction characterized by mood disorders, cognitive dysfunction and, sporadically, delusions and hallucinations. These symptoms are caused by a progressive abnormal degeneration of the dopamine (DA) producing cells in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmentum area (VTA) in combination with an interindividual fluctuating degree of decay in the noradrenergic (locus coeruleus), cholinergic forebrain (nucleus basalis of Meynert) and serotoninergic (dorsal raphe nuclei) systems. Extrinsic symptoms, induced by pharmacotherapy, mainly manifest with (un)predictable motor response fluctuations and dopaminomimetic psychosis. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are important predictors of the patient's quality of life. As these symptoms are potentially treatable, identification is of major clinical importance both for the patients and their caregivers and may enable to maintain Parkinson's disease patients at home for a longer period. PMID:11697684

  17. Separating Scattering from Intrinsic Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Scales, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The subsurface appears disordered at all length-scales. Therefore, wave propatation at seismic or ultrasonic frequencies is subject to complicated scatterings. A pulse propagating in the subsurface loses energy at each scattering off an impedance contrast, but also decreases in amplitude as the impulse interacts with fluids in the rock. We call the latter non-elastic effect "intrinsic Q", while the former is "scattering Q". It is often the fluids in the rocks that are of interest, but conventional reflection and transmission of the incident pulse only cannot deceipher the individual components of Q due to scattering and fluid movement in the pore-space. We present an approach that can unravel these two mechanisms, allowing a separate estimate of absorption. This method treats the propagation of the average intensity in the framework of radiative transfer (RT); the arrival of (what is left of) the incident pulse is modeled as the coherent energy, whereas the later arriving multiply scattered events form the incoherent intensity. The coherent pulse decays exponentially due to a combination of scattering and absorption, and so does the incoherent intensity. However, multiple scattering can re-direct energy back to the receiver, supplying a gain-term at later times that makes up the incoherent intensity. Strictly speaking, one can invert for scattering and absorption from the intensity at late times only, often modeled with the late-time equivalent of RT, diffusion. However, we will show that fitting both early- and late-time signal with RT constrains absorption and scattering constants more rigorously. These ideas are illustrated by laboratory and sonic-logging measurements.

  18. The hand of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  19. The hand of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Kivell, Tracy L; Deane, Andrew S; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  20. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  1. Development of hand surgery: education of hand surgeons.

    PubMed

    Omer, G E

    2000-07-01

    An organized experience in the care of hand injuries and infections was not available until World War II, when military hand centers were established. Dr Sterling Bunnell was designated as a special civilian consultant to the Secretary of War. The surgeons in the military services during World War II became the nucleus of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH). Following World War II and the Korean War there was a major shift toward medical subspecialization, and the growth of surgery of the hand as a subspecialty parallels that trend. The ASSH initiated a coordinated effort to improve the educational experience, and in 1967 the ASSH Resident Training Committee was evaluating hand training programs. The ASSH developed a comprehensive program in continuing medical education, and received full accreditation from the American Medical Association Council on Medical Education. The American Medical Association has included hand surgery on its list of designated specialties since 1975. In 1973, the bylaws of the American Board of Medical Specialties were revised to provide special certification. The ASSH developed a proposal for a certificate of added qualification in surgery of the hand that was presented to the three primary boards (orthopaedic, plastic, surgery) and the ad hoc joint Committee on Surgery of the Hand was organized in 1982. An application for a certificate of added qualification in surgery was developed by the Joint Committee on Surgery of the Hand and approved by all three boards in 1985 and the ABMS in 1986. The first examination for the certificate of added qualification in surgery was held in 1989. PMID:10913201

  2. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Upper Limb Spasticity: The Wrist and Hand.

    PubMed

    Seruya, Mitchel; Dickey, Ryan M; Fakhro, Abdulla

    2016-02-01

    The wrist and hand are essential in the placement of the upper extremity in a functional position for grasp, pinch, and release activities. This depends on the delicate balance between the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the wrist and hand. Spasticity alters this equilibrium, limiting the interaction of the upper limb with the environment. Classically, pediatric patients with upper limb spasticity present with a flexed wrist, thumb-in-palm, and flexed finger posture. These contractures are typically secondary to spasticity of the extrinsic flexor muscles of the wrist and hand and intrinsic muscles of the thumb and digits. Tendon release, lengthening, or transfer procedures may help correct the resultant abnormal postures. A total wrist arthrodesis with or without proximal row carpectomy may help address the severely flexed wrist deformity. With proper diagnosis, a well-executed surgical plan, and a consistent hand rehabilitation regimen, successful surgical outcomes can be achieved. PMID:26869861

  3. "Virtual unwrapping" of a mummified hand.

    PubMed

    Winder, R J; Glover, W; Golz, T; Wulf, J; McClure, S; Cairns, H; Elliott, M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of medical virtual reality technologies in the investigation of a mummified hand. The Ulster Museum obtained the mummy hand, which originated from Thebes, without any identifying information. The mummified hand was investigated using conventional X-ray and 3D multi-slice Computed Tomography (CT). Imaging revealed a range of fractures of the wrist, metacarpals and phalanges whilst 3D CT demonstrated internal structures using volume rendering. The absence of any features of bone healing at the fracture sites would imply that they occurred just prior to death or in the mummified state possibly during excavation. Conventional X-ray imaging indicated that the hand, although small, was likely to have originated from an adult. Medical imaging and virtual reality display will enable us to produce a rapid prototyped model using fused deposition technology. Therefore, further paleopathological research can be performed on the replica without the need to handle the original specimen. PMID:16404125

  4. Identifying intrinsic constituents of focus through ``imitation via restoration.''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi; Xu, Ching X.; Sun, Xuejing

    2003-04-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that although certain parts of an observed intonation may seem dispensable in perception tests, they nevertheless are consistently produced by speakers. We refer to all consistently produced parts of an intonation as its ``intrinsic constituents.'' To identify the intrinsic constituents, we developed an experimental paradigm called ``imitation via restoration.'' In this paradigm, the intonation under scrutiny is first recorded by a native speaker. Then words carrying a potential constituent of the intonation are replaced by a loud noise. During the experiment, the sentence containing the replacement noise is presented to the subjects together with the text. The subjects' task is to repeat the sentence in exactly the same way as they hear it. The consistency with which subjects restore the missing parts of the target intonation would therefore provide a reasonable indication as to which of them are truly intrinsic to the intonation. Our first such experiment was conducted on determining whether focus consists of only on-focus pitch range expansion or it also involves obligatory post-focus pitch range suppression. Eight native speakers of Beijing Mandarin participated as subjects. Preliminary results have provided supporting evidence for the dual-component hypothesis.

  5. The Marble-Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V.

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the ‘Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration. PMID:24621793

  6. Intrinsic structure in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, N.

    2015-10-01

    Saturn's rings are the most prominent in our Solar system and one example of granular matter in space. Dominated by tides and inelastic collisions the system is highly flattened being almost 300000km wide while only tens of meters thick. Individual particles are composed of primarily water ice and range from microns to few tens of meters in size. Apparent patterns comprise ringlets, gaps, kinematic wakes, propellers, bending waves, and the winding spiral arms of density waves. These large-scale structures are perturbations foremost created by external as well as embedded moons. Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft currently in orbit around Saturn show these structures in unprecedented detail. But high-resolution measurements reveal the presence of small-scale structures throughout the system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), overstable waves (100-300m), subkm structure at the A and B ring edges, "straw" and "ropy" structures (1-3km), and the C ring "ghosts". Most of these had not been anticipated and are found in perturbed regions, driven by resonances with external moons, where the system undergoes periodic phases of compression and relaxation that correlate with the presence of structure. High velocity dispersion and the presence of large clumps imply structure formation on time scales as short as one orbit (about 10 hours). The presence of these intrinsic structures is seemingly the response to varying local conditions such as internal density, optical depth, underlying particle size distribution, granular temperature, and distance from the central planet. Their abundance provides evidence for an active and dynamic ring system where aggregation and fragmentation are ongoing on orbital timescales. Thus a kinetic description of the rings may be more appropriate than the fluid one. I will present Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) occultations, Voyager 1 and 2 Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and high

  7. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. PMID:27241383

  8. Intrinsic operators for the electromagnetic nuclear current

    SciTech Connect

    J. Adam, Jr.; H. Arenhovel

    1996-09-01

    The intrinsic electromagnetic nuclear meson exchange charge and current operators arising from a separation of the center-of-mass motion are derived for a one-boson-exchange model for the nuclear interaction with scalar, pseudoscalar and vector meson exchange including leading order relativistic terms. Explicit expressions for the meson exchange operators corresponding to the different meson types are given in detail for a two-nucleon system. These intrinsic operators are to be evaluated between intrinsic wave functions in their center-of-mass frame.

  9. Intrinsic Fluorescence as a Spectral Probe for Protein Denaturation Studies in the Presence of Honey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. H.; Kadir, H. A.; Tayyab, S.

    2015-11-01

    Honey was found to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a concentration dependent manner, showing complete quenching in the presence of 5% (w/v) honey. Increasing the protein concentration up to 5.0 μM did not lead to the recovery of the protein fluorescence. Urea denaturation of BSA, which otherwise shows a two-step, three-state transition, using intrinsic fluorescence of the protein as the probe failed to produce any result in the presence of 5% (w/v) honey. Thus, intrinsic fluorescence cannot be used as a spectral probe for protein denaturation studies in the presence of honey.

  10. Surgical exposures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Watt, Andrew J; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-11-01

    Surgical approaches to the hand are commonly executed in the treatment of fractures, ligament injuries, and less commonly in the resection of bony tumors. Careful design and execution of these surgical approaches translates into superior functional and aesthetic outcomes. We have provided a thorough review of commonly used approaches to the hand by evaluating each of these approaches in the context of core principles including safety, versatility, preservation of stability, and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:25440073

  11. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  12. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B. Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice. PMID:23641241

  13. Coping with Congenital Hand Differences

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.; Chung, Kevin C.; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chin, Autumn Y. T.; Nellans, Kate W.; Waljee, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although functional outcomes following reconstruction for congenital hand differences are frequently described, much less is known regarding children’s ability to cope with psychosocial effects of these conditions. We qualitatively explored stress and coping mechanisms among children following reconstructive surgery for congenital hand differences. Methods Forty patients and their parents participated in semi-structured interviews examining stress related to hand functioning and appearance, emotional responses to stress, and coping strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding by two reviewers. Themes expressed by participants were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Results In this sample, 58% of children and 40% of parents reported stress related to congenital hand differences, attributed to functional deficits (61%), hand appearance (27%), social interactions (58%), and emotional reactions (46%). Among the 18 children who reported stress, 43% of parents were not aware of the presence of stress. Eight coping strategies emerged, including humor (12%), self-acceptance (21%), avoidance (27%), seeking external support (30%), concealment (30%), educating others (9%), support programs (21%) and religion (24%). Conclusions Although children with congenital hand differences often experience emotional stress related to functional limitations and aesthetic deformities, many apply positive coping mechanisms that enhance self-esteem and self-esteem. Clinicians caring for children with congenital hand differences should inform families about potential sources of stress in order to direct resources toward strengthening coping strategies and support systems. Level of Evidence Level IV-Case series PMID:25502854

  14. The European Hands-On Universe project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlet, Roger

    The EU-HOU project aims at participating in solving the major challenge of inspiring and exciting students toward science and technology. By adopting inquiry-based science education (IBSE) techniques and new technologies, EU-HOU is promoting more attractive and innovative hands-on activities on-line and in the classroom, with astronomy and space science as the over-arching theme. The expertise of EU-HOU in producing IBSE resources and in training secondary science school teachers has been awarded a silver medal of the European Commission.

  15. The sterilization of endodontic hand files.

    PubMed

    Hurtt, C A; Rossman, L E

    1996-06-01

    Several different methods of file sterilization were analyzed to determine the best method of providing complete file sterility, including the metal shaft and plastic handle. Six test groups of 15 files were studied using Bacillus stearothermophilus as the test organism. Groups were "sterilized" by glutaraldehyde immersion, steam autoclaving, and various techniques of salt sterilization. Only proper steam autoclaving reliably produced completely sterile instruments. Salt sterilization and glutaraldehyde solutions may not be adequate sterilization methods for endodontic hand files and should not be relied on to provide completely sterile instruments. PMID:8934994

  16. Relationship between placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ocak, S; Ogun, S; Onder, H

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between maternal intrinsic factors and placental traits was investigated on three Southern Mediterranean breed of sheep; Cukurova Assaf (CA), Cukurova (C) and Cukurova Meat Sheep (CMS). The effect of parity and birth type were also considered in the study as a potential influencing factor. Our hypothesis was to show that while differences in placental traits between breed, parity and birth type affected lamb condition and survivability, its correlation to maternal intrinsic behavioral factors may also be a strong indicator. The study found breed related differences of maternal behavioral factors and also showed significant correlation of these behavioral patterns to various placental traits. It confirmed earlier findings that parity played a major role in the refinement of these behavioral patterns. Significant differences in birth weight (P<0.05), placental weight (P<0.05), number of cotyledons (P<0.01) and cotyledon length (P<0.05) was seen between breeds. Cotyledon weight (P<0.05), width (P<0.01) and length (P<0.05) were found to differ by parity. Breed and parity interaction significantly influenced cotyledon quantity. While we detected breed specific differences in relation to maternal intrinsic factors we also noticed significant variance within breeds to these behavioral patterns when linked to placental traits. Further study is required on the correlation between placental traits and postnatal behavior on not just the ewes but also on their lambs. This could have a significant bearing on how producers manage and maximize lamb survivability. PMID:23602010

  17. Intrinsic Valuation of Information in Decision Making under Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Daniel; Bode, Stefan; Brydevall, Maja; Warren, Hayley; Murawski, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    In a dynamic world, an accurate model of the environment is vital for survival, and agents ought regularly to seek out new information with which to update their world models. This aspect of behaviour is not captured well by classical theories of decision making, and the cognitive mechanisms of information seeking are poorly understood. In particular, it is not known whether information is valued only for its instrumental use, or whether humans also assign it a non-instrumental intrinsic value. To address this question, the present study assessed preference for non-instrumental information among 80 healthy participants in two experiments. Participants performed a novel information preference task in which they could choose to pay a monetary cost to receive advance information about the outcome of a monetary lottery. Importantly, acquiring information did not alter lottery outcome probabilities. We found that participants were willing to incur considerable monetary costs to acquire payoff-irrelevant information about the lottery outcome. This behaviour was well explained by a computational cognitive model in which information preference resulted from aversion to temporally prolonged uncertainty. These results strongly suggest that humans assign an intrinsic value to information in a manner inconsistent with normative accounts of decision making under uncertainty. This intrinsic value may be associated with adaptive behaviour in real-world environments by producing a bias towards exploratory and information-seeking behaviour. PMID:27416034

  18. Intrinsic Valuation of Information in Decision Making under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Stefan; Brydevall, Maja; Murawski, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In a dynamic world, an accurate model of the environment is vital for survival, and agents ought regularly to seek out new information with which to update their world models. This aspect of behaviour is not captured well by classical theories of decision making, and the cognitive mechanisms of information seeking are poorly understood. In particular, it is not known whether information is valued only for its instrumental use, or whether humans also assign it a non-instrumental intrinsic value. To address this question, the present study assessed preference for non-instrumental information among 80 healthy participants in two experiments. Participants performed a novel information preference task in which they could choose to pay a monetary cost to receive advance information about the outcome of a monetary lottery. Importantly, acquiring information did not alter lottery outcome probabilities. We found that participants were willing to incur considerable monetary costs to acquire payoff-irrelevant information about the lottery outcome. This behaviour was well explained by a computational cognitive model in which information preference resulted from aversion to temporally prolonged uncertainty. These results strongly suggest that humans assign an intrinsic value to information in a manner inconsistent with normative accounts of decision making under uncertainty. This intrinsic value may be associated with adaptive behaviour in real-world environments by producing a bias towards exploratory and information-seeking behaviour. PMID:27416034

  19. Reactions of human and hog intrinsic factors with type I antibody to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1970-01-01

    A simple and rapid small-scale gel filtration method was applied in studies of type I antibody to intrinsic factor using radioactive vitamin B12 of high specific activity and purified human and hog intrinsic factor preparations, taking into account the unsaturated B12-binding capacity of the individual pernicious anaemia sera. This procedure allows the use of small amounts of reagents. Evidence was obtained for a close antigenic similarity of determinants of human and hog intrinsic factor. The use of purified intrinsic-factor preparations is important. PMID:4097742

  20. The unfoldomics decade: an update on intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dunker, A Keith; Oldfield, Christopher J; Meng, Jingwei; Romero, Pedro; Yang, Jack Y; Chen, Jessica Walton; Vacic, Vladimir; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2008-01-01

    Background Our first predictor of protein disorder was published just over a decade ago in the Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Romero P, Obradovic Z, Kissinger C, Villafranca JE, Dunker AK (1997) Identifying disordered regions in proteins from amino acid sequence. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 1: 90–95). By now more than twenty other laboratory groups have joined the efforts to improve the prediction of protein disorder. While the various prediction methodologies used for protein intrinsic disorder resemble those methodologies used for secondary structure prediction, the two types of structures are entirely different. For example, the two structural classes have very different dynamic properties, with the irregular secondary structure class being much less mobile than the disorder class. The prediction of secondary structure has been useful. On the other hand, the prediction of intrinsic disorder has been revolutionary, leading to major modifications of the more than 100 year-old views relating protein structure and function. Experimentalists have been providing evidence over many decades that some proteins lack fixed structure or are disordered (or unfolded) under physiological conditions. In addition, experimentalists are also showing that, for many proteins, their functions depend on the unstructured rather than structured state; such results are in marked contrast to the greater than hundred year old views such as the lock and key hypothesis. Despite extensive data on many important examples, including disease-associated proteins, the importance of disorder for protein function has been largely ignored. Indeed, to our knowledge, current biochemistry books don't present even one acknowledged example of a disorder-dependent function, even though some reports of disorder-dependent functions are more than 50 years old. The results from genome-wide predictions of intrinsic disorder and the

  1. [Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].

    PubMed

    Pittet, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

  2. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George

    2013-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  3. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  4. Snowblower injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, D P; Gorosh, J; Burke, E F; Singer, R M

    1997-12-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the records of 62 patients who sustained serious hand injuries caused by snowblowers between 1981 and 1990. Frequency of injuries to digits tended to correlate with length (i.e., middle, index, ring, or small finger or thumb). Damage to tendons did not seem to follow any particular pattern. The majority of victims sustained multiple digital involvement. Complete versus partial amputation followed the same length distribution as did injured digits. Most of the injuries occurred to the dominant hand. When patients were further questioned regarding the circumstances and events leading to their injury, a recurring pattern was found. Most patients described a wet, heavy snow having recently fallen. The majority of the patients who were injured by placing their hands into the exit chute admitted that they were aware the machine was running, but thought that they had a greater clearance to the rotating impeller blade. PMID:9413590

  5. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  6. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  7. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  8. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  9. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  10. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  11. Downscaling Smooth Tomographic Models: Separating Intrinsic and Apparent Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Thomas; Capdeville, Yann; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of tomographic models based on full waveform inversion have been published. Due to computational constraints, the fitted waveforms are low pass filtered, which results in an inability to map features smaller than half the shortest wavelength. However, these tomographic images are not a simple spatial average of the true model, but rather an effective, apparent, or equivalent model that provides a similar 'long-wave' data fit. For example, it can be shown that a series of horizontal isotropic layers will be seen by a 'long wave' as a smooth anisotropic medium. In this way, the observed anisotropy in tomographic models is a combination of intrinsic anisotropy produced by lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals, and apparent anisotropy resulting from the incapacity of mapping discontinuities. Interpretations of observed anisotropy (e.g. in terms of mantle flow) requires therefore the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. The "up-scaling" relations that link elastic properties of a rapidly varying medium to elastic properties of the effective medium as seen by long waves are strongly non-linear and their inverse highly non-unique. That is, a smooth homogenized effective model is equivalent to a large number of models with discontinuities. In the 1D case, Capdeville et al (GJI, 2013) recently showed that a tomographic model which results from the inversion of low pass filtered waveforms is an homogenized model, i.e. the same as the model computed by upscaling the true model. Here we propose a stochastic method to sample the ensemble of layered models equivalent to a given tomographic profile. We use a transdimensional formulation where the number of layers is variable. Furthermore, each layer may be either isotropic (1 parameter) or intrinsically anisotropic (2 parameters). The parsimonious character of the Bayesian inversion gives preference to models with the least number of parameters (i.e. least number of layers, and

  12. Lionfish envenomation of the hand.

    PubMed

    Patel, M R; Wells, S

    1993-05-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans) envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: (1) erythematous reaction, (2) blister formation, and (3) dermal necrosis. The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water (45 degrees C) until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins. The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided. PMID:8515029

  13. Predicting hand function after hemidisconnection.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hanna; Kudernatsch, Manfred; Pieper, Tom; Groeschel, Samuel; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Raffelt, David; Winkler, Peter; Holthausen, Hans; Staudt, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Hemidisconnections (i.e. hemispherectomies or hemispherotomies) invariably lead to contralateral hemiparesis. Many patients with a pre-existing hemiparesis, however, experience no deterioration in motor functions, and some can still grasp with their paretic hand after hemidisconnection. The scope of our study was to predict this phenomenon. Hypothesizing that preserved contralateral grasping ability after hemidisconnection can only occur in patients controlling their paretic hands via ipsilateral corticospinal projections already in the preoperative situation, we analysed the asymmetries of the brainstem (by manual magnetic resonance imaging volumetry) and of the structural connectivity of the corticospinal tracts within the brainstem (by magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tractography), assuming that marked hypoplasia or Wallerian degeneration on the lesioned side in patients who can grasp with their paretic hands indicate ipsilateral control. One hundred and two patients who underwent hemidisconnections between 0.8 and 36 years of age were included. Before the operation, contralateral hand function was normal in 3/102 patients, 47/102 patients showed hemiparetic grasping ability and 52/102 patients could not grasp with their paretic hands. After hemidisconnection, 20/102 patients showed a preserved grasping ability, and 5/102 patients began to grasp with their paretic hands only after the operation. All these 25 patients suffered from pre- or perinatal brain lesions. Thirty of 102 patients lost their grasping ability. This group included all seven patients with a post-neonatally acquired or progressive brain lesion who could grasp before the operation, and also all three patients with a preoperatively normal hand function. The remaining 52/102 patients were unable to grasp pre- and postoperatively. On magnetic resonance imaging, the patients with preserved grasping showed significantly more asymmetric brainstem volumes than the patients who lost their grasping

  14. Toe-to-hand transfer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, M

    1980-07-01

    Toe-to-hand transfer was performed in 28 patients, involving 33 fingers, using microvascular technique. Of this number, 26 patients (31 fingers) had experienced trauma, and the remaining 2 patients (2 fingers) had a congenital deformity. The toew used for grafting were the great toe (1), the second tow (30), and third toe (2). Success was achieved in all cases, sensory recovery was good, and remarkable improvement was attained in function and cosmetic appearance. Metacarpal hand, amputation of thumb, and amputation thumb and three fingers were good indications for this procedure, which gave satisfactory aesthetic results, even in patients with amputation of single digits. PMID:7394050

  15. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ∼10 cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  16. On the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kießling, R.; Ihlemann, J.; Riemer, M.; Drossel, W.-G.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Sharafiev, S.; Pouya, M.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine low weight with high strength, are moving into the focus of the automotive industry, due to their high potential for usage in the field of crash-relevant structures. In this contribution, the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite is presented, with a focus on the manufacturing process, complex simulations of the material behaviour and material testing. The hybrid composite is made up of a continuous fibre- reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic insert is integrated. The mechanical behaviour of the individual components is characterised. For material modelling, an approach is pointed out that enables modelling at large strains by directly connected rheological elements. The connection between the FRP and the metallic insert is realised by a combination of form fit and adhesive bonds. On the one hand, adhesive bonds are generated within a sol gel process. On the other hand, local form elements of the metallic insert are pressed into the FRP. We show how these form elements are generated during the macroscopic forming process. In addition, the applied sol gel process is explained. Finally, we consider design concepts for a specimen type for high strain testing of the resulting interfaces.

  17. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Hand in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanagho, Andy; Hatab, Sameh; Youssef, Sally; Ansara, Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Compartment syndrome refers to a condition of compromised circulation within a limited space due to increased pressure within that space. The reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced venous drainage, leading to increased interstitial tissue pressure and subsequent compromised arterial flow. Although not as common as compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm, compartment syndrome of the hand is not rare and can lead to devastating sequelae as a result of tissue necrosis. Compartment syndrome of the hand has several etiologies, including trauma, arterial injury, thermal injury, and constrictive bandaging. The cardinal clinical sign is pain that is aggravated by passive stretching of the muscles within the involved compartments. Extremity function is usually restored with expeditious fasciotomy of the involved myofascial compartments, and complications, such as intrinsic muscular dysfunction and Volkmann's ischemic contracture, can usually be prevented. There are no reported cases of compartment syndrome of the hand in patients with systemic sclerosis or Raynaud's phenomenon. Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that affects the skin and internal organs. The limited cutaneous subset affects the skin of the extremities but is associated with a set of characteristic features that includes calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. This report describes an unusual case of a patient who had spontaneous compartment syndrome of the hand. The patient's concomitant limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis may have played a role in this unusual occurrence. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture, and the symptoms resolved after surgical decompression. PMID:26375546

  18. American Society for Surgery of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welcome to ASSH.org Home of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The American Society for Surgery of the Hand is the oldest and most prestigious medical society dedicated to the hand and upper extremity. Our ...

  19. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... does since most hitters are right-handed. In basketball and other sports, a left-handed player can ... change in strategy. For instance, a left-handed basketball player will dribble with his or her left ...

  20. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... germs on hands varies by product. Washing with soap and water Place your hands together under water ( ... hands together for at least 20 seconds (with soap if possible). Wash all surfaces well, including wrists, ...

  1. Pediatric hand injuries due to home exercycles.

    PubMed

    Benson, L S; Waters, P M; Meier, S W; Visotsky, J L; Williams, C S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical presentation and management of 19 children who sustained injuries by stationary exercise bicycles were reviewed retrospectively. These injuries represented 32 traumatized digits with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The index and long fingers were most commonly involved. Wheel-spoke injuries typically produced repairable nerve and tendon lacerations, and full functional recovery in these cases was common. The chain/sprocket injury involved a crushing mechanism and frequently produced severe injury including amputations that were not salvageable. Stationary exercise bicycles represented a predictable source of severe hand injury in children between the ages of 18 months and 5 years. Adult supervision was not reliable in preventing contact between an operating exercycle and a child's hand. We recommend that children not be allowed access to any stationary exercycle machinery, whether it is in use or not. Safety design considerations should focus on not only shielding the wheel spokes, but also (and perhaps even more important) on enclosing the entire chain axis and gear interface. In addition to these design considerations, public education will be critical in reducing the incidence of injury. PMID:10641685

  2. Hand injury and electrical tools.

    PubMed

    Barton, A J

    1998-01-01

    This case study looks at an electrician who sustained two hand injuries due to tool use. The first injury was a ganglionic cyst in the right palm and the second was a cyst in the right thumb. Recommendations from The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) and his company's insurance company are included. PMID:24441209

  3. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  4. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  5. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  6. Firecracker injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, D N; Green, J A; Viglione, W

    2001-03-01

    Between September 1999 and April 2000, the Hand Unit at St George Hospital, Sydney, treated three young men with severe injuries caused by holding a lighted firecracker. These cases illustrate the typical injuries seen with this mechanism of injury. They highlight the dangers of these explosive devices and the potential to improve the laws relating to fireworks. PMID:11280694

  7. Venous lakes of the hands

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.M.; Hessel, S.J.; Joseph, R.B.; Bodell, L.S.

    1985-09-01

    Following pharmacologic vasodilation, multiple vascular lakes were observed on angiograms of the hand in 55 patients. Most had no history of vascular anomalies or disease. The authors believe that these lakes are venous structures and that their filling is a physiologic phenomenon.

  8. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

  9. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  10. Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation

    PubMed Central

    Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Christie, Richard; Nikitin, Alexander Yu; Hyman, Bradley T.; Webb, Watt W.

    2003-01-01

    Multicolor nonlinear microscopy of living tissue using two- and three-photon-excited intrinsic fluorescence combined with second harmonic generation by supermolecular structures produces images with the resolution and detail of standard histology without the use of exogenous stains. Imaging of intrinsic indicators within tissue, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, retinol, indoleamines, and collagen provides crucial information for physiology and pathology. The efficient application of multiphoton microscopy to intrinsic imaging requires knowledge of the nonlinear optical properties of specific cell and tissue components. Here we compile and demonstrate applications involving a range of intrinsic molecules and molecular assemblies that enable direct visualization of tissue morphology, cell metabolism, and disease states such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer. PMID:12756303

  11. Memory for Hand-Use Depends on Consistency of Handedness

    PubMed Central

    Edlin, James M.; Carris, Emily K.; Lyle, Keith B.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who do not consistently use the same hand to perform unimanual tasks (inconsistent-handed) outperform consistent right- and left-handed individuals on tests of episodic memory. We explored whether the inconsistent-hander (ICH) memory advantage extends to memory for unimanual hand use itself. Are ICHs better able to remember which hand they used to perform actions? Opposing predictions are possible, stemming from the finding that some regions of the corpus callosum are larger in ICHs, especially those that connect motor areas. One hypothesis is that greater callosally mediated interhemispheric interaction produces ICHs’ superior retrieval of episodic memories, and this may extend to episodic memories for hand use. Alternatively, we also hypothesized that greater interhemispheric interaction could produce more bilateral activation in motor areas during the performance and retrieval of unimanual actions. This could interfere with ICHs’ ability to remember which hand they used. To test these competing predictions in the current study, consistent- and inconsistent-handers performed unimanual actions, half of which required manipulating objects and half of which did not. Each action was performed four times in one of five conditions that differed in the ratio of left to right hand use: always left (4:0), usually left (3:1), equal (2:2), usually right (1:3), or always right (0:4). We compared consistent- and inconsistent-handers on recall of the left:right ratio for each action. ICHs remembered how they performed actions better than consistent-handers, regardless of ratio. These findings provide another example of superior episodic retrieval in ICHs. We discuss how greater interaction might benefit memory for hand use. PMID:24027522

  12. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1987-01-01

    The use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process, and the fact that this function has to be estimated from the data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the ''bootstrap'' in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as of their ''kriging variance,'' provide a reasonable picture of the variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  13. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1988-08-01

    Use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process. The fact that this function has to be estimated from data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the bootstrap in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as their kriging variance, provide a reasonable picture of variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  14. Producing undistorted acoustic sine waves.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Henri; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2014-04-01

    A simple digital method is described that can produce an undistorted acoustic sine wave using an amplifier and loudspeaker having considerable intrinsic distortion, a common situation at low frequencies and high power. The method involves, first, using a pure sine wave as the input and measuring the distortion products. An iterative procedure then progressively adds harmonics with appropriate amplitude and phase to cancel any distortion products. The method is illustrated by producing a pure 52 Hz sine wave at 107 dB sound pressure level with harmonic distortion reduced over the audible range to >65 dB below the fundamental. PMID:25234964

  15. Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

  16. Robot Hand Grips Cylinders Securely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Jaws and linkage accommodate various sizes. Robot hand includes two pairs of parallel jaws that grasp rods, pipes, tubes, struts, and other long, heavy cylindrical objects. Hand features compact rotary drive and butterfly configuration simplifying approach and gripping maneuvers of robot. Parallelogram linkages maintain alignment of each jaw with other jaws. One bar of each linkage connected to one of two concentric, counterrotating shafts; rotation of shafts moves jaws in each pair toward or away from each other to grasp or release workpiece. Each jaw includes rigid gripping pad lined with rubber to give firm grip and to prevent damage to workpiece. Inner cylindrical surface (corner) of each jaw tapers off to flat sides. Enables jaw to grasp workpieces with diameters larger than or equal to twice the corner radius.

  17. Tool-use practice induces changes in intrinsic functional connectivity of parietal areas

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kwangsun; Sohn, William S.; Jeong, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic functional connectivity from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has increasingly received attention as a possible predictor of cognitive function and performance. In this study, we investigated the influence of practicing skillful tool manipulation on intrinsic functional connectivity in the resting brain. Acquisition of tool-use skill has two aspects such as formation of motor representation for skillful manipulation and acquisition of the tool concept. To dissociate these two processes, we chose chopsticks-handling with the non-dominant hand. Because participants were already adept at chopsticks-handling with their dominant hand, practice with the non-dominant hand involved only acquiring the skill for tool manipulation with existing knowledge. Eight young participants practiced chopsticks-handling with their non-dominant hand for 8 weeks. They underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions before and after the practice. As a result, functional connectivity among tool-use-related regions of the brain decreased after practice. We found decreased functional connectivity centered on parietal areas, mainly the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) and additionally between the primary sensorimotor area and cerebellum. These results suggest that the parietal lobe and cerebellum purely mediate motor learning for skillful tool-use. This decreased functional connectivity may represent increased efficiency of functional network. PMID:23550165

  18. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  19. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood–oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest. We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA. Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state. The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  20. Revitalizing Faculty Work through Intrinsic Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A faculty survey suggests that college climate can help maximize faculty effectiveness. Institutions are making use of the intrinsic rewards of academic work to improve its quality, by helping faculty reach new levels of understanding and mutual learning with students, accomplish greater mastery of content, and find successful new teaching…

  1. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  2. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…

  3. Disrupted Intrinsic Local Synchronization in Poststroke Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated from the task-related and task-free (i.e., resting state) studies that alternations of intrinsic neural networks exist in poststroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, information is lacking on the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in PSA at rest.We investigated the altered intrinsic local synchronization using regional homogeneity (ReHo) on PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We examined the correlations between the abnormal ReHo values and the aphasia severity and language performance in PSA.Compared with HCs, the PSA patients exhibited decreased intrinsic local synchronization in the right lingual gyrus, the left calcarine, the left cuneus, the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and the left medial of SFG. The local synchronization (ReHo value) in the left medial of SFG was positively correlated with aphasia severity (r = 0.55, P = 0.027) and the naming scores of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (r = 0.66, P = 0.005). This result is consistent with the important role of this value in language processing even in the resting state.The pathogenesis of PSA may be attributed to abnormal intrinsic local synchronous in multiple brain regions. PMID:26986152

  4. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  5. The intrinsic cost of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban and colleagues carry forward an important contemporary movement in cognitive control research, tending away from resource-based models and toward a framework focusing on motivation or value. However, their specific proposal, centering on opportunity costs, appears problematic. We favor a simpler view, according to which the exertion of cognitive control carries intrinsic subjective costs. PMID:24304795

  6. The Intrinsic Connectome of the Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Philipp, Konstanze; Kettlitz, Richard; Fuellen, Georg; Wree, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The connectomes of nervous systems or parts there of are becoming important subjects of study as the amount of connectivity data increases. Because most tract-tracing studies are performed on the rat, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the amygdala connectome of this species resulting in a meta-study. The data were imported into the neuroVIISAS system, where regions of the connectome are organized in a controlled ontology and network analysis can be performed. A weighted digraph represents the bilateral intrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala) and extrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala to non-amygdaloid regions) connectome of the amygdala. Its structure as well as its local and global network parameters depend on the arrangement of neuronal entities in the ontology. The intrinsic amygdala connectome is a small-world and scale-free network. The anterior cortical nucleus (72 in- and out-going edges), the posterior nucleus (45), and the anterior basomedial nucleus (44) are the nuclear regions that posses most in- and outdegrees. The posterior nucleus turns out to be the most important nucleus of the intrinsic amygdala network since its Shapley rate is minimal. Within the intrinsic amygdala, regions were determined that are essential for network integrity. These regions are important for behavioral (processing of emotions and motivation) and functional (memory) performances of the amygdala as reported in other studies. PMID:23248583

  7. Visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated cortical ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yuste, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The cortical microcircuit is built with recurrent excitatory connections, and it has long been suggested that the purpose of this design is to enable intrinsically driven reverberating activity. To understand the dynamics of neocortical intrinsic activity better, we performed two-photon calcium imaging of populations of neurons from the primary visual cortex of awake mice during visual stimulation and spontaneous activity. In both conditions, cortical activity is dominated by coactive groups of neurons, forming ensembles whose activation cannot be explained by the independent firing properties of their contributing neurons, considered in isolation. Moreover, individual neurons flexibly join multiple ensembles, vastly expanding the encoding potential of the circuit. Intriguingly, the same coactive ensembles can repeat spontaneously and in response to visual stimuli, indicating that stimulus-evoked responses arise from activating these intrinsic building blocks. Although the spatial properties of stimulus-driven and spontaneous ensembles are similar, spontaneous ensembles are active at random intervals, whereas visually evoked ensembles are time-locked to stimuli. We conclude that neuronal ensembles, built by the coactivation of flexible groups of neurons, are emergent functional units of cortical activity and propose that visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated ensembles to represent visual attributes. PMID:25201983

  8. Electric Field Effect in Intrinsic Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, T.

    The electric field effect in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks (IJJ's) is investigated on the basis of the capacitively-coupled IJJ model. We clarify the current-voltage characteristics of the IJJ's in the presence of an external electric field. It is predicted that the IJJ's show a dynamical transition to the voltage state as the external electric field is increased.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Intrinsic Josephson junctions: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurgens, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Some recent developments in the fabrication of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) and their application for studying high-temperature superconductors are discussed. The major advantages of IJJ and unsolved problems are outlined. The feasibility of three-terminal devices based on the stacked IJJ is briefly evaluated.

  10. Advancing polymers of intrinsic microporosity by mechanochemistry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Pengfei; Jiang, Xueguang; Wan, Shun; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-20

    Herein, we report a fast (15 min) and solvent-free mechanochemical approach to construct polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) with high molecular mass and low polydispersity by solid grinding. The enhanced reaction efficiency results from the instantaneous frictional heating and continuous exposure of active sites within those solid reactants.

  11. Hand kinematics of piano playing

    PubMed Central

    Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ∼50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

  12. Traumatic hand amputation while wakeboarding

    PubMed Central

    Woodacre, Timothy; Marshall, Morwena

    2011-01-01

    Wakeboarding is a sport increasing in popularity in the UK and the rest of the world. It is known to be associated with a high incidence of relatively minor injuries to the participating sportsperson. The authors present the case of a traumatic hand amputation to an associated third party and highlight the potential for serious injuries to all those directly involved with the sport. The authors demonstrate the successful application of military principles to a traumatic amputation in a civilian setting. PMID:22693318

  13. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ∼50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

  14. Tools used for hand deburring

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-03-01

    This guide is designed to help in quick identification of those tools most commonly used to deburr hand size or smaller parts. Photographs and textual descriptions are used to provide rapid yet detailed information. The data presented include the Bendix Kansas City Division coded tool number, tool description, tool crib in which the tool can be found, the maximum and minimum inventory requirements, the cost of each tool, and the number of the illustration that shows the tool.

  15. Archaic chaos: intrinsically disordered proteins in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many proteins or their regions known as intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) lack unique 3D structure in their native states under physiological conditions yet fulfill key biological functions. Earlier bioinformatics studies showed that IDPs and IDRs are highly abundant in different proteomes and carry out mostly regulatory functions related to molecular recognition and signal transduction. Archaea belong to an intriguing domain of life whose members, being microbes, are characterized by a unique mosaic-like combination of bacterial and eukaryotic properties and include inhabitants of some of the most extreme environments on the planet. With the expansion of the archaea genome data (more than fifty archaea species from five different phyla are known now), and with recent improvements in the accuracy of intrinsic disorder prediction, it is time to re-examine the abundance of IDPs and IDRs in the archaea domain. Results The abundance of IDPs and IDRs in 53 archaea species is analyzed. The amino acid composition profiles of these species are generally quite different from each other. The disordered content is highly species-dependent. Thermoproteales proteomes have 14% of disordered residues, while in Halobacteria, this value increases to 34%. In proteomes of these two phyla, proteins containing long disordered regions account for 12% and 46%, whereas 4% and 26% their proteins are wholly disordered. These three measures of disorder content are linearly correlated with each other at the genome level. There is a weak correlation between the environmental factors (such as salinity, pH and temperature of the habitats) and the abundance of intrinsic disorder in Archaea, with various environmental factors possessing different disorder-promoting strengths. Harsh environmental conditions, especially those combining several hostile factors, clearly favor increased disorder content. Intrinsic disorder is highly abundant

  16. The hands of the projectionist.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    This essay considers the work of projection and the hand of the projectionist as important components of the social space of the cinema as it comes into being in the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth. I bring the concept ofMaurice Merleau-Ponty on the place of the body as an entity that applies itself to the world "like a hand to an instrument" into a discussion of the pre-cinematic projector as an instrument that we can interpret as evidence of the experience of the work of the projectionist in the spirit of film theory and media archaeology, moving work on instrumentation in a different direction from the analysis of the work of the black box in laboratory studies. Projection is described as a psychological as well as a mechanical process. It is suggested that we interpret the projector not simply in its activity as it projects films, but in its movement from site to site and in the workings of the hand of its operator behind the scenes. This account suggests a different perspective on the cinematic turn of the nineteenth century, a concept typically approached through the study of the image, the look, the camera, and the screen. PMID:21995224

  17. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  18. Note on hand use in the manipulation of joysticks by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    MacNeilage et al. (1987) have proposed that nonhuman primate handedness may be contingent on the specific task requirements, with visual-spatial tasks yielding left-hand preferences and fine-motor tasks producing right-hand preferences. This study reports hand preferences in the manipulation of joysticks by 2 rhesus monkeys and 3 chimpanzees. Reach data were also collected for comparison with preference data for manipulation of the joystick. The data indicated that all 5 subjects demonstrated significant right-hand preferences in manipulating the joystick. In contrast, no significant hand preferences were found for the reach data. Reaction-time data also indicated that the right hand could perform a perceptual-motor task better than the left hand in all 5 subjects. Overall, the data indicate that reach tasks may not be sensitive enough measures to produce reliable hand preferences, whereas tasks that assess fine-motor control produce significant hand preferences.

  19. Roughness Perception during the Rubber Hand Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz-Bosbach, Simone; Tausche, Peggy; Weiss, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while feeling identical stroking of one's own occluded hand can create a compelling illusion that the seen hand becomes part of one's own body. It has been suggested that this so-called rubber hand illusion (RHI) does not simply reflect a bottom-up multisensory integration process but that the…

  20. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, M. J.; Masoumi, M.; Esfandiari, E.

    2011-01-01

    Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current decade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran. PMID:25013615

  1. Evaluation and treatment of chronic hand conditions.

    PubMed

    Darowish, Michael; Sharma, Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    Hand and wrist problems are frequently the cause of patients' complaints in the primary care setting. Common problems include hand numbness, pain, loss of motion, or unexplained masses in the hand. Many problems can be successfully managed or treated with nonoperative measures. This article focuses on commonly encountered causes of chronic hand pain. PMID:24994053

  2. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe operating condition. (b)(1) Hand-held portable electric tools shall...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe operating condition. (b)(1) Hand-held portable electric tools shall...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe operating condition. (b)(1) Hand-held portable electric tools shall...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe operating condition. (b)(1) Hand-held portable electric tools shall...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe operating condition. (b)(1) Hand-held portable electric tools shall...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  12. Ergonomic Evaluation of Biomechanical Hand Function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for tendon and joint force analysis. EMG is used on hand muscles associated with hand functions and with signal-processing technology. PMID:25830064

  13. Perception of hand movement by mirror reflection evokes brain activation in the motor cortex contralateral to a non-moving hand.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ranjan; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated whether perception of hand movement via mirror reflection evokes activation in the motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the non-moving hand (the M1 ipsilateral to the moving hand). Continuous electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 14 participants while they performed unimanual extension-flexion hand movements in direct view and mirror view conditions. We measured the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) as a marker of M1 activation in both conditions. Both the direct and mirror view conditions produced LRPs, with the mirror view conditions revealing clear activation in M1 contralateral to the non-moving hand (ipsilateral to the moving hand) during both flexion and extension phases. This unambiguous demonstration of M1 activation in association with a non-moving hand (which is visually-perceived as moving), suggests that perception of movement can directly lead to M1 activation. PMID:27187247

  14. Strategy and your stronger hand.

    PubMed

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2005-12-01

    There are two kinds of businesses in the world, says the author. Knowing what they are--and which one your company is--will guide you to the right strategic moves. One kind includes businesses that compete on a complex-systems model. These companies have large enterprises as their primary customers. They seek to grow a customer base in the thousands, with no more than a handful of transactions per customer per year (indeed, in some years there may be none), and the average price per transaction ranges from six to seven figures. In this model, 1,000 enterprises each paying dollar 1 million per year would generate dollar 1 billion in annual revenue. The other kind of business competes on a volume-operations model. Here, vendors seek to acquire millions of customers, with tens or even hundreds of transactions per customer per year, at an average price of relatively few dollars per transaction. Under this model, it would take 10 million customers each spending dollar 8 per month to generate nearly dollar 1 billion in revenue. An examination of both models shows that they could not be further apart in their approach to every step along the classic value chain. The problem, though, is that companies in one camp often attempt to create new value by venturing into the other. In doing so, they fail to realize how their managerial habits have been shaped by the model they've grown up with. By analogy, they have a "handedness"--the equivalent of a person's right- or left-hand dominance--that makes them as adroit in one mode as they are awkward in the other. Unless you are in an industry whose structure forces you to attempt ambidexterity (in which case, special efforts are required to manage the inevitable dropped balls), you'll be far more successful making moves that favor your stronger hand. PMID:16334582

  15. Effects of Ultrasound Frequency and Tissue Stiffness on the Histotripsy Intrinsic Threshold for Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Maxwell, Adam; Warnez, Matthew; Mancia, Lauren; Singh, Rahul; Putnam, Andrew J.; Fowlkes, Brian; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that depends on the initiation of a cavitation bubble cloud to fractionate soft tissue. Previous work has demonstrated a cavitation cloud can be formed by a single pulse with one high amplitude negative cycle, when the negative pressure amplitude directly exceeds a pressure threshold intrinsic to the medium. We hypothesize that the intrinsic threshold in water-based tissues is determined by the properties of the water inside the tissue and changes in tissue stiffness or ultrasound frequency will have a minimal impact on the histotripsy intrinsic threshold. To test this hypothesis, the histotripsy intrinsic threshold was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The probability of cavitation was measured by subjecting tissue phantoms with adjustable mechanical properties and ex vivo tissues to a histotripsy pulse of 1–2 cycles produced by 345 kHz, 500 kHz, 1.5 MHz, and 3 MHz histotripsy transducers. Cavitation was detected and characterized by passive cavitation detection and high-speed photography, from which the probability of cavitation was measured vs. pressure amplitude. The results demonstrated that the intrinsic threshold (the negative pressure at which probability=0.5) is independent of stiffness for Young’s moduli (E) < 1 MPa with only a small increase (~2–3 MPa) in the intrinsic threshold for tendon (E=380 MPa). Additionally, results for all samples showed only a small increase of ~2–3 MPa when the frequency was increased from 345 kHz to 3 MHz. The intrinsic threshold was measured to be between 24.7–30.6 MPa for all samples and frequencies tested in this study. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the intrinsic threshold to initiate a histotripsy bubble cloud is not significantly impacted by tissue stiffness or ultrasound frequency in hundreds of kHz to MHz range. PMID:25766571

  16. Human bites to the hand.

    PubMed

    Carr, M M

    1995-09-01

    Human bites to the hand or penetrating injuries contaminated with saliva can be a source of aggressive infection and debilitating injury. These types of injuries may also be a mode for the transmission of disease, notably hepatitis B. Dental personnel have an increased risk of experiencing bite injuries and should understand the general principles of appropriate management. Staphylococcal or streptococcal species are often associated with infected bite injuries, and amoxicillin and clavulanate are currently advised for prophylaxis. Wound cleansing and careful monitoring, combined with appropriate prophylaxis, are the mainstays of treatment. PMID:7585267

  17. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in nuclear physics, including the quark model, anti-matter, nuclear binding energy, stability, the nuclear shell model, and the importance of symmetry, by making use of neodymium disc magnets.

  18. Hand-Held Power Clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Tool furnishes large pushing or pulling forces. Device includes two clamping blocks, two clamping plates, and a motor-driven linear actuator with selflocking screw shaft. Power clamp exerts opening or closing force at push of switch. Tool approximately 1 m long. Originally designed to secure payload aboard Space Shuttle, operated with one hand to apply opening or closing force of up to 1,000 lb (4,400 N). Clamp has potential applications as end effector for industrial robots and in rescue work to push or pull wreckage with great force.

  19. Smart Sensors for Smart Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    Proximity, force-torque, touch and slippage sensors developed or applied by the JPL Teleoperator Project for remote manipulator control are described, including sensor data handling by computers for display and control. Examples are quoted showing the significance of these sensors for manual or computer control of manipulators. An interesting example is a proximity sensor system implemented for a four-claw JSC end effector and tested at the Shuttle Manipulator Training Facility of JSC. New sensing concepts aimed at simplifying the implementation of 'Smart Sensors for Smart Hands' in the space environment are discussed.

  20. Hand-Eye Calibration of Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickels, Kevin; Huber, Eric

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA's) performed by human astronauts. EVA is a high risk environment that requires extensive training and ground support. In collaboration with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), NASA is conducting a ground development project to produce a robotic astronaut's assistant, called Robonaut, that could help reduce human EVA time and workload. The project described in this paper designed and implemented a hand-eye calibration scheme for Robonaut, Unit A. The intent of this calibration scheme is to improve hand-eye coordination of the robot. The basic approach is to use kinematic and stereo vision measurements, namely the joint angles self-reported by the right arm and 3-D positions of a calibration fixture as measured by vision, to estimate the transformation from Robonaut's base coordinate system to its hand coordinate system and to its vision coordinate system. Two methods of gathering data sets have been developed, along with software to support each. In the first, the system observes the robotic arm and neck angles as the robot is operated under external control, and measures the 3-D position of a calibration fixture using Robonaut's stereo cameras, and logs these data. In the second, the system drives the arm and neck through a set of pre-recorded configurations, and data are again logged. Two variants of the calibration scheme have been developed. The full calibration scheme is a batch procedure that estimates all relevant kinematic parameters of the arm and neck of the robot The daily calibration scheme estimates only joint offsets for each rotational joint on the arm and neck, which are assumed to change from day to day. The schemes have been designed to be automatic and easy to use so that the robot can be fully recalibrated when needed such as after repair, upgrade, etc, and can be partially recalibrated after each power cycle. The scheme has been implemented on

  1. Intrinsic remediation of an industrial waste impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Swindoll, C.M.; Lee, M.D.; Wood, K.N.; Hartten, A.S.; Bishop, A.L.; Connor, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Intrinsic remediation, also known as natural restoration, was evaluated as a potential corrective action alternative for an industrial surface impoundment previously used for the disposal of waste treatment biosolids, organic wastes, and fly ash. Organic waste constituents included chlorobenzene, aniline, xylenes, benzene, toluene, acetone, p-cresol, 2-butanone, fluorene, and ethylbenzene. The evaluation demonstrated that the impoundment contains an active microbial community including aerobic, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microbes, and that environmental conditions were favorable for their growth. Laboratory studies confirmed that these microbes could biodegrade the organic waste constituents under varying redox conditions. The sorptive properties of the residual biosolids and fly ash contribute to the immobilization of chemical constituents and may enhance biodegradation by sequestering chemicals onto surfaces where microbes grow. Based on this field and laboratory evaluation, it was concluded that intrinsic remediation offers significant environmental benefits over other corrective action alternatives that would not allow these natural restoration processes to continue in the surface impoundment.

  2. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  3. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeri; Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  4. Intrinsically disordered proteins from A to Z.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2011-08-01

    The ideas that proteins might possess specific functions without being uniquely folded into rigid 3D-structures and that these floppy polypeptides might constitute a noticeable part of any given proteome would have been considered as a preposterous fiction 15 or even 10 years ago. The situation has changed recently, and the existence of functional yet intrinsically disordered proteins and regions has become accepted by a significant number of protein scientists. These fuzzy objects with fuzzy structures and fuzzy functions are among the most interesting and attractive targets for modern protein research. This review summarizes some of the major discoveries and breakthroughs in the field of intrinsic disorder by representing related concepts and definitions. PMID:21501695

  5. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner-Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  6. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons.

    PubMed

    Barth, E; Zetzsche, C; Rentschler, I

    1998-07-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features. PMID:9656473

  7. Conductance tomography of conductive filaments in intrinsic silicon-rich silica RRAM.

    PubMed

    Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Hudziak, Stephen; Mehonic, Adnan; Kenyon, Anthony J

    2015-11-21

    We present results from an imaging study of filamentary conduction in silicon suboxide resistive RAM devices. We used a conductive atomic force microscope to etch through devices while measuring current, allowing us to produce tomograms of conductive filaments. To our knowledge this is the first report of such measurements in an intrinsic resistance switching material. PMID:26482563

  8. The Debate about Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Protests and Accusations Do Not Alter the Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David

    1996-01-01

    The results of a meta-analysis that found that rewards do not threaten intrinsic motivation have not been well accepted by those who argue rewards produce negative effects under a wide range of conditions. Nevertheless, the results and conclusions of the meta-analysis are held to be valid. (SLD)

  9. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, C. A. F.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.; Ismail-Beigi, S.

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  10. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EM) as the complexity of the circuit grows. As the circuit becomes more complex, then more components will be required and a longer programming string, L, is required. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, based on L. Our analytical results show that even though the design search space grows as 2L (assuming a binary programming string), the number of circuit evaluations, n*ngen, only grows as O(Lg3), or slightly less than O(L). This makes evolvable techniques a good tool for exploring large design spaces. The major hurdle for intrinsic EHW is evaluation time for each possible circuit. The evaluation time involves downloading the bit string to the device, updating the device configuration, measuring the output and then transferring the output data to the control processor. Each of these steps must be done for each member of the population. The processing time of the computer becomes negligible since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation. Evaluation time presently limits intrinsic evolvable hardware techniques to designing only small or medium-sized circuits. To evolve large or complicated circuits, several researchers have proposed using hierarchical design or reuse techniques where submodules are combined together to form complex circuits. However, these practical approaches limit the search space of available designs and preclude utilizing parasitic coupling or other effects within the programmable device. The practical approaches also raise the issue of why intrinsic EHW techniques do not easily apply to large design spaces, since the analytical results show only an O(L) complexity growth.

  11. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  12. Steam generator hand hole shielding.

    PubMed

    Cox, W E

    2000-05-01

    Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

  13. Etiology of dental erosion--intrinsic factors.

    PubMed

    Scheutzel, P

    1996-04-01

    Dental erosion due to intrinsic factors is caused by gastric acid reaching the oral cavity and the teeth as a result of vomiting or gastroesophageal reflux. Since clinical manifestation of dental erosion does not occur until gastric acid has acted on the dental hard tissues regularly over a period of several years, dental erosion caused by intrinsic factors has been observed only in those diseases which are associated with chronic vomiting or persistent gastroesophageal reflux over a long period. Examples of such conditions include disorders of the upper alimentary tract, specific metabolic and endocrine disorders, cases of medication side-effects and drug abuse, and certain psychosomatic disorders, e.g. stress-induced psychosomatic vomiting, anorexia and bulimia nervosa or rumination. Based on a review of the medical and dental literature, the main symptoms of all disorders which must be taken into account as possible intrinsic etiological factors of dental erosion are thoroughly discussed with respect to the clinical picture, prevalence and risk of erosion. PMID:8804885

  14. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. PMID:26308751

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic effects on image memorability.

    PubMed

    Bylinskii, Zoya; Isola, Phillip; Bainbridge, Constance; Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have identified that images carry the attribute of memorability, a predictive value of whether a novel image will be later remembered or forgotten. Here we investigate the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect image memorability. First, we find that intrinsic differences in memorability exist at a finer-grained scale than previously documented. Second, we test two extrinsic factors: image context and observer behavior. Building on prior findings that images that are distinct with respect to their context are better remembered, we propose an information-theoretic model of image distinctiveness. Our model can automatically predict how changes in context change the memorability of natural images. In addition to context, we study a second extrinsic factor: where an observer looks while memorizing an image. It turns out that eye movements provide additional information that can predict whether or not an image will be remembered, on a trial-by-trial basis. Together, by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on memorability, we arrive at a more complete and fine-grained model of image memorability than previously available. PMID:25796976

  16. Intrinsic disorder accelerates dissociation rather than association.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Koji; Ohnuki, Jun; Higo, Junichi; Takano, Mitsunori

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) has distinct properties both physically and biologically: it often becomes folded when binding to the target and is frequently involved in signal transduction. The physical property seems to be compatible with the biological property where fast association and dissociation between IDP and the target are required. While fast association has been well studied, fueled by the fly-casting mechanism, the dissociation kinetics has received less attention. We here study how the intrinsic disorder affects the dissociation kinetics, as well as the association kinetics, paying attention to the interaction strength at the binding site (i.e., the quality of the "fly lure"). Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of the pKID-KIX system, a well-studied IDP system, shows that the association rate becomes larger as the disorder-inducing flexibility that was imparted to the model is increased, but the acceleration is marginal and turns into deceleration as the quality of the fly lure is worsened. In contrast, the dissociation rate is greatly enhanced as the disorder is increased, indicating that intrinsic disorder serves for rapid signal switching more effectively through dissociation than association. Proteins 2016; 84:1124-1133. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27122223

  17. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons

    PubMed Central

    Scheler, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP) which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function). We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP). The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction. PMID:25520776

  18. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of six asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation

  19. Brain Mechanical Property Measurement Using MRE with Intrinsic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Addressed Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. Methodology A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. Results, Significance and Potential Impact The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of 6 asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when

  20. The effects of strength training on finger strength and hand dexterity in healthy elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Olafsdottir, Halla B.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 6 wk of strength training on maximal pressing (MVC) force, indexes of finger individuation (enslaving), and performance in accurate force production tests and in functional hand tests in healthy, physically fit, elderly individuals. Twelve participants (average age 76 yr) exercised with both hands. One of the hands exercised by pressing with the proximal phalanges (targeting mainly intrinsic hand muscles), whereas the other hand exercised by pressing with the finger tips (targeting mainly extrinsic hand muscles). Training led to higher MVC forces, higher enslaving indexes, and improved performance on the pegboard grooved test. Changes in an index of multi-finger force stabilizing synergy showed a significant correlation with changes in the index of force variability in the accurate force production test. Strong transfer effects were seen to the site that did not perform strength training exercise within each hand. Effects of exercise at the proximal site were somewhat stronger compared with those of exercise at the finger tips, although the differences did not reach significance level. Control tests showed that repetitive testing by itself did not significantly change the maximal finger force and enslaving. The results suggest that strength training is an effective way to improve finger strength. It can also lead to changes in finger interaction and in performance of accurate force production tasks. Adaptations at a neural level are likely to mediate the observed effects. Overall, the data suggest that strength training can also improve the hand function of less healthy elderly subjects. PMID:18687981

  1. The intrinsic two-dimensional size of Sagittarius A*

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Markoff, Sera; Brunthaler, Andreas; Falcke, Heino; Law, Casey; Maitra, Dipankar; Clavel, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Morris, M. R.; Witzel, Gunther; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, A. M.

    2014-07-20

    We report the detection of the two-dimensional structure of the radio source associated with the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*, obtained from Very Long Baseline Array observations at a wavelength of 7 mm. The intrinsic source is modeled as an elliptical Gaussian with major-axis size 35.4 × 12.6 R{sub S} in position angle 95° east of north. This morphology can be interpreted in the context of both jet and accretion disk models for the radio emission. There is supporting evidence in large angular-scale multi-wavelength observations for both source models for a preferred axis near 95°. We also place a maximum peak-to-peak change of 15% in the intrinsic major-axis size over five different epochs. Three observations were triggered by detection of near infrared (NIR) flares and one was simultaneous with a large X-ray flare detected by NuSTAR. The absence of simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous flares indicates that not all high energy events produce variability at radio wavelengths. This supports the conclusion that NIR and X-ray flares are primarily due to electron excitation and not to an enhanced accretion rate onto the black hole.

  2. Composition dependent intrinsic defect structures in SrTiO₃.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Cooper, Valentino R; Xu, Haixuan; Xiao, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2014-08-01

    Intrinsic point defect complexes in SrTiO3 under different chemical conditions are studied using density functional theory. The Schottky defect complex consisting of nominally charged Sr, Ti and O vacancies is predicted to be the most stable defect structure in stoichiometric SrTiO3, with a relatively low formation energy of 1.64 eV per defect. In addition, the mechanisms of defect complex formation in nonstoichiometric SrTiO3 are investigated. Excess SrO leads to the formation of oxygen vacancies and a strontium-titanium antisite defect, while a strontium vacancy together with an oxygen vacancy and a titanium-strontium antisite defect are produced in an excess TiO2 environment. Since point defects, such as oxygen vacancies and cation antisite defects, are intimately related to the functionality of SrTiO3, these results provide guidelines for controlling the formation of intrinsic point defects and optimizing the functionality of SrTiO3 by controlling nonstoichiometric chemical compositions of SrO and TiO2 in experiments. PMID:24953742

  3. Technology and Engineering Education Students' Perceptions of Hands-On and Hands-Off Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianez, David M.; Fugere, Madeleine A.; Lennon, Carter A.

    2010-01-01

    Technology and engineering education students responded to a survey regarding hands-on and hands-off activities. First, the students listed hands-on and hands-off activities and what characterized the two types of activities. Activities such as building or assembling something as well as working manually with tools were viewed as hands-on. Passive…

  4. [Evaluating occupational stress on the hand].

    PubMed

    Köhnlein, H E; Bake vel Bakin, J S

    1991-07-01

    In order to achieve objective data to eventually measure the dexterity of hands, we examined 210 hands in 105 persons. These persons were divided into two groups: one group of people with jobs demanding unusual dexterity (musicians, typists, etc.), and another group with average occupational demands on the hand. As expected, we found that hand length and breadth and wrist circumference are always greater in the dominant hand of any individual. The thumb and small finger are always longer in the dominant hand. Joints' active range of motion are significantly higher in individuals whose occupations were particularly demanding. PMID:1937189

  5. [Symptoms. Localizations: knee, hip, hands, spine, other localizations].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of osteoarthritis vary widely from patient to patient, depending especially on the localization on the disease. There is a poor correlation between radiological involvement and pain. In general, symptom onset is gradual and symptoms increase slowly but progressively. The most commonly affected joints are the knees, hips, hands, and spine. The main signs and symptoms are pain, stiffness, joint deformity, and crepitus. Pain is mechanical and its causes are multifactorial; in the initial phases, pain usually manifests in self-limiting episodes but may subsequently be almost constant. The criteria of the American college of Rheumatology for the classification of osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hands are an aid to classification and standardization but are not useful for diagnosis. Hip osteoarthritis usually produces inguinal pain in the internal and anterior sections of the muscle extending to the knee and, with progression, tends to limit mobility. Knee osteoarthritis is more frequent in women and is usually associated with hand osteoarthritis and obesity. In hand osteoarthritis, the most commonly affected joints are the distal interphalangeal joints, followed by the proximal interphalangeal joints and the trapeziometacarpal joints; the development of Heberden and Bouchard nodes is common; involvement of the trapeziometacarpal joint is called rhizarthrosis and is one of the forms of osteoarthritis that produces the greatest limitation on hand function. Osteoarthritis of the spine affects the facet joints and the vertebral bodies. Other, less frequent, localizations are the foot, elbow and shoulder, which are generally secondary forms of osteoarthritis. PMID:24467955

  6. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol. PMID:17719131

  7. Irene: First Hand from OBX

    NASA Video Gallery

    Silvia Stoyanova, a Producer for NASA-TV at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., was vacationing in eastern North Carolina when Hurricane Irene made landfall and caused severe dama...

  8. Intrinsic bottom and its impact on heavy new physics at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not involve any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. On the other hand, non-perturbative, intrinsic heavy quark parton distributions have been predicted in the literature. We demonstrate that to a very good approximation the scale-evolution of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon is governed by non-singlet evolution equations. This allows to analyze the intrinsic heavy quark distributions without having to resort to a full-fledged global analysis of parton distribution functions. We exploit this freedom to model intrinsic bottom distributions which are so far missing in the literature. We estimate the impact of the non-perturbative contribution to the charm and bottom-quark PDFs and on several important parton-parton luminosities at the LHC.

  9. Heat resistant protective hand covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The heat resistant, protective glove is made up of first and second shell sections which define a palm side and a backside, respectively. The first shell section is made of a twill wave fabric of a temperature-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber. The second shell section is made of a knitted fabric of a temperature-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber. The first and second shell sections are secured to one another, e.g., by sewing, to provide the desired glove configuration and an opening for insertion of the wearer's hand. The protective glove also includes a first liner section which is secured to and overlies the inner surface of the first shell section and is made of a felt fabric of a temperature-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber and has a flame resistant, elastomenic coating on the surface facing and overlying the inner surface of the first shell section.

  10. Modulation of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Function by Post-translational Modifications.

    PubMed

    Bah, Alaji; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2016-03-25

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) produce significant changes in the structural properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) by affecting their energy landscapes. PTMs can induce a range of effects, from local stabilization or destabilization of transient secondary structure to global disorder-to-order transitions, potentially driving complete state changes between intrinsically disordered and folded states or dispersed monomeric and phase-separated states. Here, we discuss diverse biological processes that are dependent on PTM regulation of IDPs. We also present recent tools for generating homogenously modified IDPs for studies of PTM-mediated IDP regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26851279

  11. Limitations of spectral analysis of the Phobos magnetometer data in the search for an intrinsic Martian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    1992-01-01

    Both observed and synthetic time series of the magnetic field obtained in circular orbit around Mars by the Phobos spacecraft are analyzed. Of the three reported spectral peaks at 8, 12 and 24 h only the 24-h peak could be due to intrinsic sources. However, 24-h spectral peaks can also be produced in synthetic time series with no intrinsic field effects included. Hence, it is concluded that present spectral analyses of time series obtained with the Phobos magnetometers provide no constraints on the size or the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mars.

  12. Work of the Hand through the Curriculum and across the Planes of Development: A Compilation of Creative Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAMTA Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This article and the one that follows, "Quilt-Making in the Elementary Class" (EJ1077043), emerge from Mountain Laurel Montessori School and provide examples of the intrinsic links between the hand and academic lessons. This article features a compilation of artful recipes for young children (Soap Sculpting Clay, Easy Flour Paste, Face…

  13. Transcriptomic analyses of Hand2 transgenic embryos.

    PubMed

    Funato, Noriko; Kokubo, Hiroki; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we further provide the data generated for the previously published research article "Specification of jaw identity by the Hand2 transcription factor." To better understand the downstream genes of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2, we generated double-transgenic mice (Hand2 (NC) ) by intercrossing CAG-floxed CAT-Hand2 mice with Wnt1-Cre mice for conditional activation of Hand2 expression in the neural crest. Altered expression of Hand2 induces transformation of the upper jaw to the lower jaw in Hand2 (NC) mutant mice. This data article provides Tables detailing the differentially expressed genes between wild-type and Hand2 (NC) mutant embryos. The raw array data of our transcriptomes as generated using Affymetrix microarrays are available on the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) browser (Reference number GSE75805). PMID:27408813

  14. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. More About Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Describes causes of the disease, its symptoms, ...

  15. Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. I: A BBC television programme broadcast in 1953.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Rawles, Richard; Moore, James; Freegard, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In August 1953, the BBC broadcast a television science programme entitled Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. The programme was broadcast live, being presented by Dr Jacob Bronowski in collaboration with Dr Kenneth Smith, and produced by George Noordhof. It not only presented a popular account of current ideas about right- and left-handedness, by using a group of celebrities (and a chimpanzee) in the studio, but also asked viewers to complete a brief questionnaire on handedness, which was printed in the Radio Times. Recently 6,336 of the returned questionnaires, which were said to have been analysed by Sir Cyril Burt and a colleague, were found in the archive of the Psychology Department of University College London. The present paper describes what we have discovered about the programme from various sources, including the producer and the son of Dr Kenneth Smith, and also presents basic descriptions of the postcards and the response to the programme. In two subsequent papers we will describe our analysis of the data from the postcards, which represents an unusual, large-scale survey of handedness in the mid-twentieth century. PMID:19172490

  16. Adaptation to steady light by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri Hoang; Yau, King-Wai

    2013-04-30

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are recently discovered photoreceptors in the mammalian eye. These photoreceptors mediate primarily nonimage visual functions, such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment, which are generally expected to respond to the absolute light intensity. The classical rod and cone photoreceptors, on the other hand, mediate image vision by signaling contrast, accomplished by adaptation to light. Experiments by others have indicated that the ipRGCs do, in fact, light-adapt. We found the same but, in addition, have now quantified this light adaptation for the M1 ipRGC subtype. Interestingly, in incremental-flash-on-background experiments, the ipRGC's receptor current showed a flash sensitivity that adapted in background light according to the Weber-Fechner relation, well known to describe the adaptation behavior of rods and cones. Part of this light adaptation by ipRGCs appeared to be triggered by a Ca(2+) influx, in that the flash response elicited in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) showed a normal rising phase but a slower decay phase, resulting in longer time to peak and higher sensitivity. There is, additionally, a prominent Ca(2+)-independent component of light adaptation not typically seen in rods and cones or in invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors. PMID:23589882

  17. Intrinsic fluctuations and driven response of insect swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Rui; Puckett, James G.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of collective behaviour in social animals comes from passive observations of animal groups. To understand the group dynamics fully, however, we must also characterize the response of animal aggregations to disturbances. Using three-dimensional particle tracking, we study both the intrinsic fluctuations of laboratory swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and the response of the swarms to controlled external perturbations: the amplitude-modulated sound of male midge wingbeats. Although these perturbations have an insignificant effect on the behavior of individuals, we find that they can have a strong impact on the collective movement. Intriguingly, the response of the swarm is similar reminiscent to of that of a passive equilibrium system to an external driving force, with microscopic fluctuations underlying combining to produce a macroscopic linear response over a wide range of driving frequencies.

  18. Friction Anisotropy: A unique and intrinsic property of decagonal quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mulleregan, Alice; Park, Jeong Young; Salmeron, Miquel; Ogetree, D.F.; Jenks, C.J.; Thiel, P.A.; Brenner, J.; Dubois, J.M.

    2008-06-25

    We show that friction anisotropy is an intrinsic property of the atomic structure of Al-Ni-Co decagonal quasicrystals and not only of clean and well-ordered surfaces that can be prepared in vacuum [J.Y. Park et al., Science (2005)]. Friction anisotropy is manifested both in nanometer size contacts obtained with sharp atomic force microscope (AFM) tips as well as in macroscopic contacts produced in pin-on-disc tribometers. We show that the friction anisotropy, which is not observed when an amorphous oxide film covers the surface, is recovered when the film is removed due to wear. Equally important is the loss of the friction anisotropy when the quasicrystalline order is destroyed due to cumulative wear. These results reveal the intimate connection between the mechanical properties of these materials and their peculiar atomic structure.

  19. The Impact of Teaching Strategies on Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomia, Lisa; Beluzo, Lynne; Demeester, Debra; Elander, Keli; Johnson, Mary; Sheldon, Betty

    This paper examines intrinsic motivation by reviewing various motivational theories and models and discussing whether research supports the hypothesis that teaching strategies can influence intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation, also known as self-motivation, refers to influences that originate from within a person which cause a person to act…

  20. Role of Intrinsic Motivation in Children's School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles

    The relationship between intrinsic motivation for school learning and school achievement was investigated. An intrinsic motivation inventory was developed to test the hypotheses that intrinsic motivation is differentiated into specific subject areas for school learning; and for specific subjects is positively, significantly, and differentially…

  1. 30 CFR 27.34 - Test for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for intrinsic safety. 27.34 Section 27.34... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.34 Test for intrinsic safety. Assemblies, subassemblies, or components that are designed for intrinsic safety shall be tested...

  2. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... power for intrinsically safe circuits shall be housed in explosion-proof enclosures and be provided with... intermingled with wiring for intrinsically safe circuits. (4) Transformers that supply power for intrinsically... cover power line voltage variations. (6) In investigations of alternating current circuits a minimum...

  3. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... power for intrinsically safe circuits shall be housed in explosion-proof enclosures and be provided with... intermingled with wiring for intrinsically safe circuits. (4) Transformers that supply power for intrinsically... cover power line voltage variations. (6) In investigations of alternating current circuits a minimum...

  4. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... power for intrinsically safe circuits shall be housed in explosion-proof enclosures and be provided with... intermingled with wiring for intrinsically safe circuits. (4) Transformers that supply power for intrinsically... cover power line voltage variations. (6) In investigations of alternating current circuits a minimum...

  5. Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David

    1994-01-01

    A meta-analysis including 96 experimental studies considers the effects of reinforcement/reward on intrinsic motivation. Results indicate that reward does not decrease intrinsic motivation, although interaction effects must be examined. An analysis with five studies also indicates that reinforcement does not harm intrinsic motivation. (SLD)

  6. Sensory interaction and descriptions of fabric hand.

    PubMed

    Burns, L D; Chandler, J; Brown, D M; Cameron, B; Dallas, M J

    1995-08-01

    82 subjects who viewed and felt fabrics (sensory interaction group) used different categories of terms to describe fabric hand than did 38 subjects who only felt the fabrics. Therefore, the methods used to measure fabric hand that isolate the senses may not accurately assess the way in which subjects describe fabric hand in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:8532445

  7. Response Preparation with Static versus Moving Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Jos J.; Moresi, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    This research tested the response inhibition account of the hand-advantage found in the finger precuing task. According to this account, the advantage of preparing two fingers on one hand (represented in one hemisphere) as opposed to preparing two fingers on two hands (represented in two hemispheres) is due, in part, to a response inhibition…

  8. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  9. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  10. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910.138 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements. Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when...

  11. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  12. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  13. 33 CFR 401.13 - Hand lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand lines. 401.13 Section 401.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.13 Hand lines. Hand lines shall:...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand...) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including crescent,...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand...) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including crescent,...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand...) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including crescent,...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand...) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including crescent,...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand...) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including crescent,...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910.138 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements. Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when...

  1. 33 CFR 401.13 - Hand lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand lines. 401.13 Section 401.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.13 Hand lines. Hand lines shall:...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910.138 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements. Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when...

  3. 33 CFR 401.13 - Hand lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand lines. 401.13 Section 401.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.13 Hand lines. Hand lines shall:...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910.138 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements. Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  10. 33 CFR 401.13 - Hand lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand lines. 401.13 Section 401.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.13 Hand lines. Hand lines shall:...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  16. 29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand protection. 1910.138 Section 1910.138 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.138 Hand protection. (a) General requirements. Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when...

  17. 33 CFR 401.13 - Hand lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand lines. 401.13 Section 401.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.13 Hand lines. Hand lines shall:...

  18. Intrinsic cellular defenses against human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2012-09-21

    Viral infections are often detrimental to host survival and reproduction. Consequently, hosts have evolved a variety of mechanisms to defend themselves against viruses. A component of this arsenal is a set of proteins, termed restriction factors, which exhibit direct antiviral activity. Among these are several classes of proteins (APOBEC3, TRIM5, Tetherin, and SAMHD1) that inhibit the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Here, we outline the features, mechanisms, and evolution of these defense mechanisms. We also speculate on how restriction factors arose, how they might interact with the conventional innate and adaptive immune systems, and how an understanding of these intrinsic cellular defenses might be usefully exploited. PMID:22999946

  19. Intrinsic Response Time of Graphene Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Graphene-based photodetectors are promising new devices for high-speed optoelectronic applications. However, despite recent efforts it is not clear what determines the ultimate speed limit of these devices. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic response time of metal–graphene–metal photodetectors with monolayer graphene using an optical correlation technique with ultrashort laser pulses. We obtain a response time of 2.1 ps that is mainly given by the short lifetime of the photogenerated carriers. This time translates into a bandwidth of ∼262 GHz. Moreover, we investigate the dependence of the response time on gate voltage and illumination laser power. PMID:21627096

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang; Bülow, Hannes E

    2015-01-01

    The complex, branched morphology of dendrites is a cardinal feature of neurons and has been used as a criterion for cell type identification since the beginning of neurobiology. Regulated dendritic outgrowth and branching during development form the basis of receptive fields for neurons and are essential for the wiring of the nervous system. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis have been an intensely studied area. In this review, we summarize the major experimental systems that have contributed to our understandings of dendritic development as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that instruct the neurons to form cell type-specific dendritic arbors. PMID:25386991

  1. Paramagnetic intrinsic Meissner effect in a bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, A. G.

    2008-10-01

    We calculate the free energy of a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) superconductor with ξ⊥ < d in a parallel magnetic field, where ξ⊥ is a perpendicular to the conducting layer coherence length and d is the interlayer distance. It is shown to be different from that in the famous Lawrence-Doniach model. In particular, at high enough magnetic fields, the Meissner currents are found to create an unexpected paramagnetic moment due to the shrinking of the Cooper pairs “sizes” in a direction perpendicular to the conducting layers. We suggest measuring this paramagnetic intrinsic Meissner effect in Q2D superconductors and superconducting superlattices.

  2. Ambipolar quantum dots in intrinsic silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, A. C. Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Podd, G.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2014-10-13

    We electrically measure intrinsic silicon quantum dots with electrostatically defined tunnel barriers. The presence of both p- and n-type ohmic contacts enables the accumulation of either electrons or holes. Thus, we are able to study both transport regimes within the same device. We investigate the effect of the tunnel barriers and the electrostatically defined quantum dots. There is greater localisation of charge states under the tunnel barriers in the case of hole conduction, leading to higher charge noise in the p-type regime.

  3. Intrinsic entanglement degradation by multimode detection

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J.P.

    2004-08-01

    Relations between photon scattering, entanglement, and multimode detection are investigated. We first establish a general framework in which one- and two-photon elastic scattering processes can be discussed; then, we focus on the study of the intrinsic entanglement degradation caused by a multimode detection. We show that any multimode scattered state cannot maximally violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality because of the momentum spread. The results presented here have general validity and can be applied to both deterministic and random scattering processes.

  4. Type Ia Supernova Intrinsic Magnitude Dispersion and the Fitting of Cosmological Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alex G

    2010-12-10

    I present an analysis for fitting cosmological parameters from a Hubble Diagram of a standard candle with unknown intrinsic magnitude dispersion. The dispersion is determined from the data themselves, simultaneously with the cosmological parameters. This contrasts with the strategies used to date. The advantages of the presented analysis are that it is done in a single fit (it is not iterative), it provides a statistically founded and unbiased estimate of the intrinsic dispersion, and its cosmological-parameter uncertainties account for the intrinsic dispersion uncertainty. Applied to Type Ia supernovae, my strategy provides a statistical measure to test for sub-types and assess the significance of any magnitude corrections applied to the calibrated candle. Parameter bias and differences between likelihood distributions produced by the presented and currently-used fitters are negligibly small for existing and projected supernova data sets.

  5. Hand dose measurements in interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Felmlee, J.P.; McGough, P.F.; Morin, R.L.; Classic, K.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Measurements of radiation dose to the hand were conducted using TLD ring badges for individual interventional radiology cases. Results from over 30 examinations (including transhepatic cholangiograms and biliary and nephrostomy procedures) conducted by four radiologists using identical equipment show an average hand dose of 1.5 mGy (150 mrad) per procedure. Hand dose varied inversely with distance from the patient. Due to variable hand positions during clinical examinations, fluoroscopic time was not found to be a good indicator of hand dose.

  6. Hand dose measurements in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Felmlee, J P; McGough, P F; Morin, R L; Classic, K L

    1991-02-01

    Measurements of radiation dose to the hand were conducted using TLD ring badges for individual interventional radiology cases. Results from over 30 examinations (including transhepatic cholangiograms and biliary and nephrostomy procedures) conducted by four radiologists using identical equipment show an average hand dose of 1.5 mGy (150 mrad) per procedure. Hand dose varied inversely with distance from the patient. Due to variable hand positions during clinical examinations, fluoroscopic time was not found to be a good indicator of hand dose. PMID:1989948

  7. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome. PMID:26665632

  8. Hand replantation: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a hand replantation. A 43-year-old male presented with an amputated right hand. After clinical and radiological examination of the amputated hand and the forearm stump, the patient was consented for hand replantation procedure. Both bones of the forearm were fixed using K-wires. Careful dissection, trimming and repair of the tendons, vessels (two arteries and one vein) and nerves was achieved. The patient tolerated the procedure well and 2 months later showed a progressive improvement in motor and sensory functions. We suggest that a single-vein repair is sufficient for a successful hand replantation. PMID:27489633

  9. Effect of hand splints on stereotypic hand behavior of three girls with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, G M; Billingsley, F F

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this multiple baseline study was to examine the effect of bilateral hand splints on the persistent stereotypic hand movements of three adolescent girls with Rett syndrome. Among the most characteristic features of Rett syndrome are stereotypic hand-writing and hand-biting behavior and loss of previously acquired functional hand skills. The hand splints used in this study consisted of cuffs encircling the palm that positioned the subjects' thumbs in abduction. Duration percentages of subjects' stereotypic hand behavior and functional hand use were calculated from five-minute videotaped segments recorded during a finger-feeding condition and a free-time condition. All three subjects demonstrated a decrease in the amount of time spent in stereotypic hand behavior after application of hand splints, and one subject showed an increase in finger-feeding skills while wearing hand splints. Limitations of the study are discussed, and suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered. PMID:3362979

  10. Respiratory neuron characterization reveals intrinsic bursting properties in isolated adult turtle brainstems (Trachemys scripta).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephen M; Hedrick, Michael S; Krause, Bryan M; Nilles, Jacob P; Chapman, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    It is not known whether respiratory neurons with intrinsic bursting properties exist within ectothermic vertebrate respiratory control systems. Thus, isolated adult turtle brainstems spontaneously producing respiratory motor output were used to identify and classify respiratory neurons based on their firing pattern relative to hypoglossal (XII) nerve activity. Most respiratory neurons (183/212) had peak activity during the expiratory phase, while inspiratory, post-inspiratory, and novel pre-expiratory neurons were less common. During synaptic blockade conditions, ∼10% of respiratory neurons fired bursts of action potentials, with post-inspiratory cells (6/9) having the highest percentage of intrinsic burst properties. Most intrinsically bursting respiratory neurons were clustered at the level of the vagus (X) nerve root. Synaptic inhibition blockade caused seizure-like activity throughout the turtle brainstem, which shows that the turtle respiratory control system is not transformed into a network driven by intrinsically bursting respiratory neurons. We hypothesize that intrinsically bursting respiratory neurons are evolutionarily conserved and represent a potential rhythmogenic mechanism contributing to respiration in adult turtles. PMID:25462012

  11. Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Judy; Banko, Katherine M.; Pierce, W. David

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in psychology and education is that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation to perform activities. Over the past 30 years, more than 100 experimental studies have been conducted on this topic. In 1994, Cameron and Pierce conducted a meta-analysis of this literature and concluded that negative effects of reward were limited and could be easily prevented in applied settings. A more recent meta-analysis of the literature by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) shows pervasive negative effects of reward. The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations. Our results suggest that in general, rewards are not harmful to motivation to perform a task. Rewards given for low-interest tasks enhance free-choice intrinsic motivation. On high-interest tasks, verbal rewards produce positive effects on free-choice motivation and self-reported task interest. Negative effects are found on high-interest tasks when the rewards are tangible, expected (offered beforehand), and loosely tied to level of performance. When rewards are linked to level of performance, measures of intrinsic motivation increase or do not differ from a nonrewarded control group. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that reward contingencies do not have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are addressed. PMID:22478353

  12. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Quantum Ferromagnetic XXZ Chains in an Oblique Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A semiclassical study of intrinsic localized spin-wave modes in a one-dimensional quantum ferromagnetic XXZ chain in an oblique magnetic field is presented in this paper. We quantize the model Hamiltonian by introducing the Dyson-Maleev transformation, and adopt the coherent state representation as the basic representation of the system. By means of the method of multiple scales combined with a quasidiscreteness approximation, the equation of motion for the coherent-state amplitude can be reduced to the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is found that, at the center of the Brillouin zone, when θ < θ c a bright intrinsic localized spin-wave mode appears below the bottom of the magnon frequency band and when θ > θ c a dark intrinsic localized spin-wave resonance mode can occur above the bottom of the magnon frequency band. In other words, the switch between the bright and dark intrinsic localized spin-wave modes can be controlled via varying the angle of the magnetic field. This result has potential applications in quantum information storage. In addition, we find that, at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, the system can only produce a dark intrinsic localized spin-wave mode, whose eigenfrequency is above the upper of the magnon frequency band.

  13. Prediction of hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance and human clearance values for drugs.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Katarina; Agababa, Danica

    2009-10-01

    Twenty-nine drugs of different structures were used in theoretical QSAR analysis of human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2) and in vitro CL'(int)) and whole body clearance (CL(blood)). The examined compounds demonstrated a wide range of scaled intrinsic clearance values. Constitutional, geometrical, physico-chemical and electronic descriptors were computed for the examined structures by use of the Marvin Sketch 5.1.3_2, the Chem3D Ultra 7.0.0 and the Dragon 5.4 program. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), has been applied for selection of the most relevant molecular descriptors and development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2)). Optimal QSAR models with nine and ten variables, R(2)>0.808 and cross-validation parameter q(pre)(2)>0.623, were selected and compared. Since the microsomal in vitro T(1/2) data can be used for calculation of in vitro CL'(int) and in vivo CL(blood), the developed QSAR model will enable one to analyze the kinetics of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in term of intrinsic clearance and whole body clearance. A comparison is made between predictions produced from the QSAR analysis and experimental data, and there appears to be generally satisfactory correlations with the literature values for intrinsic clearance data. PMID:19713138

  14. Hand gesture recognition based on surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulic, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Human hands are the most dexterous of human limbs and hand gestures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Underlying electromyograms associated with hand gestures provide a wealth of information based on which varying hand gestures can be recognized. This paper develops an inter-individual hand gesture recognition model based on Hidden Markov models that receives surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as inputs and predicts a corresponding hand gesture. The developed recognition model is tested with a dataset of 10 various hand gestures performed by 25 subjects in a leave-one-subject-out cross validation and an inter-individual recognition rate of 79% was achieved. The promising recognition rate demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for discriminating between gesture-specific sEMG signals and could inform the design of sEMG-controlled prostheses and assistive devices. PMID:25570917

  15. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Busch, David J.; Houser, Justin R.; Hayden, Carl C.; Sherman, Michael B.; Lafer, Eileen M.; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures. PMID:26204806

  16. Intrinsic adaptation in autonomous recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius

    2012-02-01

    A massively recurrent neural network responds on one side to input stimuli and is autonomously active, on the other side, in the absence of sensory inputs. Stimuli and information processing depend crucially on the quality of the autonomous-state dynamics of the ongoing neural activity. This default neural activity may be dynamically structured in time and space, showing regular, synchronized, bursting, or chaotic activity patterns. We study the influence of nonsynaptic plasticity on the default dynamical state of recurrent neural networks. The nonsynaptic adaption considered acts on intrinsic neural parameters, such as the threshold and the gain, and is driven by the optimization of the information entropy. We observe, in the presence of the intrinsic adaptation processes, three distinct and globally attracting dynamical regimes: a regular synchronized, an overall chaotic, and an intermittent bursting regime. The intermittent bursting regime is characterized by intervals of regular flows, which are quite insensitive to external stimuli, interceded by chaotic bursts that respond sensitively to input signals. We discuss these findings in the context of self-organized information processing and critical brain dynamics. PMID:22091667

  17. Predicting intrinsic disorder from amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, Zoran; Peng, Kang; Vucetic, Slobodan; Radivojac, Predrag; Brown, Celeste J; Dunker, A Keith

    2003-01-01

    Blind predictions of intrinsic order and disorder were made on 42 proteins subsequently revealed to contain 9,044 ordered residues, 284 disordered residues in 26 segments of length 30 residues or less, and 281 disordered residues in 2 disordered segments of length greater than 30 residues. The accuracies of the six predictors used in this experiment ranged from 77% to 91% for the ordered regions and from 56% to 78% for the disordered segments. The average of the order and disorder predictions ranged from 73% to 77%. The prediction of disorder in the shorter segments was poor, from 25% to 66% correct, while the prediction of disorder in the longer segments was better, from 75% to 95% correct. Four of the predictors were composed of ensembles of neural networks. This enabled them to deal more efficiently with the large asymmetry in the training data through diversified sampling from the significantly larger ordered set and achieve better accuracy on ordered and long disordered regions. The exclusive use of long disordered regions for predictor training likely contributed to the disparity of the predictions on long versus short disordered regions, while averaging the output values over 61-residue windows to eliminate short predictions of order or disorder probably contributed to the even greater disparity for three of the predictors. This experiment supports the predictability of intrinsic disorder from amino acid sequence. PMID:14579347

  18. Intrinsic radiation resistance in human chondrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Mollano, Anthony; Martin, James A.; Ayoob, Andrew; Domann, Frederick E.; Gitelis, Steven; Buckwalter, Joseph A. . E-mail: joseph-buckwalter@uiowa.edu

    2006-07-28

    Human chondrosarcomas rarely respond to radiation treatment, limiting the options for eradication of these tumors. The basis of radiation resistance in chondrosarcomas remains obscure. In normal cells radiation induces DNA damage that leads to growth arrest or death. However, cells that lack cell cycle control mechanisms needed for these responses show intrinsic radiation resistance. In previous work, we identified immortalized human chondrosarcoma cell lines that lacked p16{sup ink4a}, one of the major tumor suppressor proteins that regulate the cell cycle. We hypothesized that the absence of p16{sup ink4a} contributes to the intrinsic radiation resistance of chondrosarcomas and that restoring p16{sup ink4a} expression would increase their radiation sensitivity. To test this we determined the effects of ectopic p16{sup ink4a} expression on chondrosarcoma cell resistance to low-dose {gamma}-irradiation (1-5 Gy). p16{sup ink4a} expression significantly increased radiation sensitivity in clonogenic assays. Apoptosis did not increase significantly with radiation and was unaffected by p16{sup ink4a} transduction of chondrosarcoma cells, indicating that mitotic catastrophe, rather than programmed cell death, was the predominant radiation effect. These results support the hypothesis that p16{sup ink4a} plays a role in the radiation resistance of chondrosarcoma cell lines and suggests that restoring p16 expression will improve the radiation sensitivity of human chondrosarcomas.

  19. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, David J.; Houser, Justin R.; Hayden, Carl C.; Sherman, Michael B.; Lafer, Eileen M.; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.

    2015-07-01

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  20. NdN: An intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, E.-M.; McNulty, J. F.; Ruck, B. J.; Suzuki, M.; Mizumaki, M.; Antonov, V. N.; Quilty, J. W.; Strickland, N.; Trodahl, H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The rare-earth nitrides have recently regained attention due to findings that most members of the series are intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductors, a class of materials that is crucial for the development of spintronics devices. Here we present a study of NdN thin films, with films grown via molecular beam epitaxy. Optical transmission measurements revealed a band gap of about 0.9 eV, while resistivity measurements confirmed semiconducting behavior with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, though semimetallic behavior could not be ruled out. The room temperature resistivity of 0.6 m Ω cm indicates strong doping by nitrogen vacancies. Magnetization measurements show a ferromagnetic moment of 1.0 ±0.2 μB below the Curie temperature TC of 43 ±1 K, strongly suppressed from the Hund's rules value of 3.27 μB per ion. The ferromagnetic moment is strongly quenched and the TC is enhanced compared to previously studied bulk NdN, and crystal field calculations reveal that the quenched moment is likely due to lattice strain. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show that the magnetic moment is orbital dominant, placing NdN in the same category as SmN, an intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor with an orbital-dominant ferromagnetic moment.

  1. The intrinsic viscosity of linear DNA.

    PubMed

    Tsortos, Achilleas; Papadakis, George; Gizeli, Electra

    2011-12-01

    We measured the intrinsic viscosity of very small synthetic DNA molecules, of 20-395 base pairs, and incorporated them in a nearly complete picture for the whole span of molecular weights reported in the literature to date. A major transition is observed at M approximately 2 × 10(6) . It is found that in the range of approximately 7 × 10(3) ≤ M ≤ 2 × 10(6) , the intrinsic viscosity scales as [η] approximately M(1.05) , suggesting that short DNA chains are not as rigid as generally thought. The corresponding scaling for the range of 2 × 10(6) ≤ M ≤ 8 × 10(10) is [η] approximately M(0.69) . A comparison of our results with existing equations, for much narrower data distributions, is made, and the agreement is very satisfactory considering the huge range of data analyzed here. Experimental concerns such as the effect of ionic strength, polydispersity, temperature, and shear rate are discussed in detail. Some issues concerning the Huggins coefficient, polymer chain stiffness, and the relationship between the Mark-Houwink constants K, α are also presented; it is found that log K = 1.156 - 6.19α. PMID:21638275

  2. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  3. Intrinsic Josephson Junctions with Intermediate Damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Paul A.; Saleem, Sajid; Fenton, Jon C.; Speller, Susie; Grovenor, Chris R. M.

    2011-03-01

    In cuprate superconductors, adjacent cuprate double-planes are intrinsically Josephson-coupled. For bias currents perpendicular to the planes, the current-voltage characteristics correspond to those of an array of underdamped Josephson junctions. We will discuss our experiments on sub-micron Tl-2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs). The dynamics of the IJJs at the plasma frequency are moderately damped (Q ~ 8). This results in a number of counter-intuitive observations, including both a suppression of the effect of thermal fluctuations and a shift of the skewness of the switching current distributions from negative to positive as the temperature is increased. Simulations confirm that these phenomena result from repeated phase slips as the IJJ switches from the zero-voltage to the running state. We further show that increased dissipation counter-intuitively increases the maximum supercurrent in the intermediate damping regime (PRL vol. 103, art. no. 217002). We discuss the role of environmental dissipation on the dynamics and describe experiments with on-chip lumped-element passive components in order control the environment seen by the IJJs. Work supported by EPSRC.

  4. Interacting hands: the role of attention for the joint Simon effect

    PubMed Central

    Liepelt, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in monkeys and humans has shown that the presence of the hands near an object enhances spatial processing for objects presented near the hand. This study aimed to test the effect of hand position on the joint Simon effect. In Experiment 1, two human co-actors shared a Simon task while placing their response hands either near the objects appearing on the monitor or away from the monitor. Experiment 2 varied each co-actor’s hand position independently. Experiment 3 tested whether enhanced spatial processing for objects presented near the hand is obtained when replacing one of the two co-actors by a non-human event-producing rubber hand. Experiment 1 provided evidence for a Simon effect. Hand position significantly modulated the size of the Simon effect in the joint Simon task showing an increased Simon effect when the hands of both actors were located near the objects on the monitor, than when they were located away from the monitor. Experiment 2 replicated this finding showing an increased Simon effect when the actor’s hand was located near the objects on the monitor, but only when the co-actor also produced action events in spatial reference. A similar hand position effect was observed in Experiment 3 when a non-human rubber hand replaced the human co-actor. These findings suggest that external action events that are produced in spatial reference bias the distribution of attention to the area near the hand. This strengthens the weight of the spatial response codes (referential coding) and hence increases the joint Simon effect. PMID:25566140

  5. Effect of surgical hand scrub time on subsequent bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Wheelock, S M; Lookinland, S

    1997-06-01

    In this experimental study, the researchers evaluated the effect of surgical hand scrub time on subsequent bacterial growth and assessed the effectiveness of the glove juice technique in a clinical setting. In a randomized crossover design, 25 perioperative staff members scrubbed for two or three minutes in the first trial and vice versa in the second trial, after which the wore sterile surgical gloves for one hour under clinical conditions. The researchers then sampled the subjects' nondominant hands for bacterial growth, cultured aliquots from the sampling solution, and counted microorganisms. Scrubbing for three minutes produced lower mean log bacterial counts than scrubbing for two minutes. Although the mean bacterial count differed significantly (P = .02) between the two-minute and three-minute surgical hand scrub times, it fell below 0.5 log, which is the threshold for practical and clinical significance. This finding suggests that a two-minute surgical hand scrub is clinically as effective as a three-minute surgical had scrub. The glove juice technique demonstrated sensitivity and reliability in enumerating bacteria on the hands of perioperative staff members in a clinical setting. PMID:9187454

  6. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  7. Contact transfer of anions from hands as a function of the use of hand lotions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, R. W.; Schulman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Contact transfer of anions from human hands can result in contamination of materials, increasing their rate of corrosion. Two types of hand lotion were applied to the hands: one was specially formulated for cleanroom use and the other was a popular commercial lotion. The effect on contact transfer of anions was measured versus anion transfer from washed hands without lotions.

  8. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  9. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  10. The Importance of Hand Appearance as a Patient-Reported Outcome in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Rehim, Shady A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Hand appearance is meaningful to patients because hands are an essential part of human interactions, communication, and social integration. Recent literature indicates that hand aesthetics is an important, measurable patient-reported outcome. In hand surgery, several outcome instruments exist that accurately measure functional outcomes, but aesthetics is often overlooked or imprecisely measured. This makes comparison of disease burden and effectiveness of therapies, as they pertain to aesthetics, difficult. This special topic article outlines the aesthetic features of the hand, how literature is evaluating the appearance of the hand in outcomes research, and proposes a novel approach to assessing hand aesthetics. PMID:26893977

  11. Low-frequency variability of the Atlantic MOC in the eddying regime : the intrinsic component.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio, S.; Penduff, T.; Barnier, B.; Molines, J.-M.; Le Sommer, J.

    2012-04-01

    A 327-year 1/4° global ocean/sea-ice simulation has been produced by the DRAKKAR ocean modeling consortium. This simulation is forced by a repeated seasonal atmospheric forcing but nevertheless exhibits a substantial low-frequency variability (at interannual and longer timescales), which is therefore of intrinsic origin. This nonlinearly-generated intrinsic variability is almost absent from the coarse-resolution (2°) version of this simulation. Comparing the 1/4° simulation with its fully-forced counterpart, Penduff et al. (2011) have shown that the low-frequency variability of local sea-level is largely generated by the ocean itself in eddying areas, rather than directly forced by the atmosphere. Using the same simulations, the present study quantifies the imprint of the intrinsic low-frequency variability on the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) at interannual-to-decadal timescales in the Atlantic. We first compare the intrinsic and atmospherically-forced interannual variances of the Atlantic MOC calculated in geopotential coordinates. This analysis reveals substantial sources of intrinsic MOC variability in the South Atlantic (driven by the Agulhas mesoscale activity according to Biastoch et al. (2008)), but also in the North Atlantic. We extend our investigation to the MOC calculated in isopycnal coordinates, and identify regions in the basin where the water mass transformation exhibits low-frequency intrinsic variability. In this eddy-permitting regime, intrinsic processes are shown to generate about half the total (geopotential and isopycnal) MOC interannual variance in certain key regions of the Atlantic. This intrinsic variability is absent from 2° simulations. Penduff, T., Juza, M., Barnier, B., Zika, J., Dewar, W.K., Treguier, A.-M., Molines, J.-M., Audiffren, N., 2011: Sea-level expression of intrinsic and forced ocean variabilities at interannual time scales. J. Climate, 24, 5652-5670. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00077.1. Biastoch, A., Böning, C

  12. Produce handling and processing practices.

    PubMed Central

    Beuchat, L. R.; Ryu, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade, outbreaks of human illness associated with the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits (or unpasteurized products produced from them) have increased in the United States. Changes in agronomic, harvesting, distribution, processing, and consumption patterns and practices have undoubtedly contributed to this increase. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus cereus are naturally present in some soil, and their presence on fresh produce is not rare. Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, parasites, and viruses are more likely to contaminate fresh produce through vehicles such as raw or improperly composted manure, irrigation water containing untreated sewage, or contaminated wash water. Contact with mammals, reptiles, fowl, insects, and unpasteurized products of animal origin offers another avenue through which pathogens can access produce. Surfaces, including human hands, which come in contact with whole or cut produce represent potential points of contamination throughout the total system of growing, harvesting, packing, processing, shipping, and preparing produce for consumption. Treatment of produce with chlorinated water reduces populations of pathogenic and other microorganisms on fresh produce but cannot eliminate them. Reduction of risk for human illness associated with raw produce can be better achieved through controlling points of potential contamination in the field; during harvesting; during processing or distribution; or in retail markets, food-service facilities, or the home. PMID:9366597

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Regulation of Innate Immune Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Eunshil

    2011-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the first line of host defense system. PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to initiate and regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), which have their own features in ligand recognition and cellular location. Activated PRRs deliver signals to adaptor molecules (MyD88, TRIF, MAL/TIRAP, TRAM, IPS-1) which act as important messengers to activate downstream kinases (IKK complex, MAPKs, TBK1, RIP-1) and transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1, IRF3), which produce effecter molecules including cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory enzymes, and type I interferones. Since excessive PRR activation is closely linked to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators in the prevention of over- or unnecessary activation of PRRs has been widely studied. Intracellular regulators include MyD88s, SOCS1, TOLLIP, A20, and CYLD. Extrinsic regulators have also been identified with their molecular targets in PRR signaling pathways. TLR dimerization has been suggested as an inhibitory target for small molecules such as curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, and sulforaphane. TBK1 kinase can be a target for certain flavonoids such as EGCG, luteolin, quercetin, chrysin, and eriodictyol to regulate TRIF-dependent TLR pathways. This review focuses on the features of PRR signaling pathways and the therapeutic targets of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators in order to provide beneficial strategies for controlling the activity of PRRs and the related inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. PMID:21488180

  14. Unraveling the intrinsic color of chlorophyll.

    PubMed

    Milne, Bruce F; Toker, Yoni; Rubio, Angel; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2015-02-01

    The exact color of light absorbed by chlorophyll (Chl) pigments, the light-harvesters in photosynthesis, is tuned by the protein microenvironment, but without knowledge of the intrinsic color of Chl it remains unclear how large this effect is. Experimental first absorption energies of Chl a and b isolated in vacuo and tagged with quaternary ammonium cations are reported. The energies are largely insensitive to details of the tag structure, a finding supported by first-principles calculations using time-dependent density functional theory. Absorption is significantly blue-shifted compared to that of Chl-containing proteins (by 30-70 nm). A single red-shifting perturbation, such as axial ligation or the protein medium, is insufficient to account even for the smallest shift; the largest requires pigment-pigment interactions. PMID:25556959

  15. Photometric Ambient Occlusion for Intrinsic Image Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hauagge, Daniel; Wehrwein, Scott; Bala, Kavita; Snavely, Noah

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for computing ambient occlusion (AO) for a stack of images of a Lambertian scene from a fixed viewpoint. Ambient occlusion, a concept common in computer graphics, characterizes the local visibility at a point: it approximates how much light can reach that point from different directions without getting blocked by other geometry. While AO has received surprisingly little attention in vision, we show that it can be approximated using simple, per-pixel statistics over image stacks, based on a simplified image formation model. We use our derived AO measure to compute reflectance and illumination for objects without relying on additional smoothness priors, and demonstrate state-of-the art performance on the MIT Intrinsic Images benchmark. We also demonstrate our method on several synthetic and real scenes, including 3D printed objects with known ground truth geometry. PMID:26959670

  16. Paramagnetic intrinsic Meissner effect in layered superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, A. G.

    2008-07-01

    Free energy of a layered superconductor with ξ⊥intrinsic Meissner effect in a bulk is suggested to detect, by measuring in-plane torque, the upper critical field and magnetization in layered organic and high- Tc superconductors, as well as in superconducting superlattices.

  17. Paramagnetic Intrinsic Meissner Effect in Layered Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Andrei

    2008-03-01

    Free energy of a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor with a coherence length perpendicular to the conducting layers being less than an inter-layer distance is calculated. The free energy is shown to differ from that in the textbook Lawerence-Doniach model at high fields, where the Meissner currents are found to create an unexpected positive magnetic moment due to shrinking of the Cooper pairs ``sizes'' by a magnetic field. This unique phenomenon - paramagnetic intrinsic Meissner effect (PIME) in a bulk [1] - is suggested to detect by measuring in-plane magnetization and torque in layered organic and high-Tc superconductors as well as in superconducting superlattices. [1] A.G. Lebed, Physical Review Letters, submitted.

  18. Intrinsic DX Centers in Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lany, S.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01

    In III-V and II-VI semiconductors, certain nominally electron-donating impurities do not release electrons but instead form deep electron-traps known as 'DX centers.' While in these compounds, such traps occur only after the introduction of foreign impurity atoms, we find from first-principles calculations that in ternary I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrites like CuInSe{sub 2} and CuGaSe{sub 2}, DX-like centers can develop without the presence of any extrinsic impurities. These intrinsic DX centers are suggested as a cause of the difficulties to maintain high efficiencies in CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar-cells when the band gap is increased by addition of Ga.

  19. Intrinsic glue distribution at very small x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Kovner, Alex; McLerran, Larry; Weigert, Heribert

    1997-05-01

    We compute the distribution functions for gluons at very small x and not too large values of transverse momenta. We extend the McLerran-Venugopalan model by using renormalization group methods to integrate out effects due to those gluons which generate an effective classical charge density for Weizsäcker-Williams fields. We argue that this model can be extended from the description of nuclei at small x to the description of hadrons at yet smaller values of x. This generates a Lipatov-like enhancement for the intrinsic gluon distribution function and a nontrivial transverse momentum dependence as well. We estimate the transverse momentum dependence for the distribution functions, and show how the issue of unitarity is resolved in lepton-nucleus interactions.

  20. Intrinsic noise in systems with switching environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufton, Peter G.; Lin, Yen Ting; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J.

    2016-05-01

    We study individual-based dynamics in finite populations, subject to randomly switching environmental conditions. These are inspired by models in which genes transition between on and off states, regulating underlying protein dynamics. Similarly, switches between environmental states are relevant in bacterial populations and in models of epidemic spread. Existing piecewise-deterministic Markov process approaches focus on the deterministic limit of the population dynamics while retaining the randomness of the switching. Here we go beyond this approximation and explicitly include effects of intrinsic stochasticity at the level of the linear-noise approximation. Specifically, we derive the stationary distributions of a number of model systems, in good agreement with simulations. This improves existing approaches which are limited to the regimes of fast and slow switching.

  1. Intrinsic Instabilities Of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, A. J.; Moynihan, C. T.; Loehr, S. R.; Opalka, S. M.; Mossadegh, R.; Perazzo, N. L.; Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.; Doremus; Drexhage, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses (HMFG) are potentially useful as optical components in a wide range of devices. Their utilization has so far been delayed mainly because of insufficient material purity and inadequate processing conditions. However, as the result of numerous research efforts, these problems are gradually diminishing, and it now seems likely that the ultimate limitations for use of HMFG components, at least in those applications in which high optical transparency is not a prerequisite, will be imposed by more intrinsic instabilities of the glasses themselves. These include their strong tendency to crystallize on quenching and subsequent reheating, low mechanical and chemical durability, and the possibility that they will undergo significant physical aging in situ. Experimental data relating to these problems have now been obtained, and their relative importance is assessed in this paper.

  2. Intrinsic surface dipole in topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Fregoso, Benjamin M; Coh, Sinisa

    2015-10-28

    We calculate the local density of states of two prototypical topological insulators (Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te2Se) as a function of distance from the surface within density functional theory. We find that, in the absence of disorder or doping, there is a 2 nm thick surface dipole the origin of which is the occupation of the topological surface states above the Dirac point. As a consequence, the bottom of the conduction band is bent upward by about 75 meV near the surface, and there is a hump-like feature associated with the top of the valence band. We expect that band bending will occur in all pristine topological insulators as long as the Fermi level does not cross the Dirac point. Our results show that topological insulators are intrinsic Schottky barrier solar cells. PMID:26440802

  3. Intrinsic superstatistical components of financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamoş, Călin; Crăciun, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Time series generated by a complex hierarchical system exhibit various types of dynamics at different time scales. A financial time series is an example of such a multiscale structure with time scales ranging from minutes to several years. In this paper we decompose the volatility of financial indices into five intrinsic components and we show that it has a heterogeneous scale structure. The small-scale components have a stochastic nature and they are independent 99% of the time, becoming synchronized during financial crashes and enhancing the heavy tails of the volatility distribution. The deterministic behavior of the large-scale components is related to the nonstationarity of the financial markets evolution. Our decomposition of the financial volatility is a superstatistical model more complex than those usually limited to a superposition of two independent statistics at well-separated time scales.

  4. Turbulent diffusion with memories and intrinsic shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The first part of the present theory is devoted to the derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation. The eddies smaller than the hydrodynamic scale of the diffusion cloud form a diffusivity, while the inhomogeneous, bigger eddies give rise to a nonuniform migratory drift. This introduces an eddy-induced shear which reflects on the large-scale diffusion. The eddy-induced shear does not require the presence of a permanent wind shear and is intrinsic to the diffusion. Secondly, a transport theory of diffusivity is developed by the method of repeated-cascade and is based upon a relaxation of a chain of memories with decreasing information. The full range of diffusion consists of inertia, composite, and shear subranges, for which variance and eddy diffusivities are predicted. The coefficients are evaluated. Comparison with experiments in the upper atmosphere and oceans is made.

  5. Quaternion Formalism for the Intrinsic Transfer Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretu, Nicolae; Pop, Mihail Ioan; Boer, Attila

    A quaternion formulation is applied to the intrinsic transfer matrix for longitudinal elastic wave propagation through a multilayer medium in order to find the spectral response of a sonic crystal. Resonance conditions and the band structure of the crystal are obtained. The presence of a defect is also analysed. The analysis is carried out theoretically and through simulations. A coupled oscillators model is used to validate the obtained results from a phenomenological point of view. Experimental measurements are carried out for some periodic multilayer arrangements and they are correlated with theory. The obtained spectral response and band structure are essential in characterising the sonic crystal and also in optimising its structure in order to obtain specific passbands and stopbands. The adaptedness of the quaternion formulation to periodic structures and to the inclusion of defects is considered.

  6. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag's unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  7. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag`s unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  8. Intrinsic Frequency and the Single Wave Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Danny; Pahlevan, Niema M.; Tavallali, Peyman; Rinderknecht, Derek G.; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the hallmark of classical type II diabetes. In addition, insulin resistance plays a central role in metabolic syndrome, which astonishingly affects 1 out of 3 adults in North America. The insulin resistance state can precede the manifestation of diabetes and hypertension by years. Insulin resistance is correlated with a low-grade inflammatory condition, thought to be induced by obesity as well as other conditions. Currently, the methods to measure and monitor insulin resistance, such as the homeostatic model assessment and the euglycemic insulin clamp, can be impractical, expensive, and invasive. Abundant evidence exists that relates increased pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and vascular dysfunction with insulin resistance. We introduce a potential method of assessing insulin resistance that relies on a novel signal-processing algorithm, the intrinsic frequency method (IFM). The method requires a single pulse pressure wave, thus the term “ wave biopsy.” PMID:26183600

  9. Smart hands for the EVA retriever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Clifford W.; Li, Larry C.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous, robotic hands are required for the extravehicular activity retriever (EVAR) system being developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These hands, as part of the EVAR system, must be able to grasp objects autonomously and securely which inadvertently separate from the Space Station. Development of the required hands was initiated in 1987. Outlined here are the hand development activities, including design considerations, progress to date, and future plans. Several types of dexterous hands that were evaluated, along with a proximity-sensing capability that was developed to initiate a reflexive, adaptive grasp, are described. The evaluations resulted in the design and fabrication of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand that has two fingers and a thumb arranged in an anthropomorphic configuration. Finger joint force and position sensors are included in the design, as well as infrared proximity sensors which allow initiation of the grasp sequence when an object is detected within the grasp envelope.

  10. Acute Arterial Thrombosis of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, Nicholas P; Higgins, James P

    2015-10-01

    Arterial thrombosis of the hand occurs infrequently but may result in considerable morbidity and compromise of hand function. The hand surgeon may be called upon to direct management in cases of acute arterial thrombosis of the hand and should have an understanding of the available diagnostic tools and treatment modalities. This article discusses the vascular anatomy of the hand and clinical manifestations of arterial thrombosis. Differences between isolated thrombosis and diffuse intravascular injury are detailed, and treatment options for these conditions are described. Appropriate care often requires coordination with interventional radiologists or vascular surgeons. Outcomes after treatment of arterial thrombosis of the hand are variable, and prognosis may be related to whether isolated thrombosis or diffuse intravascular injury is present. PMID:26408378

  11. Assessment and Planning for a Pediatric Bilateral Hand Transplant Using 3-Dimensional Modeling: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Gralewski, Kevin; McAndrew, Christine; Rehman, Mohamed A; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-03-01

    Children are not typically considered for hand transplantation for various reasons, including the difficulty of finding an appropriate donor. Matching donor-recipient hands and forearms based on size is critically important. If the donor's hands are too large, the recipient may not be able to move the fingers effectively. Conversely, if the donor's hands are too small, the appearance may not be appropriate. We present an 8-year-old child evaluated for a bilateral hand transplant following bilateral amputation. The recipient forearms and model hands were modeled from computed tomography imaging studies and replicated as anatomic models with a 3-dimensional printer. We modified the scale of the printed hand to produce 3 proportions, 80%, 100% and 120%. The transplant team used the anatomical models during evaluation of a donor for appropriate match based on size. The donor's hand size matched the 100%-scale anatomical model hand and the transplant team was activated. In addition to assisting in appropriate donor selection by the transplant team, the 100%-scale anatomical model hand was used to create molds for prosthetic hands for the donor. PMID:26810827

  12. [Production and law of variation of the pleural cavity intrinsic pressure and the pressure of alveolar wall during respiratory process].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-04-01

    All physiologic textbooks deal with pleural cavity pressure, alveolar wall pressure and pressure inside the lung, but they have not stated these ideas clearly. The present study reveals production and Law of variation of the intrinsic pressure of pleural cavity, the pressure of alveolar wall and the intrinsic pressure in the alveoli. Pleural cavity intrinsic pressure is produced by the pressure from pleura expanding or compressing force of the lungs. When the lungs calmly inhale, the thorax expands, pleural cavity negative pressure increase. When the lungs calmly exhale, thorax reduces, but thorax and lungs are still in the extended state, pleural cavity is still in negative pressure. With thorax reducing, negative pressure decreases. When the lungs are at the forced expiration, the lung pleura and wall pleura extrude pleural cavity, only to produce positive pressure. The pressure of alveolar wall is the algebraic sum of the intrinsic pressure of pleural cavity, the intrinsic pressure of pulmonary tissue and the additional pressure of alveolar wall. We did the calculation of additional pressure on the alveolar wall by using Laplace formula of spherical elastic membrane. The intrinsic pressure of alveoli depends on the moving speed or slowness of expansion or compression of alveolar wall and the size of trachea resistance. PMID:22616171

  13. Intrinsic radial sensitivity of nucleon inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J. J.

    1988-02-01

    A linear expansion analysis of the folding model transition amplitude is used to study the intrinsic sensitivity of the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy nucleons to the radial form of the neutron transition density, given known proton transition densities from electron scattering. Realistic density-dependent effective interactions are used to construct pseudodata. These pseudodata are then reanalyzed and the error matrix is used to calculate an error band for the radial transition density. This approach reveals the sensitivity of the extracted transition density to absorption, medium modifications of the interaction, and the extent and quality of the data in a manner that is largely free of the residual inaccuracies in reaction theory that complicate the analysis of real data. We find that the intrinsic radial sensitivity of nucleon inelastic scattering is best for projectile energies between 200 and 500 MeV, but is adequate to resolve the radial dependence of neutron transition densities even in the interior of heavy nuclei throughout the energy regime 100-800 MeV. We have also compared our method with scale-factor analyses which assume proportionality between neutron and proton densities. For states whose transition densities are similar in the surface, we find scaling to be accurate at the 20% level. However, for light nuclei substantial deviations beyond the first peak of the differential cross section reveal sensitivity to shape differences. This sensitivity is reduced for heavy nuclei. The model dependence of radial densities is also studied. A high-q constraint is used to analyze the contribution of incompleteness error to the deduced error bands and to reduce the model dependence.

  14. Diverse precerebellar neurons share similar intrinsic excitability.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Kristine E; McElvain, Lauren E; du Lac, Sascha

    2011-11-16

    The cerebellum dedicates a majority of the brain's neurons to processing a wide range of sensory, motor, and cognitive signals. Stereotyped circuitry within the cerebellar cortex suggests that similar computations are performed throughout the cerebellum, but little is known about whether diverse precerebellar neurons are specialized for the nature of the information they convey. In vivo recordings indicate that firing responses to sensory or motor stimuli vary dramatically across different precerebellar nuclei, but whether this reflects diverse synaptic inputs or differentially tuned intrinsic excitability has not been determined. We targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to neurons in eight precerebellar nuclei which were retrogradely labeled from different regions of the cerebellum in mice. Intrinsic physiology was compared across neurons in the medial vestibular, external cuneate, lateral reticular, prepositus hypoglossi, supragenual, Roller/intercalatus, reticularis tegmenti pontis, and pontine nuclei. Within the firing domain, precerebellar neurons were remarkably similar. Firing faithfully followed temporally modulated inputs, could be sustained at high rates, and was a linear function of input current over a wide range of inputs and firing rates. Pharmacological analyses revealed common expression of Kv3 currents, which were essential for a wide linear firing range, and of SK (small-conductance calcium-activated potassium) currents, which were essential for a wide linear input range. In contrast, membrane properties below spike threshold varied considerably within and across precerebellar nuclei, as evidenced by variability in postinhibitory rebound firing. Our findings indicate that diverse precerebellar neurons perform similar scaling computations on their inputs but may be differentially tuned to synaptic inhibition. PMID:22090493

  15. Evaluation of hand applied naled thermal fog for Wyeomyia control.

    PubMed

    Curtis, G A; Carlson, D B

    1990-09-01

    Tests on the effect of hand applied naled thermal fog, both as a single treatment on one day/week and a single treatment on 3 successive days, did not control Wyeomyia vanduzeei and Wy. mitchellii. Five-min landing/biting counts in a native oak/palm woodland demonstrated that single applications produced an average landing rate decrease of 13%. Treatments 3 days in succession did not suppress the landing rate. PMID:1977876

  16. Improving hand hygiene adherence among nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Harne-Britner, Sarah; Allen, Marianne; Fowler, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored initial and sustained effects of educational and behavioral interventions on hand hygiene adherence and the relationships between hand hygiene adherence and health care-associated infections. Education paired with positive reinforcement behavioral interventions significantly improved hand hygiene adherence after the first month (χ² = 4.27; P = .039); however, the improvement was not sustained over 6 months. There were no significant differences in infection rates between the treatment and control groups. PMID:20407392

  17. Grasping-Force Sensor For Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheinman, Victor D.; Bejczy, Antal K.; Primus, Howard K.

    1991-01-01

    Grasping-force sensor designed for use on robot hand including interdigitating claws required to remain in alignment. Sensor integral part of grasping claw assembly on robot hand. Base frames deflect elastically, partly in manner of cantilever beam and partly in manner of parallelogram linkage. Strain gauges measure grasping forces by measuring deflections. Operator feels initial contact between claws and object and modifies motions of robot arm, hand and claws accordingly.

  18. Photonic crystal with left-handed components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoš, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We show that the periodic array of left-handed cylinders possesses a rich spectrum of guided modes when the negative permeability of cylinders equals exactly to minus value of permeability of embedding media. These resonances strongly influence propagation of electromagnetic waves through photonic structures made from left-handed materials. A series of Fano resonances excited by incident wave destroys the band frequency spectrum of square array of left-handed cylinders and increases considerably the absorption of transmitted waves.

  19. Hand specific representations in language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Moody-Triantis, Claire; Humphreys, Gina F; Gennari, Silvia P

    2014-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand) is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested self-reported right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences-a dominant hand effect. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a) language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b) language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience. PMID:24917803

  20. Asymmetrical alien hands in corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, David B; Drago, Valeria; Jeong, Yong; Chang, Yu-Ling; White, Keith D; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2007-03-15

    There are several forms of alien limb, but alien limb in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is not well understood. We studied a patient with CBD who demonstrated two different types of alien limb. With his right hand he demonstrated a tactile avoidance response with levitation. With his left hand, he demonstrated continuous tactile pursuit of the examiner's hand ("tactile mitgehen"). Mitgehen is often associated with frontal dysfunction, but avoidance response and levitation are often associated with parietal dysfunction. PMID:17230447

  1. Automatic source camera identification using the intrinsic lens radial distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kai San; Lam, Edmund Y.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Source camera identification refers to the task of matching digital images with the cameras that are responsible for producing these images. This is an important task in image forensics, which in turn is a critical procedure in law enforcement. Unfortunately, few digital cameras are equipped with the capability of producing watermarks for this purpose. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a high rate of accuracy in the identification by noting the intrinsic lens radial distortion of each camera. To reduce manufacturing cost, the majority of digital cameras are equipped with lenses having rather spherical surfaces, whose inherent radial distortions serve as unique fingerprints in the images. We extract, for each image, parameters from aberration measurements, which are then used to train and test a support vector machine classifier. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the success rate of a source camera identification with five cameras. The results show that this is a viable approach with high accuracy. Additionally, we also present results on how the error rates may change with images captured using various optical zoom levels, as zooming is commonly available in digital cameras.

  2. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  3. Emotions affect the recognition of hand gestures

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Carmelo M.; Newman, Anica

    2013-01-01

    The body is closely tied to the processing of social and emotional information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship between emotions and social attitudes conveyed through gestures exists. Thus, we tested the effect of pro-social (i.e., happy face) and anti-social (i.e., angry face) emotional primes on the ability to detect socially relevant hand postures (i.e., pictures depicting an open/closed hand). In particular, participants were required to establish, as quickly as possible, if the test stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) was the same or different, compared to the reference stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) previously displayed in the computer screen. Results show that facial primes, displayed between the reference and the test stimuli, influence the recognition of hand postures, according to the social attitude implicitly related to the stimulus. We found that perception of pro-social (i.e., happy face) primes resulted in slower RTs in detecting the open hand posture as compared to the closed hand posture. Vice-versa, perception of the anti-social (i.e., angry face) prime resulted in slower RTs in detecting the closed hand posture compared to the open hand posture. These results suggest that the social attitude implicitly conveyed by the displayed stimuli might represent the conceptual link between emotions and gestures. PMID:24421763

  4. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  5. Borisenko Hands Over Command to Fossum

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko handed over station command duties to Flight Engineer Mike Fossum. Fossum will command Expedition 29. The traditional Change of Command Ceremony took place ...

  6. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

  7. Case series on tropical diabetic hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ezeani, I U; Edo, A E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a term used to describe diabetes complication of the hand affecting people in the tropics. It consists of localized cellulitis with variable swelling and ulceration of the hands, progressive, fulminant hand sepsis and gangrene in extreme cases. This syndrome is not well-recognized and is therefore less frequently reported. The authors describe three different female patients who were known diabetics of varying duration presenting with this syndrome at our tertiary health center and who were successfully managed by both the surgical and medical units. The need for early diagnosis and aggressive management is emphasized. PMID:24909485

  8. Surgical exposures of the wrist and hand.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Louis W; Zlotolow, Dan A; Purcelli Lafer, Marissa; Weidner, Zachary; Barron, O Alton

    2012-01-01

    The neurovascular anatomy of the carpus and hand is complex. Therefore, precise exposures are required to avoid iatrogenic injury. In general, dorsal exposures are more forgiving than volar exposures because major neurovascular structures lie on the volar aspect of the hand and fingers; however, volar, ulnar, and radial approaches to the carpal bones are also commonly used. Exposure of the metacarpals and phalanges is relatively straightforward by comparison. Exposure of the carpus and hand is also complicated by the dense and often superficial innervation network. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the pertinent anatomy is required for safe surgical approaches to the wrist and hand. PMID:22207518

  9. Intrinsic universality and the computational power of self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Woods, Damien

    2015-07-28

    Molecular self-assembly, the formation of large structures by small pieces of matter sticking together according to simple local interactions, is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A challenging engineering goal is to design a few molecules so that large numbers of them can self-assemble into desired complicated target objects. Indeed, we would like to understand the ultimate capabilities and limitations of this bottom-up fabrication process. We look to theoretical models of algorithmic self-assembly, where small square tiles stick together according to simple local rules in order to carry out a crystal growth process. In this survey, we focus on the use of simulation between such models to classify and separate their computational and expressive powers. Roughly speaking, one model simulates another if they grow the same structures, via the same dynamical growth processes. Our journey begins with the result that there is a single intrinsically universal tile set that, with appropriate initialization and spatial scaling, simulates any instance of Winfree's abstract Tile Assembly Model. This universal tile set exhibits something stronger than Turing universality: it captures the geometry and dynamics of any simulated system in a very direct way. From there we find that there is no such tile set in the more restrictive non-cooperative model, proving it weaker than the full Tile Assembly Model. In the two-handed model, where large structures can bind together in one step, we encounter an infinite set of infinite hierarchies of strictly increasing simulation power. Towards the end of our trip, we find one tile to rule them all: a single rotatable flipable polygonal tile that simulates any tile assembly system. We find another tile that aperiodically tiles the plane (but with small gaps). These and other recent results show that simulation is giving rise to a kind of computational complexity theory for self-assembly. It seems this could be the beginning of a much longer journey

  10. Dynamic causal modeling of touch-evoked potentials in the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Daniel; Friston, Karl J; Classen, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    The neural substrate of bodily ownership can be disclosed by the rubber hand illusion (RHI); namely, the illusory self-attribution of an artificial hand that is induced by synchronous tactile stimulation of the subject's hand that is hidden from view. Previous studies have pointed to the premotor cortex (PMC) as a pivotal area in such illusions. To investigate the effective connectivity between - and within - sensory and premotor areas involved in bodily perceptions, we used dynamic causal modeling of touch-evoked responses in 13 healthy subjects. Each subject's right hand was stroked while viewing their own hand ("REAL"), or an artificial hand presented in an anatomically plausible ("CONGRUENT") or implausible ("INCONGRUENT") position. Bayesian model comparison revealed strong evidence for a differential involvement of the PMC in the generation of touch-evoked responses under the three conditions, confirming a crucial role of PMC in bodily self-attribution. In brief, the extrinsic (forward) connection from left occipital cortex to left PMC was stronger for CONGRUENT and INCONGRUENT as compared to REAL, reflecting the augmentation of bottom-up visual input when multisensory integration is challenged. Crucially, intrinsic connectivity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) was attenuated in the CONGRUENT condition, during the illusory percept. These findings support predictive coding models of the functional architecture of multisensory integration (and attenuation) in bodily perceptual experience. PMID:27241481

  11. Can Dirac quantization of constrained systems be fulfilled within the intrinsic geometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, D.M.; Liu, Q.H.

    2014-02-15

    For particles constrained on a curved surface, how to perform quantization within Dirac’s canonical quantization scheme is a long-standing problem. On one hand, Dirac stressed that the Cartesian coordinate system has fundamental importance in passing from the classical Hamiltonian to its quantum mechanical form while preserving the classical algebraic structure between positions, momenta and Hamiltonian to the extent possible. On the other, on the curved surface, we have no exact Cartesian coordinate system within intrinsic geometry. These two facts imply that the three-dimensional Euclidean space in which the curved surface is embedded must be invoked otherwise no proper canonical quantization is attainable. In this paper, we take a minimum surface, helicoid, on which the motion is constrained, to explore whether the intrinsic geometry offers a proper framework in which the quantum theory can be established in a self-consistent way. Results show that not only an inconsistency within Dirac theory occurs, but also an incompatibility with Schrödinger theory happens. In contrast, in three-dimensional Euclidean space, the Dirac quantization turns out to be satisfactory all around, and the resultant geometric momentum and potential are then in agreement with those given by the Schrödinger theory. -- Highlights: • Quantum motion on a minimum surface, helicoid, is examined within canonical quantization. • Both geometric momentum and geometric potential are embedding quantities. • No canonical quantization can be fulfilled within the intrinsic geometry.

  12. Deconvolving instrumental and intrinsic broadening in core-shell x-ray spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Fister, T. T.; Seidler, G. T.; Rehr, J. J.; Kas, J. J.; Nagle, K. P.; Elam, W. T.; Cross, J. O.

    2007-05-01

    Intrinsic and experimental mechanisms frequently lead to broadening of spectral features in core-shell spectroscopies. For example, intrinsic broadening occurs in x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of heavy elements where the core-hole lifetime is very short. On the other hand, nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) and other energy loss measurements are more limited by instrumental resolution. Here, we demonstrate that the Richardson-Lucy (RL) iterative algorithm provides a robust method for deconvolving instrumental and intrinsic resolutions from typical XAS and XRS data. For the K-edge XAS of Ag, we find nearly complete removal of {approx}9.3 eV full width at half maximum broadening from the combined effects of the short core-hole lifetime and instrumental resolution. We are also able to remove nearly all instrumental broadening in an XRS measurement of diamond, with the resulting improved spectrum comparing favorably with prior soft x-ray XAS measurements. We present a practical methodology for implementing the RL algorithm in these problems, emphasizing the importance of testing for stability of the deconvolution process against noise amplification, perturbations in the initial spectra, and uncertainties in the core-hole lifetime.

  13. Deconvolving instrumental and intrinsic broadening in core-shell x-ray spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fister, T. T.; Seidler, G. T.; Rehr, J. J.; Kas, J. J.; Elam, W. T.; Cross, J. O.; Nagle, K. P.

    2007-05-01

    Intrinsic and experimental mechanisms frequently lead to broadening of spectral features in core-shell spectroscopies. For example, intrinsic broadening occurs in x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of heavy elements where the core-hole lifetime is very short. On the other hand, nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) and other energy loss measurements are more limited by instrumental resolution. Here, we demonstrate that the Richardson-Lucy (RL) iterative algorithm provides a robust method for deconvolving instrumental and intrinsic resolutions from typical XAS and XRS data. For the K -edge XAS of Ag, we find nearly complete removal of ˜9.3eV full width at half maximum broadening from the combined effects of the short core-hole lifetime and instrumental resolution. We are also able to remove nearly all instrumental broadening in an XRS measurement of diamond, with the resulting improved spectrum comparing favorably with prior soft x-ray XAS measurements. We present a practical methodology for implementing the RL algorithm in these problems, emphasizing the importance of testing for stability of the deconvolution process against noise amplification, perturbations in the initial spectra, and uncertainties in the core-hole lifetime.

  14. Testing proprioception in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinate systems: is there a difference?

    PubMed

    Iandolo, Riccardo; Squeri, Valentina; De Santis, Dalia; Giannoni, Psiche; Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura

    2014-01-01

    An intact position sense is considered important for neuromotor recovery, but the available methods and protocols for its assessment are still limited. In the clinical practice it is generally tested trough a bimanual position matching test, that consists of replicating with one arm the angular positions of the other arm in space (intrinsic coordinates matching). However, the same test could be carried out by matching the hand location in space (extrinsic coordinates matching). Is there any difference between the procedures that may be relevant to the evaluation of position sense deficits? In this study we compared the performance of eight right handed subjects and two stroke survivors with left hemiparesis performing the test in the two conditions. A robotic manipulandum passively moved the left arm of the participants in twenty-four positions in the workspace. Subjects had to match the left arm position with their right arm either in intrinsic or extrinsic coordinates. The results show that all the subjects (impaired and controls) performed better when using the extrinsic paradigm. PMID:25571597

  15. Status report on the NCSL Intrinsic/Derived Standards Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1994-05-01

    The history and present status of the NCSL intrinsic/Derived Standards Committee is presented, including a review of the current published Recommended Intrinsic/Derived Standard Practices (RISPs) and the four Working Groups that are in the process of developing new RISPs. One of the documents under development is a Reference Catalogue that documents important information associated with over forty intrinsic/derived standards. The generic information on each standard in the Catalogue, as well as its Table of contents, are presented.

  16. The detrimental effects of extrinsic reinforcement on “Intrinsic motivation”

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Alyce M.

    1989-01-01

    Extrinsic consequences have been criticized on the grounds that they decrease intrinsic motivation or internally initiated behavior. Two popular rationales for this criticism, Lepper's overjustification hypothesis (1981) and Deci's motivational theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), are reviewed and the criticism is then redefined behaviorally. “Intrinsically controlled” behavior is defined as behavior maintained by response-produced reinforcers, and the question concerning extrinsic consequences is thus restated as follows: When behavior is maintained by response-produced stimuli, does extrinsic reinforcement decrease the reinforcing value of those stimuli? The empirical support for this detrimental effect is summarized briefly, and several possible explanations for the phenomenon are offered. Research results that reflect on the effect's generality and social significance are discussed next, with the conclusion that the effect is transient and not likely to occur at all if extrinsic rewards are reinforcing, noncompetitive, based on reasonable performance standards, and delivered repetitively. PMID:22478013

  17. Conductance tomography of conductive filaments in intrinsic silicon-rich silica RRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Hudziak, Stephen; Mehonic, Adnan; Kenyon, Anthony J.

    2015-10-01

    We present results from an imaging study of filamentary conduction in silicon suboxide resistive RAM devices. We used a conductive atomic force microscope to etch through devices while measuring current, allowing us to produce tomograms of conductive filaments. To our knowledge this is the first report of such measurements in an intrinsic resistance switching material.We present results from an imaging study of filamentary conduction in silicon suboxide resistive RAM devices. We used a conductive atomic force microscope to etch through devices while measuring current, allowing us to produce tomograms of conductive filaments. To our knowledge this is the first report of such measurements in an intrinsic resistance switching material. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04982b

  18. Driver hand activity analysis in naturalistic driving studies: challenges, algorithms, and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohn-Bar, Eshed; Martin, Sujitha; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2013-10-01

    We focus on vision-based hand activity analysis in the vehicular domain. The study is motivated by the overarching goal of understanding driver behavior, in particular as it relates to attentiveness and risk. First, the unique advantages and challenges for a nonintrusive, vision-based solution are reviewed. Next, two approaches for hand activity analysis, one relying on static (appearance only) cues and another on dynamic (motion) cues, are compared. The motion-cue-based hand detection uses temporally accumulated edges in order to maintain the most reliable and relevant motion information. The accumulated image is fitted with ellipses in order to produce the location of the hands. The method is used to identify three hand activity classes: (1) two hands on the wheel, (2) hand on the instrument panel, (3) hand on the gear shift. The static-cue-based method extracts features in each frame in order to learn a hand presence model for each of the three regions. A second-stage classifier (linear support vector machine) produces the final activity classification. Experimental evaluation with different users and environmental variations under real-world driving shows the promise of applying the proposed systems for both postanalysis of captured driving data as well as for real-time driver assistance.

  19. Intrinsic antibiotic resistance: mechanisms, origins, challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cox, Georgina; Wright, Gerard D

    2013-08-01

    The intrinsic antibiotic resistome is a naturally occurring phenomenon that predates antibiotic chemotherapy and is present in all bacterial species. In addition to the intrinsic resistance mediated by the bacterial outer membrane and active efflux, studies have shown that a surprising number of additional genes and genetic loci also contribute to this phenotype. Antibiotic resistance is rife in both the clinic and the environment; novel therapeutic strategies need to be developed in order to prevent a major global clinical threat. The possibility of inhibiting elements comprising the intrinsic resistome in bacterial pathogens offers the promise for repurposing existing antibiotics against intrinsically resistant bacteria. PMID:23499305

  20. Interventions for primary (intrinsic) tracheomalacia in children.

    PubMed

    Bohadana, Saramira Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tracheomalacia, a disorder of the large airways where the trachea is deformed or malformed during respiration, is commonly seen in tertiary paediatric practice. It is associated with a wide spectrum of respiratory symptoms from life-threatening recurrent apnoea to common respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough and wheeze. Current practice following diagnosis of tracheomalacia includes medical approaches aimed at reducing associated symptoms of tracheomalacia, ventilation modalities of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP), and surgical approaches aimed at improving the calibre of the airway (airway stenting, aortopexy, tracheopexy). OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of medical and surgical therapies for children with intrinsic (primary) tracheomalacia. METHODS Search The Cochrane Airways Group searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialized Register, Medline and Embase databases. The Cochrane Airways Group performed the latest searches in March 2012. Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of therapies related to symptoms associated with primary or intrinsic tracheomalacia. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers extracted data from the included study independently and resolved disagreements by consensus. MAIN RESULTS We included one RCT that compared nebulized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) with placebo in 40 children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection. We assessed it to be a RCT with overall low risk of bias. Data analyzed in this review showed that there was no significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of proportion cough-free at two weeks (odds ratio (OR) 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 5.14). However, the mean change in night time cough diary scores significantly favoured the placebo group (mean difference (MD) 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.83, P = 0

  1. Intrinsic and dynamically generated scalar meson states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakin, C. M.; Wang, Huangsheng

    2001-01-01

    Recent work by Maltman has given us confidence that our assignment of scalar meson states to various nonets based upon our generalized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is correct. [For example, in our model the a0(980) and the f0(980) are in the same nonet as the K*0(1430).] In this work we make use of our model to provide a precise definition of ``preexisting'' resonances and ``dynamically generated'' resonances when considering various scalar mesons. [This distinction has been noted by Meissner in his characterization of the f0(400-1200) as nonpreexisting.] We define preexisting (or intrinsic) resonances as those that appear as singularities of the qq¯ T matrix and are in correspondence with qq¯ states bound in the confining field. [Additional singularities may be found when studying the T matrices describing π-π or π-K scattering, for example. Such features may be seen to arise, in part, from t-channel and u-channel ρ exchange in the case of π-π scattering, leading to the introduction of the σ(500-600). In addition, threshold effects in the qq¯ T matrix can give rise to significant broad cross section enhancements. The latter is, in part, responsible for the introduction of the κ(900) in a study of π-K scattering, for example.] We suggest that it is only the intrinsic resonances which correspond to qq¯ quark-model states, and it is only the intrinsic states that are to be used to form quark-model qq¯ nonets of states. [While the κ(900) and σ(500-600) could be placed in a nonet of dynamically generated states, it is unclear whether there is evidence that requires the introduction of other members of such a nonet.] In this work we show how the phenomena related to the introduction of the σ(500-600) and the κ(900) are generated in studies of π-π and π-K scattering, making use of our generalized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We also calculate the decay constants for the a0 and K*0 mesons and compare our results with those obtained by Maltman. We find

  2. Hand-held UXO Discriminator

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Kappler, K.N.; Ratti, A.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.

    2010-04-01

    With prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), we have successfully designed and built a cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (e.g., Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2009). It is a multi-transmitter multi-receiver active electromagnetic system that is able to discriminate UXO from scrap at a single measurement position, hence eliminates equirement of a very accurate sensor location. The cart-mounted system comprises of three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers (Smith et al., 2007). Receiver coils are located on ymmetry lines through the center of the system and see identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They can then be wired in opposition to produce zero output during the n-ime of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform ver the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and therefore reatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target.

  3. Hand Function in Children with Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia; And Others

    1974-01-01

    In children with myelomeningocele, paralysis and loss of sensation occur below the level of the spinal cord lesion. Since upper extremity functioning does not seem to be impaired in these cases, this study describes hand function and relationships between hand function and motor, sensory, and intellectual levels. (JA)

  4. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  5. Personal recognition using hand shape and texture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Zhang, David

    2006-08-01

    This paper proposes a new bimodal biometric system using feature-level fusion of hand shape and palm texture. The proposed combination is of significance since both the palmprint and hand-shape images are proposed to be extracted from the single hand image acquired from a digital camera. Several new hand-shape features that can be used to represent the hand shape and improve the performance are investigated. The new approach for palmprint recognition using discrete cosine transform coefficients, which can be directly obtained from the camera hardware, is demonstrated. None of the prior work on hand-shape or palmprint recognition has given any attention on the critical issue of feature selection. Our experimental results demonstrate that while majority of palmprint or hand-shape features are useful in predicting the subjects identity, only a small subset of these features are necessary in practice for building an accurate model for identification. The comparison and combination of proposed features is evaluated on the diverse classification schemes; naive Bayes (normal, estimated, multinomial), decision trees (C4.5, LMT), k-NN, SVM, and FFN. Although more work remains to be done, our results to date indicate that the combination of selected hand-shape and palmprint features constitutes a promising addition to the biometrics-based personal recognition systems. PMID:16900698

  6. Right-handed neutrino magnetic moments

    SciTech Connect

    Aparici, Alberto; Santamaria, Arcadi; Kim, Kyungwook; Wudka, Jose

    2009-07-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of the most general effective Lagrangian, up to operators of dimension five, built with standard model fields and interactions including right-handed neutrinos. In particular, we find there is a dimension five electroweak moment operator of right-handed neutrinos, not discussed previously in the literature, which could have interesting phenomenological consequences.

  7. Learning by Design: Hands-On Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Barbara Z.; Sirna, Richard T.; Houlihan, Margaret B.

    1998-01-01

    Students at a St. Louis middle school experimenting with hands-on learning methods have scored consistently higher on the Stanford Achievement Tests than those in other district schools. A hands-on learning environment requires a thematic, integrated curriculum; creative, self-motivated teachers; and a supportive, facilitative principal. (MLH)

  8. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  9. Performance characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands.

    PubMed

    Belter, Joseph T; Dollar, Aaron M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we set forth a review of performance characteristics for both common commercial prosthetics as well as anthropomorphic research devices. Based on these specifications as well as surveyed results from prosthetic users, ranges of hand attributes are evaluated and discussed. End user information is used to describe the performance requirements for prosthetic hands for clinical use. PMID:22275674

  10. Hand kinematics: Application in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rath, Santosh

    2011-05-01

    Pathological conditions of the hand consequent to injuries, paralysis, disease, arthritis and congenital difference results in loss or limitation of function, deformities, stiffness, inadequate power and poor position for pinch. The pathogenesis of deformities is influenced by bio-mechanical principles of joints and muscle function. The crippling impact of secondary changes due to edema, soft tissue contractures, muscle shortening and functional adaptations also have a mechanical basis. For clinicians and hand therapists, it is necessary to understand these fundamental principles of biomechanics to plan treatment modalities. Interpretation of mechanics of hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis and paralysis will enable the treating team to identify the appropriate interventions of splinting, therapy and surgical procedures. Basic knowledge of the principles of hand clinical bio-mechanics will help the beginner to sail through the multitude of tendon transfers described in the text books of hand surgery and find the best solution for a particular clinical presentation. Similarly, knowledge of bio-mechanics will provide solutions to an experienced surgeon to plan treatment protocols for complex situations. The article presents a concise summary of the basic principles of hand bio-mechanics for common hand conditions seen in clinical practice. Understanding and applying these principles will help clinicians in planning and devising treatment options for common and complex hand conditions. PMID:22022027

  11. The Hand-Thought-Language Nexus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Frank R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses cognitive scientists' and psycholinguists' theories of the origins of consciousness and linguistic expression. Suggests that the hand is key in the development of human intelligence and in the origin of language. Maintains that the mutual influence of hand and brain reveals the subtleties of cause and effect, stories, and the…

  12. Rope Them in with Hand Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Using hand gestures is a great way to get students engaged in learning and more focused on reading comprehension strategies. This article presents descriptions of simple hand motions that teachers can use to help their students predict, question, clarify, and summarize while reading.

  13. Hand-Clap Songs across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

    2012-01-01

    This teaching tip focuses on using hand-clapping to teach content area material across the curriculum. We begin with a brief history of hand-clap songs, followed by a rationale for using them in content area literacy. Then, we describe the instructional lesson, share samples that resulted, and discuss lesson extensions. Our goal is to have…

  14. Choosing a Hand-Held Inventory Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lois; Hughes, Janet; Neff, Verne; Notartomas, Trish

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2006, a task force was charged to look at the feasibility of acquiring hand-held inventory devices for the Pennsylvania State University Libraries (PSUL). The task force's charge was not to look at the whole concept of doing an inventory, but rather to focus on the feasibility of acquiring hand-held devices to use in an inventory.…

  15. Comparative Anatomy of the Hand and Foot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an activity to articulate comparison of the hand and foot. Students carefully cut out corresponding hand/foot parts (carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges) from enlarged diagrams and paste them on paper for comparative analysis. Sample student inferences and diagrams used for the activity are provided. (JN)

  16. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  17. [SURGICAL HAND WASHING: HANDSCRUBBING OR HANDRUBBING].

    PubMed

    Santacatalina Mas, Roser; Peix Sagues, Ma Teresa; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Claramunt Jofre, Marta; López López, Alba; Salas Marco, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The importance of protocols for preoperative antisepsis of the hands is given by the risk of transferring bacteria from the hands of the surgical team to the patient during surgery and it is relationship with infection of surgical wound site (SSI). Careful surgical scrub reduces the number of bacteria on the skin, but does not eliminate them completely, remaining transient microorganisms on hands after the surgical scrub. There fore if micropuncture in surgical gloves occurs, the correct preoperative preparation of hands and double gloving will be essential to reduce the risk of bacterial transmission to patients. The protocols for surgical hand antisepsis are two: Surgical scrub with antiseptic soap (hand scrubbing). Surgical scrub by rubbing alcohol (handrubbing). The hand antisepsis by rubbing with an alcohol solution has proved to be significantly more effective compared to soap solutions. We must also see that in surgical hand antisepsis with soap, you must rinse them with water. And often hospitals' taps and keys are contaminated by Pseudomonas spp., including P. aeuinosa. PMID:27101645

  18. Hands-on Science. Exploring Magnification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1993-01-01

    Presents hands-on science activities using inexpensive, hand-held microscopes and slides made from simple, readily available materials. The article describes how to introduce students to microscopes and presents directions for using the microscopes and making slides. A student page investigates fingerprints with microscopes. (SM)

  19. Some Functions of Reading by Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Philip W.; And Others

    The authors review their work on the role of attentional variables, such as in exploratory hand movements, selection and pickup of haptic shape information in the education of blind students. Efforts to design a technology to permit unobtrusive study of hand movements during braille reading and to link observed differences in scanning to reading…

  20. Ultrasound of wrist and hand masses.

    PubMed

    Guerini, H; Morvan, G; Vuillemin, V; Campagna, R; Thevenin, F; Larousserie, F; Leclercq, C; Le Viet, D; Drapé, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound is a useful tool to investigate soft tissue masses in the wrist and hand. In most situations ultrasound helps distinguish between a cyst and a tissue mass. This article provides a simple clinical approach to the use of ultrasound imaging for the diagnosis and preoperative assessment of wrist and hand masses. PMID:26625731

  1. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  2. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. PMID:26475111

  3. Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests

  4. Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-06-16

    The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests

  5. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  6. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  7. [Suicide with a manipulated hand grenade].

    PubMed

    Preuss-Wössner, Johanna; Kroll, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Explosion injuries in civilians are rare. An uncommon case of suicide with a manipulated hand grenade is presented. The findings at the scene and on the body (i.a. massive soot blackening of the skin, singeing, size and number of splinters) gave reason to doubt the use of trinitrotoluene (TNT), the usual explosive charge in hand grenades. Further investigations showed that parts of several hand grenades and black powder from standard fire-crackers commercially available without legal restriction had been used as propelling charge. The victim, who was in a sitting position, held the hand grenade in the left hand and triggered it with the right. He bled to death due to a fracture of the right femur and lacerations of the liver. The chronological course and total circumstances of the case suggested suicide in a strongly intoxicated condition (BAC 2.5 per mille). In the flat, a larger number of unlicensed weapons and weapon parts were found. PMID:21254702

  8. Decoupling of massive right-handed neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhya, Paramita; Chaudhuri, D. Rai

    2000-02-01

    We investigate the effect of (B+L)-violating anomalous generation of massive right-handed neutrinos on their decoupling, when the right-handed neutrino mass is considerably greater than the right-handed gauge boson masses. Considering fermion-antifermion annihilation channels, the Lee-Weinberg type of calculation, in this case, gives an upper bound of about 700 GeV, which casts doubt on the existence of such a right-handed neutrino mass greater than right-handed gauge boson masses. We examine the possibility that a consideration of anomalous effects related to the SU(2)R gauge group, together with the effect of WW channels, may turn this into a lower bound ~102 TeV.

  9. Dexterity analysis and robot hand design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, LU; Soni, A. H.; Chunsheng, Cai; Brown, Max

    1988-01-01

    Understanding about a dexterous robot hand's motion ranges is important to the precision grasping and precision manipulation. A planar robot hand is studied for object orientation, including ranges of motion, measures with respect to the palm, position reaching of a point in the grasped object, and rotation of the object about the reference point. The rotational dexterity index and dexterity chart are introduced and an analysis procedure is developed for calculating these quantities. A design procedure for determining the hand kinematic parameters based on a desired partial or complete dexterity chart is also developed. These procedures have been tested in detail for a planar robot hand with two 2- or 3-link fingers. The derived results are shown to be useful to performance evaluation, kinematic parameter design, and grasping motion planning for a planar robot hand.

  10. Brain plasticity and hand surgery: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G

    2000-06-01

    The hand is an extension of the brain, and the hand is projected and represented in large areas of the motor and sensory cortex. The brain is a complicated neural network which continuously remodels itself as a result of changes in sensory input. Such synaptic reorganizational changes may be activity-dependent, based on alterations in hand activity and tactile experience, or a result of deafferentiation such as nerve injury or amputation. Inferior recovery of functional sensibility following nerve repair, as well as phantom experiences in virtual, amputated limbs are phenomena reflecting profound cortical reorganizational changes. Surgical procedures on the hand are always accompanied by synaptic reorganizational changes in the brain cortex, and the outcome from many hand surgical procedures is to a large extent dependent on brain plasticity. PMID:10961548

  11. Hand Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10 years; range: 6–16 years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes–Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

  12. Touching a rubber hand: feeling of body ownership is associated with activity in multisensory brain areas.

    PubMed

    Ehrsson, H Henrik; Holmes, Nicholas P; Passingham, Richard E

    2005-11-01

    In the "rubber-hand illusion," the sight of brushing of a rubber hand at the same time as brushing of the person's own hidden hand is sufficient to produce a feeling of ownership of the fake hand. We shown previously that this illusion is associated with activity in the multisensory areas, most notably the ventral premotor cortex (Ehrsson et al., 2004). However, it remains to be demonstrated that this illusion does not simply reflect the dominant role of vision and that the premotor activity does not reflect a visual representation of an object near the hand. To address these issues, we introduce a somatic rubber-hand illusion. The experimenter moved the blindfolded participant's left index finger so that it touched the fake hand, and simultaneously, he touched the participant's real right hand, synchronizing the touches as perfectly as possible. After approximately 9.7 s, this stimulation elicited an illusion that one was touching one's own hand. We scanned brain activity during this illusion and two control conditions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activity in the ventral premotor cortices, intraparietal cortices, and the cerebellum was associated with the illusion of touching one's own hand. Furthermore, the rated strength of the illusion correlated with the degree of premotor and cerebellar activity. This finding suggests that the activity in these areas reflects the detection of congruent multisensory signals from one's own body, rather than of visual representations. We propose that this could be the mechanism for the feeling of body ownership. PMID:16280594

  13. Vibration and impulsivity analysis of hand held olive beaters.

    PubMed

    Deboli, Roberto; Calvo, Angela; Preti, Christian

    2016-07-01

    To provide more effective evaluations of hand arm vibration syndromes caused by hand held olive beaters, this study focused on two aspects: the acceleration measured at the tool pole and the analysis of the impulsivity, using the crest factor. The signals were frequency weighted using the weighting curve Wh as described in the ISO 5349-1 standard. The same source signals were also filtered by the Wh-bl filter (ISO/TS 15694), because the weighting filter Wh (unlike the Wh-bl filter) could underestimate the effect of high frequency vibration on vibration-induced finger disorders. Ten (experienced) male operators used three beater models (battery powered) in the real olive harvesting condition. High vibration total values were obtained with values never lower than 20 m(-2). Concerning the crest factor, the values ranged from 5 to more than 22. This work demonstrated that the hand held olive beaters produced high impulsive loads comparable to the industry hand held tools. PMID:26615333

  14. Hand biometric recognition based on fused hand geometry and vascular patterns.

    PubMed

    Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%. PMID:23449119

  15. Trees, bialgebras and intrinsic numerical algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Peter; Grossman, Robert; Larson, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary work about intrinsic numerical integrators evolving on groups is described. Fix a finite dimensional Lie group G; let g denote its Lie algebra, and let Y(sub 1),...,Y(sub N) denote a basis of g. A class of numerical algorithms is presented that approximate solutions to differential equations evolving on G of the form: dot-x(t) = F(x(t)), x(0) = p is an element of G. The algorithms depend upon constants c(sub i) and c(sub ij), for i = 1,...,k and j is less than i. The algorithms have the property that if the algorithm starts on the group, then it remains on the group. In addition, they also have the property that if G is the abelian group R(N), then the algorithm becomes the classical Runge-Kutta algorithm. The Cayley algebra generated by labeled, ordered trees is used to generate the equations that the coefficients c(sub i) and c(sub ij) must satisfy in order for the algorithm to yield an rth order numerical integrator and to analyze the resulting algorithms.

  16. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanthopoulos, P.; Plunk, G. G.; Zocco, A.; Helander, P.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale), leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014)].

  17. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raül; González-Solís, Jacob; Croxall, John P; Oro, Daniel; Ruiz, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment. PMID:19623244

  18. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion. PMID:26672148

  19. Intrinsic Disorder in the Kinesin Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Rice, Sarah E

    2013-09-01

    Kinesin molecular motors perform a myriad of intracellular transport functions. While their mechanochemical mechanisms are well understood and well-conserved throughout the superfamily, the cargo-binding and regulatory mechanisms governing the activity of kinesins are highly diverse and in general, are incompletely characterized. Here we present evidence from bioinformatic predictions indicating that most kinesin superfamily members contain significant regions of intrinsically disordered (ID) residues. ID regions can bind to multiple partners with high specificity, and are highly labile to post-translational modification and degradation signals. In kinesins, the predicted ID regions are primarily found in areas outside the motor domains, where primary sequences diverge by family, suggesting that ID may be a critical structural element for determining the functional specificity of individual kinesins. To support this idea, we present a systematic analysis of the kinesin superfamily, family by family, for predicted regions of ID. We combine this analysis with a comprehensive review of kinesin binding partners and post-translational modifications. We find two key trends across the entire kinesin superfamily. First, ID residues tend to be in the tail regions of kinesins, opposite the superfamily-conserved motor domains. Second, predicted ID regions correlate to regions that are known to bind to cargoes and/or undergo post-translational modifications. We therefore propose that ID is a structural element utilized by the kinesin superfamily in order to impart functional specificity to individual kinesins. PMID:24244223

  20. The intrinsic shape of NGC 3379

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    Photometric and kinematic data from the literature are combined with new dynamical models to derive the intrinsic shape of the 'standard' elliptical galaxy NGC 3379. The parameters that are best constrained are the dynamical triaxiality T (essentially the triaxiality of the total mass distribution) and the short-to long axis ratio of the light distribution c(sub L). The inferred shape is given by a Bayesian probability distribution in the (T, c(sub L) plane. Assuming a uniform prior, the most probable shape is oblate with a flattening of c(sub L) = 87. The distribution is strongly non-Gaussian, however, and the expectation values, (T) = .31 (c(sub L) = .75, imply a flatter and more triaxial figure. The 68% highest posterior density region allows more triaxial shapes as long as they are fairly round, or flatter shapes as long as they are nearly oblate. These results are essentially unchanged if the galaxy is assumed to rotate about its short axis, or if it is modeled as an S0 with a negligible-mass disk rather than as an elliptical. The suggestion of Capaccioli et al. (ApJ, 371, 535 (1991)) that NGC 3379 is a rather flat, triaxial S0 galaxy is found to be improbable at the 98% level; this conclusion is largely independent of the bulge-to-disk ratio or the relative rotation speeds of the two components.