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Sample records for hand rim wheelchair

  1. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Therapist In the Band: Jens' Story Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  2. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground. PMID:27062591

  3. The ergonomics of wheelchair configuration for optimal performance in the wheelchair court sports.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large

  4. Wheelchair ergonomic hand drive mechanism use improves wrist mechanics associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zukowski, Lisa A; Roper, Jaimie A; Shechtman, Orit; Otzel, Dana M; Hovis, Patty W; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Among conventional manual wheelchair (CMW) users, 49% to 63% experience carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) that is likely induced by large forces transmitted through the wrist and extreme wrist orientations. The ergonomic hand drive mechanism (EHDM) tested in this study has been shown to utilize a more neutral wrist orientation. This study evaluates the use of an EHDM in terms of wrist orientations that may predispose individuals to CTS. Eleven adult full-time CMW users with spinal cord injury participated. Motion data were captured as participants propelled across a flat surface, completing five trials in a CMW and five trials in the same CMW fitted with the EHDM. Average angular wrist orientations were compared between the two propulsion styles. Use of the EHDM resulted in reduced wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The shift to more neutral wrist orientations observed with EHDM use may reduce median nerve compression. PMID:25856042

  5. Biomechanics and physiology in active manual wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, H E; Dallmeijer, A J; Janssen, T W; Rozendaal, L A

    2001-12-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion in daily life and sports is increasingly being studied. Initially, an engineering and physiological perspective was taken. More recently a concomitant biomechanics interest is seen. Themes of biomechanical and physiological studies today are performance enhancing aspects of wheelchair use and the ergonomics of wheelchair design. Apart from the propulsion technique the focus of biomechanics research of manual wheelchair propulsion is mainly towards injury mechanisms, especially phenomena of overuse to the upper extremity. Obviously, the vehicle mechanics of wheelchairs must be included within this biological framework. Scientific research is progressing, but is still hampered by methodological limitations, such as the heterogeneity and small numbers of the population at study as well as the inconsistency of employed technologies and methodologies. There is a need for consensus regarding methodology and research strategy, and a strong need for collaboration to improve the homogeneity and size of subject groups and thus the power of the experimental results. Thus a sufficiently strong knowledge database will emerge, leading to an evidence-base of performance enhancing factors and the understanding of the risks of wheelchair sports and long-term wheelchair use. In the light of the current biomechanical and physiological knowledge of manual wheelchair propulsion there seems to be a need for the stimulation of other than hand rim propelled manual wheelchairs. PMID:11801413

  6. Relationship Between Hand Contact Angle and Shoulder Loading During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion by Individuals with Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Mulroy, Sara J.; Ruparel, Puja; Hatchett, Patricia E.; Haubert, Lisa Lighthall; Eberly, Valerie J.; Gronley, JoAnne K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder loading during manual wheelchair propulsion (WCP) contributes to the development of shoulder pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To use regression analysis to investigate the relationships between the hand contact angle (location of the hand on the pushrim at initial contact and release during the push phase of the WCP cycle) with propulsion characteristics, pushrim forces, and shoulder kinetics during WCP in individuals with paraplegia. Methods: Biomechanical data were collected from 222 individuals (198 men and 24 women) with paraplegia from SCI during WCP on a stationary ergometer at a self-selected speed. The average age of participants was 34.7 years (±9.3), mean time since SCI was 9.3 years (±6.1), and average body weight was 74.4 kg (±15.9). The majority (n = 127; 56%) of participants had lower level paraplegia (T8 to L5) and 95 (42%) had high paraplegia (T2 to T7). Results: Increased push arc (mean = 75.3°) was associated with greater velocity (R = 0.384, P < .001) and cycle distance (R = 0.658, P < .001) and reduced cadence (R = -0.419, P < .001). Initial contact angle and hand release angles were equally associated with cycle distance and cadence, whereas a more anterior release angle was associated with greater velocity (R = 0.372, P < .001). When controlling for body weight, a more posterior initial contact angle was associated with greater posterior shoulder net joint force (R = 0.229, P = .001) and greater flexor net joint moment (R = 0.204, P = .002), whereas a more anterior hand release angle was significantly associated with increased vertical (R = 0.270, P < .001) and greater lateral (R = .293, P < .001) pushrim forces; greater shoulder net joint forces in all 3 planes — posterior (R = 0.164, P = .015), superior (R = 0.176, P = .009), and medial (R = 0.284, P < .001); and greater external rotator (R = 0.176, P = .009) and adductor (R = 0.259, P = .001) net joint moments. Conclusions: Current

  7. Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress placed on this joint during activities of daily living, training and competition. The overall purpose of this narrative review was to use the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to examine how various constraints acting upon the wheelchair-user interface may alter hand rim wheelchair performance during sporting activities, and to a lesser extent, their injury risk. As we found no studies involving Paralympic athletes that have directly utilised the dynamical systems approach to interpret their data, we have used this approach to select some potential constraints and discussed how they may alter wheelchair performance and/or injury risk. Organism constraints examined included player classifications, wheelchair setup, training and intrinsic injury risk factors. Task constraints examined the influence of velocity and types of locomotion (court sports vs racing) in wheelchair propulsion, while environmental constraints focused on forces that tend to oppose motion such as friction and surface inclination. Finally, the ecological validity of the research studies assessing wheelchair propulsion was critiqued prior to recommendations for practice and future research being given. PMID:23557065

  8. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an intelligent wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jin Sun; Shin, Yunhee; Kim, Eun Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs) have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. Methods This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW) control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. Result & conclusion The advantages of the proposed system include 1) accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2) robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination. To prove these

  9. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  10. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-10-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  11. Variability in bimanual wheelchair propulsion: consistency of two instrumented wheels during handrim wheelchair propulsion on a motor driven treadmill

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a complex bimanual motor task. The bimanually applied forces on the rims determine the speed and direction of locomotion. Measurements of forces and torques on the handrim are important to study status and change of propulsion technique (and consequently mechanical strain) due to processes of learning, training or the wheelchair configuration. The purpose of this study was to compare the simultaneous outcomes of two different measurement-wheels attached to the different sides of the wheelchair, to determine measurement consistency within and between these wheels given the expected inter- and intra-limb variability as a consequence of motor control. Methods Nine able-bodied subjects received a three-week low-intensity handrim wheelchair practice intervention. They then performed three four-minute trials of wheelchair propulsion in an instrumented hand rim wheelchair on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed. The two measurement-wheels on each side of the wheelchair measured forces and torques of one of the two upper limbs, which simultaneously perform the push action over time. The resulting data were compared as direct output using cross-correlation on the torque around the wheel-axle. Calculated push characteristics such as power production and speed were compared using an intra-class correlation. Results Measured torque around the wheel axle of the two measurement-wheels had a high average cross-correlation of 0.98 (std=0.01). Unilateral mean power output over a minute was found to have an intra-class correlation of 0.89 between the wheels. Although the difference over the pushes between left and right power output had a high variability, the mean difference between the measurement-wheels was low at 0.03 W (std=1.60). Other push characteristics showed even higher ICC’s (>0.9). Conclusions A good agreement between both measurement-wheels was found at the level of the power output. This indicates a high

  12. A robotic wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.; Grant, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Many people who are mobility impaired are incapable, for a variety of reasons, of using an ordinary wheelchair. These people must rely on either a power wheelchair, which they control, or another person to push and guide them while they are in an ordinary or power wheelchair. Power wheelchairs can be difficult to operate. If a person has additional disabilities, either in perception or fine motor control of their hands, a power chair can be difficult or impossible for them to use safely. Having one person push and guide a person who is mobility impaired is very expensive, and if the disabled person is otherwise independent, very inefficient and frustrating. This paper describes a low-cost robotic addition to a power wheelchair that assists the rider of the chair in avoiding obstacles, going to pre-designated places, and maneuvering through doorways and other narrow or crowded areas. This system can be interfaced to a variety of input devices, and can give the operator as much or as little moment by moment control of the chair as they wish.

  13. WheelchairNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Society of Wheelchair Professionals! ISWP Home The International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP) was launched in February 2015 with a mission to provide wheelchair users worldwide with the best technology and service. The need is great. Nearly 70 ...

  14. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  15. Talking Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Communication is made possible for disabled individuals by means of an electronic system, developed at Stanford University's School of Medicine, which produces highly intelligible synthesized speech. Familiarly known as the "talking wheelchair" and formally as the Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP). Wheelchair mounted system consists of a word processor, a video screen, a voice synthesizer and a computer program which instructs the synthesizer how to produce intelligible sounds in response to user commands. Computer's memory contains 925 words plus a number of common phrases and questions. Memory can also store several thousand other words of the user's choice. Message units are selected by operating a simple switch, joystick or keyboard. Completed message appears on the video screen, then user activates speech synthesizer, which generates a voice with a somewhat mechanical tone. With the keyboard, an experienced user can construct messages as rapidly as 30 words per minute.

  16. Hybrid-powered wheelchair: a combination of arm force and electrical power for propelling a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Cremers, G B

    1989-01-01

    Many of the handicapped who could use a hand-driven wheelchair do not have sufficient arm force, arm movement and/or endurance for proper propulsion. Furthermore, there are users of electric wheelchairs who still have some arm functions and strength. In some cases a hand-driven chair, which can be propelled with reduced arm power, could be a better solution. By means of simulation, a study has been carried out to investigate the possibility of propelling a wheelchair by means of hybrid powering. Hybrid powering can be defined as a combination of arm force and electrical power. Using this hybrid principle, the necessary arm force can be decreased. PMID:2733008

  17. Gardening from a Wheelchair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... round handles) on gate latches, doors, and faucets. Gardening as therapy For Gene Rothert gardening is a ...

  18. A theory of wheelchair wheelie performance.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1987-01-01

    The results of this analytical study of wheelchair wheelie performance can be summarized into two wheelchair design equations, or rules of thumb, as developed in the paper. The equation containing the significant parameters involved in popping a wheelie for curb climbing is: fh = 0.8 mg theta c.g. [A] where fh is handrim force, m is the mass of the wheelchair + user less rear wheels, g is acceleration of gravity (9.807 m/s2), and theta c.g. is "c.g. angle," i.e., the angle between the vertical through the rear axle and a line connecting the rear axle and the system center-of-gravity. Equation [A] shows that reducing the mass and/or the c.g. angle will make it easier to pop a wheelie. The c.g. angle is reduced by moving the rear axle position forward on the wheelchair. Wheelie balance is the other aspect of performance considered; where the user balances the wheelchair on the rear wheels for going down curbs or just for fun. The ease with which a system can be controlled (balanced) is related to the static stability of the system. The static stability is defined as: omega 2 = mgl/J [B] where J is the mass moment of inertia at the center of gravity of the system about the direction perpendicular to the sideframe. For better wheelchair control during wheelchair balance the static stability should be reduced. Measurements of the value for the polar mass moment of inertia for a typical wheelchair + user of m = 90 kg was found to be J = 8.7 kg-m2. In order to decrease the value of the static stability, Equation [B], one can increase J or decrease m and/or l, where l is the distance from the rear axle to the c.g. of the system. It is also shown that balancing a rod in the palm of the hand (inverted pendulum) is a mathematical problem similar to the wheelie balance problem, and a rod of length 1.56 meters is similar to a wheelchair + user system mass of 90 kg. However, balancing a rod is done primarily by using visual perception, whereas wheelie balance involves human

  19. Biomechanics and the wheelchair.

    PubMed

    McLaurin, C A; Brubaker, C E

    1991-04-01

    Wheelchair biomechanics involves the study of how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility. Because a wheelchair can coast, power input need not be continuous, but each power strike can be followed by a period of recovery, with the stroking frequency depending on user preferences and the coasting characteristics of the wheelchair. The latter is described in terms of rolling resistance, wind resistance and the slope of the surface. From these three factors the power required to propel the wheelchair is determined, and must be matched by the power output of the user. The efficiency of propulsion is the ratio of this power output to the metabolic cost and is typically in the order of 5% in normal use. The features required in a wheelchair depend upon user characteristics and intended activities. The ideal wheelchair for an individual will have the features that closely match these characteristics and activities. Thus prescription is not just choosing a wheelchair, but choosing the components of the wheelchair that best serve the intended purpose. In this paper, each component is examined for available options and how these options effect the performance of the wheelchair for the individual. The components include wheels, tyres, castors, frames, bearings, materials, construction details, seats, backrests, armrests, foot and legrests, headrests, wheel locks, running brakes, handrims, levers, accessories, adjustments and detachable parts. Each component is considered in relation to performance characteristics including rolling resistance, versatility, weight, comfort, stability, maneouvrability, transfer, stowage, durability and maintenance. Where they exist, wheelchair standards are referred to as a source of information regarding these characteristics. PMID:1857638

  20. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work. PMID:21095654

  1. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Raôul R D; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-René J A C; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible. Participants drove under a large screen that initially blocked the basket. As soon as they saw the basket they shot. When training with the screen, shooting percentages increased. We conclude that visual control training is an effective method to improve wheelchair basketball shooting. The findings support the idea that perceptual-motor learning can be enhanced by manipulating relevant constraints in the training environment, even for expert athletes. PMID:22978196

  2. Isidis Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 03 April 2002) This lunar-like scene occurs along the southeastern rim of the Isidis Planitia basin. The Isidis basin is an ancient impact crater some 1200 km across that is found along the boundary separating the heavily-cratered southern highland terrain of Mars from the northern lowlands. Elements of both terrains are evident in this image as an island of rugged highland terrain surrounded by smoother lowland terrain. The resurfacing of the Isidis basin produced a system of wrinkle ridges, some of which are seen on the lowland terrain in the image. Wrinkle ridges are a common feature on the surface of the moon and add to the lunar-like quality of this image. Layers are visible in the large island, the most resistant of which likely are from lava flows that created the highland terrain. The process by which the global-scale highland/lowland dichotomy was created remains a mystery.

  3. Finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Rene

    1994-01-01

    The finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design is presented. The design is the result of a technology utilization request. The designer's intent is to soften the riding feeling by incorporating a mechanism attaching the wheel rim to the spokes that would allow considerable deflection upon compressive loads. A finite element analysis was conducted to verify proper structural function. Displacement and stress results are presented and conclusions are provided.

  4. A joystick controlled wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Amundson, J S; Amundson, S G

    1991-01-01

    A joystick based motor control for a child's wheelchair was designed and built. The design is intended to allow a child with limited strength to control a wheelchair. There is a master power switch that can be turned on and off by an instructor in a classroom situation. The joystick is made from resistors that provide the input to the pulse width modulation (PWM) circuits. The motors for each back wheel are operated by an H bridge network. The controller is built but modifications are needed for it to work properly. PMID:2065147

  5. Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The late afternoon sun casts a shadow over a 700 meter-high rim of Huygens Crater.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -15.2, Longitude 51.6 East (308.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  6. Wheelchair-related accidents caused by tips and falls among noninstitutionalized users of manually propelled wheelchairs in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R L; Ackroyd-Stolarz, S A; Brown, M G; Kirkland, S A; MacLeod, D A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document what proportion of noninstitutionalized users of manually propelled wheelchairs are affected by wheelchair-related accidents caused by tips and falls, determine the nature and severity of the resulting injuries, and, by comparison with an unaffected group, identify factors associated with the risk of such accidents. We administered a postal questionnaire to as many as possible of the estimated 2055 members of the target population in the province of Nova Scotia. Among the 577 appropriate respondents, 57.4% reported they had completely tipped over or fallen from their wheelchairs at least once, and 66.0% reported having partially tipped. Of the falls and tips that were reported, 46.3% were forward in direction, 29.5% backward and 24.2% sideways. Many of the accidents occurred outdoors or on ramps. A total of 292 injuries were reported by 272 (47.1%) respondents. Most of the injuries (84.3%) were minor (e.g., abrasions, contusions, lacerations and sprains). Of the 15.8% of injuries that were serious, the most common were fractures (10.6%) and concussions (2.7%). Factors that appear to be associated with an increased risk of accidents and injuries included younger age, male gender, paraplegia or spina bifida as the reason for wheelchair use, having had a wheelchair prescribed, some wheelchair features (lightweight, camber, adjustable rear-axle positions, a knapsack), daily use of a wheelchair, propelling the chair with both hands, use of the wheelchair for recreation, use of a sideways transfer (without a transfer board) and doing repairs themselves or having them done by the dealer. Factors associated with a decreased risk include multiple sclerosis, stroke or arthritis as the reason for wheelchair use, attendant propulsion and the use of a one-person assist for transfers. The results of this study, that wheelchair-related accidents caused by tips and falls are very common, that serious injuries are not unusual and that there

  7. Engineering manual and electric powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A

    1999-01-01

    The sophistication required to develop and properly configure a wheelchair is illustrated by the amount and complexity of the research being conducted. At this time there appears to be between 1.5 and 2.0 million full-time wheelchair users within the United States. The reliance of the user on the wheelchair and the amount of time in the wheelchair provide significant challenges for the wheelchair design engineer. Currently there are a wide variety of wheelchair designs that are commercially available. These wheelchairs accommodate a variety of people's needs, and represent significant progress. The current trend among manufacturers of manual wheelchairs seems to be cost-reduction engineering. The ergonomics of long-term wheelchair use are critical to the advancement of wheelchair design and to the clinical selection of wheelchairs. Electric powered wheelchairs appear to be progressing faster than nearly all other types of wheelchairs. This is due to the availability of computing power with low cost microcontrollers and associated peripherals. The greater range and availability of sensors are also making changes into the design of electric powered wheelchairs. The interaction between an electric powered wheelchair and the user can be extremely complex. In many cases, individual solutions are necessary. One of the more challenging questions is determining the abilities of the user required to drive an electric powered wheelchair effectively. There have been substantial improvements in the engineering of all wheelchairs. However, there remain significant issues to be addressed. PMID:10638849

  8. Electrooculogram wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Philips, Gavin R; Catellier, Andrew A; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the research, development, and implementation of an electrooculogram-controlled wheelchair. This system was designed specifically to fit the demands of users with limited use of their arms and legs. By monitoring ocular bio-electrical signals, this system allows the user to steer the wheelchair using only eye movements. The first generation prototype described here used a "sip and puff" unit for overall control of the system, allowing the user to change modes of operation using only his/her breath. Finally, an ultra-sonic rangefinder was added to provide an extra measure of safety, alerting the user to sudden changes in grade. This is part of an ongoing project to allow greater independence for those with special needs. PMID:17487075

  9. RESNA Wheelchair Service Provision Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arledge, Stan; Armstrong, William; Babinec, Mike; Dicianno, Brad E.; Digiovine, Carmen; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor; Pederson, Jessica; Piriano, Julie; Plummer, Teresa; Rosen, Lauren; Schmeler, Mark; Shea, Mary; Stogner, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Wheelchair Service Provision Guide is to provide an appropriate framework for identifying the essential steps in the provision of a wheelchair. It is designed for use by all participants in the provision process including consumers, family members, caregivers, social service and health care professionals, suppliers,…

  10. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor. PMID:15850119

  11. Kinematic features of wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, D J; Sommer, H J

    1985-01-01

    Three male paraplegics volunteered to push their wheelchairs on a motor driven treadmill, for a total of 80 min each, at a work rate of 60-65% of their VO2 maximum, determined on an earlier test session. At 20 min intervals 16 mm high-speed film of the subjects was taken for three consecutive push cycles. The digitized film was used to compute the angular kinematics of the shoulder and elbow joints, the variations in the position of the trunk (as measured by a marker on the neck) and hand relative to the axle of the rear wheel. There were no intrasubject variations over the 80 min testing period for any of the recorded variables. This was interpreted as implying that at that work rate, fatigue was not exhibited as variations in the kinematics of movement. There were considerable differences between the style of one subject when compared to the other two over all the trials of each subject. This variation in style was most obvious in subject number PT who had a pumping style of push and recovery whereas subjects CA and GW employed a more continuous circular motion. The differences in the amount of forward lean of each subject were related to residual muscle strength. The discussion centered on the influence of the different styles on performance. PMID:4030799

  12. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22) to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can also gain a short-term benefit

  13. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOEpatents

    Davis, D.E.; Ingham, K.T.

    1987-04-28

    A flywheel comprising a hub having at least one radially projecting disc, an annular rim secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface. 2 figs.

  14. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Donald E.; Ingham, Kenneth T.

    1987-01-01

    A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

  15. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  16. Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs with Their Thoughts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157593.html Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs With Their Thoughts Scientists say technology might ... made it possible for monkeys to operate a robotic wheelchair using only the monkey's thoughts say the ...

  17. The Functional Classification and Field Test Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Susana María; Yanci, Javier; Otero, Montserrat; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw). The IWBF class was correlated (p<0.05) to the hand dynamometry (r= 0.84), the maximal pass (r=0.67) and the medicine ball throw (r= 0.67). Whereas the years of dependence on the wheelchair were correlated to the velocity (p<0.01): 5 m (r= −0.80) and 20 m (r= −0.77) and agility tests (r= −0.77, p<0.01). Also, the 20 m sprint with a ball (r= 0.68) and the T-test (r= −0.57) correlated (p<0.05) with the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. Therefore, in this team the correlations of the performance variables differed when they were related to the disability class, the years of dependence on the wheelchair and the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. These results should be taken into account by the technical staff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players. PMID:26240665

  18. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

  19. Rim inertial measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.; Anderson, W. W.; Phillips, W. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The invention includes an angular momentum control device (AMCD) having a rim and several magnetic bearing stations. The AMCD is in a strapped down position on a spacecraft. Each magnetic bearing station comprises means, including an axial position sensor, for controlling the position of the rim in the axial direction; and means, including a radial position sensor, for controlling the position of the rim in the radial direction. A first computer receives the signals from all the axial position sensors and computes the angular rates about first and second mutually perpendicular axes in the plane of the rim and computes the linear acceleration along a third axis perpendicular to the first and second axes. A second computer receives the signals from all the radial position sensors and computes the linear accelerations along the first and second axes.

  20. Wheelchair caster loading during frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina E; van Roosmalen, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Many wheelchair users are required or choose to use their wheelchairs as a motor vehicle seat during transport. It is therefore key that the wheelchair components be designed to tolerate crash-level loading conditions. Casters are particularly prone to failure under crash loading conditions. Our study evaluated wheelchair caster loading during 20g/48 kph frontal sled impact testing using an 85-kg surrogate wheelchair base (SWCB) with casters positioned on a load-measuring platform. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male test dummy was seated in the SWCB, which simulated a power wheelchair and was secured using four-point tiedowns. Various rear securement point heights and wheelchair seating systems were used to study their effect on caster loading. Caster normal loading was found to vary from 769 to 7,209 N depending on rear securement location and integrity of the seating system. Dynamic sled impact test results showed that normal loading of the front wheelchair casters was influenced by wheelchair seating system integrity and rear wheelchair securement height. Shear loading varied from 781 to 1,589 N and did not appear to be dependent on seat integrity or rear securement height. The load/time histories measured during dynamic impact testing can be used to guide the development of transit-safe caster design. PMID:15137727

  1. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  2. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  3. Getting the Right Wheelchair for Travel: A WC19-Compliant Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.; Schneider, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Children and adults who must remain seated in their wheelchairs while traveling are often at a disadvantage in terms of crash safety. The new voluntary wheelchair industry standard WC19 (short for Section 19 of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards) works to close the safety gap by providing design and performance criteria and test methods to assess…

  4. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards. PMID:19398366

  5. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  6. Degraded Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 3 May 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Southern Arabia Terra is very degraded (beaten up). This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story When you think of Arabia, you probably think of hot deserts and a lot of profitable oil reserves. On Mars, however, Southern Arabia Terra is a cold place of cratered terrain. This almost frothy-looking image is the badly battered edge of an ancient crater, which has suffered both erosion and bombardment from asteroids, comets, or other impacting bodies over the long course of its existence. A blanket of dust has also settled over the region, which gives the otherwise rugged landscape a soft and more subdued appearance. The small, round crater (upper left) seems almost gemlike in its setting against the larger crater ring. But this companionship is no easy romance. Whatever formed the small crater clearly whammed into the larger crater rim at some point, obliterating part of its edge. You can tell the small crater was formed after the first and more devastating impact, because it is laid over the other larger crater. How much younger is the small one? Well, its rim is also much sharper and more intact, which gives a sense that it is probably far more youthful than the very degraded, ancient crater.

  7. Upper Body-Based Power Wheelchair Control Interface for Individuals with Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Elias B.; Abdollahi, Farnaz; Chen, David; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Lee, Mei-Hua; Pedersen, Jessica; Pierella, Camilla; Roth, Elliot J.; Gonzalez, Ismael Seanez; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.

    2016-01-01

    Many power wheelchair control interfaces are not sufficient for individuals with severely limited upper limb mobility. The majority of controllers that do not rely on coordinated arm and hand movements provide users a limited vocabulary of commands and often do not take advantage of the user’s residual motion. We developed a body-machine interface (BMI) that leverages the flexibility and customizability of redundant control by using high dimensional changes in shoulder kinematics to generate proportional controls commands for a power wheelchair. In this study, three individuals with cervical spinal cord injuries were able to control the power wheelchair safely and accurately using only small shoulder movements. With the BMI, participants were able to achieve their desired trajectories and, after five sessions driving, were able to achieve smoothness that was similar to the smoothness with their current joystick. All participants were twice as slow using the BMI however improved with practice. Importantly, users were able to generalize training controlling a computer to driving a power wheelchair, and employed similar strategies when controlling both devices. Overall, this work suggests that the BMI can be an effective wheelchair control interface for individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries who have limited arm and hand control. PMID:26054071

  8. RIMS Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraepelien, Hans

    Computer routines for the translation of teacher-prepared mark sense forms to magnetic tape are described. The program, Receiving IMS (RIMS), is part of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS). It accepts mark sense sheets from remotely located Xerox 660 scanner copiers and/or IMS update information from…

  9. The Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The articles in this special edition were compiled to provide information to Canadian social studies teachers about Pacific Rim countries. Section 1, entitled "The Big Picture and Future Interests," contains: (1) "Social Studies for the 21st Century" (J. Tucker); (2) "Culture and Communication: A Perspective on Asian Studies for Tomorrow's…

  10. Rim Dispute Explodes in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Bennie C.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the history of Maryland's controversial requirement that school buses use single-piece wheel rims. The author suggests precautions for using explosion-prone multipiece rims. (MCG)

  11. All-terrain self-leveling wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Andrew; Barrett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Limited mobility is something that affects approximately 6.8 million Americans. Approximately 1.7 million are using wheelchairs or scooters of some kind to enhance mobility. Everyday obstacles present a challenge to those in a wheelchair. Also, outdoor environments such as campsites, lakes, or even grass fields provide additional challenges for those with limited mobility. This project provides a solution to some of the limitations faced by those in wheelchairs. The wheels and tires of the wheelchair allow navigation through most terrains such as grass, gravel, and sand. Furthermore, as a wheelchair climbs or descends a hill it becomes unstable and the user risks tipping the wheelchair causing injury or even death. The self-leveling wheelchair uses an accelerometer to determine its angle of inclination and depending on user interface choices will display the angle or raise the seat with linear actuators to keep the seat level. This will keep the center of gravity towards the front of the chair when going up a hill and towards the back of the chair when going down a hill. This enhanced stability will give the user the confidence and ability to go places where most traditional wheelchairs can not. The chair has the ability to self-level at up to 45 degree and can provide a manual lift of 6 inches. The design presented in this report is patent pending. PMID:25405455

  12. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  13. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  14. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  15. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  16. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  17. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  18. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  19. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  20. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  1. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  2. Flux Coupling for Wheelchair Battery Chargers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Battery-charger concept for wheelchairs includes magnetic-flux coupling instead of electrical connections between power sources and wheelchairs. Concept meant to facilitate operation by patients whose disabilities make it difficult or impossible to maneuver common electrical plugs into or out of ac wall outlets.

  3. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  4. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  5. Context-Based Filtering for Assisted Brain-Actuated Wheelchair Driving

    PubMed Central

    Vanacker, Gerolf; del R. Millán, José; Lew, Eileen; Ferrez, Pierre W.; Moles, Ferran Galán; Philips, Johan; Van Brussel, Hendrik; Nuttin, Marnix

    2007-01-01

    Controlling a robotic device by using human brain signals is an interesting and challenging task. The device may be complicated to control and the nonstationary nature of the brain signals provides for a rather unstable input. With the use of intelligent processing algorithms adapted to the task at hand, however, the performance can be increased. This paper introduces a shared control system that helps the subject in driving an intelligent wheelchair with a noninvasive brain interface. The subject's steering intentions are estimated from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and passed through to the shared control system before being sent to the wheelchair motors. Experimental results show a possibility for significant improvement in the overall driving performance when using the shared control system compared to driving without it. These results have been obtained with 2 healthy subjects during their first day of training with the brain-actuated wheelchair. PMID:18354739

  6. The wheelchair as a full-body tool extending the peripersonal space

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Giulia; Noel, Jean Paul; Canzoneri, Elisa; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated multisensory mechanisms in the brain represent peripersonal space (PPS), a limited portion of space immediately surrounding the body. Previous studies have illustrated the malleability of PPS representation through hand-object interaction, showing that tool use extends the limits of the hand-centered PPS. In the present study we investigated the effects of a special tool, the wheelchair, in extending the action possibilities of the whole body. We used a behavioral measure to quantify the extension of the PPS around the body before and after Active (Experiment 1) and Passive (Experiment 2) training with a wheelchair and when participants were blindfolded (Experiment 3). Results suggest that a wheelchair-mediated passive exploration of far space extended PPS representation. This effect was specifically related to the possibility of receiving information from the environment through vision, since no extension effect was found when participants were blindfolded. Surprisingly, the active motor training did not induce any modification in PPS representation, probably because the wheelchair maneuver was demanding for non-expert users and thus they may have prioritized processing of information from close to the wheelchair rather than at far spatial locations. Our results suggest that plasticity in PPS representation after tool use seems not to strictly depend on active use of the tool itself, but is triggered by simultaneous processing of information from the body and the space where the body acts in the environment, which is more extended in the case of wheelchair use. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying body–environment interaction for developing and improving applications of assistive technological devices in different clinical populations. PMID:26042069

  7. The wheelchair as a full-body tool extending the peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Galli, Giulia; Noel, Jean Paul; Canzoneri, Elisa; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated multisensory mechanisms in the brain represent peripersonal space (PPS), a limited portion of space immediately surrounding the body. Previous studies have illustrated the malleability of PPS representation through hand-object interaction, showing that tool use extends the limits of the hand-centered PPS. In the present study we investigated the effects of a special tool, the wheelchair, in extending the action possibilities of the whole body. We used a behavioral measure to quantify the extension of the PPS around the body before and after Active (Experiment 1) and Passive (Experiment 2) training with a wheelchair and when participants were blindfolded (Experiment 3). Results suggest that a wheelchair-mediated passive exploration of far space extended PPS representation. This effect was specifically related to the possibility of receiving information from the environment through vision, since no extension effect was found when participants were blindfolded. Surprisingly, the active motor training did not induce any modification in PPS representation, probably because the wheelchair maneuver was demanding for non-expert users and thus they may have prioritized processing of information from close to the wheelchair rather than at far spatial locations. Our results suggest that plasticity in PPS representation after tool use seems not to strictly depend on active use of the tool itself, but is triggered by simultaneous processing of information from the body and the space where the body acts in the environment, which is more extended in the case of wheelchair use. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying body-environment interaction for developing and improving applications of assistive technological devices in different clinical populations. PMID:26042069

  8. Rim of 'Erebus'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The center upper portion of this image shows a portion of the rim of 'Erebus Crater' in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. This approximately true-color view from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is a composite of frames acquired on the rover's 657th Martian day, or sol, (Nov. 28, 2005). This is a small portion of a large panorama. Other portions of the panorama were still being shot three sols later. This view is a composite of separate images taken through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Pacific rim lures explorationists

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, L.

    1991-09-01

    The Pacific Rim has been far and away the most attractive hunting ground for explorationists in the past year. Observers point to political initiatives coupled with a growing demand as igniting the region's numerous hydrocarbon possibilities. This paper describes some of the new incentives and the resultant exploration results and developments in China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Vietnam. A major sign of the region's political maturity is the willingness for the countries involved to solve the longstanding disputes over the claims in hydrocarbon-prone South China Sea.

  10. Wheelchair wheels for use on sand.

    PubMed

    Hillman, M

    1994-05-01

    Mobility over sand and other rough surfaces can be a major problem for people in wheelchairs. From tests with a simple prototype, model tests and theoretical calculations the following observations were made for an attendant propelled chair. The rolling resistance of a wheelchair on sand may be improved by pulling, rather than pushing the chair. The use of a ball wheel at the front improves the rolling resistance, though standard large diameter rear wheels give acceptable performance. From these observations a prototype device for fitment to a standard wheelchair has been designed. PMID:8061911

  11. Arsia Mons Caldera Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image shows part of the caldera rim and floor of Arsia Mons. The arcuate fractures along the rim indicate multiple periods of activity -- both eruptions and collapse after eruptions. The floor of the caldera is very flat, having been filled by lava.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 238.8 East (121.2 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Wheelchair Design Changes: New Opportunities for Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Changes in wheelchair design (such as larger tires and lighter overall weight) make it possible for disabled persons to exercise more mobility and control and participate in a greater variety of recreational activities. (CL)

  13. Biomechanics and Strength of Manual Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Boninger, Michael L; Souza, Aaron L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Koontz, Alicia M; Cooper, Rory A

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objective: Previous investigations have identified muscular imbalance in the shoulder as a source of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Our aim was to determine whether a correlation exists between strength and pushrim biomechanical variables including: tangential (motive) force (Ft), radial force (Fr), axial force (Fz), total (resultant) force (FR), fraction of effective force (FEF), and cadence. Methods: Peak isokinetic shoulder strength (flexion [FLX], extension [EXT], abduction [ABD], adduction [ADD], internal rotation [IR], and external rotation [ER]) was tested in 22 manual wheelchair users with a BioDex system for 5 repetitions at 60°/s. Subjects then propelled their own manual wheelchair at 2 speeds, 0.9 m/s (2 mph) and 1.8 m/s (4 mph), for 20 seconds, during which kinematic (OPTOTRAK) and kinetic (SMARTWHEEL) data were collected. Peak isokinetic forces in the cardinal planes were correlated with pushrim biomechanical variables. Results: All peak torque strength variables correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with Ft, Fr, and FR, but were not significantly correlated with Fz, FEF, or cadence. Finally, there were no relationships found between muscle strength ratios (for example, FLX/EXT) and Ft, Fr, FR, Fz, or FEF. Conclusion: There was a correlation between strength and force imparted to the pushrim among wheelchair users; however, there was no correlation found in wheelchair propulsion or muscle imbalance. Clinicians should be aware of this, and approach strength training and training in wheelchair propulsion techniques separately. PMID:16869087

  14. Clouds Over Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds above the rim of 'Endurance Crater' in this image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity can remind the viewer that Mars, our celestial neighbor, is subject to weather. On Earth, clouds like these would be referred to as 'cirrus' or the aptly nicknamed 'mares' tails.' These clouds occur in a region of strong vertical shear. The cloud particles (ice in this martian case) fall out, and get dragged along away from the location where they originally condensed, forming characteristic streamers. Opportunity took this picture with its navigation camera during the rover's 269th martian day (Oct. 26, 2004).

    The mission's atmospheric science team is studying cloud observations to deduce seasonal and time-of-day behavior of the clouds. This helps them gain a better understanding of processes that control cloud formation.

  15. A study of vibration characteristics on a luxury wheelchair and a new prototype wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostens, I.; Papaioannou, Y.; Spaepen, A.; Ramon, H.

    2003-09-01

    The transmission of wheelchair vibrations to the body will influence comfort, performance and the long-term health of the user. Improved knowledge of vibration transmissibility and its variability enhances our understanding of various human responses to vibration. In this study, an outdoor experiment and an experiment with vibration simulation using two wheelchairs (high-quality models of a new prototype wheelchair taken from two different stages of the iterative production procedure) were performed. The study confirms that the human body is very sensitive to the frequency range of 0.5- 10 Hz, as found in the literature. Both wheelchairs equipped with passive suspension system did not perform adequately in this frequency range and even amplified the input signal at the resonance frequency (3- 4.5 Hz). As the risk of physical damage is not likely to improve with these wheelchair suspension systems, the future depends on new designs with higher low-frequency comfort and affordable additional costs.

  16. Teaching about the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Presents ERIC Digest No. 43 which examines the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim," reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum, and useful strategies for teaching about that part of the world. Lists references, including ERIC resources, used in the digest's preparation. (GEA)

  17. Teaching about the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) the meaning of the term Pacific Rim, (2) the reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum, and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. Provides a list of reference and ERIC resources dealing with this subject. (GEA)

  18. Motion Evaluation Of A Wheelchair Prototype For Disabled People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented the design solution and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. It's developed a motion controller based on a PWM technology, which allows the user to control the wheelchair motion. The wheelchair has the ability of forward - backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it's implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video cameras recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  19. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R. Lee; Miller, William C.; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W.; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants 116 powered wheelchair users. Intervention Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Main Outcome Measures Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). Results There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Conclusions Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. PMID:26232684

  20. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  1. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in New Jersey Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation © 2016 The Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation is a registered 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization

  2. Principles and Practices for Championship Performances in Wheelchair Field Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses training and competing in wheelchair sports. General principles of training, including scheduling and content considerations, are listed. Principles for specific wheelchair events (shotput, discus, and javelin) are detailed. A final part addresses training for the wheelchair pentathlon, which includes archery, swimming,…

  3. Rim of Henry Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 02 April 2002) This portion of the rim of Henry Crater has numerous dark streaks located on the slopes of the inner crater wall. These dark slope streaks have been suggested to have formed when the relatively bright dust that mantles the slopes slides downhill, either exposing a dust-free darker surface or creating a darker surface by increasing its roughness. The topography in this region appears muted, indicating the presence of regional dust mantling. The materials on floor of the crater (middle to lower left) are layered, with differing degrees of hardness and resistance to erosion producing cliffs (resistant layers) and ledges (easily eroded layers). These layered materials may have been originally deposited in water, although deposition by other means, such as windblown dust and sand, is also possible. Henry Crater, named after a 19th Century French astronomer, is 170 km in diameter and is located at 10.9o N, 336.7o W (23.3o E) in a region called Arabia Terra.

  4. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  5. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  6. Semi-autonomous wheelchair developed using a unique camera system configuration biologically inspired by equine vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Tran, Yvonne; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using cameras in a system configuration modeled on the vision system of a horse. This new camera configuration utilizes stereoscopic vision for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, combined with a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. This unique combination allows for static components of an unknown environment to be mapped and any surrounding dynamic obstacles to be detected, during real-time autonomous navigation, minimizing blind-spots and preventing accidental collisions with people or obstacles. This novel vision system combined with shared control strategies provides intelligent assistive guidance during wheelchair navigation and can accompany any hands-free wheelchair control technology. Leading up to experimental trials with patients at the Royal Rehabilitation Centre (RRC) in Ryde, results have displayed the effectiveness of this system to assist the user in navigating safely within the RRC whilst avoiding potential collisions. PMID:22255649

  7. Motorized wheelchair driving by disabled children.

    PubMed

    Butler, C; Okamoto, G A; McKay, T M

    1984-02-01

    Thirteen children with physical disabilities, normal intelligence and stable family situations were studied to learn whether children under age 4 years could learn competent control of a motorized wheelchair. Their mean age was 31.3 months (range 20 to 37 months). There were six girls and seven boys. Each child required adaptive seating to manipulate the control stick in a conventional motorized wheelchair. Without specific training instructions, parents introduced the wheelchairs under pleasant circumstances at home. Daily logs and engine-hour-meters indicate that 12 children learned seven pre-established driving skills within a mean cumulative period of 34.4 hours (range 6.6 to 168 hours) distributed over an average 16.3 days (range 3 to 50 days). Actual cumulative wheelchair movement averaged 8.1 hours (range 1.7 to 26.1 hours). All learned a cluster of four to five skills over a one to five day period. Start-stop and circling were the two initial skills in all but one case. In four children, the first skill appeared after a latent period of 5, 6, 12 and 43 days. Children as young as 24 months can learn to drive motorized wheelchairs. Because of the theoretical importance of approximating normal gross motor milestones, powered mobility should be considered an early rehabilitative intervention for physically disabled children. PMID:6230066

  8. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  9. Optimization of Turbine Rim Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. H.; Tew, D. E.; Stetson, G. M.; Sabnis, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments are being conducted to gain an understanding of the physics of rim scale cavity ingestion in a turbine stage with the high-work, single-stage characteristics envisioned for Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) aircraft gas turbine engines fo the early 21st century. Initial experimental measurements to be presented include time-averaged turbine rim cavity and main gas path static pressure measurements for rim seal coolant to main gas path mass flow ratios between 0 and 0.02. The ultimate objective of this work is develop improved rim seal design concepts for use in modern high-work, single sage turbines n order to minimize the use of secondary coolant flow. Toward this objective the time averaged and unsteady data to be obtained in these experiments will be used to 1) Quantify the impact of the rim cavity cooling air on the ingestion process. 2) Quantify the film cooling benefits of the rim cavity purge flow in the main gas path. 3) Quantify the impact of the cooling air on turbine efficiency. 4) Develop/evaluate both 3D CFD and analytical models of the ingestion/cooling process.

  10. Portable basketball rim testing device

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, W. Bruce; Davis, Karl C.

    1993-01-01

    A portable basketball rim rebound testing device 10 is illustrated in two preferred embodiments for testing the rebound or energy absorption characteristics of a basketball rim 12 and its accompanying support to determine likely rebound or energy absorption charcteristics of the system. The apparatus 10 includes a depending frame 28 having a C-clamp 36 for releasably rigidly connecting the frame to the basketball rim 12. A glide weight 60 is mounted on a guide rod 52 permitting the weight 60 to be dropped against a calibrated spring 56 held on an abutment surface on the rod to generate for deflecting the basketball rim and then rebounding the weight upwardly. A photosensor 66 is mounted on the depending frame 28 to sense passage of reflective surfaces 75 on the weight to thereby obtain sufficient data to enable a processing means 26 to calculate the rebound velocity and relate it to an energy absorption percentage rate of the rim system 12. A readout is provided to display the energy absorption percentage.

  11. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  7. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  8. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  12. The Mobility Decision. 1990 Wheelchair Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Cliff

    1990-01-01

    This article presents tips for parents shopping for wheelchairs for children with special mobility needs. Manual versus power chairs, dimensions, maneuverability, weight, transportability, durability, adaptability, maximum/minimum speeds, battery life (for power chairs), climbing angle, and other features are discussed. Factors to consider in…

  13. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  14. On "impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults".

    PubMed

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical efficiency of propelling manual wheelchairs is a very important topic. Wheelchair users, clinicians, manufacturers and payers would all benefit from better understanding of mechanical efficiency. However, the measurement of the mechanical efficiency is a nontrivial challenge. Cowan et al deserve a lot of credit for tackling such a difficult problem in their article "Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults." The study demonstrated good internal validity in detecting a 4% difference in peak propulsion forces in wheelchairs that differed in mass by 9.1 kg. However, the instrumentation used to measure forces altered both the mass and inertia of the wheelchair-occupant system--2 factors that directly affect system energy. This approach, therefore, affects external validity, and the results cannot be extended to infer differences across wheelchair codes. That said, this study adds important information to the body of work into mechanical efficiency of wheelchairs. We now have evidence to suggest that addition of 9 kg and an 8 cm posterior displacement of axle position adversely affects propulsion biomechanics in an elderly cohort. Improved methodology can lead to mechanical efficiency measurement of different wheelchair models and different wheelchair options. PMID:19577018

  15. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution. PMID:27046566

  16. RESNA's position on wheelchairs used as seats in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Bertocci, Gina; Schneider, Lawrence W; Manary, Miriam; Karg, Patricia; Brown, Dalthea; Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This position paper is based on the premise that those who ride seated in wheelchairs are entitled to equivalent occupant safety when they are traveling in motor vehicles. The document summarizes research and best practice for safety and selection of crashworthy wheelchairs with the requisite features required by the WC19 safety standard when it is necessary for individuals to use a wheelchair as a seat in a motor vehicle. Recommendations are based on data from accident and injury databases, prior research and a synopsis of the design, testing, performance and labeling requirements of ANSI and ISO voluntary industry standards for wheelchair transportation safety. This paper is intended for an audience of consumers, rehabilitation and health care professionals, manufacturers of wheelchairs and wheelchair transportation equipment and those who make reimbursement and public policy decisions. PMID:22876735

  17. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  18. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  19. DE 1 RIMS operational characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Reasoner, D. L.; Biddle, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) on the Dynamics Explorer 1 spacecraft observes both the thermal and superthermal (50 eV) ions of the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. It is capable of measuring the detailed species distribution function of these ions in many cases. It was equipped with an integral electrometer to permit in-flight calibration of the detector sensitivities and variations thereof. A guide to understanding the RIMS data set is given. The reduction process from count rates to physical quantities is discussed in some detail. The procedure used to establish in-flight calibration is described, and results of a comparison with densities from plasma wave measurements are provided. Finally, a discussion is provided of various anomalies in the data set, including changes of channeltron efficiency with time, spin modulation of the axial sensor heads, apparent potential differences between the sensor heads, and failures of the radial head retarding potential sweep and of the -Z axial head aperture plane bias. Studies of the RIMS data set should be conducted only with a thorough awareness of the material presented here, or in collaboration with one of the scientists actively involved with RIMS data analysis.

  20. The Injury Risk to Wheelchair Occupants Using Motor Vehicle Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Rotko, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    The transportation safety experience for persons using wheelchairs is largely unknown. Motor vehicle crash involvement and injury frequency was examined in a telephone interview completed by 596 wheelchair users. Overall, 42% were drivers. Most subjects also rode as passengers in private vehicles (87%) and public vehicles (61%). Wheelchair use as a seat in the vehicle was higher among passengers than drivers. Crash involvement was highest among drivers and lower in passengers. Reported injuries from non-crash scenarios, though, were higher in passengers compared to drivers. Persons seated in wheelchairs in vehicles appear to be at a greater safety risk. PMID:15319121

  1. Power wheelchair driving challenges in the community: a users’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Torkia, Caryne; Reid, Denise; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W.; Demers, Louise; Archambault, Philippe S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is limited information on the difficulties individuals experience in manoeuvring their power wheelchairs during daily activities. The aim of this study was to describe the nature and context of power wheelchair driving challenges from the perspective of the user. Methods A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews with power wheelchair users. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify themes. Results Twelve experienced power wheelchair users were interviewed. Findings revealed that power wheelchair driving difficulties were related to the accomplishment of activities of daily living, and the influence of environmental context. Four key themes emerged: (1) difficulties accessing and using public buildings-facilities, (2) outdoor mobility, (3) problems in performing specific wheelchair mobility tasks/manoeuvres and (4) barriers and circumstances that are temporary, unforeseen or specific to a particular context. Conclusion This qualitative study furthers our understanding of the driving difficulties powered wheelchair (PW) users experience during daily activities. This knowledge will assist clinicians and researchers in two areas: in choosing assessment measures that are ecologically valid for power wheelchair users; and, in identifying and refining the content of training programs specific to the use of power wheelchairs. PMID:24640944

  2. Linking wheelchair kinetics to glenohumeral joint demand during everyday accessibility activities.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Catherine S; Symonds, Andrew; Suzuki, Tatsuto; Gall, Angela; Smitham, Peter; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if push-rim kinetics could be used as markers of glenohumeral joint demand during manual wheelchair accessibility activities; demonstrating a method of biomechanical analysis that could be used away from the laboratory. Propulsion forces, trunk and upper limb kinematics and surface electromyography were recorded during four propulsion tasks (level, 2.5% cross slope, 6.5% incline and 12% incline). Kinetic and kinematic data were applied to an OpenSim musculoskeletal model of the trunk and upper limb, to enable calculation of glenohumeral joint contact force. Results demonstrated a positive correlation between propulsion forces and glenohumeral joint contact forces. Both propulsion forces and joint contact forces increased as the task became more challenging. Participants demonstrated increases in trunk flexion angle as the requirement for force application increased, significantly so in the 12% incline. There were significant increases in both resultant glenohumeral joint contact forces and peak and mean normalized muscle activity levels during the incline tasks. This study demonstrated the high demand placed on the glenohumeral joint during accessibility tasks, especially as the gradient of incline increases. A lightweight instrumented wheelchair wheel has potential to guide the user to minimize upper limb demand during daily activity. PMID:26736796

  3. Wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1985-07-01

    The hysteresis loss theory of rolling resistance is developed for solid rubber wheelchair tires. The analysis is used to correlate test data for a clay-filled natural rubber and a polyurethane tire material. A discussion of tire rolling work, hysteresis loss factor measurement, and rolling loss measurement is presented. An example calculation of rolling resistance for a polyurethane tire is given in detail. The subject of solid rubber tire design is developed on the basis of recommended fatigue life theory and practice. It is shown that polyurethane tires have a useful fatigue life due to a high shear modulus at useful values of hardness. This characteristic of polyurethane, if exploited, is predicted to lead to a tire with a lower rolling resistance than other wheelchair tires available. The effect of surface roughness on rolling resistance is briefly discussed and some experimental results are listed. The purpose of this paper is to give the rehabilitation engineer the means for wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue life design and the methods to assess the tire characteristics when a tire design is modified or a new tire material is contemplated. Other important design factors, such as wear and chemical degradation, are not discussed, but references are suggested for information on these topics. As in most research and development projects, this study raises problems which need further work. For example, the fatigue properties of the rubber compounds employed in this application are not completely understood; this subject is planned for future investigation. PMID:3835263

  4. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    PubMed

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level. PMID:25536537

  5. Riding the Rim of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This cylindrical-projection view was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired on sol 103 (May 8, 2004). Opportunity traversed approximately 13 meters (about 43 feet) farther south along the eastern rim of 'Endurance Crater' before reaching the beginning of the 'Karatepe' area. Scientists believe this layered band of rock may be a good place to begin studying Endurance because it is less steep and more approachable than the rest of the crater's rocky outcrops.

  6. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  7. Learning to Drive a Wheelchair in Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Dean P.; Loge, Ken; Cram, Aaron; Peterson, Missy

    2011-01-01

    This research project studied the effect that a technology-based training program, WheelchairNet, could contribute to the education of children with physical disabilities by providing a chance to practice driving virtual motorized wheelchairs safely within a computer-generated world. Programmers created three virtual worlds for training. Scenarios…

  8. A Microcomputer Training System for Electric Wheelchair Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, D. M. E.; Turner, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the development of a computer-based means of assessment and training for motorized wheelchair users. Programs designed to run on a BBC microcomputer that allow the ability of a severely handicapped person to be tested are explained; a joystick-controlled wheelchair simulation is described, and its use with children highlighted.…

  9. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  10. [Work physiological studies performed to optimate the lever propulsion and the seat position of a lever propelled wheelchair (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Engel, P; Neikes, M; Bennedik, K; Hildebrandt, G; Rode, F W

    1976-11-01

    Spiroergometric examination with defined work loads and permanent records of the common circulatory and metabolic values were carried out on a group of healthy adults and one wheelchair occupant, using a fixed wheelchair simulator with lever propulsion, which was connected to an ergometer. Comparative studies were performed in three different seat positions in relation to the lever, as well as six different lengths of the connecting rod. The best values were measured, under steadystate conditions, with increasing lengths of the connecting rod and posterior placement of the seat unit. The results are in agreement with the experience gained by other authors with respect to arm work, and show that the optimal efficiency of hand lever work is obtained in the anterior position. In this context it proved to be particularly advantageious from the ergonomic viewpoint, if, when bending forward, as necessitated by a long connecting rod, both the upper part of the body and the trunk musculature are employed. The practical consequences of the simulator tests on an adequate wheelchair design and wheelchair prescription are discussed. PMID:137501

  11. Accretionary dark rims in unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. V. V.; King, E. A.

    1981-12-01

    Textural and qualitative EDX investigations of dark-rimmed particles in six low petrologic type chondrites indicate that the rims accreted on host particles over a wide range of temperatures prior to initial accumulation and lithification of the meteorites in which the rimmed particles are now contained. Many dark rims are enriched in moderately volatile trace elements such as Na, Cl, P, and K, relative to the host particles and matrix. The range of physical/chemical environments associated with hypervelocity impacts may have offered the setting for the formation of dark-rimmed particles early in solar system history.

  12. On the development of an expert system for wheelchair selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madey, Gregory R.; Bhansin, Charlotte A.; Alaraini, Sulaiman A.; Nour, Mohamed A.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of wheelchairs for the Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients involves the examination of a number of complicated factors including ambulation status, length of diagnosis, and funding sources, to name a few. Consequently, only a few experts exist in this area. To aid medical therapists with the wheelchair selection decision, a prototype medical expert system (ES) was developed. This paper describes and discusses the steps of designing and developing the system, the experiences of the authors, and the lessons learned from working on this project. Wheelchair Advisor, programmed in CLIPS, serves as diagnosis, classification, prescription, and training tool in the MS field. Interviews, insurance letters, forms, and prototyping were used to gain knowledge regarding the wheelchair selection problem. Among the lessons learned are that evolutionary prototyping is superior to the conventional system development life-cycle (SDLC), the wheelchair selection is a good candidate for ES applications, and that ES can be applied to other similar medical subdomains.

  13. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  14. Shoulder joint kinetics of the elite wheelchair tennis serve

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Machar; Elliott, Bruce; Alderson, Jacque

    2007-01-01

    Background The shoulder is a key joint in wheelchair locomotion and commonly implicated in injury among virtually all wheelchair populations. In tennis, quantification of the shoulder joint kinetics that characterise the wheelchair serve could enhance injury prevention and rehabilitation practices as well as assist coaches evaluate the efficacy of their current technical instruction. Methods A 12‐camera, 250 Hz Vicon motion analysis system (Oxford Metrics Inc., UK) recorded the 3D flat (WFS) and kick serve (WKS) motions of two male top 30‐ranked international wheelchair players. Mechanical comparisons between wheelchair players, as well as to the previously captured data of 12 high‐performance able‐bodied players executing the same types of serves, were undertaken. Results Without the benefit of a propulsive leg action, wheelchair players developed lower peak absolute (∼32 m/s) and horizontal (∼28 m/s) pre‐impact racquet velocities than able‐bodied players (∼42 m/s, ∼38 m/s). Wheelchair serve tactics nevertheless necessitated that higher pre‐impact horizontal and right lateral racquet velocities characterised the WFS (∼29 m/s, WKS: ∼26 m/s) and WKS (∼4 m/s, WFS: ∼11 m/s) respectively. The shoulder joint kinetics that contributed to the differential racquet velocity profiles were mostly developed independent of wheelchair serve type, but varied with and were likely related to the level and severity of spinal cord injury of the individual players. Conclusions Compared with able‐bodied players, wheelchair players experienced matching pre‐ and post‐impact shoulder joint loads, such that wheelchair and able‐bodied playing populations appear subject to similar shoulder joint injury risk. PMID:17957009

  15. Home in a Wheelchair: House Design Ideas for Easier Wheelchair Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasin, Joseph

    Intended to aid in the building or purchase of a home suitable for use by a handicapped individual in a wheelchair, the booklet provides detailed design guidelines. Included is information on the decision process, finances, ramps, a car shelter, doors communication devices, electrical needs, windows, elevators and chair lifts, the kitchen, an…

  16. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and wheelers' quality of life: an exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Levy, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To provide an overview of associations between wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for both everyday and racing wheelchairs, wheeling-related upper limb injuries, and quality of life of manual wheelchair users through a synthesis of the available information. METHODS. A search of publications was carried out in PubMed and SportsDiscus databases. Studies on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, upper limb injuries associated with wheelchair propulsion and quality of life of wheelchair users were identified. Relevant articles cited in identified articles but not cited in PubMed or SportsDiscus were also included. RESULTS. Wheelchair sports participation has positive impact on quality of life and research in racing wheelchair biomechanics can indirectly promote the visibility of wheelchair sports. The impact of pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (a hybrid between manual and battery-powered wheelchairs) and geared manual wheels on wheelers' everyday life were discussed. CONCLUSIONS. The study of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics focuses on how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility and the accumulated knowledge can help to improve wheelchair users' mobility, reduce physical stress associated with wheelchair propulsion, and as a result, enhance quality of life. PMID:20932232

  17. The ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards: sample evaluation and guide to interpreting test data for prescribing power wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    This study is a joint project of ECRI and the National Rehabilitation Hospital, supported by a grant from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR, U.S. Department of Education, Agreement No. H133E80016). ECRI is the first independent laboratory to test power wheelchairs according to the standards of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (RESNA), now known as the Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology (AART); these standards will ultimately be distributed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). We tested 10 power wheelchairs, which are similar in size and configuration, from seven manufacturers; all units are intended for adult use. Our testing showed that none of the sample wheelchairs are ideal for all environments in which these devices are typically needed. Each unit has advantages that should be carefully considered when specifying a power wheelchair. Numerous factors are involved in prescribing power wheelchairs, and learning the subtle differences in features and performance of a particular model and how they will affect the user is difficult. In addition, acquiring objective information about power wheelchairs from manufacturers is not typically easy. Considering these factors, and because the standards on which we based our testing do not generally provide criteria for passing or failing models under test, we did not rate the units. The purpose of this article is to present the data collected in our study, using wheelchair performance characteristics based on some parts of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards, as an example of what prescribers can expect to receive from manufacturers and to provide guidance in interpreting and applying the data in writing power wheelchair prescriptions. Thus, this article provides an overview of the types of problems faced by those who specify power wheelchairs for users, the problems faced by the users themselves, and the

  18. On the Rim of 'Erebus'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for On the Rim of 'Erebus' (QTVR)

    This is the Opportunity panoramic camera's 'Erebus Rim' panorama, acquired on sols 652 to 663 (Nov. 23 to Dec. 5, 2005 ), as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was exploring sand dunes and outcrop rocks in Meridiani Planum. The panorama originally consisted of 635 separate images in four different Pancam filters, and covers 360 degrees of terrain around the rover and the full rover deck. Since the time that this panorama was acquired, and while engineers have been diagnosing and testing Opportunity's robotic arm, the panorama has been expanded to include more than 1,300 images of this terrain through all of the Pancam multispectral filters. It is the largest panorama acquired by either rover during the mission.

    The panorama shown here is an approximate true-color rendering using Pancam's 750 nanometer, 530 nanometer and 430 nanometer filters. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    This panorama provides the team's highest resolution view yet of the finely-layered outcrop rocks, wind ripples, and small cobbles and grains along the rim of the wide but shallow 'Erebus' crater. Once the arm diagnostics and testing are completed, the team hopes to explore other layered outcrop rocks at Erebus and then eventually continue southward toward the large crater known as 'Victoria.'

  19. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework. PMID:24110214

  20. Evaluation of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility using advanced biomechanical methods.

    PubMed

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Graf, Adam; Krzak, Joseph J; Reiners, Kathryn; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twelve subjects with SCI underwent motion analysis while they propelled their wheelchair at a self-selected speed and propulsion pattern. Upper extremity joint kinematics, forces, and moments were computed using inverse dynamics methods with our custom model. The glenohumeral joint displayed the largest average range of motion (ROM) at 47.1° in the sagittal plane and the largest average superiorly and anteriorly directed joint forces of 6.1% BW and 6.5% BW, respectively. The largest joint moments were 1.4% body weight times height (BW × H) of elbow flexion and 1.2% BW × H of glenohumeral joint extension. Pediatric manual wheelchair users demonstrating these high joint demands may be at risk for pain and upper limb injuries. These evaluation methods may be a useful tool for clinicians and therapists for pediatric wheelchair prescription and training. PMID:25802860

  1. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  2. Shoulder pain and time dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion variability.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Moon, Yaejin; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-07-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable repetitive mechanical strain on the upper limbs leading to shoulder injury and pain. While recent research indicates that the amount of variability in wheelchair propulsion and shoulder pain may be related. There has been minimal inquiry into the fluctuation over time (i.e. time-dependent structure) in wheelchair propulsion variability. Consequently the purpose of this investigation was to examine if the time-dependent structure in the wheelchair propulsion parameters are related to shoulder pain. 27 experienced wheelchair users manually propelled their own wheelchair fitted with a SMARTWheel on a roller at 1.1m/s for 3min. Time-dependent structure of cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in contact angle and inter push time interval was quantified using sample entropy (SampEn) and compared between the groups with/without shoulder pain using non-parametric statistics. Overall findings were, (1) variability observed in contact angle fluctuations during manual wheelchair propulsion is structured (Z=3.15;p<0.05), (2) individuals with shoulder pain exhibited higher SampEn magnitude for contact angle during wheelchair propulsion than those without pain (χ(2)(1)=6.12;p<0.05); and (3) SampEn of contact angle correlated significantly with self-reported shoulder pain (rs (WUSPI) =0.41;rs (VAS)=0.56;p<0.05). It was concluded that the time-dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion may provide novel information for tracking and monitoring shoulder pain. PMID:27134151

  3. Simulation model of a lever-propelled wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Ota, Yuki; Hase, Kazunori; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair efficiency depends significantly on the individual adjustment of the wheelchair propulsion interface. Wheelchair prescription involves reconfiguring the wheelchair to optimize it for specific user characteristics. Wheelchair tuning procedure is a complicated task that is performed usually by experienced rehabilitation engineers. In this study, we report initial results from the development of a musculoskeletal model of the wheelchair lever propulsion. Such a model could be used for the development of new advanced wheelchair approaches that allow wheelchair designers and practitioners to explore virtually, on a computer, the effects of the intended settings of the lever-propulsion interface. To investigate the lever-propulsion process, we carried out wheelchair lever propulsion experiments where joint angle, lever angle and three-directional forces and moments applied to the lever were recorded during the execution of defined propulsion motions. Kinematic and dynamic features of lever propulsion motions were extracted from the recorded data to be used for the model development. Five healthy male adults took part in these initial experiments. The analysis of the collected kinematic and dynamic motion parameters showed that lever propulsion is realized by a cyclical three-dimensional motion of upper extremities and that joint torque for propulsion is maintained within a certain range. The synthesized propulsion model was verified by computer simulation where the measured lever-angles were compared with the angles generated by the developed model simulation. Joint torque amplitudes were used to impose the torque limitation to the model joints. The results evidenced that the developed model can simulate successfully basic lever propulsion tasks such as pushing and pulling the lever. PMID:25571588

  4. Advanced robust tracking control of a powered wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia T; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic multivariable model of the wheelchair system is obtained including the presence of transportation lags. The triangular diagonal dominance (TDD) decoupling technique is applied to reduce this multivariable control problem into two independent scalar control problems. An advanced robust control technique for the wheelchair has been developed based on the combination of a TDD decoupling strategy and neural network controller design. The results obtained from the real-time implementation confirm that robust performance for this multivariable wheelchair control system can indeed be achieved. PMID:18003071

  5. Powered wheelchairs: are we enabling or disabling?

    PubMed

    Beaumont-White, S; Ham, R O

    1997-04-01

    Following the unsuccessful issue of three powered indoor National Health Service (NHS) wheelchairs, a survey was carried out of 40 users in a London wheelchair service to identify the problems with issue and possible areas for improvement to practice. The survey identified improvements that were necessary both from the service and the manufacturers' booklets. The improvements include the issue of written instructions and information to complement verbal instruction given at handover. Such information should be as interesting to read as possible, make use of appropriate language and diagrams (especially in area where English is often not the first language), colour, text and print size to maximise comprehension to these severely disabled users and often their elderly relatives or carers. The importance of the role of the rehabilitation engineer in training the user, giving instruction at handover and annual review are highlighted to ensure that the equipment remains working, suitable and up to date for the individual's needs. Training in interpersonal and communication skills and the importance of recall should also be emphasised. The implementation of the findings should lead to increasing contact with the service by the user, reduction in repair and replacement costs, regular review, correct supply and will therefore enable users to increase their independence with appropriate equipment. PMID:9141127

  6. At the Rim, Looking In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  7. Impact of Surface Type, Wheelchair Weight, and Axle Position on Wheelchair Propulsion by Novice Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Design Crossover trial. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Participants Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65−87y); men = 20, women = 33. Intervention Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces; tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included: (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m), and (4) 9.05kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Main Outcome Measures Average self-selected velocity, push-frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Results Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Conclusion Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. Effects of weight and axle position are independent. Greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions. PMID:19577019

  8. A Driving Behaviour Model of Electrical Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Hamam, Y.; Djouani, K.; Daachi, B.; Steyn, N.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the presence of powered wheelchairs, some of the users still experience steering challenges and manoeuvring difficulties that limit their capacity of navigating effectively. For such users, steering support and assistive systems may be very necessary. To appreciate the assistance, there is need that the assistive control is adaptable to the user's steering behaviour. This paper contributes to wheelchair steering improvement by modelling the steering behaviour of powered wheelchair users, for integration into the control system. More precisely, the modelling is based on the improved Directed Potential Field (DPF) method for trajectory planning. The method has facilitated the formulation of a simple behaviour model that is also linear in parameters. To obtain the steering data for parameter identification, seven individuals participated in driving the wheelchair in different virtual worlds on the augmented platform. The obtained data facilitated the estimation of user parameters, using the ordinary least square method, with satisfactory regression analysis results. PMID:27148362

  9. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansiot, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lo, B.; Yang, G. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

  10. Influence of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion Training in Adolescent Wheelchair Users, A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L.; Rice, Ian M.; Rice, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13–18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury. PMID:26042217

  11. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI): a 2-D virtual wheelchair control based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization and state control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dandan; Qian, Kai; Fei, Ding-Yu; Jia, Wenchuan; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to propose an effective and practical paradigm for a brain-computer interface (BCI)-based 2-D virtual wheelchair control. The paradigm was based on the multi-class discrimination of spatiotemporally distinguishable phenomenon of event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) in electroencephalogram signals associated with motor execution/imagery of right/left hand movement. Comparing with traditional method using ERD only, where bilateral ERDs appear during left/right hand mental tasks, the 2-D control exhibited high accuracy within a short time, as incorporating ERS into the paradigm hypothetically enhanced the spatiotemoral feature contrast of ERS versus ERD. We also expected users to experience ease of control by including a noncontrol state. In this study, the control command was sent discretely whereas the virtual wheelchair was moving continuously. We tested five healthy subjects in a single visit with two sessions, i.e., motor execution and motor imagery. Each session included a 20 min calibration and two sets of games that were less than 30 min. Average target hit rate was as high as 98.4% with motor imagery. Every subject achieved 100% hit rate in the second set of wheelchair control games. The average time to hit a target 10 m away was about 59 s, with 39 s for the best set. The superior control performance in subjects without intensive BCI training suggested a practical wheelchair control paradigm for BCI users. PMID:22498703

  12. The Pacific Rim: New Geographic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Douglas A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the vital development of the Pacific Rim. Advocates integrating the study of this region into social studies curricula. Criticizes the Eurocentric bias that results in ignoring the Pacific Rim's geography, history, literature, and languages. Reports on social studies programs, primarily in Alaska schools, where study of the Pacific Rim…

  13. Development and pilot testing of a kneeling ultralight wheelchair design.

    PubMed

    Mattie, Johanne L; Leland, Danny; Borisoff, Jaimie F

    2015-01-01

    "Dynamic wheeled mobility" offers "on the fly" seating adjustments for wheelchair users such that various activities performed throughout the day can be matched by an appropriate seat position. While this has benefits for user participation and health, the added weight in existing dynamic wheelchairs may impact the user's ability to transport the frame, e.g. into cars. Other dynamic features to enable more participation avenues are also desirable. This paper outlines the development of a "kneeling" ultralight wheelchair design that offers dynamic wheeled mobility functionality at a weight that is comparable to many existing ultralight wheelchairs. In addition, the wheelchair's kneeling function allows a lowered seat position to facilitate low-to-the-ground tasks such as floor transfers and other activities where sustained low level reaching may be required (e.g. playing with children, changing a tire, etc.). This paper also describes the development and pilot testing of an end user evaluation protocol designed to validate the wheelchair's functionality and performance. Successful realization and commercialization of the technology would offer a novel product choice for people with mobility disabilities, and that may support daily activities, health, improved quality of life, and greater participation in the community. PMID:26737420

  14. Yaw rate and linear velocity stabilized manual wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Sara J; Dahlstrom, Robert J; Condon, John P; Hedin, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    We present the development of a prototype novel low-power, inexpensive stability control system for manual wheelchairs. Manual wheelchairs, while providing the ability to maneuver in relatively small indoor spaces, have a high center of gravity making them prone to tipping. Additionally, they can easily slide on sloped surfaces and can even spin and tip when attempting to turn or brake too quickly. When used on ramps and in outdoor environments where the surface is rarely perfectly flat (slopes greater than 1∶20 (5%) are common), wheelchair users can easily encounter potentially dangerous situations. The design and evaluation of an accident prevention system for independent manual wheelchair users that increases independence by enabling mobility with greater confidence and safety is described. The system does not limit a wheelchair user's ability to manually brake, rather, if the system detects that the wheelchair is out of control, braking force will be added by the system to either one or both wheels. The prototype utilized inexpensive bicycle technologies for the wheel brake and electrical power generator assemblies. Custom servos were designed along with custom electronics and firmware in the prototype to evaluate performance. The goal of the project was to derive specifications for a control and actuation system that utilizes inexpensive bicycle components in this cost-sensitive application. The design is detailed and the final specifications provided. PMID:24109828

  15. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  16. Computer simulation to aid the risk assessment of wheelchair and special seating systems used in transport.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P D; Gibson, C; Wilcox, S J; Chong, A

    2009-01-01

    The crashworthiness of occupied proprietary wheelchairs, which are transported in motor vehicles, is currently assessed by physical crash testing in accordance with ISO 7176-19. If such wheelchairs are modified to meet the needs of the occupant, e.g. the addition of special seating, environmental control systems or life support equipment, then those making the modifications take on the manufacturer's responsibilities, one of these being the assessment of the modified wheelchair's ability to withstand vehicle crash forces. Destructively testing bespoke wheelchair designs is not practical so, currently, the transport-related risk is assessed using best engineering judgement. To improve this process virtual crash testing of the wheelchair and occupant was used. A modified crash criteria from ISO 7176-19 is proposed to enable assessment of the wheelchair's crashworthiness and provide the clinical engineer with an informed judgement of how both wheelchair alone and occupant and wheelchair together will behave in a crash. PMID:19848858

  17. Accessibilities of Wheelchair Users to Cross the Gaps and Steps between Platforms and Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Ikuo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Shoichiro; Sueda, Osamu

    Gaps and steps between platforms and trains reduce the accessibility and mobility of people with wheelchairs in railway transportations. Using an experimental platform, the observations are performed how gaps and steps influence their capabilities for manual wheelchair or electric powered wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. A quantity of Normalized Driving Force (NDF) is introduced to evaluate the manual wheelchair user's abilities in the case of getting on or off the trains. Three types of electric powered wheelchairs are also tested under the same experimental conditions as the manual wheelchair. The dynamic wheelchair driving force is measured by using a torque meter equipped on a wheelchair to analyze the required force when getting on the trains. To improve practical accessibility of such people, an assistive device for boarding the trains is designed and its effect is verified.

  18. Physiology of wheelchair racing in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Yagesh

    2002-01-01

    Wheelchair racing is one of the most popular sporting activities of individuals with spinal cord injury. Athletes with this impairment have unique changes in metabolic, cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and thermoregulatory systems, which reduce their overall physiological capacity compared with able-bodied individuals or individuals with other types of impairments. This review on spinal cord injury: presents the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation classification of wheelchair athletes; describes methods commonly used to characterise anaerobic and aerobic fitness; presents the findings of physiological studies that have evaluated wheelchair racing performance; identifies the risks associated with temperature regulation when competing in wheelchair races; and discusses special conditions that can influence wheelchair racing performance. Currently there is limited research that has examined the relationship between sprint or distance wheelchair racing performance and the anaerobic and aerobic components of physical fitness. Although the descriptive evidence indicates that the profiles of these athletes reflect their training and participation in these specific events, the association between their physiological profiles and real or simulated racing performance is unclear. The generally accepted concept that high values of aerobic and anaerobic power are strongly correlated with endurance and sprint racing performance, respectively, are not necessarily true in this population. Athletes with spinal cord injury have an impaired thermoregulatory capacity, because the compromised autonomic and somatic nervous system functions disrupt control of skin blood flow and sweating below the level of the lesion. As a result, they may be more susceptible to hyperthermia during distance wheelchair racing performance. Wheelchair athletes should follow recommendations advocated for able-bodied individuals to minimise their risks of heat stress during competition. Many

  19. 'Mazatzal' Rock on Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Spirit took this navigation camera image of the 2-meter-wide (6.6-foot-wide) rock called 'Mazatzal' on sol 76, March 21, 2004. Scientists intend to aggressively analyze this target with Spirit's microscopic imager, Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer before brushing and 'digging in' with the rock abrasion tool on upcoming sols.

    Mazatzal stood out to scientists because of its large size, light tone and sugary surface texture. It is the largest rock the team has seen at the rim of the crater informally named 'Bonneville.' It is lighter-toned than previous rock targets Adirondack and Humphrey. Its scalloped pattern may be a result of wind sculpting, a very slow process in which wind-transported silt and sand abrade the rock's surface, creating depressions. This leads scientists to believe that Mazatzal may have been exposed to the wind in this location for an extremely long time.

    The name 'Mazatzal' comes from a mountain range and rock formation that was deposited around 1.2 billion years ago in the Four Peaks area of Arizona.

  20. A wind tunnel database using RIM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, W. O., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering data base development which has become increasingly widespread to industry with the availability of data management systems is examined. A large data base was developed for wind tunnel data and related model test information, using RIM as the data base manager. The arrangement of the wind tunnel data into the proper schema for the most efficient database utilization is discussed. The FORTRAN interface program of RIM is used extensively in the loading phases of the data base and by the users. Several examples to illustrate how the Wind Tunnel Data base might be searched for specific data items and test information using RIM are presented.

  1. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  2. A Study of Magnetic Fields on Bright-Rimmed Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), which are located at periphery of HII regions, are considered to be potential sites for induced star formation by UV radiation from nearby massive stars. Many theorists have developed 2D/3D hydrodynamical models to understand dynamical evolution of such molecular clouds. Most simulations, however, did not always include the magnetic field effect, which is of importance in the astrophysics. This is because that there are few observation results examining the magnetic field configuration of BRCs in detail. In order to obtain information on magnetic field in and around BRCs, we have made near-infrared (JHKs) imaging polarimetry toward 24 BRCs showing strong interaction with HII region (Urquhart et al. 2009). We used the imaging polarimeter SIRPOL/SIRIUS (FOV ~7.7’ x 7.7’) mounted on IRSF 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory.We found that polarization vectors, i.e., magnetic fields inside the clouds, follow the curved bright rim just behind the bright rim for almost all of the observed BRCs. Our investigation into the relation between the ambient magnetic field direction and the UV radiation direction suggests a following tendency. In the case that the ambient magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of incident UV radiation, the clouds are likely to have bright rims with small curvatures. On the other hand, in the case that the ambient field is parallel to the UV radiation, they would have those with larger curvatures. In this presentation, we will present the physical quantities for these BRCs (i.e., magnetic field strength, the post shock pressure by the ionization front, etc.) as well as these morphological results.

  3. The Role of Parents and Caregivers in Providing Safe Transportation for Occupants Seated in Wheelchairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam; Bertocci, Gina

    2007-01-01

    The responsibility for providing safe transportation for travelers seated in wheelchairs is shared by many stakeholders, including wheelchair and tiedown/restraint manufacturers, vehicle modifiers and equipment installers, transit providers, rehabilitation technology suppliers, wheelchair/seating clinicians, and even informed and responsible…

  4. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  5. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  6. Relationship between Functional Classification Levels and Anaerobic Performance of Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula

    2010-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…

  7. Rare diseases: matching wheelchair users with rare metabolic, neuromuscular or neurological disorders to electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs)

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Lorraine H.; Frank, Andrew O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To describe the clinical features of electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchair (EPIOC) users with rare diseases (RD) impacting on EPIOC provision and seating. Method: Retrospective review by a consultant in rehabilitation medicine of electronic and case note records of EPIOC recipients with RDs attending a specialist wheelchair service between June 2007 and September 2008. Data were systematically extracted, entered into a database and analysed under three themes; demographic, diagnostic/clinical (including comorbidity and associated clinical features (ACFs) of the illness/disability) and wheelchair factors. Results: Fifty-four (27 male) EPIOC users, mean age 37.3 (SD 18.6, range 11–70) with RDs were identified and reviewed a mean of 64 (range 0–131) months after receiving their wheelchair. Diagnoses included 27 types of RDs including Friedreich’s ataxia, motor neurone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, arthrogryposis, cerebellar syndromes and others. Nineteen users had between them 36 comorbidities and 30 users had 44 ACFs likely to influence the prescription. Tilt-in-space was provided to 34 (63%) users and specialised seating to 17 (31%). Four users had between them complex control or interfacing issues. Conclusions: The complex and diverse clinical problems of those with RDs present unique challenges to the multiprofessional wheelchair team to maintain successful independent mobility and community living.Implications for RehabilitationPowered mobility is a major therapeutic tool for those with rare diseases enhancing independence, participation, reducing pain and other clinical features.The challenge for rehabilitation professionals is reconciling the physical disabilities with the individual’s need for function and participation whilst allowing for disease progression and/or growth.Powered wheelchair users with rare diseases with a (kypho) scoliosis require a wheelchair system that balances spine stability and movement to maximise

  8. Rim Fire Time Lapse, August 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse photography shows various perspectives of the 2013 Rim Fire, as viewed from Yosemite National Park. The first part of this video is from the Crane Flat Helibase. The fire is currently bu...

  9. Rim sign: association with acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Perlman, S.B.; Wilson, M.A.; Polcyn, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 218 hepatobiliary studies in patients clinically suspected of acute cholecystitis, a rim of increased hepatic activity adjacent to the gallbladder fossa (the rim sign) has been evaluated as a scintigraphic predictor of confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of 28 cases with pathologic confirmation of acute cholecystitis in this series, 17 (60%) demonstrated this sign. When associated with nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr, the positive predictive value of this photon-intense rim for acute cholecystitis was 94%. When the rim sign was absent, the positive predictive value of nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr for acute cholecystitis was only 36%. As this sign was always seen during the first hour postinjection, it can, when associated with nonvisualization, reduce the time required for completion of an hepatobiliary examination in suspected acute cholecystitis.

  10. How to Make an Active Zone: Unexpected Universal Functional Redundancy between RIMs and RIM-BPs.

    PubMed

    Acuna, Claudio; Liu, Xinran; Südhof, Thomas C

    2016-08-17

    RIMs and RIM-binding proteins (RBPs) are evolutionary conserved multidomain proteins of presynaptic active zones that are known to recruit Ca(2+) channels; in addition, RIMs perform well-recognized functions in tethering and priming synaptic vesicles for exocytosis. However, deletions of RIMs or RBPs in mice cause only partial impairments in various active zone functions and have no effect on active zone structure, as visualized by electron micrographs, suggesting that their contribution to active zone functions is limited. Here, we show in synapses of the calyx of Held in vivo and hippocampal neurons in culture that combined, but not individual, deletions of RIMs and RBPs eliminate tethering and priming of synaptic vesicles, deplete presynaptic Ca(2+) channels, and ablate active zone complexes, as analyzed by electron microscopy of chemically fixed synapses. Thus, RBPs perform unexpectedly broad roles at the active zone that together with those of RIMs are essential for all active zone functions. PMID:27537484

  11. Rimmed and edge thickened Stodola shaped flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, S.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1983-10-11

    A flywheel is described that is useful for energy storage in a hybrid vehicle automotive power system or in some stationary applications. The flywheel has a body composed of essentially planar isotropic high strength material. The flywheel body is enclosed by a rim of circumferentially wound fiber embedded in resin. The rim promotes flywheel safety and survivability. The flywheel has a truncated and edge thickened Stodola shape designed to optimize system mass and energy storage capability. 6 figs.

  12. Comparing handrim biomechanics for treadmill and overground wheelchair propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Turner, Jeffrey T.; Guo, Liyun; Richter, W. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional study. Objectives To compare handrim biomechanics recorded during overground propulsion to those recorded during propulsion on a motor-driven treadmill. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Methods Twenty-eight manual wheelchair users propelled their own wheelchairs, at a self-selected speed, on a low-pile carpet and on a wheelchair accessible treadmill. Handrim biomechanics were recorded with an OptiPush instrumented wheelchair wheel. Results Across the two conditions, all handrim biomechanics were found to be similar and highly correlated (r > 0.85). Contact angle, peak force, average force, and peak axle moment differed by 1.6% or less across the two conditions. While not significant, power output and cadence tended to be slightly higher for the treadmill condition (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively), due to limitations in adjusting the treadmill grade. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, a motor-driven treadmill can serve as a valid surrogate for overground studies of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:21042332

  13. "Bedside" test of static rear stability of occupied wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R L; Kumbhare, D A; MacLeod, D A

    1989-03-01

    The assessment of static stability can be helpful in wheelchair prescription and adjustment, but ordinarily requires a tipping platform. We developed a simple "bedside" test of rear wheelchair stability, using a goniometer and a plumb line. The angle of the wheelchair handle while the occupied wheelchair was on a level surface was subtracted from the angle measured while the occupied chair was balanced over the rear axle. The intraobserver and interobserver reliability and the validity in comparison with platform testing were assessed by studying 30 patient-occupied wheelchairs. There was a high correlation (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) between the values obtained from the beside and platform tests and no significant difference between them. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were 0.87 (p less than 0.001) and 0.94 (p less than 0.001). There was no significant difference between the first and second test values done by a single observer; the mean difference (+/- 1SD) between observers, 1.3 degrees (+/- 1.6 degrees), was small but statistically significant. The bedside test is simple, reliable, valid, and suitable for use as a screening test for the platform assessment of rear stability. PMID:2923546

  14. Shoulder model validation and joint contact forces during wheelchair activities

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melissa M.B.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Chronic shoulder impingement is a common problem for manual wheelchair users. The loading associated with performing manual wheelchair activities of daily living is substantial and often at a high frequency. Musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques can be used to estimate the joint contact forces occurring at the shoulder to assess the soft tissue loading during an activity and to possibly identify activities and strategies that place manual wheelchair users at risk for shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity musculoskeletal model and apply the model to wheelchair activities for analysis of the estimated joint contact forces. Upper extremity kinematics and handrim wheelchair kinetics were measured over three conditions: level propulsion, ramp propulsion, and a weight relief lift. The experimental data were used as input to a subject-specific musculoskeletal model utilizing optimization to predict joint contact forces of the shoulder during all conditions. The model was validated using a mean absolute error calculation. Model results confirmed that ramp propulsion and weight relief lifts place the shoulder under significantly higher joint contact loading than level propulsion. In addition, they exhibit large superior contact forces that could contribute to impingement. This study highlights the potential impingement risk associated with both the ramp and weight relief lift activities. Level propulsion was shown to have a low relative risk of causing injury, but with consideration of the frequency with which propulsion is performed, this observation is not conclusive. PMID:20840833

  15. Towards an intelligent wheelchair system for users with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Luis; Díaz, Marta; Bhaskar, Sonu; Minguez, Javier

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates an intelligent wheelchair, adapted for users with cognitive disabilities and mobility impairment. The study focuses on patients with cerebral palsy, one of the most common disorders affecting muscle control and coordination, thereby impairing movement. The wheelchair concept is an assistive device that allows the user to select arbitrary local destinations through a tactile screen interface. The device incorporates an automatic navigation system that drives the vehicle, avoiding obstacles even in unknown and dynamic scenarios. It provides the user with a high degree of autonomy, independent from a particular environment, i.e., not restricted to predefined conditions. To evaluate the rehabilitation device, a study was carried out with four subjects with cognitive impairments, between 11 and 16 years of age. They were first trained so as to get acquainted with the tactile interface and then were recruited to drive the wheelchair. Based on the experience with the subjects, an extensive evaluation of the intelligent wheelchair was provided from two perspectives: 1) based on the technical performance of the entire system and its components and 2) based on the behavior of the user (execution analysis, activity analysis, and competence analysis). The results indicated that the intelligent wheelchair effectively provided mobility and autonomy to the target population. PMID:20071276

  16. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauerfeind, Joanna; Koper, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Jacek; Urbański, Piotr; Tasiemski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day. PMID:26834880

  17. Crash simulations of wheelchair-occupant systems in transport.

    PubMed

    Kang, W; Pilkey, W D

    1998-01-01

    A nonlinear multirigid body dynamic computer model has been developed to simulate the dynamic responses of a wheelchair-occupant system in a vehicle during a crash. The occupant, restrained by safety belts, is seated in a wheelchair that is, in turn, tied down in a vehicle. Validated extensively by crash sled tests at three laboratories, this model has been used to predict the responses of wheelchair-occupant systems in various crash environments. To evaluate the crashworthiness of different wheelchair tie-downs, the sensitivity of several design parameters, such as tiedown stiffness, wheel stiffness, and tiedown positions, has been studied using this model, and optimal values of these parameters for the wheelchair-occupant system have been obtained. Moreover, the model has been used to study the sensitivity of crash sled test pulse corridors in an effort to develop a sled test standard. It has been found that an existing ISO corridor allows large variation and should be "tightened." The model was implemented using a version of the multibody dynamic simulator, the Articulated Total Body program. PMID:9505255

  18. Design intelligent wheelchair with ECG measurement and wireless transmission function.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Chiang; Wang, Yi-Ming; Chang, Huai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of aging populations has produced widespread health awareness and magnified the need for improved medical quality and technologies. Statistics show that ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death for older people and people with reduced mobility; therefore, wheelchairs have become their primary means of transport. Hence, an arrhythmia-detecting smart wheelchair was proposed in this study to provide real-time electrocardiography (ECG)-monitoring to patients with heart disease and reduced mobility. A self-developed, handheld ECG-sensing instrument was integrated with a wheelchair and a lab-written, arrhythmia-detecting program. The measured ECG data were transmitted through a Wi-Fi module and analyzed and diagnosed using the human-machine interface. PMID:26444818

  19. Spherical vision cameras in a semi-autonomous wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the methods developed for extending the capabilities of a spherical vision camera system to allow detection of surrounding objects and whether or not they pose a danger for movement in that direction during autonomous navigation of a power wheelchair. A Point Grey Research (PGR) Ladybug2 spherical vision camera system was attached to the power wheelchair for surrounding vision. The objective is to use this Ladybug2 system to provide information about obstacles all around the wheelchair and aid the automated decision-making process involved during navigation. Through instantaneous neural network classification of individual camera images to determine whether obstacles are present, detection of obstacles have been successfully achieved with accuracies reaching 96%. This assistive technology has the purpose of automated obstacle detection, navigational path planning and decision-making, and collision avoidance during navigation. PMID:21097098

  20. Neuro-sliding mode multivariable control of a powered wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a neuro-sliding mode multivariable control approach for the control of a powered wheelchair system. In the first stage, a systematic decoupling technique is applied to the wheelchair system in order to reduce the multivariable control problem into two independent scalar control problems. Then two Neuro-Sliding Mode Controllers (NSMCs) are designed for these independent subsystems to guarantee system robustness under model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances. Both off-line and on-line trainings are involved in the second stage. Real-time experimental results confirm that robust performance for this multivariable wheelchair control system under model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances can indeed be achieved. PMID:19163456

  1. REAL-TIME MODEL-BASED ELECTRICAL POWERED WHEELCHAIR CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel-slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3-D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A model based, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that model based control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds. PMID:19733494

  2. Improvement of the classification system for wheelchair rugby: athlete priorities.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Viola C; Hart, Anne L; van Limbeek, Jacques; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2014-10-01

    A representative sample (N=302) of the wheelchair rugby population responded to a survey about the classification system based on prioritized items by International Wheelchair Rugby Federation members. Respondents stated, "The classification system is accurate but needs adjustments" (56%), "Any athlete with tetraequivalent impairment should be allowed to compete" (72%), "Athletes with cerebral palsy and other coordination impairments should be classified with a system different than the current one" (75%), and "The maximal value for trunk should be increased from 1.0 to 1.5" (67%). A minority stated, "Wheelchair rugby should only be open to spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions" (36%) and "There should be a 4.0 class" (33%). Results strongly indicated that athletes and stakeholders want adjustments to the classification system in two areas: a focus on evaluation of athletes with impairments other than loss of muscle power caused by spinal cord injury and changes in classification of trunk impairment. PMID:25211483

  3. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  4. Wheelchair integrated occupant restraints: feasibility in frontal impact.

    PubMed

    VanRoosmalen, L; Bertocci, G E; Ha, D; Karg, P

    2001-12-01

    Individuals often use their wheelchair as a motor vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles. The current use of fixed vehicle-mounted wheelchair occupant restraint systems (FWORSs) often results in poor belt fit and discomfort. Additionally, satisfaction, usability and usage rate of FWORSs during transit use are often low. The automotive industry has shown improved occupant restraint usage, belt fit and injury protection when integrating the upper torso and pelvic restraint in a motor vehicle seat. This study compared occupant injury measures of a FWORS to a concept wheelchair integrated restraint system (WIRS) using a 20g frontal sled impact test with a 30 mph change in velocity. Neck loads, neck moments, head, pelvis and chest acceleration, sternum compression and knee and head excursion data were recorded from the wheelchair seated 50th percentile male hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD). The WIRS resulted in a lower head injury criteria (HIC) value, lower sternum compression and a lower upper-torso restraint load than the FWORS. Compared with the FWORS, increased head, knee and wheelchair excursions and higher neck loads and moments were measured in the WIRS test. Both restraint scenario injury parameters were complied with occupant injury criteria based on General Motors Injury Assessment Reference Values (GM-IARVs) and occupant kinematic requirements defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) voluntary standard, J2249. A higher motion criteria index was calculated for the WIRS scenario and a comparable combined injury criteria index was calculated for both restraint scenarios. The sled impact test showed WIRS concept feasibility, facilitating further development by industrial manufacturers who might further want to pursue this restraint principle to increase wheelchair occupant safety and comfort during transport in motor vehicles. PMID:11801410

  5. Teaching about the Pacific Rim. ERIC Digest No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest examines: (1) the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim"; (2) reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum; and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. The terms, Pacific Rim and Pacific Basin, are used. interchangeably; however, the "Rim" refers to those nations bordering the…

  6. Recycling of polyurethane-urea RIM

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.X.; Kresta, J.E.; Suthar, B.; Li, X.H.

    1997-12-31

    Polyurethane-urea (PUU) RIM are crosslinked materials, which cannot be reprocessed or recycled by using the conventional process. The chemical decrosslinking reaction or transesterification of themosetting polyurethanes by using various inorganic and organic catalysts were investigated. The recycling of waste PUU RIM materials (unpainted, painted and filler reinforced) through decrosslinking (transesterification) using low molecular weight glycols in presence of catalyst was evaluated. It was established that the transestification of PUU RIM can be carried out at the low glycol (EG)/RIM ratio (15/84.5) and that the usual recovery step for the excess glycol (EG) can be avoided resulting in an economical process. The process was scaled up in a 50 gallon reactor at the LymTal International Inc. successfully. It was established that the products from the decrosslinking of PUU RIM are a mixture of the liquid oligomers (LOs) containing urethane, OH and NH{sub 2} groups. These functional groups in LOs exhibit many potential applications as raw materials in the preparation of RIM coatings, adhesives, foams, sealants and composites. PUU RIM made from LOs exhibited promising and interesting results. Both solvent-based and waterborne urethane coatings could be made from LOs. Urethane adhesives made from LOs showed improvement of properties with increasing amounts of LOs. Structural adhesives based on epoxy and LOs were prepared and the effects of equivalent ratios and curing conditions on the adhesive strength of the epoxy/LO adhesives were investigated. Solvent-free coating based on epoxy and LOs was prepared and their properties were determined. Both wood fiber and glass fabric reinforced composites were prepared by using epoxy and LOs and they exhibited interesting properties for different potential applications.

  7. Neural network based diagonal decoupling control of powered wheelchair systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Nghia; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an advanced diagonal decoupling control method for powered wheelchair systems. This control method is based on a combination of the systematic diagonalization technique and the neural network control design. As such, this control method reduces coupling effects on a multivariable system, leading to independent control design procedures. Using an obtained dynamic model, the problem of the plant's Jacobian calculation is eliminated in a neural network control design. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified in a real-time implementation on a powered wheelchair system. The obtained results confirm that robustness and desired performance of the overall system are guaranteed, even under parameter uncertainty effects. PMID:23981543

  8. Rimmed and edge thickened Stodola shaped flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Satish V.; Stone, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    A flywheel (10) is described that is useful for energy storage in a hybrid vehicle automotive power system or in some stationary applications. The flywheel (10) has a body (15) composed of essentially planar isotropic high strength material. The flywheel (10) body (15) is enclosed by a rim (50) of circumferentially wound fiber (2) embedded in resin (3). The rim (50) promotes flywheel (10) safety and survivability. The flywheel (10) has a truncated and edge thickened Stodola shape designed to optimize system mass and energy storage capability.

  9. East Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A high point on the distant eastern rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon in this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars.

    That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 34 kilometers (21 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  10. North Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A northern portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon of this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 7, 2009, during the 1,820st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars.

    That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  11. Effect of Wheelchair Frame Material on Users' Mechanical Work and Transmitted Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair propulsion exposes the user to a high risk of shoulder injury and to whole-body vibration that exceeds recommendations of ISO 2631-1:1997. Reducing the mechanical work required to travel a given distance (WN-WPM, weight-normalized work-per-meter) can help reduce the risk of shoulder injury, while reducing the vibration transmissibility (VT) of the wheelchair frame can reduce whole-body vibration. New materials such as titanium and carbon are used in today's wheelchairs and are advertised to improve both parameters, but current knowledge on this matter is limited. In this study, WN-WPM and VT were measured simultaneously and compared between six folding wheelchairs (1 titanium, 1 carbon, and 4 aluminium). Ten able-bodied users propelled the six wheelchairs on three ground surfaces. Although no significant difference of WN-WPM was found between wheelchairs (P < 0.1), significant differences of VT were found (P < 0.05). The carbon wheelchair had the lowest VT. Contrarily to current belief, the titanium wheelchair VT was similar to aluminium wheelchairs. A negative correlation between VT and WN-WPM was found, which means that reducing VT may be at the expense of increasing WN-WPM. Based on our results, use of carbon in wheelchair construction seems promising to reduce VT without increasing WN-WPM. PMID:25276802

  12. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3890...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3890...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3890...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adjusted to the angle of the stairs. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP for a device described... wheelchair shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adjusted to the angle of the stairs. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP for a device described... wheelchair shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in...

  7. Principles and Practices for Championship Performances in Wheelchair Track Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses training methods and approaches for wheelchair track and field. Detailed information and charts are presented on types of workouts (such as interval, distance, rhythm, speed play, and pace work) and mechanics of track events. A section on relay strategy and coaching approaches concludes the document. (CL)

  8. Student Attitudes toward Intimacy with Persons Who Are Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Irmo; Chan, Roy; Feist, Amber; Flores-Torres, Lelia

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored whether students would be attracted to having an intimate relationship with a wheelchair user if participants were able to first see a head shot photo and later read a short biography of the person. Four hundred and eight undergraduate students were surveyed regarding their interest in potentially being friends, dating…

  9. HMM based automated wheelchair navigation using EOG traces in EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Fayeem; Arof, Hamzah; Mokhtar, Norrima; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a wheelchair navigation system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM), which we developed to assist those with restricted mobility. The semi-autonomous system is equipped with obstacle/collision avoidance sensors and it takes the electrooculography (EOG) signal traces from the user as commands to maneuver the wheelchair. The EOG traces originate from eyeball and eyelid movements and they are embedded in EEG signals collected from the scalp of the user at three different locations. Features extracted from the EOG traces are used to determine whether the eyes are open or closed, and whether the eyes are gazing to the right, center, or left. These features are utilized as inputs to a few support vector machine (SVM) classifiers, whose outputs are regarded as observations to an HMM. The HMM determines the state of the system and generates commands for navigating the wheelchair accordingly. The use of simple features and the implementation of a sliding window that captures important signatures in the EOG traces result in a fast execution time and high classification rates. The wheelchair is equipped with a proximity sensor and it can move forward and backward in three directions. The asynchronous system achieved an average classification rate of 98% when tested with online data while its average execution time was less than 1 s. It was also tested in a navigation experiment where all of the participants managed to complete the tasks successfully without collisions.

  10. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention. PMID:26479206

  11. Multidimensional Self-Efficacy and Affect in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…

  12. Temporal parameters estimation for wheelchair propulsion using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manoela; Ding, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Due to lower limb paralysis, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) rely on their upper limbs for mobility. The prevalence of upper extremity pain and injury is high among this population. We evaluated the performance of three triaxis accelerometers placed on the upper arm, wrist, and under the wheelchair, to estimate temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion. Twenty-six participants with SCI were asked to push their wheelchair equipped with a SMART(Wheel). The estimated stroke number was compared with the criterion from video observations and the estimated push frequency was compared with the criterion from the SMART(Wheel). Mean absolute errors (MAE) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement. Results showed reasonable accuracies especially using the accelerometer placed on the upper arm where the MAPE was 8.0% for stroke number and 12.9% for push frequency. The ICC was 0.994 for stroke number and 0.916 for push frequency. The wrist and seat accelerometer showed lower accuracy with a MAPE for the stroke number of 10.8% and 13.4% and ICC of 0.990 and 0.984, respectively. Results suggested that accelerometers could be an option for monitoring temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:25105133

  13. Gender and Attitudes toward People Using Wheelchairs: A Multidimensional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Werner, Shirli; Findler, Liora

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of observer's gender and target's gender on attitudes toward people who use wheelchairs due to a physical disability. Four hundred four Jewish Israeli students without disabilities completed the "Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities" (MAS). Initially, confirmatory factor…

  14. Neural and fuzzy robotic hand control.

    PubMed

    Tascillo, A; Bourbakis, N

    1999-01-01

    An efficient first grasp for a wheelchair robotic arm-hand with pressure sensing is determined and presented. The grasp is learned by combining the advantages of neural networks and fuzzy logic into a hybrid control algorithm which learns from its tip and slip control experiences. Neurofuzzy modifications are outlined, and basic steps are demonstrated in preparation for physical implementation. Choice of object approach vector based on fuzzy tip and slip data and an expert supervisor, as well as training of a diagnostic neural tip and slip controller, are the focus of this work. PMID:18252342

  15. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Soltau, Shelby L.; Slowik, Jonathan S.; Requejo, Philip S.; Mulroy, Sara J.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free), level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast), and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded). All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding 5°. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment. PMID:26125019

  16. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Haselschwardt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    A Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) has been developed to service a circular floor area in variable gravity. On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry heavy equipment between various locations within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, moon, Mars, etc). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. This paper describes the RIMS system which is scalable for application in a variety of circular habitat volumes.

  17. Development of a wheelchair occupant injury risk assessment method and its application in the investigation of wheelchair securement point influence on frontal crash safety.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G E; Hobson, D A; Digges, K H

    2000-03-01

    To promote proper wheelchair securement in transportation, the proposed ANSI/RESNA Standard on Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles will require that all transit wheelchairs be equipped with four securement points compatible with strap-type tiedowns. Through computer simulations, the location of these securement points has been found to influence wheelchair user response to a frontal crash. This study develops and employs an injury risk assessment method to compare the crashworthiness of various securement point configurations. The comparative injury risk assessment method is designed to predict the risk associated with internalized crash forces, as well as risk associated with secondary occupant impact with the vehicle interior. Injury criteria established by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and General Motors, along with excursion limitations set by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2249 Wheelchair Tiedowns and Occupant Restraint Systems (WTORS) Standard were used as benchmarks for the risk assessment method. The simulation model subjected a secured commercial powerbase wheelchair with a seated 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy to a 20 g/30 mph crash. The occupant was restrained using pelvic and shoulder belts, and the wheelchair was secured with four strap-type tiedowns. Results indicated that securement points located 1.5 in to 2.5 in above the evaluated wheelchair's center of gravity provide the most effective occupant protection. PMID:10779116

  18. Pacific Rim Partnerships: Alaska's Bold Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrett, William H.; Calkins, Annie

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Alaska Sister Schools Network, formed in 1985 to create opportunities for Alaskan students to experience more directly the cultural and economic perspectives of their Pacific Rim neighbors. Network organizers go beyond the "pen-pal" approach to encourage three partnership levels: initial acquaintance, curriculum development, and…

  19. More Material on the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights a variety of ERIC materials for teaching about the Pacific Rim. Titles include "Teaching about South Korea"; "Bringing Chinese Culture Alive through Language"; "Teaching about Japan"; "Teaching about Korea: Elementary and Secondary Activities"; and "Cultural Differences in Self-Consciousness and Self-Monitoring." (GEA)

  20. Aerothermal experiments in turbine rim seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Lionel Obadiah, Jr.

    Purge flows are necessary for ensuring that hot gasses do not penetrate the thermally sensitive rim seal and disk cavity regions of turbines. The temperature and mass flow rate of the purge air can affect the component life and aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Therefore it is of interest to understand the basic mechanisms that govern this complex flow problem. The present work focuses on two turbine rim seal investigations. The first focused on temperature measurements in the rim cavity region of a rotating, high-speed, low-pressure turbine as means to quantify a rim seal's effectiveness. The seal had a realistic geometry with a small axial overlap between the stationary and rotating components. The purge flow rate was varied from 0 to 1 percent of the core mass flow rate. The results will describe the temperatures as well as the seal's effectiveness as a function of the purge flow rate, and turbine operating point. The second was a study on the effect of purge flow on the aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Exit flow field surveys were taken in both a low pressure turbine stage and a high pressure turbine stage. Also a computational study was done on the low pressure turbine stage to add insight into the effect of purge flow on turbine stage performance. In addition, the computation results provide insight into the effect of purge flow on the low pressure turbine blade passage flow field.

  1. Shared control strategies for obstacle avoidance tasks in an intelligent wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Hoang T; Nguyen, Hung T; Willey, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of shared control strategy for an intelligent wheelchair to assist a disable user in performing obstacle avoidance tasks. The system detects obstacles in front of the wheelchair using a laser range finder sensor. As the wheelchair moves the information from the laser range finder is combined with data from the encoders mounted in its driving wheels to build a 360 degrees real-time map. The accuracy of the map is improved by eliminating the systematic error that would result from both the uncertainty of effective wheelbase and unequal driving wheel diameters. The usable wheelchair accessible space is determined by including the actual wheelchair dimensions in producing the real-time map. In making a decision the shared control method considers the user's intentions via the head-movement interface, accessible space of the environment and user safety. The experiments show promising results in the intelligent wheelchair system. PMID:19163652

  2. Car Transfer and Wheelchair Loading Techniques in Independent Drivers with Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Haubert, Lisa Lighthall; Mulroy, Sara J.; Hatchett, Patricia E.; Eberly, Valerie J.; Maneekobkunwong, Somboon; Gronley, Joanne K.; Requejo, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Car transfers and wheelchair (WC) loading are crucial for independent community participation in persons with complete paraplegia from spinal cord injury, but are complex, physically demanding, and known to provoke shoulder pain. This study aimed to describe techniques and factors influencing car transfer and WC loading for individuals with paraplegia driving their own vehicles and using their personal WCs. Sedans were the most common vehicle driven (59%). Just over half (52%) of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer. Overall, the leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver’s seat (66%) prior to transfer and the trailing hand was most often place on the WC seat (48%). Vehicle height influenced leading hand placement but not leg placement such that drivers of higher profile vehicles were more likely to place their hand on the driver’s seat than those who drove sedans. Body lift time was negatively correlated with level of injury and age and positively correlated with vehicle height and shoulder abduction strength. Drivers who transferred with their leading hand on the steering wheel had significantly higher levels of shoulder pain than those who placed their hand on the driver’s seat or overhead. The majority of participants used both hands (62%) to load their WC frame, and overall, most loaded their frame into the back (62%) vs. the front seat. Sedan drivers were more likely to load their frame into the front seat than drivers of higher profile vehicles (53 vs. 17%). Average time to load the WC frame (10.7 s) was 20% of the total WC loading time and was not related to shoulder strength, frame weight, or demographic characteristics. Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators. Understanding car transfers and WC loading in independent drivers is crucial to prevent shoulder pain and injury and preserve community participation. PMID:26442253

  3. Distal Radius Volar Rim Fracture Fixation Using DePuy-Synthes Volar Rim Plate.

    PubMed

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Tarabochia, Matthew; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-03-01

    Background To assess the results of distal radius fractures with the involvement of the volar rim fixed with the DePuy-Synthes Volar Rim Plate. Case Description We searched for the patients with volar rim fracture and/or volar rim fractures as part of a complex fracture fixed with a volar rim plate. Ten patients met the inclusion criteria: three patients with type 23B3, six patients with type 23C, and one patient with very distal type 23A. The mean follow-up was 14 months (range: 2-26). Fractures healed in all patients. Of the three patients with isolated volar rim fractures (type 23B3), two patients had no detectable deficits in motion. These patients had an average Gartland and Werley score of 9 (range: 2-14). Of the other seven patients (six with type 23C and one with type 23A fracture), three patients healed with full range of motion and four had some deficits in range of motion. Two patients had excellent results, three had good results, and two had fair results using the Gartland and Werley categorical rating. One patient healed with a shortened radius and ulnar impingement requiring a second surgery for ulnar head resection arthroplasty. Literature Review Results after nonoperative treatment of volar rim fractures are not satisfactory and often require subsequent corrective osteotomy. Satisfactory outcomes are achieved when the fragments are well reduced and secured regardless of the device type. Clinical Relevance Volar rim plates give an adequate buttress of the volar radius distal to volar projection of the lunate facet and do not interfere with wrist mobility. Furthermore, the dorsal fragments can be fixed securely through the volar approach eliminating the need for a secondary posterior incision. However, patients should be informed of the potential problems and the need to remove the plate if symptoms develop. PMID:26855829

  4. Quantitative Models of CAI Rim Layer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1995-09-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to account for the ~50 micrometer-thick layer sequences (Wark-Lovering rims) that typically surround coarse-grained Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), but to date no consensus has emerged on how these rims formed. A two-step process-- flash heating of CAIs to produce a refractory residue on the margins of CAIs [1,2,3], followed by reaction and diffusion between CAIs or the refractory residue and an external medium rich in Mg, Si and other ferromagnesian and volatile elements to form the layers [3,4,5]-- may have formed the rims. We have tested the second step of this process quantitatively, and show that many, but not all, of the layering characteristics of CAI rims in the Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka CV3 chondrites can be explained by steady-state reaction and diffusion between CAIs and an external medium rich in Mg and Si. Moreover, observed variations in the details of the layering from one CAI to another can be explained primarily by differences in the identity and composition of the external medium, which appears to have included vapor alone, vapor + olivine, and olivine +/- clinopyroxene +/- vapor. An idealized layer sequence for CAI rims in Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka can be represented as MSF|S|AM|D|O, where MSF = melilite (M) + spinel (S) + fassaite (F) in the interior of CAIs; S = spinel-rich layer; AM = a layer consisting either of anorthite (A) alone, or M alone, or both A and M; D = a clinopyroxene layer consisting mainly of aluminous diopside (D) that is zoned to fassaite towards the CAI; and O = olivine-rich layer, composed mainly of individually zoned olivine grains that apparently pre-existed layer formation [3]. A or M are absent between the S and D layers in roughly half of the rims. The O layer varies considerably in thickness (0-60 micrometers thick) and in porosity from rim to rim, with olivine grains either tightly intergrown to form a compact layer or arranged loosely on the outer surfaces of the CAIs

  5. 9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF CRENELATED LAVA STONE GUARD WALL AND ROCK CUT OPPOSITE. NOTE CATTLE GUARD ACROSS ROAD PARTIALLY PAVED OVER. - Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  6. DOE DEF RIM-to-IGES. File Writer documentation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, K.L.; Leake, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document will define the design specifications for the RIM-to-IGES File Writer Program. It describes the purpose of the File Writer, lists references, defines the structure of the program, and discusses the Fortran/RIM interface.

  7. Support of Wheelchairs Using Pheromone Information with Two Types of Communication Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Nitta, Katsumi

    In this paper, we propose a communication framework which combined two types of communication among wheelchairs and mobile devices. Due to restriction of range of activity, there is a problem that wheelchair users tend to shut themselves up in their houses. We developed a navigational wheelchair which loads a system that displays information on a map through WWW. However, this wheelchair is expensive because it needs a solid PC, a precise GPS, a battery, and so on. We introduce mobile devices and use this framework to provide information to wheelchair users and to facilitate them to go out. When a user encounters other users, they exchange messages which they have by short-distance wireless communication. Once a message is delivered to a navigational wheelchair, the wheelchair uploads the message to the system. We use two types of pheromone information which represent trends of user's movement and existences of a crowd of users. First, when users gather, ``crowd of people pheromone'' is emitted virtually. Users do not send these pheromones to the environment but carry them. If the density exceeds the threshold, messages that express ``people gethered'' are generated automatically. The other pheromone is ``movement trend pheromone'', which is used to improve probability of successful transmissions. From results of experiments, we concluded that our method can deliver information that wheelchair users gathered to other wheelchairs.

  8. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties. PMID:25785910

  9. Power wheelchair range testing and energy consumption during fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; VanSickle, D P; Albright, S J; Stewart, K J; Flannery, M; Robertson, R N

    1995-10-01

    The range of a power wheelchair depends on many factors including: battery type, battery state, wheelchair/rider weight, terrain, the efficiency of the drive train, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three methods of estimating power wheelchair range. Another significant purpose was to compare the current draw on pavement to current draw on an International Standards Organization (ISO) Double Drum tester at one m/sec. Tests were performed on seven different power wheelchairs unloaded, and loaded with an ISO 100 kg test dummy. Each chair was configured according to the manufacturer's specifications, and tires were properly inflated. Experienced test technicians were used for the tennis court tests, and treadmill tests. An ISO 100 kg test dummy was used for the ISO Double Drum test. Energy consumption was measured over a distance of 1500 m for each of the three test conditions. The rolling surface was level in all cases. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) between the predicted range at maximum speed for the three tests. Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in estimated range at maximum speed between the Double Drum test and the treadmill test, as well as between the Double Drum test and the tennis court test. Our results indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the predicted range at maximal speed between the treadmill and tennis court tests. A simple relationship does not exist between the results of range testing with the Double Drum tester and the tennis court. An alternative would be to permit the use of a treadmill for range testing as simple relationships between all pertinent treadmill and tennis court range data were found. For the Double Drum tester used, the current demand is higher than under normal usage. This presents a problem as current is related to load torque in a power wheelchair. Hence, the Double

  10. Rim-spoke composite flywheels: Stress and vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Kiraly, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Elementary relations are described to determine the material utilization efficiency of a thin wall rim composite flywheel over other configurations. An algorithm is generated for the automatic selection of the optimum composite material for a given thin rim flywheel environment. Subsequently, the computer program NASTRAN is used to perform a detailed stress and vibration analysis of thin wall cylindrical shell rim spoke, single rim and multirim composite flywheels for a specific application.

  11. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  12. Rim Sim: A Role-Play Simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Robert C.; Frew, Suzanne L.; Howell, David G.; Karl, Herman A.; Rudin, Emily B.

    2003-01-01

    Rim Sim is a 6-hour, eight-party negotiation that focuses on creating a framework for the long-term disaster-recovery efforts. It involves a range of players from five countries affected by two natural disasters: a typhoon about a year ago and an earthquake about 6 months ago. The players are members of an International Disaster Working Group (IDWG) that has been created by an international commission. The IDWG has been charged with drawing up a framework for managing two issues: the reconstruction of regionally significant infrastructure and the design of a mechanism for allocating funding to each country for reconstruction of local infrastructure and ongoing humanitarian needs. The first issue will involve making choices among five options (two harbor options, two airport options, and one rail-line option), each of which will have three levels at which to rebuild. The second issue will involve five starting-point options. Participants are encouraged to invent other options for both issues. The goal of Rim Sim is to raise questions about traditional approaches to disaster-preparedness planning and reconstruction efforts in an international setting, in this case the Pacific Rim. Players must confront the reverberating effects of disasters and the problems of using science and technical information in decisionmaking, and are introduced to a consensus-building approach emphasizing face-to-face dialog and multinational cooperation in dealing with humanitarian concerns, as well as long-term efforts to reconstruct local and regional infrastructure. The Rim Sim simulation raises four key points: ripple effects of disasters, role of science, multiparty negotiation, and building personal relationships.

  13. Riding the Rim of 'Endurance' (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This polar-projection view was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired on sol 103 (May 8, 2004). Opportunity traversed approximately 13 meters (about 43 feet) farther south along the eastern rim of 'Endurance Crater' before reaching the beginning of the 'Karatepe' area. Scientists believe this layered band of rock may be a good place to begin studying Endurance because it is less steep and more approachable than the rest of the crater's rocky outcrops.

  14. Crater Rim Path, Sol 1,215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The route followed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during its exploration partway around the rim of Victoria Crater is marked on this map. The rover first reached the edge of the crater on it's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). This map shows travels through sol 1,215 (June 24, 2007). The underlying image is from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  15. The Rocky Road to the Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rocky road the rover traversed to reach its current position 16 meters (52 feet) away from the rim of the crater called 'Bonneville.' The terrain here slopes upward about five degrees. To the upper right is the rock dubbed 'Hole Point,' which is about 60 centimeters (two feet) across. This image was taken on the 63rd martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission.

  16. Tests of two new polyurethane foam wheelchair tires.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1989-01-01

    The performance characteristics of four 24-inch wheelchair tires are considered; one pneumatic and three airless. Specifically, two new airless polyurethane foam tires (circular and tapered cross-section) were compared to both a molded polyisoprene tire and a rubber pneumatic tire. Rolling resistance, coefficient of static friction, spring rate, tire roll-off, impact absorption, wear resistance, and resistance to compression set were the characteristics considered for the basis of comparison. Although the pneumatic tire is preferred by many wheelchair users, the two new polyurethane foam tires were found to offer a performance similar to the high-pressure pneumatic tire. In addition, the foam tires are less expensive and lighter in weight than the other tires tested. PMID:2918486

  17. The Articulated Alar Rim Graft: Reengineering the Conventional Alar Rim Graft for Improved Contour and Support.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse C; Kim, Haena; Chance, Elizabeth; Davis, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Surgical refinement of the wide nasal tip is challenging. Achieving an attractive, slender, and functional tip complex without destabilizing the lower nasal sidewall or deforming the contracture-prone alar rim is a formidable task. Excisional refinement techniques that rely upon incremental weakening of wide lower lateral cartilages (LLC) often destabilize the tip complex and distort tip contour. Initial destabilization of the LLC is usually further exacerbated by "shrink-wrap" contracture, which often leads to progressive cephalic retraction of the alar margin. The result is a misshapen tip complex accentuated by a conspicuous and highly objectionable nostril deformity that is often very difficult to treat. The "articulated" alar rim graft (AARG) is a modification of the conventional rim graft that improves treatment of secondary alar rim deformities, including postsurgical alar retraction (PSAR). Unlike the conventional alar rim graft, the AARG is sutured to the underlying tip complex to provide direct stationary support to the alar margin, thereby enhancing graft efficacy. When used in conjunction with a well-designed septal extension graft (SEG) to stabilize the central tip complex, lateral crural tensioning (LCT) to tighten the lower nasal sidewalls and minimize soft-tissue laxity, and lysis of scar adhesions to unfurl the retracted and scarred nasal lining, the AARG can eliminate PSAR in a majority of patients. The AARG is also highly effective for prophylaxis against alar retraction and in the treatment of most other contour abnormalities involving the alar margin. Moreover, the AARG requires comparatively little graft material, and complications are rare. We present a retrospective series of 47 consecutive patients treated with the triad of AARG, SEG, and LCT for prophylaxis and/or treatment of alar rim deformities. Outcomes were favorable in nearly all patients, and no complications were observed. We conclude the AARG is a simple and effective method for

  18. A Front-Row Seat at a Wheelchair Crash Test: EP Kicks Off Its Wheelchair Transportation Safety Series with a Visit to the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    The centerpiece of the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) Sled Lab is "the impact sled," as it is called in the business. It's the business of conducting sled impact tests, perhaps better known as crash tests, on all types of wheelchairs and wheelchair seating systems as well as wheelchair tiedowns and…

  19. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Rafols, Claudio; Monckeberg, Juan Edo; Numair, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson. PMID:25722907

  20. Wheeled mobility (wheelchair) service delivery: scope of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Greer, Nancy; Brasure, Michelle; Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-01-17

    Identifying the appropriate wheelchair for a person who needs one has implications for both disabled persons and society. For someone with severe locomotive problems, the right wheelchair can affect mobility and quality of life. However, policymakers are concerned about the increasing demand for unnecessarily elaborate chairs. The Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, issued 4 reports between 2009 and 2011 detailing fraud and misapplication of Medicare funds for powered wheelchairs, more than a decade after similar concerns were first raised by 4 contractors who process claims for durable medical equipment. Subsequent concerns have arisen about whether some impaired persons who need wheeled mobility devices may now be inappropriately denied coverage. A transparent, evidence-based approach to wheeled mobility service delivery (the matching of mobility-impaired persons to appropriate devices and supporting services) might lessen these concerns. This review describes the process of wheeled mobility service delivery for long-term wheelchair users with complex rehabilitation needs and presents findings from a survey of the literature (published and gray) and interviews with key informants. Recommended steps in the delivery process were identified in textbooks, guidelines, and published literature. Delivery processes shared many commonalities; however, no research supports the recommended approaches. A search of bibliographic databases through March 2011 identified 24 studies that evaluated aspects of wheeled mobility service delivery. Most were observational, exploratory studies designed to determine consumer use of and satisfaction with the process. The evidence base for the effectiveness of approaches to wheeled mobility service delivery is insufficient, and additional research is needed to develop standards and guidelines. PMID:22250145

  1. Rasch analyses of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Miller, William C.; Rushton, Paula W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the functioning of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale’s 101-point response format with shortened 11-point formats, and to evaluate the scale’s measurement properties using principal components and Rasch analyses. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting Community. Participants Volunteer participants from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia, Canada were manual wheelchair-users (n=220), ≥19 years of age, with ≥6 months experience with daily wheelchair-use, and no cognitive impairment. Intervention None. Measurements 65-item Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale (WheelCon). Results The 11-point response format outperformed the original 101-point format. Principal components analyses confirmed the presence of two dimensions: 1) Mobility efficacy; and 2) Self-management efficacy. Thirteen items in the Mobility efficacy subscale, and eight items in the Self-management efficacy subscale fit the Rasch Rating Scale model. Five items misfit the model developed using the 21-items from both subscales. In each of the 13- and 8-item subscales, and the 21-item short form, the two lowest and highest scores had internal consistency reliability estimates below 0.70; all other scores had reliability estimates above 0.70. Conclusion The WheelCon is comprised of two dimensions. The recoded measurements using a 0 to 10 response scale from the 13-item mobility and 8-item self-management efficacy subscales have good reliability as do the measurements from the 21-item WheelCon Short Form. The use of the subscales and/or the short form depends on the context in which they are being considered. Research to establish the reliability and validity of the measurements using the 0 to 10 response format is warranted. PMID:25461823

  2. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition. PMID:24506819

  3. Transfer component skill deficit rates among Veterans who use wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Alicia M; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Boninger, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the deficit rates for transfer component skills in a Veteran cohort and explore the relationship between deficit rates and subject characteristics. Seventy-four men and 18 women performed up to four transfers independently from their wheelchair to a mat table while a therapist evaluated their transfer techniques using the Transfer Assessment Instrument. The highest deficit rates concerned the improper use of handgrips (63%). Other common problems included not setting the wheelchair up at the proper angle (50%) and not removing the armrest (58%). Veterans over 60 yr old and Veterans with moderate shoulder pain were more likely to set up their wheelchairs inappropriately than younger Veterans (p = 0.003) and Veterans with mild shoulder pain (p = 0.004). Women were less likely to remove their armrests than men (p = 0.03). Subjects with disabilities other than spinal cord injury were less inclined to set themselves up for a safe and easy transfer than the subjects with spinal cord injury (p ≤ 0.001). The results provide insight into the disparities present in transfer skills among Veterans and will inform the development of future transfer training programs both within and outside of the Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:27149389

  4. Design of a composite monocoque frame racing wheelchair.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, M S; Cooper, R A; Harralson, J; Ster, J F

    1993-01-01

    Design of present-day racing wheelchairs developed out of necessity and common sense. The chairs first used in racing were everyday chairs; through years of trial and modification the racing chairs of today evolved. Very little advanced engineering has been applied to the design of racing chairs. The Finite Element Analysis model executed on a computer provided insight into structural problem areas in the design of unibody frame racing chairs. Slight modifications to the model can be used to investigate new shapes, loads, or materials without investing large amounts of time and money. Wind tunnel testing with scale models provided perspectives on different improvements to reduce drag. Shape improvements may play an important role in reducing the racer's time during competition. Shape may help to decrease drag for the user in either the upright or down position. Considering that the frontal area increases around 30% in the up position with current strut and chassis frames, monocoque shapes should excel. Finite element analysis and air drag analysis are important to the design of a composite racing wheelchair. Composite materials may promote more efficient and ergonomic racing wheelchairs. PMID:8035352

  5. Trace elements in rims and interiors of Chainpur chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, L. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.

    1984-05-01

    Trace elements were measured in the rims and interiors of nine chondrules separated from the Chainpur LL-3 chondrite. Whole rock samples of Chainpur and samples of separated rims were also measured. Chondrule rims are moderately enriched in siderophile and volatile elements relative to the chondrule interiors. The enriched volatile elements include the lithophilic volatile element Zn. The moderate enrichment of volatiles in chondrule rims and the lack of severe depletion in chondrules can account for the complete volatile inventory in Chainpur. These results support a three-component model of chondrite formation in which metal plus sulfide, chondrules plus rims and matrix silicates are mixed to form chondrites.

  6. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  7. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  8. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  9. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  10. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  11. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  12. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  13. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  14. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  15. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  16. Effects of Seated Postural Stability and Trunk and Upper Extremity Strength on Performance during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Tests in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Audrey; Gabison, Sharon; Verrier, Molly C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify the association between performance-based manual wheelchair propulsion tests (20 m propulsion test, slalom test, and 6 min propulsion test), trunk and upper extremity (U/E) strength, and seated reaching capability and to establish which ones of these variables best predict performance at these tests. Methods. 15 individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) performed the three wheelchair propulsion tests prior to discharge from inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Trunk and U/E strength and seated reaching capability with unilateral hand support were also measured. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses allowed determining the best determinants and predictors, respectively. Results. The performance at the three tests was moderately or strongly correlated with anterior and lateral flexion trunk strength, anterior seated reaching distance, and the shoulder, elbow, and handgrip strength measures. Shoulder adductor strength-weakest side explained 53% of the variance on the 20-meter propulsion test-maximum velocity. Shoulder adductor strength-strongest side and forward seated reaching distance explained 71% of the variance on the slalom test. Handgrip strength explained 52% of the variance on the 6-minute propulsion test. Conclusion. Performance at the manual wheelchair propulsion tests is explained by a combination of factors that should be considered in rehabilitation.

  17. WC19: a wheelchair transportation safety standard--experience to date and future directions.

    PubMed

    Manary, Miriam A; Ritchie, Nichole L; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2010-04-01

    ANSI/RESNA WC19 (i.e., WC19) is a voluntary standard that specifies design and performance requirements for wheelchairs that are suitable for use as seats in motor vehicles. The guiding principles for the standard originate from automotive crash-protection principles that are effective in reducing occupant injuries and fatalities. In addition to frontal-impact testing of wheelchairs, the standard includes tests for securement-point accessibility, tiedown-strap clear paths, lateral stability, and accommodation of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. Results from testing wheelchairs to WC19 reveal that the most common wheelchair problems include: a lack of structural integrity during frontal-impact loading; sharp rigid edges; and wheelchair structures that interfere with achieving proper positioning of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. Data from 8 years of experience with WC19 indicate where changes are needed to further improve transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers. These include expanding WC19 to include wheelchairs for smaller children who require a five-point harness restraint, and requiring wheelchairs to achieve a minimal rating for the ease of achieving proper positioning of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. PMID:19782631

  18. Innovative Power Wheelchair Control Interface: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sandra L; Romero, Sergio; Prather, Emily; Ramroop, Marisa; Slaibe, Emmy; Christensen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Some people without independent mobility are candidates for powered mobility but are unable to use a traditional power wheelchair joystick. This proof-of-concept study tested and further developed an innovative method of driving power wheelchairs for people whose impairments prevent them from operating commercial wheelchair controls. Our concept, Self-referenced Personal Orthotic Omni-purpose Control Interface (SPOOCI), is distinguished by referencing the control sensor not to the wheelchair frame but instead to the adjacent proximal lower-extremity segment via a custom-formed orthosis. Using a descriptive case-series design, we compared the pre-post functional power wheelchair driving skill data of 4 participants, measured by the Power Mobility Program, using descriptive analyses. The intervention consisted of standard-care power wheelchair training during 12 outpatient occupational or physical therapy sessions. All 4 participants who completed the 12-wk intervention improved their functional power wheelchair driving skills using SPOOCI, but only 3 were deemed safe to continue with power wheelchair driving. PMID:26943118

  19. Visual Estimation of Spatial Requirements for Locomotion in Novice Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Takada, Hajime; Matsuura, Yoshifusa; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2004-01-01

    Locomotion using a wheelchair requires a wider space than does walking. Two experiments were conducted to test the ability of nonhandicapped adults to estimate the spatial requirements for wheelchair use. Participants judged from a distance whether doorlike apertures of various widths were passable or not passable. Experiment 1 showed that…

  20. Taking Control of Purchasing a Wheelchair: Tips for Parents about Mobility Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Tips on purchasing wheelchairs are offered to parents. Selection considerations such as weight, transporting, folding, lift and school bus accessibility, maintenance, and power supply needs are considered, as are features impacting comfort and therapeutic appropriateness. Roles of dealers, therapists, other parents, and wheelchair manufacturers in…

  1. 14 CFR 382.65 - What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs? 382.65 Section 382.65 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.65 What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?...

  2. 14 CFR 382.65 - What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs? 382.65 Section 382.65 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.65 What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?...

  3. 14 CFR 382.65 - What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs? 382.65 Section 382.65 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.65 What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?...

  4. Ethnic, Gender, and Contact Differences in Intimacy Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Irmo; Wang, Xiaohui; Etzbach, Colleen A.; Del Castillo, Alinka

    2013-01-01

    Student attitudes toward having a relationship with a wheelchair user were explored. Participants initially selected one of six opposite gender head shots and subsequently viewed their selection's whole body photograph in a wheelchair along with reading a short biography. Primarily undergraduate Hispanic and Caucasian students (N = 810) were…

  5. RESNA Position on the Application of Seat-Elevating Devices for Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arva, Julianna; Schmeler, Mark R.; Lange, Michelle L.; Lipka, Daniel D.; Rosen, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in September 2005, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of seat-elevating devices for wheelchair users. Wheelchair mobility is often only considered from…

  6. Innovative Power Wheelchair Control Interface: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Sergio; Prather, Emily; Ramroop, Marisa; Slaibe, Emmy; Christensen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Some people without independent mobility are candidates for powered mobility but are unable to use a traditional power wheelchair joystick. This proof-of-concept study tested and further developed an innovative method of driving power wheelchairs for people whose impairments prevent them from operating commercial wheelchair controls. Our concept, Self-referenced Personal Orthotic Omni-purpose Control Interface (SPOOCI), is distinguished by referencing the control sensor not to the wheelchair frame but instead to the adjacent proximal lower-extremity segment via a custom-formed orthosis. Using a descriptive case-series design, we compared the pre–post functional power wheelchair driving skill data of 4 participants, measured by the Power Mobility Program, using descriptive analyses. The intervention consisted of standard-care power wheelchair training during 12 outpatient occupational or physical therapy sessions. All 4 participants who completed the 12-wk intervention improved their functional power wheelchair driving skills using SPOOCI, but only 3 were deemed safe to continue with power wheelchair driving. PMID:26943118

  7. The development and testing of a system for wheelchair stability measurement.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Dimitar; Avtanski, Alexander; Shapcott, Nigel; Magee, Paul; Dryer, Paul; Fielden, Simon; Heelis, Mike; Evans, Jill; Moody, Louise

    2015-11-01

    Wheelchair stability has an impact on safety as well as wheelchair performance, propulsion and manoeuvrability. Wheelchair stability is affected by the addition of life-supporting heavy equipment, e.g. ventilators and oxygen cylinders, as well as the characteristics of the user e.g. limb amputations, obesity. The aim of the research described here was to develop and test a stability assessment system that would guide and support the adjustment of wheelchairs to individual needs, characteristics and lifestyles. The resulting system provides assessment of centre of gravity and wheelchair stability and calculates the wheelchair tipping angles. The system consists of a force platform that senses the weight distribution of the wheelchair and calculates the centres of the contact points of the wheels and the distances between them. The measurement data are transferred via a WiFi connection to a portable tablet computer where wheelchair stability parameters are calculated. A touchscreen GUI provides visualization of the stability results and navigation through the measurement modes. The developed new concept has been evaluated through technical laboratory-based testing to determine the validity of the data collected. Initial testing has been undertaken within the clinical setting in 3 large hospitals in the UK. Initial results suggest that Wheelsense® provides a valuable tool to support clinical judgement. PMID:26403319

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of wheelchairs. [Langley V/STOL wind tunnel tests for human factors engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The overall aerodynamic drag characteristics of a conventional wheelchair were defined and the individual drag contributions of its components were determined. The results show that a fiftieth percentile man sitting in the complete wheelchair would experience an aerodynamic drag coefficient on the order of 1.4.

  9. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  10. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  11. Ejecta thickness and structural rim uplift measurements of Martian impact craters: Implications for the rim formation of complex impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The elevated rim in simple craters results from the structural uplift of preimpact target rocks and the deposition of a coherent proximal ejecta blanket at the outer edge of the transient cavity. Given the considerable, widening of the transient cavity during crater modification and ejecta thickness distributions, the cause of elevated crater rims in complex craters is less obvious. The thick, proximal ejecta in complex impact craters is deposited well inside the final crater rim and target thickening should rapidly diminish with increasing distance from the transient cavity rim. Our study of 10 complex Martian impact craters ranging from 8.2 to 53.0 km in diameter demonstrates that the mean structural rim uplift at the final crater rim makes 81% of the total rim elevation, while the mean ejecta thickness contributes 19%. Thus, the structural rim uplift seems to be the dominant factor to build up the total amount of the raised crater rim of complex craters. To measure the widening of the transient cavity during modification and the distance between the rim of the final crater and that of the transient cavity, we constructed balanced cross section restorations to estimate the transient cavity of nine complex Martian impact craters. The final crater radii are ~1.38-1.87 times the transient cavity radii. We propose that target uplift at the position of the final crater rim was established during the excavation stage.

  12. Evaluation of wheelchair tire rolling resistance using dynamometer-based coast-down tests.

    PubMed

    Kwarciak, Andrew M; Yarossi, Mathew; Ramanujam, Arvind; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the rolling resistance of four common manual wheelchair tires (two pneumatic and two airless solid) and the solid tires used on a commercially available force- and moment-sensing wheel. Coast-down tests were performed with a wheelchair positioned on a two-drum dynamometer. Within each of three load conditions, tire type had a significant effect on rolling resistance (p < 0.001). The pneumatic tires had smaller rolling resistances and were less affected by load increases than the solid tires. Within the two tire types, higher air pressure or firmness and lower profile tread corresponded to less rolling resistance. Wheelchair users, clinicians, and researchers must consider the effect of tire type on wheelchair rolling resistance when selecting a manual wheelchair tire. PMID:20104415

  13. Effectiveness of social behaviors for autonomous wheelchair robot to support elderly people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masahiro; Iio, Takamasa; Kamei, Koji; Sharma, Chandraprakash; Hagita, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items. PMID:25993038

  14. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, WB; Hammell, KW; Luts, A; Soles, C; Miller, WC

    2015-01-01

    Background Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. Aims/Objectives A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. Methods A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu’s theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Results Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. Conclusion/Significance These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible. PMID:26027749

  15. Pilot study of strap-based custom wheelchair seating system in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John E; Wittig, Becky L; Payette, Mark; Goldish, Gary D; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Custom wheelchair seats can be used to help prevent pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury. In this study, a strap-based system was evaluated in three Veterans with spinal cord injury. Interface pressure distributions were measured after transfers, wheeling, and pressure relief maneuvers and after fittings by three different therapists. We found that pressure distribution measures were not generally affected after transfers and wheeling using the strap-based wheelchair and that pressure relief maneuvers were able to be performed. Additionally, all therapists were able to customize the wheelchair seat to clinically acceptable levels in 4 to 40 min for the three subjects. Future studies can test the long-term effects of using the strap-based wheelchair seat and identifying individuals that would most benefit from a rapidly customizable wheelchair seat. PMID:25626113

  16. Effectiveness of Social Behaviors for Autonomous Wheelchair Robot to Support Elderly People in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiomi, Masahiro; Iio, Takamasa; Kamei, Koji; Sharma, Chandraprakash; Hagita, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items. PMID:25993038

  17. Towards a new modality-independent interface for a robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Bastos-Filho, Teodiano Freire; Cheein, Fernando Auat; Müller, Sandra Mara Torres; Celeste, Wanderley Cardoso; de la Cruz, Celso; Cavalieri, Daniel Cruz; Sarcinelli-Filho, Mário; Amaral, Paulo Faria Santos; Perez, Elisa; Soria, Carlos Miguel; Carelli, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the development of a robotic wheelchair that can be commanded by users in a supervised way or by a fully automatic unsupervised navigation system. It provides flexibility to choose different modalities to command the wheelchair, in addition to be suitable for people with different levels of disabilities. Users can command the wheelchair based on their eye blinks, eye movements, head movements, by sip-and-puff and through brain signals. The wheelchair can also operate like an auto-guided vehicle, following metallic tapes, or in an autonomous way. The system is provided with an easy to use and flexible graphical user interface onboard a personal digital assistant, which is used to allow users to choose commands to be sent to the robotic wheelchair. Several experiments were carried out with people with disabilities, and the results validate the developed system as an assistive tool for people with distinct levels of disability. PMID:23744700

  18. Minocycline-induced orbital rim discoloration.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Tiffany N S; Briceño, César A

    2016-04-01

    A 20-year-old woman underwent lacrimal gland biopsy for unilateral swelling and was unexpectedly found to have olive-green discoloration of her orbital rim. Postoperative questioning revealed that as a teenager she had been treated for acne with minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic and a first-line treatment for moderate and severe acne. While hyperpigmentation is a known side effect of minocycline, reports of pigmentation changes of the periorbital bones are relatively rare and could pose a diagnostic dilemma during surgery. PMID:26988772

  19. Launch system development in the Pacific Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Several Western Pacific Rim nations are beginning to challenge the domination of the United States, Europe, and the former Soviet Union in the international market for commercial launch sevices. This paper examines the current development of launch systems in China, Japan, and Australia. China began commercial launch services with their Long March-3 in April 1990, and is making enhancements to vehicles in this family. Japan is developing the H-2 rocket which will be marketed on a commercial basis. In Australia, British Aerospace Ltd. is leading a team conducting a project definition study for an Australian Launch Vehicle, aimed at launching the new generation of satellites into low Earth orbit.

  20. Influences of Wheelchair-Related Efficacy on Life-Space Mobility in Adults Who Use a Wheelchair and Live in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Eng, Janice J.; Backman, Catherine L.; Routhier, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy has important implications for health and functioning in people with limited mobility. However, the influence of self-efficacy on mobility in adults who use wheelchairs has yet to be investigated. Objective The study objective was to: (1) estimate the direct association between wheelchair use self-efficacy and life-space mobility and (2) investigate an indirect effect through wheelchair skills. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods Participants (N=124) were adults who use a wheelchair, live in the community, and were 50 years of age and older (X̅=59.67, range=50–84), with at least 6 months of experience with manual wheelchair use; 60% were men. The 20-item Life-Space Assessment, the 65-item Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale, and the 32-item Wheelchair Skills Test-Questionnaire were used to measure life-space mobility, self-efficacy, and wheelchair skills, respectively. Results Self-efficacy had a statistically significant association with life-space mobility (nonstandardized regression coefficient=0.23, 95% confidence interval=0.07, 0.39) after controlling for sex, number of comorbidities, geographic location, and assistance with using a wheelchair. This model accounted for 37.1% of the life-space mobility variance, and the unique contribution of self-efficacy was 3.5%. The indirect effect through wheelchair skills was also statistically significant (point estimate=0.21, 95% bootstrapped confidence interval=0.05, 0.43) and accounted for 91.3% of the direct effect of self-efficacy on life-space mobility. This model accounted for 39.2% of the life-space mobility variance. Limitations Causality could not be established because of the study design. The self-report nature of data from volunteers may be influenced by recall bias, social desirability, or both. Conclusions Wheelchair use self-efficacy had both direct and indirect associations with life-space mobility after controlling for confounding variables. Interventions targeted

  1. West Rim of Endeavour and a Farther Crater's Rim on Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    In the left half of this view from the panoramic camera (Pancam) of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, a western portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon. In the right half, the rim of a smaller crater, farther away, appears faintly on the horizon.

    Opportunity's Pancam took this image on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

    The part of Endeavour's rim visible here is about 16 kilometers (10 miles) from where Opportunity was when the image was taken. The rover was at the same location as when its Pancam took images after a drive on Sol 1820. Opportunity remained at that location until a drive on Sol 1823.

    The more-distant rim to the right, part of Iazu Crater, is about 38 kilometers (24 miles) away. Iazu is south of Endeavour and about 7 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter.

  2. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

  4. Dynamics of squeezing fluids: Clapping wet hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Chang, Brian; Slama, Brice; Goodnight, Randy; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2013-08-01

    Droplets splash around when a fluid volume is quickly compressed. This phenomenon has been observed during common activities such as kids clapping with wet hands. The underlying mechanism involves a fluid volume being compressed vertically between two objects. This compression causes the fluid volume to be ejected radially and thereby generate fluid threads and droplets at a high speed. In this study, we designed and performed laboratory experiments to observe the process of thread and drop formation after a fluid is squeezed. A thicker rim at the outer edge forms and moves after the squeezing, and then becomes unstable and breaks into smaller drops. This process differs from previous well-known examples (i.e., transient crown splashes and continuous water bells) in aspects of transient fluid feeding, expanding rim dynamics, or sparsely distributed drops. We compared experimental measurements with theoretical models over three different stages; early squeezing, intermediate sheet-expansion, and later break-up of the liquid thread. In the earlier stage, the fluid is squeezed and its initial velocity is governed by the lubrication force. The outer rim of the liquid sheet forms curved trajectories due to gravity, inertia, drag, and surface tension. At the late stage, drop spacing set by the initial capillary instability does not change in the course of rim expansion, consequently final ejected droplets are very sparse compared to the size of the rim.

  5. Dynamics of squeezing fluids: clapping wet hands.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean; Chang, Brian; Slama, Brice; Goodnight, Randy; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2013-08-01

    Droplets splash around when a fluid volume is quickly compressed. This phenomenon has been observed during common activities such as kids clapping with wet hands. The underlying mechanism involves a fluid volume being compressed vertically between two objects. This compression causes the fluid volume to be ejected radially and thereby generate fluid threads and droplets at a high speed. In this study, we designed and performed laboratory experiments to observe the process of thread and drop formation after a fluid is squeezed. A thicker rim at the outer edge forms and moves after the squeezing, and then becomes unstable and breaks into smaller drops. This process differs from previous well-known examples (i.e., transient crown splashes and continuous water bells) in aspects of transient fluid feeding, expanding rim dynamics, or sparsely distributed drops. We compared experimental measurements with theoretical models over three different stages; early squeezing, intermediate sheet-expansion, and later break-up of the liquid thread. In the earlier stage, the fluid is squeezed and its initial velocity is governed by the lubrication force. The outer rim of the liquid sheet forms curved trajectories due to gravity, inertia, drag, and surface tension. At the late stage, drop spacing set by the initial capillary instability does not change in the course of rim expansion, consequently final ejected droplets are very sparse compared to the size of the rim. PMID:24032924

  6. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  7. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  8. Prototype development and comparative evaluation of wheelchair pressure mapping system.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Pell, M; Cardi, M D

    1993-01-01

    Wheelchair pressure mapping devices used in the prescription of seat cushions and postural supports have been limited in durability, data presentation, and/or clinical efficiency. This project sought to establish the ideal specifications for clinically useful pressure mapping systems, and to use these specifications to influence the design of an innovative wheelchair pressure mapping system (Tekscan "Seat"). Technology, previously developed for measurement of forces of dental occlusion and of the foot during gait, was applied to wheelchair seat mapping. Tests were designed to compare the performance of three pressure mapping systems: the Tekscan system, the FSA system, and the Talley TPM3. Bench tests were done to measure reproducibility, hysteresis, and creep of each of the pressure mapping systems. A contoured loader gauge was developed to test for the influence of hammocking. Tests were also performed using spinal cord-injured subjects to demonstrate the relative performance of the pressure mapping systems in a clinical setting. A focus group session was conducted with seating specialists to review the strengths and weakness of the systems for routine clinical use. The TPM3 was found to be the most accurate, stable, and reproducible but limited in ease of use, speed, and data presentation. FSA was rated well in clinical application and data management but demonstrated a pronounced hysteresis (+/-19%) and creep (4%). The Tekscan system also showed substantial hysteresis (+/-20%) and creep (19%) but was preferred by clinicians for its real-time display capabilities, resolution, and display options. Some trends in system performance on varied support surfaces were identified and can be a valuable guide to interpretation of measurements and prescription decision making in the clinic. Problems identified with the accuracy and stability of the Tekscan and FSA systems may be amenable to resolution with software correction and changes in fabrication. With these

  9. Evaluation of activity monitors in manual wheelchair users with paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Ding, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of SenseWear® (SW) and RT3 activity monitors (AMs) in estimating energy expenditure (EE) in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with paraplegia for a variety of physical activities. Methods Twenty-four subjects completed four activities including resting, wheelchair propulsion, arm-ergometry exercise, and deskwork. The criterion EE was measured by a K4b2 portable metabolic cart. The EE estimated by the SW and RT3 were compared with the criterion EE by the absolute differences and absolute percentage errors. Intraclass correlations and the Bland and Altman plots were also used to assess the agreements between the two AMs and the metabolic cart. Correlations between the criterion EE and the estimated EE and sensors data from the AMs were evaluated. Results The EE estimation errors for the AMs varied from 24.4 to 125.8% for the SW and from 22.0 to 52.8% for the RT3. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the criterion EE and the EE estimated by the two AMs for each activity and all activities as a whole were considered poor with all the ICCs smaller than 0.75. Except for deskwork, the EE from the SW was more correlated to the criterion EE than the EE from the RT3. Conclusion The results indicate that neither of the AMs is an appropriate tool for quantifying physical activity in MWUs with paraplegia. However, the accuracy of EE estimation could be potentially improved by building new regression models based on wheelchair-related activities. PMID:21528634

  10. Wheelchair type biomedical system with event-recorder function.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Kyoon; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study is about a biometric system for a wheelchair, which can measure both bio-signal (ECG-Electrocardiogram, BCG-Ballistocardiogram) and kinetic signal (acceleration) simultaneously and send the data to a remote medical server. The equipment was developed with the object of building a system that measures the bio-signal and kinetic signal of a subject who is moving or at rest on a wheelchair and transmits the measured signals to a remote server through a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network. The equipment is composed of body area network and remote medical server. The body area network was designed to obtain bio-signal and kinetic signal simultaneously and, on the occurrence of an event, to transmit data to a remote medical server through a CDMA network. The remote medical server was designed to display event data transmitted from the body area network in real time. The performance of the developed system was evaluated through two experiments. First, we measured battery life on the occurrence of events, and second, we tested whether biometric data are transmitted accurately to the remote server on the occurrence of an event. In the first experiment using the developed equipment, events were triggered 16 times and the battery worked stably for around 29 hours. In the second experiment, when an event took place, the corresponding data were transmitted accurately to the remote medical server through a CDMA network. This system is expected to be usable for the healthcare of those moving on a wheelchair and applicable to a mobile healthcare system. PMID:19162939

  11. Performance evaluation of biosignal measurement at the wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Kyoon; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure both ECG and BCG(Ballistocariograph) signal of a subject on moving or resting wheelchair and detect the heart rate and respiratory rate and transmit an event message to remote server on emergent situation. To acquire ECG and BCG data, amplifier circuits were composed to be suitable for their characteristics. 3-axial accelerometer was built in the developed device to measure the mechanical noise that can be generated on moving wheelchair.The output signals were converted to digital data and stored in bio-signal archiving media(SD card). CDMA module was used to transmit the event data on ECG electrode detachment and the received data was monitored by the developed C# application program. 8 volunteers participated in the experiment to evaluate the validity of the developed device. When the event occurs in each subject, 48 Kbyte data, stored for 32 seconds from that point, was transmitted to remote server through CDMA cellular phone network correctly. The received data of ECG , BCG, and 3-axial acceleration could be archived in server and the heart rate and respiratory rate could be measured and analyzed. The correlation coefficients of respiratory rate in resting and moving with the real value were 0.9636 and 0.9237, respectively. The correlation coefficient ofR-R intervals between the developed and reference device was 0.999.In conclusion, the developed device in this study could acquire the ECG and BCG data of subjects on wheelchair simultaneously and measure their heart rate and respiratory rate. In addition, event data was verified to be transmitted to remote server without any errors. PMID:19162943

  12. Mapping and navigational control for a “smart” wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Dana L; Shea, Kathleen M; Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    A “smart” wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those unable to control a traditional wheelchair. A “smart” wheelchair is an autonomous machine with the ability to navigate a mapped environment while avoiding obstacles. The flexibility and complex design of “smart” wheelchairs have made those currently available expensive. Ongoing research at the University of Wyoming has been aimed at designing a cheaper, alternative control system that could be interfaced with a typical powered wheelchair. The goal of this project is to determine methods for mapping and navigational control for the wheelchair. The control system acquires data from eighteen sensors and uses the data to navigate around a pre-programmed map which is stored on a micro SD card. The control system also provides a user interface in the form of a touchscreen LCD. The designed system will be an easy-to-use and cost effective alternative to current “smart” wheelchair technology. PMID:22846309

  13. Static rear stability of conventional and lightweight variable-axle-position wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Loane, T D; Kirby, R L

    1985-03-01

    Wheelchair users with high or posteriorly placed centers of mass often complain of rear tipping on inclines or when accelerating. In this study we compared the rear stability of occupied conventional and lightweight wheelchairs and determined the effect of various rear axle positions. Ten normal subjects were studied in both a conventional (22.6 kg) and a lightweight (12.3 kg) wheelchair. Twenty-one experienced wheelchair users were also studied in their own wheelchairs. Stability points were determined with brakes unlocked on a tilt platform. Inter- and intraobserver test-retest reliabilities were 0.97 and 0.974, respectively. For the normal subjects the mean (+/- 1SD) stability point in the conventional chair was 28.6 (+/- 2.7) degrees. In the lightweight chair their mean stability points ranged from 21.7 (+/- 2.6) degrees to 9.4 (+/- 2.9) degrees, depending upon axle position. The mean difference between the conventional chair and the lightweight chair in its most stable position was 6.9 (+/- 1.7) degrees (t = 13.04, p less than 0.0001) and in its least stable position 19.3 (+/- 2.4) degrees (t = 24.97, p less than 0.0001). Experienced wheelchair users in their own lightweight wheelchairs were less stable than users of conventional chairs (t = 2.16, p less than 0.05) or chairs with posteriorly offset axles (t = 3.64, p less than 0.01). PMID:3977572

  14. Toward brain-computer interface based wheelchair control utilizing tactually-evoked event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe disabilities, e.g. due to neurodegenerative disease, depend on technology that allows for accurate wheelchair control. For those who cannot operate a wheelchair with a joystick, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) may offer a valuable option. Technology depending on visual or auditory input may not be feasible as these modalities are dedicated to processing of environmental stimuli (e.g. recognition of obstacles, ambient noise). Herein we thus validated the feasibility of a BCI based on tactually-evoked event-related potentials (ERP) for wheelchair control. Furthermore, we investigated use of a dynamic stopping method to improve speed of the tactile BCI system. Methods Positions of four tactile stimulators represented navigation directions (left thigh: move left; right thigh: move right; abdomen: move forward; lower neck: move backward) and N = 15 participants delivered navigation commands by focusing their attention on the desired tactile stimulus in an oddball-paradigm. Results Participants navigated a virtual wheelchair through a building and eleven participants successfully completed the task of reaching 4 checkpoints in the building. The virtual wheelchair was equipped with simulated shared-control sensors (collision avoidance), yet these sensors were rarely needed. Conclusion We conclude that most participants achieved tactile ERP-BCI control sufficient to reliably operate a wheelchair and dynamic stopping was of high value for tactile ERP classification. Finally, this paper discusses feasibility of tactile ERPs for BCI based wheelchair control. PMID:24428900

  15. A novel mobile-cloud system for capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering data: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Jones, Maria; Liu, Tao; Hao, Wei; Yan, Yuqing; Qian, Gang; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to provide a new approach for capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering data, which are critical for evaluating wheelchair users' activity levels. We proposed a mobile-cloud (MC) system, which incorporated the emerging mobile and cloud computing technologies. The MC system employed smartphone sensors to collect wheelchair maneuvering data and transmit them to the cloud for storage and analysis. A k-nearest neighbor (KNN) machine-learning algorithm was developed to mitigate the impact of sensor noise and recognize wheelchair maneuvering patterns. We conducted 30 trials in an indoor setting, where each trial contained 10 bouts (i.e., periods of continuous wheelchair movement). We also verified our approach in a different building. Different from existing approaches that require sensors to be attached to wheelchairs' wheels, we placed the smartphone into a smartphone holder attached to the wheelchair. Experimental results illustrate that our approach correctly identified all 300 bouts. Compared to existing approaches, our approach was easier to use while achieving similar accuracy in analyzing the accumulated movement time and maximum period of continuous movement (p > 0.8). Overall, the MC system provided a feasible way to ease the data collection process and generated accurate analysis results for evaluating activity levels. PMID:26479684

  16. Development and validation of a frontal impact 6-year-old occupant and wheelchair computer model.

    PubMed

    Ha, DongRan; Bertocci, Gina; Jategaonkar, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Many children with disabilities use their wheelchair as a vehicle seat when traveling. To date, few studies have focused on pediatric wheelchair users in transit. A computer model representing a manual pediatric wheelchair seated with a Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device subjected to a 20-g/48-kph (30-mph) frontal crash was developed in MADYMO. The wheelchair was secured using a 4-point tiedown system, and the occupant was restrained using a 3-point belt system. The time history profiles of the computer model were tuned to those of the sled tests. The peak value for key variables was compared between the sled tests and the model. To evaluate model variable time histories, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between the sled test and the model outcome measures were determined. The correlation coefficients ranged from .86 to .95, with an average r of .91. This indicates that there are "high" correlations between the model and sled tests across all variables. The pediatric wheelchair model developed and validated in this study will provide a foundation for studying the response of a manual pediatric wheelchair in frontal impacts and associated injury risks for pediatric wheelchair users. PMID:18335711

  17. Astronaut John Young on rim of Plum crater gathering lunar rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, stands on the rim of Plum crater while collecting lunar rock samples at Station No.1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descartes landing site. This scene, looking eastward, was photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. The small boulder in the center foreground was chip sampled by the crewmen. Plum crater is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked on the far rim of the crater. The gnomon, which is used as a photographic reference to establish local vertical sun angle, scale, and lunar color, is deployed in the center of the picture. Young holds a geological hammer in his right hand.

  18. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  19. Shoulder Disease Patterns of the Wheelchair Athletes of Table-Tennis and Archery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the shoulder disease patterns for the table-tennis (TT) and archery (AR) wheelchair athletes via ultrasonographic evaluations. Methods A total of 35 wheelchair athletes were enrolled, made up of groups of TT (n=19) and AR (n=16) athletes. They were all paraplegic patients and were investigated for their wheelchair usage duration, careers as sports players, weekly training times, the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) scores and ultrasonographic evaluation. Shoulders were divided into playing arm of TT, non-playing arm of TT, bow-arm of AR, and draw arm of AR athletes. Shoulder diseases were classified into five entities of subscapularis tendinopathy, supraspinatus tendinopathy, infraspinatus tendinopathy, biceps long head tendinopathy, and subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis. The pattern of shoulder diseases were compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney and the chi-square tests Results WSUPI did not significantly correlate with age, wheelchair usage duration, career as players or weekly training times for all the wheelchair athletes. For the non-playing arm of TT athletes, there was a high percentage of subscapularis (45.5%) and supraspinatus (40.9%) tendinopathy. The percentage of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis showed a tendency to be present in the playing arm of TT athletes (20.0%) compared with their non-playing arm (4.5%), even though this was not statistically significant. Biceps long head tendinopathy was the most common disease of the shoulder in the draw arm of AR athletes, and the difference was significant when compared to the non-playing arm of TT athletes (p<0.05). Conclusion There was a high percentage of subscapularis and supraspinatus tendinopathy cases for the non-playing arm of TT wheelchair athletes, and a high percentage of biceps long head tendinopathy for the draw arm for the AR wheelchair athletes. Consideration of the biomechanical properties of each sport may be needed to tailor specific

  20. Effectiveness of Home Exercise on Pain, Function, and Strength of Manual Wheelchair Users With Spinal Cord Injury: A High-Dose Shoulder Program With Telerehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Van Straaten, Meegan; Cloud, Beth A.; Morrow, Melissa M.; Ludewig, Paula M.; Zhao, Kristin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a high-dose home exercise/telerehabilitation program for manual wheelchair users who have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and determine whether the intervention would reduce pain and increase function, as we hypothesized. Design A pre-post trial with outcomes measured at 3 time points: baseline, postintervention (12wk), and follow-up (24+ weeks). Setting Subjects performed an exercise program at their homes using telerehabilitation for therapist monitoring of technique and exercise advancement. Baseline and postintervention data were collected at a motion analysis laboratory in a tertiary medical center. Participants A convenience sample of manual wheelchair users (N = 16, 3 women; average age, 41y; average time in a wheelchair, 16y) with shoulder pain (average pain duration, 9y) and mechanical impingement signs on physical examination. Interventions A 12-week home exercise program of rotator cuff and scapular stabilization exercises was given to each participant. The program included a high dose of 3 sets of 30 repetitions, 3 times weekly, and regular physical therapist supervision via videoconferencing. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes of pain and function were measured with the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Index, and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). Secondary outcomes of strength were measured with isometric strength tests of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral muscles, and a static fatigue test of the lower trapezius. Results Pain was reduced and function improved after the intervention. There was a significant main effect for pain and function between the 3 time points based on the Friedman signed-ranked test, WUSPI (χ22 = 5.10, P = .014), DASH Index (χ22 = 5.41, P = .012), and SRQ (χ22 = 23.71, P ≤.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests demonstrated that isometric strength measurements of the serratus anterior and scapular retractors increased after the

  1. Dips and rims in dried colloidal films.

    PubMed

    Parneix, C; Vandoolaeghe, P; Nikolayev, V S; Quéré, D; Li, J; Cabane, B

    2010-12-31

    We describe a spatial pattern arising from the nonuniform evaporation of a colloidal film. Immediately after the film deposition, an obstacle is positioned above its free surface, minimizing evaporation at this location. In a first stage, the film dries everywhere but under the obstacle, where a liquid region remains. Subsequently, this liquid region evaporates near its boundaries with the dry film. This loss of water causes a flow of liquid and particles from the center of the obstructed region to its periphery. The final film has a dip surrounded by a rim whose diameter is set by the obstacle. This turns out to be a simple technique for structuring films of nanometric thickness. PMID:21231686

  2. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. A biomechanical and ergonomic evaluation of patient transferring tasks: wheelchair to shower chair and shower chair to wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Garg, A; Owen, B; Beller, D; Banaag, J

    1991-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate five different manual techniques (two-person manual lifting; rocking and pulling the patient using a gait belt with two persons; walking belt with one and two persons) and three different mechanical hoists (Hoyer lift, Trans-Aid and Ambulift) for transferring patients from wheelchair to shower chair and shower chair to wheelchair. Six female nursing students with prior patient transfer experience served both as nurses and as passive patients. Static biomechanical evaluation showed that the mean trunk flexion moments, erector spinae muscle forces and compressive and shear forces at the L5S1 disc for the four pulling methods ranged from 92 to 125 Nm, 1845 to 2507 N, 1973 to 2641 N and 442 to 580 N, respectively, as compared to about 213 Nm, 4260 N, 5050 N and 926 N for two-person manual lifting. Perceived stress ratings for the shoulder, upper back, lower back and whole body were significantly lower for pulling methods than those for lifting the patient (p less than or equal to 0.01). Patients found pulling techniques, except the gait belt, to be more comfortable and secure than the lifting method (p less than or equal to 0.01). However, most of the nurses believed that Medesign and the one-person walking belt would not work on those patients who cannot bear weight and those who are heavy, contracted or combative. A two-person walking belt was the most preferred method. Two out of three hoists (Hoyer lift and Trans-Aid) were perceived by the nurses to be more stressful than one- and two-person walking belts. The patients found these two hoists to be more uncomfortable and less secure than with three of the five manual methods (one- and two-person walking belts and Medesign). Pulling techniques and hoists took significantly longer amounts of time to make the transfer than manually lifting the patient (p less than or equal to 0.01). The two-person walking belt, using a gentle rocking motion to utilize momentum and a pulling

  4. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  5. An examination of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale using collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Mark; Dodder, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose was to examine the construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). The construct validity of the scale was examined by applying it to collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes at an NCAA sanctioned wheelchair basketball tournament at a mid-sized university in the south central United States (N=68). In accordance with previous research on the scale, Cronbach alpha was .86; confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. The scale is useful for measuring global self-esteem in collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes. PMID:17566431

  6. Evaluating the usability of a smartphone virtual seating coach application for powered wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Kuang; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Kelleher, Annmarie; Pearlman, Jonathan; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the smartphone virtual seating coach (SVSC) was to provide a personalized reminder/warning system to encourage powered wheelchair users to use their powered seating functions (PSFs) as clinically recommended. This study evaluated the usability of the SVSC system by gathering feedback from five powered wheelchair users and five rehabilitation professionals through questionnaires and interviews. The results indicated that clear and understandable instructions to adjust the PSFs are the most important requirement for SVSC application. The instructions must be intuitive, could benefit from animations or indications of PSFs control buttons so powered wheelchair users can adjust their PSFs immediately and appropriately. PMID:27079179

  7. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies. PMID:19251461

  8. An exercise trial for wheelchair users: Project Workout on Wheels

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Aaronson, Lauren S.; Washburn, Richard A.; Little, Todd D.; Lee, Jaehoon; Nary, Dorothy E.; VanSciver, Angela; Nesbitt, Jill; Norman, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in promoting health for people with disabilities, yet evidence regarding community-based interventions is sparse. This paper describes the design details of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will test the effectiveness of a multi-component behaviorally-based, intervention to promote exercise adoption (over 6 months) and maintenance (up to one year) among wheelchair users and includes descriptive data on participant characteristics at baseline. Participants were randomly assigned to either a staff-supported intervention group or a self-guided comparison group. The primary study aim is to assess the effectiveness of the multi-component behaviorally-based intervention for promoting physical activity adoption and maintenance. The RCT will also assess the physical and psychosocial effects of the intervention and the complex interplay of factors that influence the effectiveness of the intervention. Therefore, the primary outcome derives from participant reports of weekly exercise (type, frequency, duration) over 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes collected on four occasions (baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months) included physiological outcomes (VO2 peak, strength), disability-related outcomes (pain, fatigue, participation), and psychosocial outcomes (exercise self-efficacy, exercise barriers, quality of life, depression, mood). This study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component behaviorally-based intervention for promoting exercise adoption among people with mobility impairments that necessitate wheelchair use. PMID:22101206

  9. Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco; Soto-Félix, Selene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use. PMID:22317567

  10. Is the Sun Setting on the Pacific Rim?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Contends that the growing political and emotional split between the United States and Japan, the Pacific's two most powerful nations, may sever the unity of the Pacific Rim. Presents statistics, such as literacy and population growth rates, as well as economic data for thirteen Pacific Rim nations. (GEA)

  11. Survey of Educational Computing in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ah Mai, Karen L.

    A survey of selected educational institutions within the Pacific Rim was taken to determine the degree of interest and level of expertise available for an international experiment in computer networking. From the data collected from the Pacific Rim institutions, it appears that the conditions which promulgate computer network development are…

  12. Rim for rotary inertial energy storage device and method

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved rim or a high-performance rotary inertial energy storage device (flywheel). The improved rim is fabricated from resin impregnated filamentary material which is circumferentially wound in a side-by-side relationship to form a plurality of discretely and sequentially formed concentric layers of filamentary material that are bound together in a resin matrix. The improved rim is provided by prestressing the filamentary material in each successive layer to a prescribed tension loading in accordance with a predetermined schedule during the winding thereof and then curing the resin in each layer prior to forming the next layer for providing a prestress distribution within the rim to effect a self-equilibrating compressive prestress within the windings which counterbalances the transverse or radial tensile stresses generated during rotation of the rim for inhibiting deleterious delamination problems.

  13. Exploring powered wheelchair users and their caregivers' perspectives on potential intelligent power wheelchair use: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Demers, Louise; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Power wheelchairs (PWCs) can have a positive impact on user well-being, self-esteem, pain, activity and participation. Newly developed intelligent power wheelchairs (IPWs), allowing autonomous or collaboratively-controlled navigation, could enhance mobility of individuals not able to use, or having difficulty using, standard PWCs. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of PWC users (PWUs) and their caregivers regarding if and how IPWs could impact on current challenges faced by PWUs, as well as inform current development of IPWs. A qualitative exploratory study using individual interviews was conducted with PWUs (n = 12) and caregivers (n = 4). A semi-structured interview guide and video were used to facilitate informed discussion regarding IPWs. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) "challenging situations that may be overcome by an IPW" described how the IPW features of obstacle avoidance, path following, and target following could alleviate PWUs' identified mobility difficulties; (2) "cautious optimism concerning IPW use revealed participants" addresses concerns regarding using an IPW as well as technological suggestions; (3) "defining the potential IPW user" revealed characteristics of PWUs that would benefit from IPW use. Findings indicate how IPW use may help overcome PWC difficulties and confirm the importance of user input in the ongoing development of IPWs. PMID:24566051

  14. Exploring Powered Wheelchair Users and Their Caregivers’ Perspectives on Potential Intelligent Power Wheelchair Use: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W.; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Demers, Louise; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Power wheelchairs (PWCs) can have a positive impact on user well-being, self-esteem, pain, activity and participation. Newly developed intelligent power wheelchairs (IPWs), allowing autonomous or collaboratively-controlled navigation, could enhance mobility of individuals not able to use, or having difficulty using, standard PWCs. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of PWC users (PWUs) and their caregivers regarding if and how IPWs could impact on current challenges faced by PWUs, as well as inform current development of IPWs. A qualitative exploratory study using individual interviews was conducted with PWUs (n = 12) and caregivers (n = 4). A semi-structured interview guide and video were used to facilitate informed discussion regarding IPWs. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) “challenging situations that may be overcome by an IPW” described how the IPW features of obstacle avoidance, path following, and target following could alleviate PWUs’ identified mobility difficulties; (2) “cautious optimism concerning IPW use revealed participants” addresses concerns regarding using an IPW as well as technological suggestions; (3) “defining the potential IPW user” revealed characteristics of PWUs that would benefit from IPW use. Findings indicate how IPW use may help overcome PWC difficulties and confirm the importance of user input in the ongoing development of IPWs. PMID:24566051

  15. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  16. Driving Control for Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Regenerative Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel safety driving control scheme for electric power assisted wheelchairs based on the regenerative braking system. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the safe and secure driving performance especially on downhill roads must be further improved because electric power assisted wheelchairs have no braking devices. The proposed control system automatically switches the driving mode, from “assisting mode” to “braking mode”, based on the wheelchair's velocity and the declined angle and smoothly suppresses the wheelchair's acceleration based on variable duty ratio control in order to realize the safety driving and to improve the ride quality. Some experiments on the practical roads and subjective evaluation show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  17. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  18. Pattern of onychomycosis--a RIMS study.

    PubMed

    Pukhrambam, Pratita Devi; Devi, Kh Ranjana; Singh, Ng Brajachand

    2011-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or non-dermatophytes moulds. In this study, 500 patients suspected of having onychomycosis reffered from the out patient department (OPD), Dermatology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) Hospital Imphal Manipur during the period from January 2007 to December 2008 were processed in the Department of Microbiology RIMS. Nail clippings or scrapings depending on the variety of onychomycosis were collected with sterile blades under all aseptic measures. Specimens were put up for 10% KOH mount, fungal cultures on two sets of SDA (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) incorporated with antibiotics and lactophenol cotton blue preparation (LCB) from the cultures and examined microscopically. Slide cultures were also put up if necessary. Out of 500 samples processed, a total of 444 (88.8%) were positive for the various fungi. The positive fungi were dermatophytes 258 (58.1%), non-dermatophytes 139 (31.3%), yeasts and yeast-like 17 (3.8%) and mixed fungal isolates 30 (6.7%). Of the 230 males and 270 females studied,193 (83.9%) males and 251 (92.9%) females respectively were positive for various fungi causing onychomycosis. Maximum number of suspected cases were in the age group of 21-30 years. Among the dermatophytes, Trichophyton species (spp.) 250 (50%) was the commonest isolate followed by Epidermophyton spp. 8 (1.6%). Among the non-dermatophytes, Aspergillus spp. 70 (14%) was the commonest followed by Penicillium spp. 24 (4.8%), Acremonium spp. 9 (1.8%), Fusarium spp. 8 (1.6%), Curvularia spp. 7 (1.4%), Alternaria spp. 5 (1%), Scopulariopsis spp. 4 (0.8%), Cladosporium spp. 4 (0.8%), Nigrospora spp. 2 (0.4%), Mucor spp. 1 (0.2%), Paecilomyces spp. 1 (0.2%), Pseudallescheria spp. (0.2%), Rhizopus spp. 1 (0.2%), Verticillium spp. 1 (0.2%), Exophiala jeanselmei 1 (0.2%). Among the yeast and yeast-like i.e. Candida spp. 15, Geotrichum spp. 1, Rhodotorula spp. 1 were 17 (3.8%), mixed fungal isolates 30

  19. Design and validation of an intelligent wheelchair towards a clinically-functional outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people with mobility impairments, who require the use of powered wheelchairs, have difficulty completing basic maneuvering tasks during their activities of daily living (ADL). In order to provide assistance to this population, robotic and intelligent system technologies have been used to design an intelligent powered wheelchair (IPW). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the design and validation of the IPW. Methods The main contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we present a software architecture for robot navigation and control in constrained spaces. Second, we describe a decision-theoretic approach for achieving robust speech-based control of the intelligent wheelchair. Third, we present an evaluation protocol motivated by a meaningful clinical outcome, in the form of the Robotic Wheelchair Skills Test (RWST). This allows us to perform a thorough characterization of the performance and safety of the system, involving 17 test subjects (8 non-PW users, 9 regular PW users), 32 complete RWST sessions, 25 total hours of testing, and 9 kilometers of total running distance. Results User tests with the RWST show that the navigation architecture reduced collisions by more than 60% compared to other recent intelligent wheelchair platforms. On the tasks of the RWST, we measured an average decrease of 4% in performance score and 3% in safety score (not statistically significant), compared to the scores obtained with conventional driving model. This analysis was performed with regular users that had over 6 years of wheelchair driving experience, compared to approximately one half-hour of training with the autonomous mode. Conclusions The platform tested in these experiments is among the most experimentally validated robotic wheelchairs in realistic contexts. The results establish that proficient powered wheelchair users can achieve the same level of performance with the intelligent command mode, as with the conventional command mode

  20. Opportunities for measuring wheelchair kinematics in match settings; reliability of a three inertial sensor configuration.

    PubMed

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Lagerberg, A H; Veeger, H E J

    2015-09-18

    Knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match is prerequisite for performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. Unfortunately, no measurement system providing key kinematic outcomes proved to be reliable in competition. In this study, the reliability of estimated wheelchair kinematics based on a three inertial measurement unit (IMU) configuration was assessed in wheelchair basketball match-like conditions. Twenty participants performed a series of tests reflecting different motion aspects of wheelchair basketball. During the tests wheelchair kinematics were simultaneously measured using IMUs on wheels and frame, and a 24-camera optical motion analysis system serving as gold standard. Results showed only small deviations of the IMU method compared to the gold standard, once a newly developed skid correction algorithm was applied. Calculated Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) showed good estimates for frame displacement (RMSE≤0.05 m) and speed (RMSE≤0.1m/s), except for three truly vigorous tests. Estimates of frame rotation in the horizontal plane (RMSE<3°) and rotational speed (RMSE<7°/s) were very accurate. Differences in calculated Instantaneous Rotation Centres (IRC) were small, but somewhat larger in tests performed at high speed (RMSE up to 0.19 m). Average test outcomes for linear speed (ICCs>0.90), rotational speed (ICC>0.99) and IRC (ICC> 0.90) showed high correlations between IMU data and gold standard. IMU based estimation of wheelchair kinematics provided reliable results, except for brief moments of wheel skidding in truly vigorous tests. The IMU method is believed to enable prospective research in wheelchair basketball match conditions and contribute to individual support of athletes in everyday sports practice. PMID:26141162

  1. LSRA STS Tire Test - on rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, in conjunction with other NASA centers, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, used a Convair CV-990 airplane as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) to perform Space Shuttle tire tests. The results provided the Space Shuttle Program with data to support its flight rules and enabled it to resurface a grooved runway at Kennedy Space Center that had added unnecessary wear to the Space Shuttle tires. Tests were done using a unique fixture mounted in the center of the CV-990 fuselage, between the main landing gear. Landing gear systems from other aircraft could be attached to the test fixture, which lowered them to the runway surface during actual landings. The LSRA had the ability to reproduce the loads and speeds of the other aircraft, as well as simulate crosswind landing conditions in a safe, controlled environment. The video clip shows a landing on the concrete runway at Edwards, California on August 11, 1995, which concluded the Space Shuttle gear research program. As the Space Shuttle tire was lowered onto the surface, it was destroyed almost instantly. The rim scraped on the concrete, and stopped rolling as it became flat. It heated up and left a flaming trail of hot rubber and aluminum alloy particles. Notice how the fire quickly went out as the test gear was raised, indicating a safer condition than prevailed in a lakebed landing.

  2. Increases in Wheelchair Breakdowns, Repairs, and Adverse Consequences for People with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Worobey, Lynn; Oyster, Michelle; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Cooper, Rory; Boninger, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to report the current incidence of wheelchair breakdowns, repairs, and consequences and to compare current data with historical data. Design A convenience sample survey of 723 participants with spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for more than 40 hrs/wk treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems center was conducted. Results Significant increases were found in the number of participants reporting repairs (7.8%) and adverse consequences (23.5%) in a 6-mo period (2006Y2011) compared with historical data (2004Y2006) (P G 0.001). When examining current data, minorities experienced a greater frequency and higher number of reported consequences (P = 0.03). Power wheelchair users reported a higher number of repairs and consequences than did manual wheelchair users (P G 0.001). Wheelchairs equipped with seat functions were associated with a greater frequency of adverse consequences (P = 0.01). Repairs did not vary across funding source, but individuals with wheelchairs provided by Medicare and Medicaid reported a higher frequency of consequences than did the combined group of the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, Worker’s Compensation, and the Veterans Administration (P = 0.034 and P = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions The incidence and consequences of repairs are increasing from what was already a very high statistic in this United States population. Further investigation into causality is required, and intervention is needed to reverse this potential trend. PMID:22549473

  3. Rolling resistance and propulsion efficiency of manual and power-assisted wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Efthymia; Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2015-11-01

    Rolling resistance is one of the main forces resisting wheelchair propulsion and thus affecting stress exerted on the upper limbs. The present study investigates the differences in rolling resistance, propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user during power-assisted and manual propulsion. Different tire pressures (50%, 75%, 100%) and two different levels of motor assistance were tested. Drag force, energy expenditure and propulsion efficiency were measured in 10 able-bodied individuals under different experimental settings on a treadmill. Results showed that drag force levels were significantly higher in the 50%, compared to the 75% and 100% inflation conditions. In terms of wheelchair type, the manual wheelchair displayed significantly lower drag force values than the power-assisted one. The use of extra-power-assisted wheelchair appeared to be significantly superior to conventional power-assisted and manual wheelchairs concerning both propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the use of power-assisted wheelchair was more efficient and required less energy input by the user, depending on the motor assistance provided. PMID:26376474

  4. The relationship between consistency of propulsive cycles and maximum angular velocity during wheelchair racing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos Dino; Xu, Dali

    2008-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the consistency of wheelchair athletes' upper-limb kinematics in consecutive propulsive cycles and to investigate the relationship between the maximum angular velocities of the upper arm and forearm and the consistency of the upper-limb kinematical pattern. Eleven elite international wheelchair racers propelled their own chairs on a roller while performing maximum speeds during wheelchair propulsion. A Qualisys motion analysis system was used to film the wheelchair propulsive cycles. Six reflective markers placed on the right shoulder, elbow, wrist joints, metacarpal, wheel axis, and wheel were automatically digitized. The deviations in cycle time, upper-arm and forearm angles, and angular velocities among these propulsive cycles were analyzed. The results demonstrated that in the consecutive cycles of wheelchair propulsion the increased maximum angular velocity may lead to increased variability in the upper-limb angular kinematics. It is speculated that this increased variability may be important for the distribution of load on different upper-extremity muscles to avoid the fatigue during wheelchair racing. PMID:18843158

  5. A wheelchair modified for leg propulsion using voluntary activity or electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stein, R B; Roetenberg, D; Chong, S L; James, K B

    2003-01-01

    A commercially available wheelchair has been modified for propulsion by movements of the lower legs. The feet are attached securely to a foot rest that can rotate around the knee joint. Movement is generated either with residual voluntary activation of the quadriceps (knee extensor) and hamstring (knee flexor) muscles, or with electrical stimulation of these muscles, if voluntary control is absent. Either a chain or a lever can couple the movements through a gearbox to the wheel to propel the wheelchair forward. Control of a wheelchair with the legs is more efficient than using the arms and has the potential to increase the mobility and whole-body fitness of many wheelchair users, but there is considerable variability between subjects. To address this variability, we measured for individual subjects the passive properties of the legs and foot at rest (effective stiffness and viscosity), the length-tension (torque-angle) properties of the active muscle groups, as well as their force-velocity curve and their activation and fatigue rates. The measured values were then inserted into a model of the leg-propelled wheelchair. The purpose of this paper is to test whether the model could predict the performance of individual subjects accurately and could be used, for example, to optimize the speed of the wheelchair for a given subject. PMID:12485782

  6. Computer simulation and sled test validation of a powerbase wheelchair and occupant subjected to frontal crash conditions.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G E; Szobota, S; Hobson, D A; Digges, K

    1999-06-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has led to an increased number of wheelchair users seeking transportation services. Many of these individuals are unable to transfer to a vehicle and are instead required to travel seated in their wheelchairs. Unfortunately, wheelchairs are not typically designed with the same occupant protection features as motor vehicle seats, and wheelchair seated occupants may be at higher risk for injury in a crash. To study the effects of crash level forces on wheelchairs and their occupants, it is useful to simulate crash conditions using computer modeling. This study has used a dynamic lumped mass crash simulator, in combination with sled impact testing, to develop a model of a secured commercial powerbase and restrained occupant subjected to a 20 g/30 mph frontal motor vehicle crash. Time histories profiles of simulation-generated wheelchair kinematics, occupant accelerations, tiedown forces and occupant restraint forces were compared to sled impact testing for model validation. Validation efforts for this model were compared to validation results found acceptable for the ISO/SAE surrogate wheelchair model. This wheelchair-occupant simulation model can be used to investigate wheelchair crash response or to evaluate the influence of various factors on occupant crash safety. PMID:10391594

  7. Immediate video feedback on ramp, wheelie, and curb wheelchair skill training for persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat; Chang, Li-Shan; Ke, Xiang; Tsai, Liang-Ching; Chen, Yu-Ping; Lewis, James

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the effects of immediate video feedback (IVF) on training ramp, wheelie, and curb wheelchair skills for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) would be equivalent to or better than the traditional wheelchair skill training. Participants were manual wheelchair users with recent SCI (thoracic 1-lumbar 1) who were matched (9 pairs) on motor function level, age, and sex and randomly assigned to a control group (conventional training) or an experimental group (IVF training). Participants learned three wheelchair skills and then went through the wheelchair skill competency test, retention test, and transfer test. Paired t-tests were used to examine the differences in training time (minutes), spotter intervention needed (counts), and successful rate in performance between the two groups. A 2 (groups) x 3 (skills) x 3 (tests) repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni adjustment test were used to examine differences between groups on wheelchair skills and tests. No differences were found between two groups in training times (minutes) on three wheelchair skills (experimental vs control: ramp 14.92 +/- 5.80 vs 11.69 +/- 7.85; wheelie 17.79 +/- 6.03 vs 19.92 +/- 13.42; and curb 38.35 +/-23.01 vs 48.59 +/- 15.21). This study demonstrated that IVF for training manual wheelchair skills may produce similar results as the conventional training and may be an alternative training method for wheelchair skills. PMID:26360645

  8. Robust multivariable strategy and its application to a powered wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a systematic robust multivariable control strategy based on combination of systematic triangularization technique and robust control strategies. Two design stages are required. In the first design stage, multivariable control problem is reduced into a series of scalar control problems via triangularization technique. For each specific scalar system, two advanced control strategies are proposed and implemented in the second design stage. The first one is based on Model Predictive Control, which is an iterative, finite horizon optimization procedure. The second control strategy is known as Neuro-Sliding Mode Control, which integrates Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Neural Network Design to achieve both chattering-free and system robustness. Real-time implementation on a powered wheelchair system confirms that robustness and desired performance of a multivariable system under model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances can indeed be achieved by the combination of triangularization technique and Neuro-Sliding Mode Control. PMID:19963948

  9. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, SM

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were, firstly, to determine the reliability and reproducibility of an agility T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89 ± 21.71 kg and sitting body height 86.07 ± 6.82 cm) belonging to the national WB league participated in this study. Wheelchair sprint (5 and 20 m without ball, and 5 and 20 m with ball) agility (T-test and pick-up test) strength (handgrip and maximal pass) and endurance (Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test) were performed. T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test showed good reproducibility values (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.74-0.94). The WB players’ results in 5 and 20 m sprints without a ball were 1.87 ± 0.21 s and 5.70 ± 0.43 s and with a ball 2.10 ± 0.30 s and 6.59 ± 0.61 s, being better than those reported in the literature. Regarding the pick-up test results (16.05 ± 0.52 s) and maximal pass (8.39 ± 1.77 m), players showed worse values than those obtained in elite players. The main contribution of the present study is the characterization of the physical performance profile of WB players using a field test battery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the agility T-test and the aerobic Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test are reliable; consequently they may be appropriate instruments for measuring physical fitness in WB. PMID:25729153

  10. A Frosty Rim In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    Our final image combines the features of the past two days, with a dust covered frosty crater rim and the bluer sand dunes of the north polar region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 70.1, Longitude 351.8 East (8.2 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Evaluation of an intelligent wheelchair system for older adults with cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are the most prevalent wheelchair users in Canada. Yet, cognitive impairments may prevent an older adult from being allowed to use a powered wheelchair due to safety and usability concerns. To address this issue, an add-on Intelligent Wheelchair System (IWS) was developed to help older adults with cognitive impairments drive a powered wheelchair safely and effectively. When attached to a powered wheelchair, the IWS adds a vision-based anti-collision feature that prevents the wheelchair from hitting obstacles and a navigation assistance feature that plays audio prompts to help users manoeuvre around obstacles. Methods A two stage evaluation was conducted to test the efficacy of the IWS. Stage One: Environment of Use – the IWS’s anti-collision and navigation features were evaluated against objects found in a long-term care facility. Six different collision scenarios (wall, walker, cane, no object, moving and stationary person) and three different navigation scenarios (object on left, object on right, and no object) were performed. Signal detection theory was used to categorize the response of the system in each scenario. Stage Two: User Trials – single-subject research design was used to evaluate the impact of the IWS on older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants were asked to drive a powered wheelchair through a structured obstacle course in two phases: 1) with the IWS and 2) without the IWS. Measurements of safety and usability were taken and compared between the two phases. Visual analysis and phase averages were used to analyze the single-subject data. Results Stage One: The IWS performed correctly for all environmental anti-collision and navigation scenarios. Stage Two: Two participants completed the trials. The IWS was able to limit the number of collisions that occurred with a powered wheelchair and lower the perceived workload for driving a powered wheelchair. However, the objective performance (time to complete course

  12. 12. HALEMAUMAUUWEKAHUNA ROAD AT SOUTHWEST RIM OF KILAUEA CRATER, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. HALEMAUMAU-UWEKAHUNA ROAD AT SOUTHWEST RIM OF KILAUEA CRATER, SHOWING HEAVY FILL AND ROCK BANK. LOOKING EAST. FROM SUPERINTENDENT'S MONTHLY REPORT, JANUARY 1934. - Mauna Loa Road, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  13. 19. Detail of original leveraction rim lock, downstairs door between ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of original lever-action rim lock, downstairs door between central hall and southwest room, looking northwest - Merkel Farmstead, House, 8570 Louella Lane, south side of U.S. Route 64, Shiloh, St. Clair County, IL

  14. Super Rapid Scan Imagery of the California Rim Fire

    NASA Video Gallery

    The GOES-14 provided many SRSOR loops of the California Rim Fire. A sequence of these GOES-14 SRSOR 0.63 µm visible channel images showed that the initial northward motion of the smoke plume began ...

  15. Rimmed and edge thickened stodola shaped flywheel. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, S.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1980-09-24

    A flywheel is described that is useful for energy storage in a hybrid vehicle automotive power system or in some stationary applications. The flywheel has a body composed of essentially planar isotropic high strength material. The flywheel body is enclosed by a rim of circumferentially wound fiber embedded in resin. The rim promotes flywheel safety and survivability. The flywheel has a truncated and edge thickened Stodola shape designed to optimize system mass and energy storage capability.

  16. RIM as an implementation tool for a distributed heterogeneous database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breitbart, Y. J.; Hartweg, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The another distributed database system (ADDS) prototype supports interactive, d hoc retrieval from several of the Amoco/Standard DHDBMS. The ADDS conceptual design, the usage of RIM in several components of ADDS, and some enhancements ot RIM that were used by the developers of the ADDS prototype are outlined. Topics covered include: (1) ADDS Overview; (2) composite database dictionary/directory; (3) user interface and user profiles; (4) subrequest execution; (5) merger/formatter; and (6) a transportable implamentation.

  17. Lower-Rim Substituted Calixarenes and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Princy; Menon, Shobana

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses in detail “calixarenes” since their discovery as by-products of the phenol formaldehyde bakelites till the present scenario wherein calixarene has assumed a new dimension in the field of supramolecular chemistry. Extensive literature exists for calixarenes; but herein we have tried to concentrate on the different lower-rim modified calixarenes with their potential applications. An attempt has also been made to critically evaluate the synthesis procedures for different lower-rim substituted calixarenes. PMID:17611612

  18. Development and evaluation of a gyroscope-based wheel rotation monitor for manual wheelchair users

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a wireless gyroscope-based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) that can estimate speeds and distances traveled by wheelchair users during regular wheelchair propulsion as well as wheelchair sports such as handcycling, and provide users with real-time feedback through a smartphone application. Methods The speeds and the distances estimated by the G-WRM were compared with the criterion measures by calculating absolute difference, mean difference, and percentage errors during a series of laboratory-based tests. Intraclass correlations (ICC) and the Bland–Altman plots were also used to assess the agreements between the G-WRM and the criterion measures. In addition, battery life and wireless data transmission tests under a number of usage conditions were performed. Results The percentage errors for the angular velocities, speeds, and distances obtained from three prototype G-WRMs were less than 3% for all the test trials. The high ICC values (ICC (3,1) > 0.94) and the Bland–Altman plots indicate excellent agreement between the estimated speeds and distances by the G-WRMs and the criterion measures. The battery life tests showed that the device could last for 35 hours in wireless mode and 139 hours in secure digital card mode. The wireless data transmission tests indicated less than 0.3% of data loss. Conclusion The results indicate that the G-WRM is an appropriate tool for tracking a spectrum of wheelchair-related activities from regular wheelchair propulsion to wheelchair sports such as handcycling. The real-time feedback provided by the G-WRM can help wheelchair users self-monitor their everyday activities. PMID:23820150

  19. Concept proposal for a detachable exoskeleton-wheelchair to improve mobility and health.

    PubMed

    Borisoff, Jaimie F; Mattie, Johanne; Rafer, Vince

    2013-06-01

    Wheelchair use has consequences to quality of life in at least two areas: 1) health issues such as pressure sores and chronic overuse injury; and 2) access problems due to the inaccessible nature of the built and natural environments that are most amenable to upright postures. Even with these concerns, wheelchairs are still the best form of mobility for many people (e.g. they are relatively easy to transfer into and propel). However, wheelchairs are simply not transformative, i.e. they do not allow a person with a disability to attain a level of mobility performance that approaches that of their non-disabled peers, nor do they typically allow for face to face interactions and full participation in the community. Wheelchairs also do not typically support ongoing therapeutic benefits for the user. To address the inadequacy of existing wheelchairs, we are merging two evolving technologies into a coherent new mobility device. The first is dynamic wheeled mobility, which adds significant functionality to conventional wheelchairs through the use of on-the-fly adjustable positioning. The second is powered walking exoskeletons, which enable highly desired standing and walking functions, as well as therapeutic benefits associated with rehabilitation gait training. Unfortunately, exoskeletons have significant usability concerns such as slow speed, limited range, potential to cause skin issues, and difficult transfers. A new concept of docking a detachable exoskeleton to a wheeled frame has been developed to address these issues. The design goal is a single mobility device that not only optimizes daily activities (i.e. wheelchair seating and propulsion with dynamic positioning), but also serves as an easy-to-use rehabilitation tool for therapeutic benefits (i.e. a detachable powered exoskeleton for walking sojourns). This has significant potential benefits for the lives of people with mobility impairments. PMID:24187215

  20. Instruments and techniques for the analysis of wheelchair propulsion and upper extremity involvement in patients with spinal cord injuries: current concept review

    PubMed Central

    Dellabiancia, Fabio; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Summary The correct functionality of the upper limbs is an essential condition for the autonomy of people with disabilities, especially for those in wheelchair. In this review we focused on the biomechanics of wheelchair propulsion and we described the instrumental analysis of techniques for the acquisition of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:24367774

  1. Southern rim of Isidis Planitia basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 11 April 2002) The Science This image, crossing the southern rim of the Isidis Planitia basin, displays the contrasting morphologies of the relatively rough highland terrain (in the lower portion of the image) and the relatively smooth materials of the basin (at top). Upon closer viewing, the basin materials display an extensive record of cratering, including a small cluster of craters just north and west of the two prominent craters in the upper part of the image. This cluster of craters may represent what are called 'secondary' craters, which are craters that form as a result of the ejection of debris from a nearby impact. Alternatively, these craters may have formed simultaneously by the impact of many pieces of a larger meteoroid that broke up upon entry into Mars' atmosphere. The large craters in the image are approximately 800 meters (875 yards) in diameter. Also visible in the image are dark streaks on the east-facing side of the north-south trending ridge. These streaks are likely the result of debris movement down slope. A dark patch of material is visible at the left of the image; dark materials are typically mobile sands, and linear dune forms are apparent within the dark patch. The Story Battered and beaten up, the surface of Mars reads like a history book to geologists, who want to study what has happened to the red planet over its geological history. Look for two larger craters diagonal from one another in the northern part of this image, and then for the smattering of tinier craters near them. How did these smaller craters come to be? Did a large meteoroid streak in through the Martian atmosphere and get broken up as it passed through, pummeling Mars moments later with its smaller, scattered pieces? Or were rocks and dirt blasted off the surface when the two larger craters were formed, only to rain down again on Mars shortly afterwards? No one quite knows for sure.... Another enigmatic-looking feature is near the left center of this image

  2. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at different resolutions in images acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) and by the Viking Orbiter 1 twenty years earlier. The left image is a MOC wide angle camera 'context' image showing much of the eastern portion of the crater at roughly 1 km (0.6 mi) per picture element. The image is about 390 by 730 km (240 X 450 miles). Shown within the wide angle image is the outline of a portion of the best Viking image (center, 371S53), acquired at a resolution of about 240 m/pixel (790 feet). The area covered is 144 X 144 km (89 X 89 miles). The right image is the high resolution narrow angle camera view. The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. Rim region growth and its composition in reaction bonded boron carbide composites with core-rim structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayun, S.; Weizmann, A.; Dilman, H.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum was detected in reaction-bonded boron carbide that had been prepared by pressureless infiltration of boron carbide preforms with molten silicon in a graphite furnace under vacuum. The presence of Al2O3 in the heated zone, even though not in contact with the boron carbide preform, stands behind the presence of aluminium in the rim region that interconnects the initial boron carbide particles. The composition of the rim corresponds to the Bx(C,Si,Al)y quaternary carbide phase. The reaction of alumina with graphite and the formation of a gaseous aluminum suboxide (Al2O) accounts for the transfer of aluminum in the melt and, subsequently in the rim regions. The presence of Al increases the solubility of boron in liquid silicon, but with increasing aluminum content the activity of boron decreases. These features dominate the structural evolution of the rim-core in the presence of aluminum in the melt.

  4. The Effects of Self-shadowing by a Puffed-up Inner Rim in Scattered Light Images of Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing

    2015-09-01

    We explore whether protoplanetary disks with self-shadowing from puffed-up inner rims exhibit observable features in scattered light images. We use both self-consistent hydrostatic equilibrium calculations and parameterized models to produce the vertically puffed-up inner rims. We find that, in general, the transition between the shadowed and flared regions occurs in a smooth manner over a broad radius range, and no sudden jump exists at the outer edge of the shadow in either the disk temperature or density structures. As a result, a puffed-up rim cannot create sharp ring/arc/spiral-arm-like features in the outer disk as have been detected in recent direct near-infrared imaging of disks. On the other hand, if the puffed-up rim has a sharp edge in the vertical direction, the shadowing effect can produce a distinct three-stage broken power law in the radial intensity profile of the scattered light, with two steep surface brightness radial profiles in the inner and outer disk joined by a shallow transition region around the shadow edge. These types of scattered light profiles may have already been observed, such as in the recent Subaru direct imaging of the TW Hydrae system.

  5. 14 CFR 382.67 - What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs? 382.67 Section 382.67 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.67 What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs? (a) As a carrier, you...

  6. An Analysis of Basic Construction Variables of Racing Wheelchairs Used in the 1984 International Games for the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherril L.; Kimura, Iris F.

    1987-01-01

    A photographic analysis of racing wheelchairs used by cerebral palsy class four athletes and amputee athletes at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled was undertaken in order to analyze seven wheelchair construction variables in relation to performance outcome, distance raced, and type of disability of the user. (Author/MT)

  7. Self-Talk in Wheelchair Basketball: The Effects of an Intervention Program on Dribbling and Passing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbalis, Thomas; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a self-talk intervention program on performance of wheelchair basketball drills. Twenty-two (N = 22) wheelchair basketball athletes from two different clubs of the same league participated in the study. The duration of the intervention was 12 weeks and its aim was the improvement of two…

  8. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  9. Joystick-controlled video console game practice for developing power wheelchairs users’ indoor driving skills

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei Pin; Wang, Chia Cheng; Hung, Jo Hua; Chien, Kai Chun; Liu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ng, How-Hing; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of joystick-controlled video console games in enhancing subjects’ ability to control power wheelchairs. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults without prior experience of driving power wheelchairs were recruited. Four commercially available video games were used as training programs to practice joystick control in catching falling objects, crossing a river, tracing the route while floating on a river, and navigating through a garden maze. An indoor power wheelchair driving test, including straight lines, and right and left turns, was completed before and after the video game practice, during which electromyographic signals of the upper limbs were recorded. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences in driving performance and muscle activities before and after the intervention. [Results] Following the video game intervention, participants took significantly less time to complete the course, with less lateral deviation when turning the indoor power wheelchair. However, muscle activation in the upper limbs was not significantly affected. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates the feasibility of using joystick-controlled commercial video games to train individuals in the control of indoor power wheelchairs. PMID:25729200

  10. Integrated modeling and design for realizing a two-wheeled wheelchair for disabled.

    PubMed

    Altalmas, Tareq; Aula, Abqori; Ahmad, Salmiah; Tokhi, M O; Akmeliawati, Rini

    2016-01-01

    Two-wheeled wheelchairs are considered highly nonlinear and complex systems. The systems mimic a double-inverted pendulum scenario and will provide better maneuverability in confined spaces and also to reach higher level of height for pick and place tasks. The challenge resides in modeling and control of the two-wheeled wheelchair to perform comparably to a normal four-wheeled wheelchair. Most common modeling techniques have been accomplished by researchers utilizing the basic Newton's Laws of motion and some have used 3D tools to model the system where the models are much more theoretical and quite far from the practical implementation. This article is aimed at closing the gap between the conventional mathematical modeling approaches where the integrated 3D modeling approach with validation on the actual hardware implementation was conducted. To achieve this, both nonlinear and a linearized model in terms of state space model were obtained from the mathematical model of the system for analysis and, thereafter, a 3D virtual prototype of the wheelchair was developed, simulated, and analyzed. This has increased the confidence level for the proposed platform and facilitated the actual hardware implementation of the two-wheeled wheelchair. Results show that the prototype developed and tested has successfully worked within the specific requirements established. PMID:27187763

  11. Evaluation on an ergonomic design of functional clothing for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunyi; Wu, Daiwei; Zhao, Mengmeng; Li, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have pointed out that people with physical disabilities find it difficult to obtain suitable clothing. In this study a set of wheelchair user oriented functional clothing was designed. Attention was paid to the wheelchair users' daily living activities related with clothing. An evaluating system combined with sports tournament and rehabilitation medicine was introduced to assess the new designed clothing. Six wheelchair users (3 males and 3 females) were invited to wear the clothing. A set of normal functional clothing was employed as a comparison (Control). The time required to complete three different daily living activities, i.e. dressing and undressing, going to toilet and bathing were recorded. Results showed that with the new clothing wheelchair users' competence of managing toilet was increased by 52.9%. The time needed for toilet was reduced by 45.7%. Their capability of managing dressing and undressing was improved by 24.6%. The study indicated that the newly designed clothing could facilitate wheelchair users' daily living activities related with clothing. PMID:23948502

  12. Influence of wheel configuration on wheelchair basketball performance: wheel stiffness, tyre type and tyre orientation.

    PubMed

    Mason, B S; Lemstra, M; van der Woude, L H V; Vegter, R; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to explore the lateral stiffness of different sports wheelchair wheels available to athletes in 'new' and 'used' conditions and to determine the effect of (a) stiffness, (b) tyre type (clincher vs. tubular) and (c) tyre orientation on the physiological and biomechanical responses to submaximal and maximal effort propulsion specific to wheelchair basketball. Eight able-bodied individuals participated in the laboratory-based testing, which took place on a wheelchair ergometer at two fixed speeds (1.1 and 2.2 m s(-1)). Outcome measures were power output and physiological demand (oxygen uptake and heart rate). Three participants with experience of over-ground sports wheelchair propulsion also performed 2 × 20 m sprints in each wheel configuration. Results revealed that wheels differed significantly in lateral stiffness with the 'new' Spinergy wheel shown to be the stiffest (678.2 ± 102.1 N mm(-1)). However the effects of stiffness on physiological demand were minimal compared to tyre type whereby tubular tyres significantly reduced the rolling resistance and power output in relation to clincher tyres. Therefore tyre type (and subsequently inflation pressure) remains the most important aspect of wheel specification for athletes to consider and monitor when configuring a sports wheelchair. PMID:25726151

  13. Impact of wheelchair seat height on neck and shoulder range of motion during functional task performance.

    PubMed

    Sabari, Joyce; Shea, Mary; Chen, Linda; Laurenceau, Alyssa; Leung, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair users are at high risk for developing repetitive stress injuries (RSI) of the cervical spine and glenohumeral joints due to increased demands on active range of motion (AROM) when performing functional tasks from a seated position. The addition of a seat elevation device may alleviate the risk factors that lead to the development of RSI. However, there are no studies which establish that wheelchair seat height impacts upon arthrokinematic requirements at vulnerable joints. Additionally, Medicare and most insurance carriers do not cover the cost of power seat elevators because this feature has not been shown to be a "medical necessity." This study examined differences in AROM at the cervical spine and glenohumeral joint during performance of two functional tasks while seated in a wheelchair with the seat elevation feature at minimum and maximum height. Results revealed statistically significant differences in AROM requirements for cervical extension and shoulder abduction between the two wheelchair seat heights. These findings provide preliminary support for the value of the power seat elevation function in minimizing the risk of RSI at the shoulder complex and cervical spine in wheelchair users. PMID:26853925

  14. Event-based and Multi Agent Control of an Innovative Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomin, U.; Witczak, P.; Stetter, R.

    2015-11-01

    Due to the aging population more and more people require mobility assistance in form of a wheelchair. Generally it would be desirable that such wheelchairs would be easy to use and would allow their users the possibility to move in any direction at any time. Concepts which allow such movements are existing since many years but have for several reasons not found their way to the market. Additionally for semi-autonomous (assisted) operation and fully autonomous operation (e. g. an empty wheelchair driving to its charging station) the control task is much less challenging for such drive system, because no complex manoeuvres needs to be considered and planned. In an ongoing research a drive system for a wheelchair was developed which offers such possibilities employing a relatively simple mechanical design. This drive system is based on a certain steering principle which is based on torque differences between different wheels. This allows a relatively simple mechanical design but poses challenges on the control of the vehicle. This paper describes two possible approaches to address this challenge - the use of an event based control and the application of multiple software agents. Both approaches can solve the control problem individually but can also complement each other for better system performance. The paper stars with a description of the wheelchair drive system. Then the asynchronous event based control software is described as well the multi agent based approach. The next sections report the results of the experiments and discuss the further improvements.

  15. Low anterior counterweights to improve static rear stability of occupied wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Loane, T D; Kirby, R L

    1986-04-01

    Rear tipping accidents in wheelchairs are a common problem, the likelihood of which may be increased by the combination of a wheelchair with low stability and an occupant with altered body morphology, such as a person with lower limb amputations. This study tests the hypothesis that counterweights on the wheelchair footrests significantly increase static rear stability. In addition to pilot work indicating the amount and positioning of effective counterweights, ten normal subjects were studied on a tilting platform in both lightweight and conventional wheelchairs, with and without a 5-kg weight on the footrests. The angles at which the front casters lifted off the platform increased from a mean of 28.6 (+/- 2.7) degrees to 34.8 (+/- 3) degrees in the conventional wheelchair (p less than 0.01) and from 18.2 (+/- 2.7) degrees to 24.6 (+/- 2.5) degrees (p less than 0.0001) and 15.5 (+/- 2) degrees to 23.4 (+/- 2.2) degrees (p less than 0.0001) in the lightweight chair with the axle in the low-posterior and low-anterior positions, respectively. A 5-kg weight on the footrests increased the average rear stability of lightweight and conventional chairs by 6.2 degrees (31.9%). PMID:3964063

  16. Wireless biomedical signal monitoring device on wheelchair using noncontact electro-mechanical film sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Myoung; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The present study purposed to measure the BCG (Ballistocardiogram) of subjects on a wheelchair using a noncontact electro-mechanical film sensor (EMFi sensor) and detect the respiratory rate from BCG in real-time while the subjects are moving. In order to measure wirelessly the BCG of subjects moving on a wheelchair, we made a seat-type noncontact EMFi sensor and developed a transmitter and a receiver using Zigbee wireless RF communication technology. The sensor is embedded with a 3-axis accelerometer to remove the noise of wheelchair vibration from BCG signal. Signal obtained from each sensor goes through the A/D converter and is recorded in the SD (Secure Digital) card in PDA (Personal Digital Assistance) with a receiving part. We also developed a PC (Personal Computer) data analysis program, analyzed data recorded in the SD card using the program, and presented the results in graph. Lastly, this study demonstrated that a warning message can be sent from PDA to the remote server via a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network in case the person on wheelchair falls in emergency. Our experiment was carried out with healthy male and female adults in their 20s who volunteered to help this research. The results of analyzing collected data will show that the respiratory rate can be measured in real-time on a moving wheelchair. PMID:18002021

  17. An impact assessment and critical appraisal of the ISO standard for wheelchair vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Michael J; Henderson, Graham I

    2013-07-01

    Wheelchairs are, for users, a primary means of mobility and an important means of performing activities of daily living. A common, accepted vocabulary is required to support and foster evidence-based practice and communication amongst professionals and with users. The international standard for wheelchair vocabulary, ISO 7176-26:2007, specifies terms and definitions with the purpose of eliminating confusion from the duplication or inappropriate use of terms. The aim of this study was to assess its impact and, based on that assessment, critically appraise the standard. Two databases were searched returning 189 and 283 unique articles with wheelchair in the title published between 2004-2006 and 2009-2011 respectively. Compliance, based on title and abstract usage, was poor, ranging from 0 to 50% correct usage, with no significant difference between pre- and post-publication. A review of prescription forms found only 9% correct usage. A survey of NHS wheelchair managers found that only 30% were positive that they had a copy despite 67% agreeing that the standard is important. The ISO wheelchair vocabulary standard was found not to be achieving its stated purpose. It is recommended that it be revised taking into account the findings of this study including the need for targeted dissemination and increased awareness. PMID:23058286

  18. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database. PMID:22254706

  19. Individual Muscle Contributions to Push and Recovery Subtasks during Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jeffery W.; Richter, W. Mark; Neptune, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable physical demand on the upper extremity and is one of the primary activities associated with the high prevalence of upper extremity overuse injuries and pain among wheelchair users. As a result, recent effort has focused on determining how various propulsion techniques influence upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion. However, an important prerequisite for identifying the relationships between propulsion techniques and upper extremity demand is to understand how individual muscles contribute to the mechanical energetics of wheelchair propulsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a forward dynamics simulation of wheelchair propulsion to quantify how individual muscles deliver, absorb and/or transfer mechanical power during propulsion. The analysis showed that muscles contribute to either push (i.e. deliver mechanical power to the handrim) or recovery (i.e. reposition the arm) subtasks, with the shoulder flexors being the primary contributors to the push and the shoulder extensors being the primary contributors to the recovery. In addition, significant activity from the shoulder muscles was required during the transition between push and recovery, which resulted in increased co-contraction and upper extremity demand. Thus, strengthening the shoulder flexors and promoting propulsion techniques that improve transition mechanics have much potential to reduce upper extremity demand and improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:21397232

  20. Why do complex impact craters have elevated crater rims?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Sturm, Sebastian; Krueger, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Most of the complex impact craters on the Moon and on Mars have elevated crater rims like their simple counterparts. The raised rim of simple craters is the result of (i) the deposition of a coherent proximal ejecta blanket at the edge of the transient cavity (overturned flap) and (ii) a structural uplift of the pre-impact surface near the transient cavity rim during the excavation stage of cratering [1]. The latter occurs either by plastic thickening or localized buckling of target rocks, as well as by the emplacement of interthrust wedges [2] or by the injection of dike material. Ejecta and the structural uplift contribute equally to the total elevation of simple crater rims. The cause of elevated crater rims of large complex craters [3] is less obvious, but still, the rim height scales with the final crater diameter. Depending on crater size, gravity, and target rheology, the final crater rim of complex craters can be situated up to 1.5-2.0 transient crater radii distance from the crater center. Here the thickness of the ejecta blanket is only a fraction of that occurring at the rim of simple craters, e.g. [4], and thus cannot account for a strong elevation. Likewise, plastic thickening including dike injection of the underlying target may not play a significant role at this distance any more. We started to systematically investigate the structural uplift and ejecta thickness along the rim of complex impact craters to understand the cause of their elevation. Our studies of two lunar craters (Bessel, 16 km diameter and Euler, 28 km diameter) [5] and one unnamed complex martian crater (16 km diameter) [6] showed that the structural uplift at the final crater rim makes 56-67% of the total rim elevation while the ejecta thickness contributes 33-44%. Thus with increasing distance from the transient cavity rim, the structural uplift seems to dominate. As dike injection and plastic thickening are unlikely at such a distance from the transient cavity, we propose that

  1. Riding a bus while seated in a wheelchair: A pilot study of attitudes and behavior regarding safety practices.

    PubMed

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Getchell, C A; Bertocci, Gina E; Fitzgerald, Shirley G

    2007-01-01

    A total of 283 wheelchair-seated bus riders responded to a 35-item Web-based survey investigating their experiences on public, fixed-route buses. The survey addressed the use of wheelchair tiedowns and occupant restraint systems (WTORS), the attitudes and behaviors of wheelchair users toward the use of this equipment, and the transit experience. Results indicate that consistent use of four-point tiedown and occupant restraint systems is fairly low. Only 33.2% of the participants reported always securing their wheelchair, and 62.2% reported using occupant restraints consistently. A preference for fixed-route over para-transit was related to larger city size. Implementation of transit agency policy regarding WTORS was found to be inconsistent. Easier-to-use WTORS and improved operator training in larger transit agencies would likely increase the correct use of safety equipment and improve wheelchair users' bus-riding experiences. PMID:18335706

  2. Taking Control: An Exploratory Study of the Use of Tilt-in-Space Wheelchairs in Residential Care.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sneha; Mortenson, W Ben; Wallace, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Tilt-in-space (TIS) wheelchairs are common in residential care, but little empirical evidence exists regarding how they are used by residents and staff in these settings. As part of a larger study exploring the use of wheeled mobility in these facilities, we conducted a substudy to examine how TIS wheelchairs are used in practice and to explore the experiences of the residents who use them. We conducted a series of three participant observations and interviews with 6 residents or their family members and interviewed 10 staff. Our analysis identified taking control as the main overarching theme, subsuming two subthemes: promoting comfort and mobilizing to participate. Findings suggest that power TIS wheelchairs enable user control, whereas manual TIS wheelchairs promote staff control. These findings illustrate how TIS wheelchairs may enable or inhibit occupational engagement and suggest that vigilance is necessary to prevent their use as a restraint. PMID:26122688

  3. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Clark, Benton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Yen, Albert S.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Farrand, William H.; Grant, John A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Parker, Timothy J.; Peretyazhko, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis

  4. Low volume fraction rimming flow in a rotating horizontal cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Te; Liu, Ta-Jo; Wu, Ping-Yao

    2007-12-01

    An experimental study was carried out to examine how uniform rimming flow is established for a very small volume fraction of aqueous Newtonian solutions in a partially filled rotating horizontal cylinder. There exists a certain critical volume fraction (Vc) for each solution, where the rotational speed required to achieve uniform rimming flow takes a minimum value. Counterintuitively, it takes greater rotation speeds for both larger and smaller volume fractions than this. Axial instabilities are observed for liquid volume fractions above or below this critical value. For V >Vc the defects are mainly of shark-teeth and turbulent types, while for V Vc, but has very little effect for V rimming flow found in the present study is 0.25%. The dimensionless minimum rotational speed Ω to achieve rimming flow is presented as a function of the dimensionless liquid volume fraction ϕ. The competing effects of fluid inertia and viscous force on rimming flow are demonstrated from a dimensionless plot of Ω versus ϕ.

  5. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J M; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classification and competition standard, and rating of coach and player. Six field tests' test-retest showed good reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.80-0.97), while the pass-for-accuracy, free throws, lay-up and spot shot showed weak to moderate reliability (ICC = 0.26-0.67). Most tests showed moderate to good validity (r > 0.60). The results suggest that wheelchair basketball field tests are reliable and valid with the exception of the shooting and passing items, which should be interpreted carefully. PMID:22489567

  6. Driver Model of a Powered Wheelchair Operation as a Tool of Theoretical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takuma; Inoue, Takenobu; Shino, Motoki; Kamata, Minoru

    This paper describes the construction of a driver model of a powered wheelchair operation for the understanding of the characteristics of the driver. The main targets of existing researches about driver models are the operation of the automobiles and motorcycles, not a low-speed vehicle such as powered wheelchairs. Therefore, we started by verifying the possibility of modeling the turning operation at a corner of a corridor. At first, we conducted an experiment on a daily powered wheelchair user by using his vehicle. High reproducibility of driving and the driving characteristics for the construction of a driver model were both confirmed from the result of the experiment. Next, experiments with driving simulators were conducted for the collection of quantitative driving data. The parameters of the proposed driver model were identified from experimental results. From the simulations with the proposed driver model and identified parameters, the characteristics of the proposed driver model were analyzed.

  7. Assessment of spatial attention and neglect with a virtual wheelchair navigation task.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Laurel J; Palermo, Mary Ann; Mastrogiovanni, Dina; Read, Mary Schmidt; Rosenberg-Pitonyak, Ellen; Rizzo, Albert A; Coslett, H Branch

    2008-08-01

    A total of 9 participants with right-hemisphere stroke performed a new virtual reality (VR) wheelchair navigation test of lateralized spatial attention and neglect. The test consists of a virtual path along which participants navigate (or are navigated) as they name virtual objects encountered. There are 4 VR conditions, obtained by crossing the factors array complexity and driver. Participants performed the VR task, a real-life wheelchair navigation task, and a battery of attention and neglect tests. The VR test showed sensitivity to both array complexity and driver, exhibited strong correlations with the wheelchair navigation test, and detected lateralized attention deficits in mild patients. The VR task thus shows promise as a sensitive, efficient measure of real-life navigation. PMID:18608643

  8. Social representations of the wheelchair for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Costa, Viviane de Souza Pinho; Melo, Marcia Regina Antonietto Costa; Garanhani, Mara Lúcia; Fujisawa, Dirce Shizuko

    2010-01-01

    In seeking to understand the social representation of the use of the wheelchair through the analysis of interviews with ten people who have suffered spinal cord injury, the construction of five representations was elaborated. The phenomenon experienced regarding the wheelchair provided a route of meanings and symbologies: essential equipment, after the person perceive the inability to walk; a symbol of disability when the person experienced functional dependence; means of locomotion and transport after the rescue of their potential functional; becoming an integral part or all of their body and, finally, the concept of autonomy on four wheels by adjusting to their new ability to walk emerges. The wheelchair as an extension of the modified body for spinal cord injury, returns them the right of locomotion, presents them not only with autonomy for various acts of life, but also restores their dignity, so essential to human life. PMID:20922323

  9. Mechanical design and simulation of two-wheeled wheelchair using solidworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altalmas, T. M.; Ahmad, S.; Aula, A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Sidek, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    This article is presented a new design of two-wheeled wheelchair that can balance on two wheels to make it suitable in the narrow areas, especially in the domestic environments; it has the ability to extend the height of the chair to help the user to act independently in the life for example, in the library to pick and put books on the shelves. The 3D model has been built up using SolidWorks Software. Nowadays, SolidWorks environment is considered as a powerful tool that is helping designer to design products and attain its performance before physical prototype stage. SolidWorks simulation model has been employed to test the frame of the wheelchair under the weight of the human body and the upper part of the wheelchair. The static analysis has been done on the frame using steel and aluminium; however the aluminium material has been selected due to its light weight

  10. An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Breslin, G; Czyż, S H; Pizlo, Z

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p<.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p<.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines. PMID:23981485

  11. Validation of a Biofeedback System for Wheelchair Propulsion Training

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liyun; Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Rodriguez, Russell; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Richter, W. Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and validation of the OptiPush Biofeedback System, a commercially available, instrumented wheel system that records handrim biomechanics and provides stroke-by-stroke biofeedback and targeting for 11 propulsion variables. Testing of the system revealed accurate measurement of wheel angle (0.02% error), wheel speed (0.06% error), and handrim loads. The maximum errors in static force and torque measurements were 3.80% and 2.05%, respectively. Measured forces were also found to be highly linear (0.985 < slope < 1.011) and highly correlated to the reference forces (r2 > .998). Dynamic measurements of planar forces (Fx and Fy) and axle torque also had low error (−0.96 N to 0.83 N for force and 0.10 Nm to 0.14 Nm for torque) and were highly correlated (r > .986) with expected force and torque values. Overall, the OptiPush Biofeedback System provides accurate measurement of wheel dynamics and handrim biomechanics and may be a useful tool for improving manual wheelchair propulsion. PMID:22110977

  12. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system issues in the real world and the virtual world: combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter J; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E

    2007-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that transit providers accommodate passengers who use "common wheelchairs" when traveling in a motor vehicle. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems are commonly used to secure wheelchairs and restrain occupants in fixed-route and demand route transit vehicles. Throughout the 17 years since the Americans with Disabilities Act has been in effect, transit providers have complained about the usability of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems, and improper securement has been linked to injuries among wheelchair users during "nonimpact incidents." This research study explored the use of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems in actual practice and the potential risks of misuse to wheelchair-seated individuals. The qualitative research conducted in this study revealed that improper wheelchair securement (i.e. using less than four tiedown straps) can be fairly common practice in fixed-route transit. In addition, preliminary computer simulations show that improper wheelchair securement in emergency driving conditions may place wheelchair occupants at a greater risk of injury. It should be noted, however, that this is a pilot study and has its limitations. For example, qualitative data were gathered from one metropolitan area transit provider across a limited range of vehicle and wheelchair types. Additionally, the computer simulation model used in this study was originally validated for impact situations. PMID:18335708

  13. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  14. Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling in Wheelchair Racing Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Claudio; Wenger, Martin; Leicht, Christof A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In wheelchair racing, respiratory muscles of the rib cage are concomitantly involved in non-ventilatory functions during wheelchair propulsion. However, the relationship between locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC: the ratio between push and breathing frequency), respiratory parameters and work efficiency is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LRC in wheelchair racers over different race distances. Methods: Eight trained and experienced wheelchair racers completed three time-trials over the distances of 400, 800, and 5000 m on a training roller in randomized order. During the time trials, ventilatory and gas exchange variables as well as push frequency were continuously registered to determine possible LRC strategies. Results: Four different coupling ratios were identified, namely 1:1; 2:1, 3:1 as well as a 1:1/2:1 alternating type, respectively. The 2:1 coupling was the most dominant type. The 1:1/2:1 alternating coupling type was found predominantly during the 400 m time-trial. Longer race distances tended to result in an increased coupling ratio (e.g., from 1:1 toward 2:1), and an increase in coupling ratio toward a more efficient respiration was found over the 5000 m distance. A significant correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.05) between respiratory frequency and the respiratory equivalent for oxygen was found for the 400 m and the 800 m time-trials. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a higher coupling ratio indicates enhanced breathing work efficiency with a concomitant deeper and slower respiration during wheelchair racing. Thus, the selection of an appropriate LRC strategy may help to optimize wheelchair racing performance. PMID:26858655

  15. Rim seal experiments and analysis for turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, W. A.; Johnson, B. V.; Graber, D. J.; Martin, R. J.

    1990-06-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the sealing effectiveness and the aerodynamic characteristics of four rim seal models for a number of flow conditions. The experiments were conducted to obtain an extended data base for advanced turbine rim seal design. The class of rim seals investigated are those found on the downstream side of the rotor where the boundary layer on the disk is pumped directly into the seal gap. The results of this investigation indicate that decreasing the radial gap of the seal produces a better improvement in seal effectiveness than increasing the axial overlap of the seal, that seal effectiveness increases only modestly as the swirl across the top of the seal decreases, and that the trace gas technique employed to determine seal effectiveness is an accurate alternative to pressure measurement or flow visualization techniques used by other investigators.

  16. Accretionary rims on inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Hashimoto, A.; Grossman, L.

    1985-01-01

    The origin and composition of the rim sequence on the refractory inclusion in the Allende meteorite are studied. The different textures, mineralogy, and mineral-chemistry of the four layers of the rim are described. The layers are composed of: pyroxene, needles, olivine, hedenbergite, and andradite. Tables of the element and chemical compositions of the layers are presented. The data reveals that: (1) the layers are highly porous masses of euhedral crystals with no intergrowth; (2) layers contain highly disequilibrium mineral assemblages; and (3) the thickness of the layers varies with the underlying topography. These results support the theory that rim structures are accretionary aggregates formed from accretion of independently grown particles onto the surface of inclusions. The formation of the grains in the layers and matrix from nebular condensates is studied.

  17. Observations of neutral carbon in the NGC 1977 bright rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wootten, A.; Phillips, T. G.; Beichman, C. A.; Frerking, M.

    1982-01-01

    Strong neutral carbon emission at 610 microns (492 GHz) has been detected from a bright-rimmed cloud abutting the H II region NGC 1977. The similarity of velocity and width between (C-13)O and C I lines suggests that both lines originate in the same region. A model for the density and temperature structure of the cloud, based on (C-13)O and (C-12)O observations, has been used to estimate the carbon abundance. The abundances of both C I and (C-13)O increase with depth into the cloud away from the rim. The carbon abundance reaches its peak value nearer the rim than does the (C-13)O abundance. This variation in the relative abundance distributions of CO and C I confirms the importance of photodissociation in the chemistry of molecular clouds, and of the C I line to studies of the interaction of hot stars with clouds.

  18. Accretionary rims on inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Hashimoto, A.; Grossman, L.

    1985-11-01

    The origin and composition of the rim sequence on the refractory inclusion in the Allende meteorite are studied. The different textures, mineralogy, and mineral-chemistry of the four layers of the rim are described. The layers are composed of: pyroxene, needles, olivine, hedenbergite, and andradite. Tables of the element and chemical compositions of the layers are presented. The data reveals that: (1) the layers are highly porous masses of euhedral crystals with no intergrowth; (2) layers contain highly disequilibrium mineral assemblages; and (3) the thickness of the layers varies with the underlying topography. These results support the theory that rim structures are accretionary aggregates formed from accretion of independently grown particles onto the surface of inclusions. The formation of the grains in the layers and matrix from nebular condensates is studied.

  19. Evidence-Based Strategies for Preserving Mobility for Elderly and Aging Manual Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Philip S.; Furumasu, Jan; Mulroy, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly and aging manual wheelchair (MWC) users have increased risk for accelerated loss of function and mobility that greatly limits independence and affects quality of life. This review paper addresses important issues for preserving function and mobility for elderly and aging individuals who use a MWC by presenting the current available evidence and recommendations. These include recommendations for maximizing function, by decreasing pain, improving the ability to self-propel, and prolonging mobility and endurance through ergonomics, individualized wheelchair selection and configuration, and adaptations for increasing the capacity to handle the daily mobility demands through training, strengthening, and exercise. Each recommendation is supported by current research in each relevant area. PMID:26366040

  20. Medicare program; payment for customized wheelchairs--HCFA. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    1991-12-20

    Section 4152(c)(4)(B) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-508) amended section 1834(a)(4) of the Social Security Act to provide that a wheelchair furnished on or after January 1, 1992 is treated as a customized item for payment purposes under part B of Medicare if it meets the definition provided in that paragraph, unless the Secretary develops specific criteria before January 1, 1992, in which case the Secretary's criteria go into effect. This interim final rule with comment period sets forth the Secretary's criteria that a wheelchair must meet to be considered a customized item. PMID:10116069

  1. Clapping wet hands: dynamics of a fluid curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Brian; Slama, Brice; Goodnight, Randall; Gart, Sean; Jung, Sunghwan

    2013-03-01

    Droplets splash around when a fluid volume is quickly compressed. This has been observed during common activities such as kids clapping with wet hands. The underlying mechanism involves a resting fluid volume being compressed vertically between two objects. This compression causes the fluid volume to be ejected radially, thereby generating fluid ligaments and droplets at a high speed. In this study, we designed and performed experiments to observe the process of ligament and drop formation while a fluid is squeezed. A thicker rim at the outer edge forms and moves after the squeezing, and then becomes unstable and breaks into smaller drops. We compared experimental measurements with theoretical models over three different stages; early squeezing, intermediate ejection, and later break-up of the fluid. We found that drop spacing set by the initial capillary instability does not change in the course of rim expansion; consequently final ejected droplets are very sparse compared to the size of the rim.

  2. Geothermal development in the Pacific rim. Transactions, Volume 20

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document entitled Geothermal Development in the Pacific Rim contains the Transactions, Volume 20 of the Geothermal Resources Council, 1996 Annual Meeting. Topics of the presentations include: Air quality assessment and mitigation, District heating and other direct-uses of geothermal energy, Environmental permitting in the Pacific Rim, Geothermal exploration strategies, tools and techniques, and Focus of IEA Geothermal programs. Geothermal resources and resource development in the USA, Indonesia, Mexico, Japan, and the Philippines are highlighted. Also included is a section on Geothermal power plant design, construction, and operation, and Geothermal reservoir assessment, the key to international financing.

  3. Stability of a Wheel with Various Radius Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugasa, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Koji

    This paper describes the dynamics and impact model of a wheel with various radius rim. The dynamics is expressed by a rst order linear ordinary dierential equation with respect to the absolute orientation of the wheel, and an analytic solution is derived. Poincaré map is also derived analytically. Stability and basin of attraction (BoA) of the Poincaré map are discussed. Finally, the analysis is validated through some numerical simulations. As a result, the rim radius aects the stability and broadens its BoA. The analysis helps understanding of not only a geometric tracking control but also many underactuated control methods for bipeds.

  4. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  5. Development of intelligent model to determine favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Jones, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques have found widespread applications in bioinformatics. Such techniques provide invaluable insight on understanding the complex biomedical mechanisms and predicting the optimal individualized intervention for patients. In our case, we are particularly interested in developing an individualized clinical guideline on wheelchair tilt and recline usage for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current clinical practice suggests uniform settings to all patients. However, our previous study revealed that the response of skin blood flow to wheelchair tilt and recline settings varied largely among patients. Our finding suggests that an individualized setting is needed for people with SCI to maximally utilize the residual neurological function to reduce pressure ulcer risk. In order to achieve this goal, we intend to develop an intelligent model to determine the favorable wheelchair usage to reduce pressure ulcers risk for wheelchair users with SCI. In this study, we use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to construct an intelligent model that can predict whether a given tilt and recline setting will be favorable to people with SCI based on neurological functions and SCI injury history. Our results indicate that the intelligent model significantly outperforms the traditional statistical approach in accurately classifying favorable wheelchair tilt and recline settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using intelligent models to predict the favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles. Our methods demonstrate the feasibility of using ANN to develop individualized wheelchair tilt and recline guidance for people with SCI. PMID:22254738

  6. The effect of water on bimineralic reaction rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachim, B.; Gardés, E.; Abart, R.; Heinrich, W.

    2011-12-01

    At 900°C and 1.2 GPa monticellite (CaMgSiO4) and wollastonite (CaSiO3) react to form a bimineralic reaction rim of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) and merwinite (Ca3MgSi2O8) according to the reaction: 1 monticellite + 1 wollastonite = 0.5 merwinite + 0.5 diopside Experiments were performed in a piston cylinder apparatus. Dry Al2O3, and natural, water-containing CaF2 were used as pressure media. After runs using CaF2 as pressure medium, IR-spectra of a periclase crystal, which was also loaded into the Pt-capsule, show peaks that may safely be related to OH-defects in the MgO-structure. This indicates that water, stemming from the natural CaF2 diffused into the capsule during the course of the experiment. The amount of water in the capsule increased with increasing run duration. Absence of reaction products in completely dry charges implies that presence of small amounts of water is required to promote nucleation and growth. In wet charges, time series revealed that overall rim growth is parabolic, indicating diffusion control. Textural arguments indicate that the original interface is always located in the center of the rim. This and mass balance considerations let us conclude that overall rim growth is solely controlled by MgO-diffusion. The effective bulk diffusion DMgO is calculated to 10-16.3 +/- 0.2 m2s-1. Further water uptake during the course of the experiment does not affect MgO-diffusivity. During the first stage of rim growth, the reaction products form a lamellar microstructure with alternating, pallisade shaped merwinite and diopside crystals, whereby the long axes of the grains are oriented normal to the original monticellite-wollastonite interface (lamellar type). At longer run durations, diopside and merwinite start to segregate into monomineralic layers with diopside accumulating in the center and merwinite at both sides of the reaction rim (multilayer type). After a run duration of 65 h segregation is almost complete and a triple layer rim forms showing the

  7. External And Internal Work Of A T-6 Paraplegic Propelling A Wheelchair And Arm Cranking A Cycle Ergometer: Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Charles W.

    1982-02-01

    In this, the International Year of the Disabled, attention is directed among other areas toward rehabilitation and sports participation of wheelchair users. As an application of movement analysis in medicine and rehabilitation and as an application of sports research using biomechanics, this investigation was performed to compare the results of two methods of gathering data on the stress of wheelchair propelling at equivalent work loads and to account for differences in physiological responses with a mechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling. Physiological data collected were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product. A biomechanical cinematography analysis was used to determine external work in wheelchair propelling and to determine the extent to which modifications in segment actionsoccurred during increasing magnitude of work. A cycle ergometer was adjusted to replicate external work loads performed during wheelchair propelling. A t-test of equivalent external work loads indicated that heart rate was not different between the two exercise modes at the .05 level of significance. The t-test did indicate a significant difference in systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product at the .05 level of significance. The biomechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling established that an increase in external work was accomplished by a decrease in the range of motion and an increase in the speed of movement. During cycle ergometry the range and speed of movement remained the same while resistance was increased. Results of the study established that while heart rate for equivalent external work loads was the same for wheelchair propelling and arm cranking cycle ergometry, systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product were not the same. The suggestion was that some means of propelling a wheelchair other than that which is con-sidered "standard" might be considered which produces less stressful responses in wheelchair users.

  8. Cycling Wheelchair Provides Enjoyable Pedaling Exercises with Increased Physiological Indexes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yuya; Misu, Shogo; Sawa, Ryuichi; Nakatsu, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kazuya; Takamori, Kumi; Ono, Kumiko; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Yasunobu; Ono, Rei

    2016-01-01

    The cycling wheelchair (CWC) can be used as a pedaling exercise machine. However, physiological indexes in the CWC at various pedaling rates and the difference between the CWC and the existing pedaling machines such as the portable ergometer (ERG) are unclear. The aim of this study was to measure physiological indexes in the CWC at various pedaling rates and compare the CWC to the ERG, focusing on psychological stress. The present non-randomized crossover study included ten healthy men (22.3 ± 1.2 years) who performed pedaling exercise with the CWC and the ERG. Both experiments were composed of three pedaling exercise sessions (40, 60, and 80 rpm). Physiological indexes, consisting of oxygen consumption, heart rate, perceived breathlessness and leg fatigue, and salivary amylase activity (SAA), an index of psychological stress, were measured. The metabolic equivalent (METs) and the rate of change in SAA from rest to immediately after each pedaling session (ΔSAA) were calculated. In the CWC, all physiological indexes significantly increased with pedaling rates. The METs were 2.2 ± 0.3, 2.7 ± 0.4, and 3.5 ± 0.4 at 40, 60, and 80 rpm, respectively. In comparison between the CWC and the ERG, ΔSAA was lower in the CWC than in the ERG at 60 and 80 rpm. Our results indicate that the CWC pedaling can provide low or moderate intensity exercises with adjusting pedaling rates and is less stressful than the ERG. Thus, the CWC is a useful pedaling machine to promote regular and enjoyable exercises. PMID:26672774

  9. Special Education Policies and Practices in the Pacific Rim Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, David R.

    This paper examines both the emerging consensus among Pacific Rim countries, especially East and Southeast Asian countries, as to current and future directions of special education and the many differences among these countries in economics, cultural perspectives on disability, concepts of education, and administrative structures. The paper…

  10. 7. View down between paddlehweel rims from inside paddlweheel box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View down between paddlehweel rims from inside paddlweheel box off main deck. Eccentric center for Mason feathering mechanism is mounted on rub rail at left, housing for paddlewheel shaft bearing is shown at right. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  11. Discoid lateral meniscus: prevalence of peripheral rim instability.

    PubMed

    Klingele, Kevin E; Kocher, Mininder S; Hresko, M Timothy; Gerbino, Peter; Micheli, Lyle J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of peripheral rim instability in discoid lateral meniscus. A consecutive series of 112 patients (128 knees) (mean age 10.0 years [range 1 month to 22 years]) who underwent arthroscopic evaluation and treatment of a discoid lateral meniscus between 1993 and 2001 was reviewed. Of those discoid menisci classified intraoperatively (n = 87), 62.1% (n = 54) were complete discoid lateral menisci and 37.9% (n = 33) were incomplete discoid lateral menisci. An associated meniscal tear was present in 69.5% (n = 89) of all knees studied. Overall, 28.1% (n = 36) of discoid lateral menisci had peripheral rim instability: 47.2% (n = 17) were unstable at the anterior-third peripheral attachment, 11.1% (n = 4) at the middle-third peripheral attachment, and 38.9% (n = 14) at the posterior-third peripheral attachment. Thirty-one of the 36 unstable discoid menisci underwent repair of the peripheral meniscal rim attachment. One patient underwent a complete, open meniscectomy. Peripheral rim instability was significantly more common in complete discoid lateral menisci (38.9% vs. 18.2%; P = 0.043) and in younger patients (8.2 vs. 10.7 years; P = 0.002). The frequency of peripheral instability mandates a thorough assessment of meniscal stability at all peripheral attachments during the arthroscopic evaluation and treatment of discoid lateral meniscus, particularly in complete variants and in younger children. PMID:14676539

  12. Child-Centered Education for Pacific-Rim Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    Argues for a cautious approach to transplanting theory from one culture to another, particularly considering the case for applying Friedrich Froebel's child-centered theory to early childhood education in Pacific Rim cultures. Uses a historical approach to distinguish three distinct versions of the theory, the Christian, the Progressive, and the…

  13. Asia and the Pacific Rim in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database dealing with Asia and the Pacific Rim. Urges the inclusion of these countries in the curriculum as exchange of peoples, goods, and cultures increases. Emphasizes the growing importance of the region as a global force. Includes articles and books on culture, economies, and cultural exchange…

  14. The Pacific Rim: An Annotated Bibliography for Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumamoto, Bob

    1992-01-01

    Lists a selection of books about the Pacific Rim area for social studies teachers who wish to add to their knowledge of the area. Includes selections on Japan, China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Describes and gives a brief critique of each book. (DK)

  15. The Pacific Rim: A Growing Force in the Global Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of the expanding academic systems of Pacific Rim countries and their nexus of relationships with the United States suggests the U.S. will have the opportunity to participate in the development of education in these increasingly self-confident and sophisticated countries, where the climate for higher education should remain very…

  16. Children's and Adolescent Literature from the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Lisa A.; Richardson, Maurine

    Noting that literature written for children and adolescents can help students gain an understanding of the Pacific Rim area and its people, this paper presents advice on selecting appropriate literature, a children's literature bibliography, and an adolescent literature bibliography. The paper notes that to select appropriate literature, a teacher…

  17. Parent to Parent Peer Support across the Pacific Rim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Hornby, Garry; Park, Jiyeon; Wang, Mian; Xu, Jiacheng

    2012-01-01

    In Pacific Rim countries parents of children with developmental disabilities have organized peer support organizations. One form of peer support is Parent to Parent based on one to one connections between two parents. The movements to create and sustain peer support in the U.S., New Zealand, China, and Korea are described. Qualitative evidence…

  18. Pacific Rim Cultures in the Classroom. Multicultural Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, A. Barretto, Ed.; Magnusson, Elaine, Ed.

    Seventeen instructional units on Asian and Pacific culture, society, and economic life are provided in this handbook, the result of a workshop entitled "Pacific Rim Cultures in the Classroom." Most of the lessons include suggestions for classroom activities, quizzes, and supplementary reading matter. The instructional units are organized according…

  19. What's Going on Over There: A Pacific Rim Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.

    Horace Greeley was historically correct when he admonished the early pioneers to "Go West!" While historically insightful he was geographically limited. The West now extends beyond the borders and across the vast Pacific Ocean to the entire Pacific Rim. Characteristically, these countries are growing economically, politically, and socially with…

  20. Design and performance of a rim-type chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Bradley D.; Frankl, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    We analyze a ``rim-type'' chopper. The pulse duration can be varied at a fixed pulse repetition rate by changing the chopper-to-beam offset distance. Overall performance is discussed in terms of the transmission function, pulse length, and velocity-selection properties.

  1. Association Between Self-efficacy and Participation in Community-Dwelling Manual Wheelchair Users Aged 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Routhier, François; Backman, Catherine L.; Eng, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy with using a wheelchair is an emerging construct in the wheelchair-use literature that may have implications for the participation frequency in social and personal roles of wheelchair users. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and mediated effects of self-efficacy on participation frequency in community-dwelling manual wheelchair users aged 50 years or older. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Participants were community-dwelling wheelchair users (N=124), 50 years of age or older (mean=59.7 years), with at least 6 months of experience with wheelchair use. The Late-Life Disability Instrument, the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale, the Life-Space Assessment, and the Wheelchair Skills Test–Questionnaire Version measured participation frequency, self-efficacy, life-space mobility, and wheelchair skills, respectively. Multiple regression analyses with bootstrapping were used to investigate the direct and mediated effects. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used to guide the analyses. Results Self-efficacy was a statistically significant determinant of participation frequency and accounted for 17.2% of the participation variance after controlling for age, number of comorbidities, and social support. The total mediating effect by life-space mobility, wheelchair skills, and perceived participation limitations was statistically significant (point estimate=0.14; bootstrapped 95% confidence interval=0.04, 0.24); however, the specific indirect effect by the wheelchair skills variable did not contribute to the total effect above and beyond the other 2 mediators. The mediated model accounted for 55.0% of the participation variance. Limitations Causality cannot be established due to the cross-sectional nature of the data, and the self-report nature of our data from a volunteer sample may be influenced by measurement bias or social desirability, or both. Conclusion Self

  2. Influence of Slip on the Rayleigh-Plateau Rim Instability in Dewetting Viscous Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäumchen, Oliver; Marquant, Ludovic; Blossey, Ralf; Münch, Andreas; Wagner, Barbara; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-07-01

    A dewetting viscous film develops a characteristic fluid rim at its receding edge due to mass conservation. In the course of the dewetting process, the rim becomes unstable via an instability of Rayleigh-Plateau type. An important difference exists between this classic instability of a liquid column and the rim instability in a thin film as the growth of the rim is continuously fueled by the receding film. We explain how the development and macroscopic morphology of the rim instability are controlled by the slip of the film on the substrate. A single thin-film model captures quantitatively the characteristics of the complete evolution of the rim observed in the experiments.

  3. Getting Down to Business: Wheelchair Transportation Service, Module 15. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolman, Jean

    This module on owning and operating a wheelchair transportation service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning…

  4. A depressurization assistance control based on the posture of a seated patient on a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Chugo, Daisuke; Fujita, Kazuya; Sakaida, Yuki; Yokota, Sho; Takase, Kunikatsu

    2011-01-01

    For reducing the risk of pressure sore caused by long period sitting on a wheelchair, we develop a depressurization motion assistance system which is low cost and suitable for practical use. Our developing system consists of a seating cushion which the patient sits on and four air cells which can lift or incline the seating cushion. Each air cell is actuated by small air compressor, which can drive using batteries on the wheelchair respectively, and each compressor has a pressure sensor on its body. In this paper, our key ideas are two topics. One topic is mechanical design for practical use. We realize thin mechanism which enables easy implementation to the general wheelchair. For realizing this thinly design, we develop the tilt mechanism using elasticity of acrylic resin and the controller which uses only pressure sensors for estimating its lifting height and inclination. The other topic is assistance control scheme based on the patient's depressurization operation for increasing a rehabilitation performance. For realizing the proposed control scheme, we analyze the hip depressurization operation by the nursing specialists and use its results for estimating the patient's condition. Using our system, the patient can depressurize by his own will on the general wheelchair easily. The performance of our system is verified by experiments using our prototype. PMID:22275566

  5. Effects of modified multistage field test on performance and physiological responses in wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Berthoin, Serge; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT) and the modified condition in "8 form" (MFT-8). Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score), peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VEpeak), heart rate (HRpeak), peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact(-)] = peak--rest values), and the perceived rating exertion (RPE) were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L · min(-1) and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L · min(-1); P < 0.05) with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P < 0.05). At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition. PMID:25802841

  6. Characteristics of upper limb muscular strength in male wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (P< 0.001), and IR in both sides and BR in ES were maintained within normal range whereas BR in FS was lower than normal range in shoulder joint. In elbow joint FS was significantly higher than ES (P< 0.05), and IR and BR were lower than normal range. Consequently, the different tendency in IR between shoulder and elbow joints and lower IR and BR in elbow joints could be the characteristics in male wheelchair tennis players. It is suggested that flexor strengthening program in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24278887

  7. Perspectives on Physical Activity Among People with Multiple Sclerosis Who Are Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Rice, Ian M.; Ostler, Teresa; Rice, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with advanced multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than those with milder forms of the disease, and wheelchair use has a negative association with physical activity participation. Thus, wheelchair users with MS are doubly disadvantaged for accruing the benefits of physical activity and exercise. Appropriate physical activity and exercise interventions are needed for this population. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study to explore the meanings, motivations, and outcomes of physical activity in wheelchair users with MS. We sought to understand daily opportunities to accumulate physical activity and exercise, and to identify perceived barriers, facilitators, and benefits that might inform the design of future interventions. Results: We interviewed 15 wheelchair users (mean age, 52 ± 8.8 years; n = 12 women). Data were transcribed and analyzed to identify and explore common themes. Our first theme was the reduced opportunity to participate in physical activity due to participants' dependence on mobility devices, environmental adaptations, and tangible support. Our second theme was the importance of incorporating physical activity and exercise into the everyday environment, highlighting the need for adaptive exercise and accessible environments. This indicated the need to incorporate behavior change modulators into physical activity and exercise interventions for those with advanced MS. Health-care professionals played an important role in promoting increased physical activity and exercise participation in those with advanced MS. Conclusions: Our findings may inform future interventions to increase initiation and maintenance of physical activity and exercise among people with advanced MS. PMID:26052256

  8. Health Occupations--Nursing Assistant, Wheelchair. Kit No. 58. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Annie T.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the nursing assistant--assisting patients in using the wheelchair are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven…

  9. Enhancement of a Virtual Reality Wheelchair Simulator to Include Qualitative and Quantitative Performance Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. S.; Grant, P. M.; Conway, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing importance of inclusive design and in particular accessibility guidelines established in the U.K. 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) has been a prime motivation for the work on wheelchair access, a subset of the DDA guidelines, described in this article. The development of these guidelines mirrors the long-standing provisions…

  10. Attendant Care for College Students with Physical Disabilities Using Wheelchairs: Transition Issues and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Nequel R.; Wessel, Roger D.; Mulvihill, Thalia

    2015-01-01

    From preschool through high school, accommodation and success, rather than self-advocacy and student development, are the predominant frameworks for students with physical disabilities. Many students with physical disabilities who use wheelchairs are assisted by their family members with daily life activities such as getting out of bed, showering,…

  11. Pre-Enrollment Considerations of Undergraduate Wheelchair Users and Their Post-Enrollment Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Roger D.; Jones, Darolyn; Blanch, Christina L.; Markle, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pre-enrollment considerations of undergraduate wheelchair users (i.e., the decision to attend college, college selection factors) and their post-enrollment transitions (i.e., adjustments from high school to college, academic and social integration). Qualitative ethnographic research methodology was used…

  12. 49 CFR 37.91 - Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but in no event later than July 26, 1995, each person providing intercity rail service shall provide... in the train. (b) As soon as practicable, but in no event later than July 26, 2000, each person... spaces to fold and store wheelchairs in any one coach or food service car. (d) Unless not practicable,...

  13. 49 CFR 37.91 - Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but in no event later than July 26, 1995, each person providing intercity rail service shall provide... in the train. (b) As soon as practicable, but in no event later than July 26, 2000, each person... spaces to fold and store wheelchairs in any one coach or food service car. (d) Unless not practicable,...

  14. 49 CFR 37.91 - Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., but in no event later than July 26, 1995, each person providing intercity rail service shall provide... in the train. (b) As soon as practicable, but in no event later than July 26, 2000, each person... spaces to fold and store wheelchairs in any one coach or food service car. (d) Unless not practicable,...

  15. 14 CFR 382.65 - What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs? 382.65 Section 382.65 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft §...

  16. Advice and Hints in Training the Mentally Handicapped to Drive Electric Wheelchairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birath, Gunnar

    The booklet is intended to help train people with mild mental retardation to drive electric wheelchairs. The systematic training incorporates features of adequate time, stress upon generalization, and a relaxed and secure environment. Lessons are presented on the following skill areas: preparation, starting and stopping, driving straight ahead,…

  17. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Berthoin, Serge; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT) and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8). Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score), peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak), minute ventilation (VEpeak), heart rate (HRpeak), peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values), and the perceived rating exertion (RPE) were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P < 0.05) with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P < 0.05). At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition. PMID:25802841

  18. Peering into a Crystal Ball: What's the Future for Wheelchair-Seated Travel?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Hobson, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Over the past year, a team of transportation engineers, product designers, and therapists has been writing a series of articles about wheelchair transportation safety in partnership with "EP." These experts understand the importance of transportation for social inclusion, maintaining health, and being able to get to school and work. Previous…

  19. 78 FR 35173 - Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    .... II. Regulatory History of the Device On August 28, 1979 (44 FR 50497), FDA published a document... proposed rule. On November 23, 1983 (48 FR 53032), FDA published a document classifying stair-climbing wheelchairs as class III devices. On May 11, 1987 (52 FR 17732 at 17741), FDA published a document...

  20. Communicating in and through "Murderball": Masculinity and Disability in Wheelchair Rugby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Kurt; Cherney, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates communicative practices surrounding wheelchair rugby, a growing sport played worldwide by people with quadriplegia. Researchers have studied extensively the practice of using sport for rehabilitation, but the role of communication in this process has been overlooked. We argue that participating in this sport is itself a…

  1. An electric wheelchair mounted robotic arm--a survey of potential users.

    PubMed

    Prior, S D

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a survey which investigated and evaluated the needs and abilities of electric wheelchair users. The results of this survey will be used to develop a low-cost electric wheelchair-mounted robotic arm for use by physically disabled people to facilitate rehabilitation. The survey was undertaken by the author together with staff and students from occupational therapist training colleges, using a four-page questionnaire containing over 110 questions. The questionnaire was developed by the author together with Dr Robin Platts (Director of Orthotics), Mr Ian Bayley (Director of the London Spinal Unit) and senior occupational therapists at the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex. After a successful trial the questionnaire was used with 50 severely disabled people from various backgrounds and social circumstances. The results of this survey show that the average electric wheelchair user is 40 years old, single (68%), living at home (58%) with family support (69%) and without any paid employment (79%). The most prevalent disability is spinal cord injury (24%) followed by multiple sclerosis (16%). The survey has identified several tasks which electric wheelchair users find impossible to do, and some of these will form part of the design specification. Finally 84% of the survey subjects would consider buying such a robotic aid. PMID:2398486

  2. RESNA Position on the Application of Power Wheelchairs for Pediatric Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lauren; Arva, Julianna; Furumasu, Jan; Harris, Michele; Lange, Michelle L.; McCarthy, Elisabeth; Kermoian, Rosanne; Pinkerton, Heather; Plummer, Teresa; Roos, Jodi; Sabet, Andrina; Vander Schaaf, Paula; Wonsettler, Terri

    2009-01-01

    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in March 2007, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of power wheelchairs for children. It is RESNA's position that age, limited vision or cognition,…

  3. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wilderness? 6302.17 Section 6302.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the...

  4. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wilderness? 6302.17 Section 6302.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the...

  5. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wilderness? 6302.17 Section 6302.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the...

  6. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wilderness? 6302.17 Section 6302.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the...

  7. Evaluating gaze-driven power wheelchair with navigation support for persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wästlund, Erik; Sponseller, Kay; Pettersson, Ola; Bared, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel add-on for powered wheelchairs that is composed of a gaze-driven control system and a navigation support system. The add-on was tested by three users. All of the users were individuals with severe disabilities and no possibility of moving independently. The system is an add-on to a standard power wheelchair and can be customized for different levels of support according to the cognitive level, motor control, perceptual skills, and specific needs of the user. The primary aim of this study was to test the functionality and safety of the system in the user's home environment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether access to a gaze-driven powered wheelchair with navigation support is perceived as meaningful in terms of independence and participation. The results show that the system has the potential to provide safe, independent indoor mobility and that the users perceive doing so as fun, meaningful, and a way to reduce dependency on others. Independent mobility has numerous benefits in addition to psychological and emotional well-being. By observing users' actions, caregivers and healthcare professionals can assess the individual's capabilities, which was not previously possible. Rehabilitation can be better adapted to the individual's specific needs, and driving a wheelchair independently can be a valuable, motivating training tool. PMID:26744901

  8. Comparison of wheelchair wheels in terms of vibration and spasticity in people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sigrid N W; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Messenberg, Allon; Cripton, Peter A; Hughes, Barbara; Sawatzky, Bonita J

    2008-01-01

    A wheelchair undergoes vibrations while traveling over obstacles and uneven surfaces, resulting in whole body vibration of the person sitting in the wheelchair. According to clinicians, people with spinal cord injury (SCI) report that vibration evokes spasticity. The relatively new Spinergy wheelchair wheels (Spinergy, Inc; San Diego, California) are claimed to absorb more road shock then conventional steel-spoked wheelchair wheels. If this claim is true, this wheel might also reduce spasticity in people with SCI. We hypothesized that Spinergy wheels would absorb vibration, reduce perceived spasticity, and improve comfort in individuals with SCI more than standard steel-spoked wheels. To test this hypothesis, 22 nondisabled subjects performed a passive ramp test so that we could more closely examine the dampening characteristics of the Spinergy versus traditional wheels. Furthermore, 13 subjects with SCI performed an obstacle test with both wheel types. Vibrations were measured with accelerometers, and spasticity and comfort were assessed with subject-reported visual analog scales. The results of the study showed that, within the current experimental setup, the Spinergy wheels neither reduced vibration or perceived spasticity nor improved comfort in people with SCI more than the conventional steel-spoked wheels. PMID:19319752

  9. Using Wheelchair Sports to Complement Disability Awareness Curriculum among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Neil R.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.; Smith, Kevin M.; Barney, Keith W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a campus-wide intramural wheelchair sports program on attitudes toward people with disabilities. The sample consisted of 126 participants at a large, western university. A quasi-experimental pre-post design was used. Results indicated that there was a significant decrease in discomfort in…

  10. Case Study: Effect of Handrim Diameter on Performance in a Paralympic Wheelchair Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Gabriel Brizuela; Rubio, Miguel Polo; Belloch, Salvador Llana; Soriano, Pedro Perez

    2009-01-01

    This study, with a top T-52 class athlete, determines the relationship between stroke frequency (SF) and push time (PT) and wheelchair velocity (Wv) using different handrim diameters (HD) and the effect of different HDs on the athlete's heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LACT) at competition speeds. Wv shows a linear-direct relationship with SF…

  11. A Fully Wheelchair Accessible Telescope for the Frank N. Bash Visitors Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianciolo, F.; Wren, W.; Jones, M.; Dubberly, M.

    2008-06-01

    We present the design and description of a telescope that is fully wheelchair accessible. It is to be installed at the the McDonald Observatory Visitor Center and will service the needs of the general public at star parties and other night-time observing functions.

  12. The Relationship between Wheelchair Mobility Patterns and Community Participation among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rory A.; Ferretti, Eliana; Oyster, Michelle; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rosemarie

    2011-01-01

    Participation is considered the most meaningful outcome of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were correlations between wheelchair activity recorded with a data logger and community participation as measured by the Participation Survey/Mobility. Data from 16 participants were included in this study. Data…

  13. Shoulder Pain in Cases of Spinal Injury: Influence of the Position of the Wheelchair Seat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giner-Pascual, Manuel; Alcanyis-Alberola, Modesto; Millan Gonzalez, Luis; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Marta; Querol, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between shoulder pain and the position of the seat of a wheelchair relative to the ground and to determine the relationship between shoulder pain and structural damage. A transversal study of a patient cohort of 140 patients with grade A and B spinal cord injuries below the T1 vertebra,…

  14. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  15. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or hand cream. This article is for information only. DO ... These ingredients in hand lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols

  16. Physiographic rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Hampton, Haydee M.

    1999-01-01

    This Open-File report is a digital physiographic map database. This pamphlet serves to introduce and describe the digital data. There is no paper map included in the Open-File report. The report does include, however, PostScript and PDF format plot files, each containing an image of the map. For those interested in a paper plot of information contained in the database or in obtaining the PostScript plot files, please see the section entitled "For Those Who Don't Use Digital Geologic Map Databases" below. This physiographic map of the Grand Canyon is modified from previous versions by Billingsley and Hendricks (1989), and Billingsley and others (1997). The boundary is drawn approximately along the topographic rim of the Grand Canyon and its tributary canyons between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead (shown in red). Several isolated small mesas, buttes, and plateaus are within this area, which overall encompasses about 2,600 square miles. The Grand Canyon lies within the southwestern part of the Colorado Plateaus of northern Arizona between Lees Ferry, Colorado River Mile 0, and Lake Mead, Colorado River Mile 277. The Colorado River is the corridor for raft trips through the Grand Canyon. Limestone rocks of the Kaibab Formation form most of the north and south rims of the Grand Canyon, and a few volcanic rocks form the north rim of parts of the Uinkaret and Shivwits Plateaus. Limestones of the Redwall Limestone and lower Supai Group form the rim of the Hualapai Plateau area, and Limestones of Devonian and Cambrian age form the boundary rim near the mouth of Grand Canyon at the Lake Mead. The natural physiographic boundary of the Grand Canyon is roughly the area a visitor would first view any part of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries.

  17. Relevance of the Pediatric Powered Wheelchair Screening Test for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Furumasu, Jan; Guerette, Paula; Tefft, Donita

    2004-07-01

    In a previous study we developed a cognitive assessment battery called the Pediatric Powered Wheelchair Screening Test (PPWST) to help clinicians determine a young child's readiness to drive a powered wheelchair. The current multicenter study sought to determine: (1) whether the PPWST is appropriate for use in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who use joysticks to drive their wheelchair; (2) whether two additional factors (symbolic representation and coping) would increase the predictive power of the PPWST for this group and for children with orthopedic or neuromuscular disabilities only; and (3) whether the test was appropriate for children with severe motor impairments who use switches to control their wheelchair. Fifty children (27 males, 23 females) between the ages of 21 months and 6 years 11 months participated. Twenty-six children (mean age 4 years 4 months, SD 15 months) had triplegic or tetraplegic CP and 24 children (mean age 27 months, SD 5 months) had orthopedic or neuromuscular disabilities. Sixty-nine per cent of children had some limited form of mobility (such as rolling or scooting) but none was a functional ambulator. Each child was assessed with the PPWST and with measures of symbolic representation and coping. After six wheelchair training sessions, driving ability was scored. The PPWST was found to be predictive of functional driving ability for children with CP who used a joystick to control their wheelchair. Assessment of symbolic representation skills increased the predictive power for this group but not for children with orthopedic or neuromuscular disabilities; coping scores did not increase the predictive power for either group. The PPWST accounted for only 20% of the variance in overall driving skills for switch users, and thus is not yet considered an adequate screening device for this group. The PPWST is designed to help clinicians determine whether a child currently has the specific cognitive skills found to be related

  18. Inter-Individual Differences in the Initial 80 Minutes of Motor Learning of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Lamoth, Claudine J.; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied participants impact the outcome of a low-intensity wheelchair-practice intervention. Over a 12-minute pre-test, 39 participants were split in two groups based on a relative 10% increase in mechanical efficiency. Following the pretest the participants continued one of four different low-intensity wheelchair practice interventions, yet all performed in the same trial-setup with a total 80-minute dose at 1.11 m/s at 0.20 W/kg. Instead of focusing on the effect of the different interventions, we focused on differences in motor learning between participants over the intervention. Twenty-six participants started the pretest with a lower mechanical efficiency and a less optimal propulsion technique, but showed a fast improvement during the first 12 minutes and this effect continued over the 80 minutes of practice. Eventually these initially fast improvers benefitted more from the given practice indicated by a better propulsion technique (like reduced frequency and increased stroke angle) and a higher mechanical efficiency. The initially fast improvers also had a higher intra-individual variability in the pre and posttest, which possibly relates to the increased motor learning of the initially fast improvers. Further exploration of the common characteristics of different types of learners will help to better tailor rehabilitation to the needs of wheelchair-dependent persons and improve our understanding of cyclic motor learning processes. PMID:24586992

  19. Physique and Performance of Young Wheelchair Basketball Players in Relation with Classification

    PubMed Central

    Zancanaro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among physical characteristics, performance, and functional ability classification of younger wheelchair basketball players have been barely investigated to date. The purpose of this work was to assess anthropometry, body composition, and performance in sport-specific field tests in a national sample of Italian younger wheelchair basketball players as well as to evaluate the association of these variables with the players’ functional ability classification and game-related statistics. Several anthropometric measurements were obtained for 52 out of 91 eligible players nationwide. Performance was assessed in seven sport-specific field tests (5m sprint, 20m sprint with ball, suicide, maximal pass, pass for accuracy, spot shot and lay-ups) and game-related statistics (free-throw points scored per match, two- and three-point field-goals scored per match, and their sum). Association between variables, and predictivity was assessed by correlation and regression analysis, respectively. Players were grouped into four Classes of increasing functional ability (A-D). One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s correction for multiple comparisons was used to assess differences between Classes. Sitting height and functional ability Class especially correlated with performance outcomes, but wheelchair basketball experience and skinfolds did not. Game-related statistics and sport-specific field-test scores all showed significant correlation with each other. Upper arm circumference and/or maximal pass and lay-ups test scores were able to explain 42 to 59% of variance in game-related statistics (P<0.001). A clear difference in performance was only found for functional ability Class A and D. Conclusion: In younger wheelchair basketball players, sitting height positively contributes to performance. The maximal pass and lay-ups test should be carefully considered in younger wheelchair basketball training plans. Functional ability Class reflects to a limited extent the actual

  20. Towards an intelligent system for clinical guidance on wheelchair tilt and recline usage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Wiechmann, Paul; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Jones, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We propose to construct an intelligent system for clinical guidance on how to effectively use power wheelchair tilt and recline functions. The motivations fall into the following two aspects. (1) People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are vulnerable to pressure ulcers. SCI can lead to structural and functional changes below the injury level that may predispose individuals to tissue breakdown. As a result, pressure ulcers can significantly affect the quality of life, including pain, infection, altered body image, and even mortality. (2) Clinically, wheelchair power seat function, i.e., tilt and recline, is recommended for relieving sitting-induced pressures. The goal is to increase skin blood flow for the ischemic soft tissues to avoid irreversible damage. Due to variations in the level and completeness of SCI, the effectiveness of using wheelchair tilt and recline to reduce pressure ulcer risks has considerable room for improvement. Our previous study indicated that the blood flow of people with SCI may respond very differently to wheelchair tilt and recline settings. In this study, we propose to use the artificial neural network (ANN) to predict how wheelchair power seat functions affect blood flow response to seating pressure. This is regression learning because the predicted outputs are numerical values. Besides the challenging nature of regression learning, ANN may suffer from the overfitting problem which, when occurring, leads to poor predictive quality (i.e., cannot generalize). We propose using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to train ANN to mitigate the impact of overfitting so that ANN can make correct predictions on both existing and new data. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is promising to improve ANN's predictive quality for new data. PMID:23366964

  1. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite     View ... Image (TIFF)   This visible image of California's Rim Fire was acquired Aug. 23, 2013 by the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  2. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes     View ... - NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes project:  MISR category:  ...

  3. Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society (RESNA) position on the application of wheelchair standing devices: 2013 current state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dicianno, Brad E; Morgan, Amy; Lieberman, Jenny; Rosen, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America Board of Directors on December 23, 2013, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of wheelchair standers. PMID:26910615

  4. The Cryptococcus neoformans Alkaline Response Pathway: Identification of a Novel Rim Pathway Activator

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Kyla S.; O’Meara, Teresa R.; Huda, Naureen; Esher, Shannon K.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rim101/PacC transcription factor acts in a fungal-specific signaling pathway responsible for sensing extracellular pH signals. First characterized in ascomycete fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rim/Pal pathway maintains conserved features among very distantly related fungi, where it coordinates cellular adaptation to alkaline pH signals and micronutrient deprivation. However, it also directs species-specific functions in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans, where it controls surface capsule expression. Moreover, disruption of the Rim pathway central transcription factor, Rim101, results in a strain that causes a hyper-inflammatory response in animal infection models. Using targeted gene deletions, we demonstrate that several genes encoding components of the classical Rim/Pal pathway are present in the C. neoformans genome. Many of these genes are in fact required for Rim101 activation, including members of the ESCRT complex (Vps23 and Snf7), ESCRT-interacting proteins (Rim20 and Rim23), and the predicted Rim13 protease. We demonstrate that in neutral/alkaline pH, Rim23 is recruited to punctate regions on the plasma membrane. This change in Rim23 localization requires upstream ESCRT complex components but does not require other Rim101 proteolysis components, such as Rim20 or Rim13. Using a forward genetics screen, we identified the RRA1 gene encoding a novel membrane protein that is also required for Rim101 protein activation and, like the ESCRT complex, is functionally upstream of Rim23-membrane localization. Homologs of RRA1 are present in other Cryptococcus species as well as other basidiomycetes, but closely related genes are not present in ascomycetes. These findings suggest that major branches of the fungal Kingdom developed different mechanisms to sense and respond to very elemental extracellular signals such as changing pH levels. PMID:25859664

  5. Does a Novel-Developed Product of Wheelchair Incorporating Pelvic Support Prevent Forward Head Posture during Prolonged Sitting?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Disabled elderly individuals with kyphosis or loss of muscle strength often display forward head posture (FHP). This study aimed to determine the utility of a wheelchair incorporating pelvic support in preventing FHP in disabled elderly individuals. In this study, 14 disabled elderly individuals (87.1 ± 8.1 years) were selected. A wheelchair incorporating pelvic support (RX_ABS Lo) and a basic wheelchair (RX-1) were used. Each individual sat on both wheelchairs for 30 minutes. RX_ABS Lo has two belts to support the pelvic and thorax. Postures were recorded in the sagittal plane using a video camera. Cervical and trunk angles from horizontal were measured every 5 minutes. Simultaneously, contact areas and total pressures applied to the wheelchair seats and back supports were measured every 5 minutes. Comparisons of area under the curve values between the wheelchairs were performed using the paired t-test. Comparisons of time-dependent parameters for each wheelchair were performed using repeated one-way ANOVA. Cervical angles were greater when using RX_ABS Lo than RX-1. Although cervical angles were unchanged during 30 minutes when using RX_ABS Lo, the angles were significantly decreased after 30 minutes of using RX-1. Back support pressures and contact areas were greater for RX_ABS Lo than for RX-1. No significant difference in back support pressure distributions was observed during 30 minutes in the wheelchairs. The RX_ABS Lo may have utility in improving FHP by increasing cervical angles and improving stability with a back support to the upper thorax, lower thorax, and pelvis during prolonged sitting. PMID:26581089

  6. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  16. Stability of the Taylor--Culick receding rim: surprising observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    When punctured, a uniform liquid sheet is known, since Taylor and Culick, to recess at a constant speed balancing surface tension and inertia. For planar soap films, this steady solution holds until the initially smooth receding rim is violently destabilized, exhibiting deep indentations from which droplets are ejected. A surprising new three dimensional mechanism explaining this destabilization and resulting wavelength has been evidenced : because of the shear between the still outer medium and the receding liquid, the film flaps through a Kelvin--Helmholtz instability, itself inducing an acceleration perpendicular to the film, which intensifies with the flapping amplitude. To this acceleration is associated a classical Rayleigh--Taylor mechanism, promoting the rim indentations. The same mechanism holds for a punctured round bubble, for which the relevant acceleration is the Culick velocity squared divided by the bubble radius. The bearing of this phenomenon on aerosols formation in Nature will be underlined.

  17. A study on effects of backrest thickness on the upper arm and trunk muscle load during wheelchair propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Hyun; Yoo, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the thickness of a wheelchair backrest provided for support and comfort on upper arm and trunk muscle load during wheelchair propulsion by using accelerometers. [Subjects and Methods] The Fourteen healthy participants were enrolled in this study. The study compared effects of three backrest conditions including no pad, a 3-cm-thick lumbar pad, and a 6-cm-thick lumbar pad. The instruments used for measurement were used two accelerometers. The participants were asked to propel their wheelchairs, which had been equipped with two accelerometers, 30 times. [Results] The intensity of muscle movement with the 3-cm-thick lumbar pad was significantly lower than the intensities with no lumbar pad and the 6-cm-thick lumbar pad. The muscle intensity did not differ significantly between the no pad and 6-cm-thick lumbar pad conditions. [Conclusion] An appropriately thick backrest has good effects on upper arm and trunk muscles during wheelchair propulsion. In the future, we must consider the appropriate backrest thickness for providing wheelchair users with a comfortable wheelchair. PMID:27313357

  18. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.]. PMID:27018604

  19. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006).

  20. Constraints on chondrule agglomeration from fine-grained chondrule rims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, K.; Bischoff, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fine-grained rims around chondrules, Ca,Al-rich inclusions, and other coarse-grained components occur in most types of unequilibrated chondrites, most prominently in carbonaceous chondrites of the CM group. Based on mineralogical and petrographic investigations, it was suggested that rim structures in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites could have formed in the solar nebula by accretion of dust on the surfaces of the chondrules. Dust mantles in CM chondrites seem to have formed by accretion of dust on the surfaces of chondrules and other components during their passage through dust-rich regions in the solar nebula. Concentric mantles with compositionally different layers prove the existence of various distinct dust reservoirs in the vicinity of the accreting parent body. Despite mineralogical and chemical differences, fine-grained rims from other chondrite groups principally show striking similarities to dust mantle textures in CM chondrite. This implies that the formation of dust mantles was a cosmically significant event like the chondrule formation itself. Dust mantles seem to have formed chronologically between chondrule-producing transient heating events and the agglomeration of chondritic parent bodies. For this reason the investigation of dust mantle structures may help to answer the question of how a dusty solar nebula was transformed into a planetary system.

  1. Radiation Hydrodynamical Models of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Many stars host planets orbiting within one astronomical unit (AU). These close planets’ origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks’ central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric, and include starlight heating, silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, timedependent temperature and density, and accretion stresses parametrizing the results of MHD magneto-rotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions, and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that the models satisfy observational constraints on the inner rims’s location. A small optically-thin halo of hot dust naturally arises between the inner rim and the star. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. While the front’s overall position varies with the stellar luminosity, its radial extent depends on the mass accretion rate. A pressure maximum develops at the position of thermal ionization at temperatures about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles’ radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are su ciently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.

  2. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rims for Flywheel Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The ultrasonic system employs a continuous swept-sine waveform and performs a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the frequency response spectrum. In addition, the system is capable of equalizing the amount of energy at each frequency. Equalization of the frequency spectrum, along with interpretation of the second FFT, aids in the evaluation of the fundamental frequency. The frequency responses from multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were analyzed to assess the capabilities and limitations of this nondestructive evaluation technique for material characterization and defect detection. Amplitude and frequency changes were studied from ultrasonic responses of thick composite rings and a multiring composite rim. A composite ring varying in thickness was evaluated to investigate the full thickness resonance. The frequency response characteristics from naturally occurring voids in a composite ring were investigated. Ultrasonic responses were compared from regions with and without machined voids in a composite ring and a multiring composite rim. Finally, ultrasonic responses from the multiring composite rim were compared before and after proof spin testing to 63,000 rpm.

  3. Hydrogeology associated to faulting of the Chicxulub Impact Crater rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Hernandez-Terrones, L.; Almazan-Becerril, A.; Valadez-Cruz, F.

    2011-12-01

    The only surface expression of the Chicxulub Impact Crater is a Ring of Cenotes (sinkholes) whose density varies from several cenotes per kilometer, to several kilometers between each cenote. This ring has a radius of approximately 90 km and it is centered at Chicxulub Puerto. It is not known today whether the Ring of Cenotes is the surface expression of the transient cavity as some authors have suggested, or whether it is the outer rim of the impact structure. The center of the ring is approximately coincident with the center of the Chicxulub Impact Crater. Reactivation of K/T rim faults had been associated to the formation of the ring of cenotes. However, none of these models project such faults to the Tertiary sedimentary sequence; therefore we can only infer that the cenotes are associated to these faults. Other hypotheses include "post impact subsidence induced by slumping and viscous relaxation in the rim" and "slumping in the rim of the buried crater, differential thickness in the rocks overlying the crater, or solution collapse within porous impact deposits", others suggest duration of subaerial exposure and weathering as a principal reason both for difference in permeability and cenote density inside and outside the Ring. This is consistent with the evolution of surface features reported. While sedimentation occurred in the basin outlined by the Ring, erosion and karst weathering were taking place outside the Ring. The karst features are associated with gravity gradients, which have been interpreted as corresponding to peripheral faults of the buried crater. We conducted geoelectric tomography perpendicular to the ring of cenotes, where we mapped the karstic features in the area and we interpret the high permeability in this area, to be associated to the faults generated by the differential compaction of the sedimentary sequence within the crater. This fault system generates a secondary porosity with high permeability that allows the circulation of water

  4. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  5. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  6. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  7. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  8. Insights from orthopyroxene reaction rims and layers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milke, R.; Abart, R.; Gardes, E.

    2009-12-01

    It is exactly 50 years since J.B. Thompson [1] published his ideas on reaction corona formation and made MgO-SiO2 his system of choice for their illustration. In hindsight this paper proved not only to be very influential for the theory of transport-controlled reactions, but also for the praxis of experimental petrology. Reaction rim growth in this system (with some minor, but substantial extensions) became explored in a depth unmatched by any other chemical system of geological relevance. We will review the achievements of the last few years up to the newest data. Starting from the question after the rate-controlling species in Opx rim growth between olivine and quartz, it became clear that the answer depends strongly on the presence of water, that transforms silicon from a very immobile to a highly mobile component. Several 100 ppm water (and where is the lower limit?) have practically the same effect as several wt%. New 3D-microimaging shows that this is in part due to fluid-filled nanopores at the propagating interfaces. Really dry experiments have until shortly been possible at 0.1 MPa, but not in solid medium high-P devices. This has now become feasible and was used to prove that the bulk diffusion coefficients governing the growth rates of Opx rims are in fact 3 to 5 orders of magnitude smaller under dry conditions than in the presence of traces of water, at P and T relevant to the lower crust and upper mantle. Opx rim growth has been used to study reaction-induced stress. The formation of Opx from Ol+Qtz implies negative volume change and thus requires the deformation of the surrounding matrix when the entire experimental system is under pressure. It was shown that Opx rims grow at different rates if they form around Ol grains in Qtz matrix, or vice versa. Reaction rim growth rates are apparently as well controlled by diffusional mobility of chemical species as by the rheological properties of the matrix. The stepwise extension of the system MgO-SiO2 by

  9. Free Energy Landscape of Rim-Pore Expansion in Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Smirnova, Yuliya; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The productive fusion pore in membrane fusion is generally thought to be toroidally shaped. Theoretical studies and recent experiments suggest that its formation, in some scenarios, may be preceded by an initial pore formed near the rim of the extended hemifusion diaphragm (HD), a rim-pore. This rim-pore is characterized by a nontoroidal shape that changes with size. To determine this shape as well as the free energy along the pathway of rim-pore expansion, we derived a simple analytical free energy model. We argue that dilation of HD material via expansion of a rim-pore is favored over a regular, circular pore. Further, the expanding rim-pore faces a free energy barrier that linearly increases with HD size. In contrast, the tension required to expand the rim-pore decreases with HD size. Pore flickering, followed by sudden opening, occurs when the tension in the HD competes with the line energy of the rim-pore, and the rim-pore reaches its equilibrium size before reaching the critical pore size. The experimental observation of flickering and closing fusion pores (kiss-and-run) is very well explained by the observed behavior of rim-pores. Finally, the free energy landscape of rim-pore expansion/HD dilation may very well explain why some cellular fusion reactions, in their attempt to minimize energetic costs, progress via alternative formation and dilation of microscopic hemifusion intermediates. PMID:25418297

  10. The origin of amorphous rims on lunar plagioclase grains: Solar wind damage or vapor condensates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Mckay, David S.

    1991-01-01

    A distinctive feature of micron sized plagioclase grains from mature lunar soils is a thin (20 to 100 nm) amorphous rim surrounding the grains. These rims were originally described from high voltage electron microscope observations of lunar plagioclase grains by Dran et al., who observed rims up to 100 nm thick on plagioclase grains from Apollo 11 and 12 soils. These rims are believed to be the product of solar wind damage. The amorphous rims were studied on micron sized plagioclase grains from a mature Apollo 16 soil using a JEOL 200FX transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x ray spectrometer. It was found that the amorphous rims are compositionally distinct from the interior plagioclase and it is proposed that a major component of vapor condensates is present in the rims.

  11. Adaptive control of a wheelchair-pushing holonomic robot subject to input constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methil, Nandagopal S.; Mukherjee, Ranjan

    2008-04-01

    In our earlier work, we proposed a synergistic design and control strategy to enable a holonomic mobile robot transport wheelchair bound residents in long-term-care facilities. Several simplifying assumptions were made and an adaptive control framework was proposed for wheelchair trajectory tracking. We remove some of the limiting assumptions by considering actuator saturation and actuator dynamics in this paper. We modify the adaptive controller and show that asymptotic trajectory tracking can be achieved provided that the reference trajectory does not result in complete loss of control authority. In the absence of control authority, we suspend trajectory tracking to maintain stability and revert to asymptotic trajectory tracking when control authority is regained. Although we focus on an application for long-term-care facilities, the technology being developed will find diverse applications such as autonomous transportation of hazardous materials.

  12. Downward Slope Driving Control for Electric Powered Wheelchair Based on Capacitor Regenerative Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a novel capacitor regenerative braking control scheme of electric powered wheelchairs for efficient driving on downward slopes. An electric powered wheelchair, which generates the driving force by electric motors, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however the energy efficiency has to be further improved because it is driven only by battery energy. This study proposes a capacitor regenerative braking circuit and two types of velocity control schemes with variable duty ratio. The proposed regenerative braking circuit is based on the step-up/down circuit with additional resistance and connects right and left motors in series in order to obtain a larger braking power. Some driving experiments on a practical downward slope show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  13. Capacitor regenerative braking system of electric wheelchair for senior citizen based on variable frequency chopper control.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Seki, Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel regenerative braking control system of electric wheelchairs for senior citizen. "Electric powered wheelchair", which generates the driving force by electric motors according to the human operation, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people. This study focuses on the braking control to realize the safety and smooth stopping motion using the regenerative braking control technique based on fuzzy algorithm. The ride quality improvement and energy recycling can be expected by the proposed control system with stopping distance estimation and variable frequency control on the step-up/down chopper type of capacitor regenerative circuit. Some driving experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system. PMID:19964689

  14. Advanced obstacle avoidance for a laser based wheelchair using optimised Bayesian neural networks.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Hoang T; Nguyen, Hung T; Willey, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an advanced method of obstacle avoidance for a laser based intelligent wheelchair using optimized Bayesian neural networks. Three neural networks are designed for three separate sub-tasks: passing through a door way, corridor and wall following and general obstacle avoidance. The accurate usable accessible space is determined by including the actual wheelchair dimensions in a real-time map used as inputs to each networks. Data acquisitions are performed separately to collect the patterns required for specified sub-tasks. Bayesian frame work is used to determine the optimal neural network structure in each case. Then these networks are trained under the supervision of Bayesian rule. Experiment results showed that compare to the VFH algorithm our neural networks navigated a smoother path following a near optimum trajectory. PMID:19163454

  15. Freespace estimation in an autonomous wheelchair using a stereoscopic camera system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh H; Vo, Kiet T

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation of the height and width of freespace based on a Bayesian Recursive (BR) algorithm for an autonomous wheelchair using a stereoscopic camera system for disabled people. A 2D distance map for the purpose of freespace estimation is converted from a 3D point map using geometric projection and computation. The comparison of this 2D map to a 2D map obtained from Laser is carried out. Moreover, freespaces in the 2D map are estimated using a BR algorithm based on uncertainty information and control data. Given the average probability, a possible movement decision is then made for the mobile wheelchair. Experimental results obtained in an indoor environment prove the effectiveness of this estimation algorithm. PMID:21095651

  16. Robust neuro-sliding mode multivariable control strategy for powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Nghia; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes an advanced robust multivariable control strategy for a powered wheelchair system. The new control strategy is based on a combination of the systematic triangularization technique and the robust neuro-sliding mode control approach. This strategy effectively copes with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances in real-time in order to achieve robustness and optimal performance of a multivariable system. This novel strategy reduces coupling effects on a multivariable system, eliminates chattering phenomena, and avoids the plant Jacobian calculation problem. Furthermore, the strategy can also achieve fast and global convergence using less computation. The effectiveness of the new multivariable control strategy is verified in real-time implementation on a powered wheelchair system. The obtained results confirm that robustness and desired performance of the overall system are guaranteed, even under parameter uncertainty and external disturbance effects. PMID:20805057

  17. Thermally-induced amphibole reaction rim development: EBSD insights into microlite orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Sarah; Lavallée, Yan; Larsen, Jessica; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    Amphibole is an important mineral present in many calc-alkaline volcanic deposits. A hydrous phase, volcanic amphibole is only stable at pressures greater than 100 MPa (approx. 4 km), temperature less than ~860-870 oC, and in melts containing at least 4 wt % H2O. When removed from their thermal and barometric stability field, amphiboles decompose to form aggregate rims of anhydrous minerals. The thickness, texture, and mineralogy of these rims are thought to be reflective of the process driving amphibole disequilibrium (e.g. heating, decompression, etc). However, significant overlap in rim thicknesses and microlite textures means that distinguishing between processes it not simple. This study employed backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to examine both experimental heating-indced amphibole reaction rims and natural amphibole reaction rim from Augustine Volcano. We collected crystal orientation maps of amphibole reaction rims to investigate if different types of disequilibrium produce different patterns of microlite orientation. We identified two types of reaction rim: Type 1- reaction rim microlites are generally oriented at random and share little or no systematic relationship with the crystallographic orientation of the host amphibole, and; Type 2- reaction rim microlites exhibit a topotactic relationship with the host amphibole (they share the same crystallographic orientation). Experimentally produced heating reaction rims are without exception Type 2. However the natural reaction rims are evenly distributed between Types 1 and 2. Further experimental data on decompression induced reaction rim formation is needed to investigate if Type 1 reaction rims resemble the breakdown of amphibole due to decompression. If so, reaction rim microlite orientation could provide a clear method for distinguishing between heating and decompression processes in amphibole bearing magmas.

  18. Feedback Control for a Smart Wheelchair Trainer Based on the Kinect Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Aurelia McLaughlin

    This thesis describes a Microsoft Kinect-based feedback controller for a robot-assisted powered wheelchair trainer for children with a severe motor and/or cognitive disability. In one training mode, "computer gaming" mode, the wheelchair is allowed to rotate left and right while the children use a joystick to play video games shown on a screen in front of them. This enables them to learn the use of the joystick in a motivating environment, while experiencing the sensation and dynamics of turning in a safe setting. During initial pilot testing of the device, it was found that the wheelchair would creep forward while children were playing the games. This thesis presents a mathematical model of the wheelchair dynamics that explains the origin of the creep as a center of gravity offset from the wheel axis or a mismatch of the torques applied to the chair. Given these possible random perturbations, a feedback controller was developed to cancel these effects, correcting the system creep. The controller uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor to detect the distance to the screen displaying the computer game, as well as the left-right position (parallel parking concept) with respect to the screen, and then adjusts the wheel torque commands based on this measurement. We show through experimental testing that this controller effectively stops the creep. An added benefit of the feedback controller is that it approximates a washout filter, such as those used in aircraft simulators, to convey a more realistic sense of forward/backward motion during game play.

  19. The effects of rear-wheel camber on the kinematics of upper extremity during wheelchair propulsion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rear-wheel camber, defined as the inclination of the rear wheels, is usually used in wheelchair sports, but it is becoming increasingly employed in daily propulsion. Although the rear-wheel camber can increase stability, it alters physiological performance during propulsion. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of rear-wheel cambers on temporal-spatial parameters, joint angles, and propulsion patterns. Methods Twelve inexperienced subjects (22.3±1.6 yr) participated in the study. None had musculoskeletal disorders in their upper extremities. An eight-camera motion capture system was used to collect the three-dimensional trajectory data of markers attached to the wheelchair-user system during propulsion. All participants propelled the same wheelchair, which had an instrumented wheel with cambers of 0°, 9°, and 15°, respectively, at an average velocity of 1 m/s. Results The results show that the rear-wheel camber significantly affects the average acceleration, maximum end angle, trunk movement, elbow joint movement, wrist joint movement, and propulsion pattern. The effects are especially significant between 0° and 15°. For a 15° camber, the average acceleration and joint peak angles significantly increased (p < 0.01). A single loop pattern (SLOP) was adopted by most of the subjects. Conclusions The rear-wheel camber affects propulsion patterns and joint range of motion. When choosing a wheelchair with camber adjustment, the increase of joint movements and the base of support should be taken into consideration. PMID:23173938

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial on Preventing Pressure Ulcers with Wheelchair Seat Cushions

    PubMed Central

    Brienza, David; Kelsey, Sheryl; Karg, Patricia; Allegretti, Ana; Olson, Marian; Schmeler, Mark; Zanca, Jeanne; Geyer, Mary Jo; Kusturiss, Marybeth; Holm, Margo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy of skin protection wheelchair seat cushions in preventing pressure ulcers in the elderly, nursing home population Design Clinical trial with participants assigned at random to either a skin protection or segmented foam cushion. Two hundred thirty two participants were recruited between June 2004 and May 2008 and followed for 6 months or until pressure ulcer incidence. Setting Twelve nursing homes Participants Nursing home residents’ age ≥ 65, using wheelchairs ≥6 hours/day, Braden score ≤ 18, and combined Braden activity and mobility score ≤ 5. Participants were recruited from a referred sample. Intervention All participants were provided a fitted wheelchair and randomized into skin protection (SPC) or segmented foam (SFC) cushion groups. The SPC group received an air, viscous fluid/foam, or gel/foam cushion. The SFC group received a 7.6 cm crosscut foam cushion. Measurements Pressure ulcer incidence over 6 months for wounds near the ischial tuberosities (IT ulcers) were measured. Secondary analysis was performed on combined IT and sacral/coccyx ulcers. Results One hundred eighty participants reached a study endpoint and 42 were lost to follow-up. Ten did not receive the intervention. There were 8/119 (6.7%) IT ulcers in the SFC group and 1/113 (0.9%) in the SPC group (p<0.04). In the group of combined IT and sacral/coccyx ulcers, there were 21/119 pressure ulcers (17.6%) in the SFC group and 12/113 (10.6%) in the SPC group (p=0.14). Conclusion Skin protection cushions used with fitted wheelchairs lower pressure ulcer incidence for elderly, nursing home residents and should be used to help prevent pressure ulcers. PMID:21070197

  1. The Influence of Wheelchair Propulsion Technique on Upper Extremity Muscle Demand: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jeffery W.; Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Richter, W. Mark; Neptune, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of manual wheelchair users will experience upper extremity injuries or pain, in part due to the high force requirements, repetitive motion and extreme joint postures associated with wheelchair propulsion. Recent studies have identified cadence, contact angle and peak force as important factors for reducing upper extremity demand during propulsion. However, studies often make comparisons between populations (e.g., able-bodied vs. paraplegic) or do not investigate specific measures of upper extremity demand. The purpose of this study was to use a musculoskeletal model and forward dynamics simulations of wheelchair propulsion to investigate how altering cadence, peak force and contact angle influence individual muscle demand. Methods Forward dynamics simulations of wheelchair propulsion were generated to emulate group-averaged experimental data during four conditions: 1) self-selected propulsion technique, and while 2) minimizing cadence, 3) maximizing contact angle and 4) minimizing peak force using biofeedback. Simulations were used to determine individual muscle mechanical power and stress as measures of muscle demand. Results Minimizing peak force and cadence had the lowest muscle power requirements. However, minimizing peak force increased cadence and recovery power, while minimizing cadence increased average muscle stress. Maximizing contact angle increased muscle stress and had the highest muscle power requirements. Interpretation Minimizing cadence appears to have the most potential for reducing muscle demand and fatigue, which could decrease upper extremity injuries and pain. However, altering any of these variables to extreme values appears to be less effective; instead small to moderate changes may better reduce overall muscle demand. PMID:22835860

  2. Shoulder Pain and Cycle to Cycle Kinematic Spatial Variability during Recovery Phase in Manual Wheelchair Users: A Pilot Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Moon, Yaejin; Rice, Ian M.; Hsiao Wecksler, Elizabeth T.; Beck, Carolyn L.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair propulsion plays a significant role in the development of shoulder pain in manual wheelchair users (MWU). However wheelchair propulsion metrics related to shoulder pain are not clearly understood. This investigation examined intra-individual kinematic spatial variability during semi-circular wheelchair propulsion as a function of shoulder pain in MWU. Data from 10 experienced adult MWU with spinal cord injury (5 with shoulder pain; 5 without shoulder pain) were analyzed in this study. Participants propelled their own wheelchairs on a dynamometer at 3 distinct speeds (self-selected, 0.7 m/s, 1.1 m/s) for 3 minutes at each speed. Motion capture data of the upper limbs were recorded. Intra-individual kinematic spatial variability of the steady state wrist motion during the recovery phase was determined using principal component analysis (PCA). The kinematic spatial variability was calculated at every 10% intervals (i.e at 11 interval points, from 0% to 100%) along the wrist recovery path. Results Overall, spatial variability was found to be highest at the start and end of the recovery phase and lowest during the middle of the recovery path. Individuals with shoulder pain displayed significantly higher kinematic spatial variability than individuals without shoulder pain at the start (at 10% interval) of the recovery phase (p<.004). Conclusions Analysis of intra-individual kinematic spatial variability during the recovery phase of manual wheelchair propulsion distinguished between those with and without shoulder pain. Variability analysis of wheelchair propulsion may offer a new approach to monitor the development and rehabilitation of shoulder pain. PMID:24614232

  3. Test-retest reliability, internal item consistency, and concurrent validity of the wheelchair seating discomfort assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Crane, Barbara A; Holm, Margo B; Hobson, Douglas; Cooper, Rory A; Reed, Matthew P; Stadelmeier, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Discomfort is a common problem for wheelchair users. Few researchers have investigated discomfort among wheelchair users or potential solutions for this problem. One of the impediments to quantitative research on wheelchair seating discomfort has been the lack of a reliable method for quantifying seat discomfort. The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability, internal item consistency, and concurrent validity of a newly developed Wheelchair Seating Discomfort Assessment Tool (WcS-DAT). Thirty full-time, active wheelchair users with intact sensation were asked to use this and other tools in order to rate their levels of discomfort in a test-retest reliability study format. Data from these measures were analyzed in SPSS using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model (2,k) to measure the test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine the internal consistency of the items within the WcS-DAT. Concurrent validity with similar measures was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlations. ICC scores for all analyses were above the established lower bound of .80, indicating a highly stable and reliable tool. In addition, alpha scores indicated good consistency of all items without redundancy. Finally, correlations with similar tools, such as the Chair Evaluation Checklist and the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, were significant at the .05 level, and many were significant at the .001 level. These results support the use of the WcS-DAT as a reliable and stable tool for quantifying wheelchair seating discomfort. Its application will enhance the ability to assess and to research this important problem and will provide a means to validate the outcomes of specialized seating interventions for the study population of wheelchairs users. PMID:16392714

  4. Influence of stimuli colour in SSVEP-based BCI wheelchair control using support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Singla, Rajesh; Khosla, Arun; Jha, Rameshwar

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to develop a Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP)-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system to control a wheelchair, with improving accuracy as the major goal. The developed wheelchair can move in forward, backward, left, right and stop positions. Four different flickering frequencies in the low frequency region were used to elicit the SSVEPs and were displayed on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitor using LabVIEW. Four colours (green, red, blue and violet) were included in the study to investigate the colour influence in SSVEPs. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from the occipital region were first segmented into 1 s windows and features were extracted by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Three different classifiers, two based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and one based on Support Vector Machine (SVM), were compared to yield better accuracy. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment and the accuracy was calculated by considering the number of correct detections produced while performing a pre-defined movement sequence. SSVEP with violet colour showed higher performance than green and red. The One-Against-All (OAA) based multi-class SVM classifier showed better accuracy than the ANN classifiers. The classification accuracy over 20 subjects varies between 75-100%, while information transfer rates (ITR) varies from 12.13-27 bpm for BCI wheelchair control with SSVEPs elicited by violet colour stimuli and classified using OAA-SVM. PMID:24533888

  5. The Influence of Altering Push Force Effectiveness on Upper Extremity Demand during Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jeffery W.; Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Richter, W. Mark; Neptune, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion has been linked to a high incidence of overuse injury and pain in the upper extremity, which may be caused by the high load requirements and low mechanical efficiency of the task. Previous studies have suggested that poor mechanical efficiency may be due to a low effective handrim force (i.e. applied force that is not directed tangential to the handrim). As a result, studies attempting to reduce upper extremity demand have used various measures of force effectiveness (e.g. fraction effective force, FEF) as a guide for modifying propulsion technique, developing rehabilitation programs and configuring wheelchairs. However, the relationship between FEF and upper extremity demand is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to use forward dynamics simulations of wheelchair propulsion to determine the influence of FEF on upper extremity demand by quantifying individual muscle stress, work and handrim force contributions at different values of FEF. Simulations maximizing and minimizing FEF resulted in higher average muscle stresses (23% and 112%) and total muscle work (28% and 71%) compared to a nominal FEF simulation. The maximal FEF simulation also shifted muscle use from muscles crossing the elbow to those at the shoulder (e.g. rotator cuff muscles), placing greater demand on shoulder muscles during propulsion. The optimal FEF value appears to represent a balance between increasing push force effectiveness to increase mechanical efficiency and minimizing upper extremity demand. Thus, care should be taken in using force effectiveness as a metric to reduce upper extremity demand. PMID:20674921

  6. Mental health and social participation skills of wheelchair basketball players: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between competitive wheelchair basketball participants and those non-participants. Forty-six wheelchair participants, 24 Basketball players (aged 35.60 ± 7.56) and 22 non-players (aged 36.20 ± 6.23), completed three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale [PWBS] and Symptom Checklist 90 R [SCL-90-R]. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score, evaluated by PS, was significantly higher in the non-basketball participants (p=0.00001) than the basketball participants. The PWB Scale showed significant differences in all 6 dimensions: positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life and self-acceptance (p<0.01), and autonomy (p<0.05), with better scores in the basketball participants. The SCL-90-R scores were significantly lower for the basketball group in the following 6 symptomatic dimensions: depression, phobic anxiety, and sleep disorder (p<0.01), somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism (with p<0.05). It was concluded that competitive wheelchair basketball participants showed better psychological well-being and social skills than those non-participants. PMID:24012595

  7. The Influence of Glove Type on Simulated Wheelchair Racing Propulsion: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, I; Dysterheft, J; Bleakney, A W; Cooper, R A

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of glove type on kinetic and spatiotemporal parameters at the handrim in elite wheelchair racers. Elite wheelchair racers (n=9) propelled on a dynamometer in their own racing chairs with a force and moment sensing wheel attached. Racers propelled at 3 steady state speeds (5.36, 6.26 & 7.60 m/s) and performed one maximal effort sprint with 2 different glove types (soft & solid). Peak resultant force, peak torque, impulse, contact angle, braking torque, push time, velocity, and stroke frequency were recorded for steady state and sprint conditions. Multiple nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pair's tests were used to detect differences between glove types, while effect sizes were calculated based on Cohen's d. During steady state trials, racers propelled faster, using more strokes and larger contact angle, while applying less impulse with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. During the sprint condition, racers achieved greater top end velocities, applying larger peak force, with less braking torque with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. Use of solid gloves may provide some performance benefits to wheelchair racers during steady state and top end velocity conditions. PMID:26509373

  8. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the ... specific questions. More Information CDC's Handwashing Work Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Water-related Hygiene Hand Hygiene to Help Prevent Flu ...

  9. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  10. Growth kinetics of forsterite reaction rims at high-pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Yu; Maruyama, Genta; Nishi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Growth kinetics of forsterite (Fo) reaction rims between periclase (Per) and enstatite (En) were studied experimentally at pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions of 3.0-11.1 GPa and 1473-1873 K, respectively. Pt markers originally placed at the Per-En interface were always observed at the Per-Fo interface, which indicates that Mg and O are the diffusing species in Fo rim growth (Mg-O coupled diffusion). The presence of some En inclusions in Fo grains and the growth rate of the Fo rim suggests that grain boundary diffusion is dominant rather than lattice diffusion. Considering the very fast grain boundary diffusion of O in olivine, the Mg-O coupled grain boundary diffusion in Fo is deduced to be rate-limited by the diffusivity of Mg. Based on an analysis of data collected under dry conditions, the product of the Mg grain boundary diffusion coefficient (Dgb) and the effective grain boundary width (δ) was determined to be δDgb = δDgb,0exp[-(E∗ + PV∗)/RT] with δDgb,0 = 10-9.68 ± 1.51 m3/s, E∗ = 379 ± 44 kJ/mol and V∗ = -1.9 ± 1.4 cm3/mol. Our results, combined with previously reported data on Mg lattice diffusion in Fo, suggest that for Mg, the significance of grain boundary diffusion increases with depth in the Earth's upper mantle, although lattice diffusion is still dominant for typical mantle grain sizes of 1-10 mm.

  11. Radiation Hydrodynamics Models of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, M.; Fromang, S.; Turner, N. J.; Benisty, M.

    2016-08-01

    Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host star’s mass. These close planets’ origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks’ central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric and include starlight heating silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density and accretion stresses parameterizing the results of MHD magnetorotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that the models satisfy observational constraints on the inner rim’s location. A small optically thin halo of hot dust naturally arises between the inner rim and the star. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. While the front’s overall position varies with the stellar luminosity, its radial extent depends on the mass accretion rate. A pressure maximum develops near the location of thermal ionization at temperatures of about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles’ radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are sufficiently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.

  12. High mobility of landslides on the Mercury crater rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Kadota, N.; Kiritoshi, I.; Sugiyama, H.; Uragami, H.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's MESSENGER mercury spacecraft was launched by NASA in 2004, and orbital insertion was successfully completed in 2011. Among its scientific instruments, the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) are used to extract the mercury terrain topography. This mission revealed various features of the mercury topography with horizontal resolution of 1 km. Up to July 2013, elevation of the north hemisphere terrain had been released on the net (Quickmap: http://messenger-act.actgate.com/msgr_public_released/react_quickmap.html). As reported by previous studies on landslides found on the lunar crater rims (Fukuoka et al., 2011), they showed extremely small H/V = tan (apparent friction) of the movement, even though almost no groundwater could have been expected ever. Authors examined the crater rims in the northern hemisphere of latitude higher than 65 degrees, because the precision of the altitude is higher in the polar and equatorial regions. We found as many similar landslides along the crater rims. Then, in order to compare the mobility of landslides with lunar ones, we have examined the apparent friction (H/T). In most cases, the H/T values of those landslides are between 0.1 and 0.2, like long-runout landslides on the Moon, Mars and Earth. If the rocks on the mercury show the similar friction as rocks on the earth, those values should be higher than 0.5. Possible mechanism of the small H/L could be cumulated shear displacement induced by repeated quakes by meteor impact over billions of years and / or exotic mechanism including tectonic function.

  13. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria' (Altered Contrast)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006). Contrast has been altered to improve the visibility of details in shadowed areas.

  14. Amphibole reaction rim textures and mineralogy from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Nature vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henton, S.; Larsen, J. F.; Coombs, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano forms a small island located in Alaska's Cook Inlet, approximately 180 miles southwest of Anchorage. The 2006 eruption began January 11, 2006, and evolved from an initial phase of explosive activity, through continuous and effusive phases, ending approximately mid-March 2006. We present data on the textural and mineralogical make-up of amphibole reaction rims from 2006 andesites from Augustine. Naturally formed reaction rims are compared to rims formed through decompression and heating experiments. Amphiboles make up less than 1 modal % of most samples. However, variations in composition and texture help to explain pre-and syn-eruptive magma histories. The Augustine 2006 amphiboles contain a mixture of rimmed and unrimmed grains. In order of decreasing abundance (by tally), the dominant phases in reaction rims are orthopyroxene, oxides, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene. Most amphibole reaction rims are between 1- 40 microns in thickness. Thicker rims (> 40 microns) were primarily erupted in the later effusive phase of the eruption. In general, the thickest reactions rims (> 60 microns average thickness) contain coarser individual reaction rim grains (with feret diameters of 15-50 microns). Reaction rims with average thickness of less than 60 microns tend to contain finer reaction rim grains (with feret diameters of 10 microns or less). Some reactions rims show a coarsening of rim grains across the rim, from the amphibole boundary to the glass boundary. Preliminary results show no systematic changes in the aspect ratios of reaction rim grains, either across the rim, or between the different rims. Some rims show a decrease in the An content of plagioclase across the rim, from the amphibole boundary to the glass boundary. Reaction rim textures and mineralogy are complex and suggest that multiple forcing factors (including heating and decompression) were responsible for their formation. This study will compare these natural reaction rims to those formed

  15. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  16. Near-IR Imaging Polarimetry toward a Bright-rimmed Cloud: Magnetic Field in SFO 74

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Tamura, Motohide; Sato, Yaeko; Kwon, Jungmi; Watanabe, Makoto; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sato, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We have made near-infrared (JHK s) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim) and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ~90 μG, is stronger than that far inside, ~30 μG. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV-radiation-induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip and thus increases the strength of the magnetic field. The magnetic pressure seems to be comparable to the turbulent one just inside the tip rim, implying a significant contribution of the magnetic field to the total internal pressure. The mass-to-flux ratio was estimated to be close to the critical value just inside the tip rim. We speculate that the flat-topped bright rim of SFO 74 could be formed by the magnetic field effect.

  17. The formation of rims on calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions: Step I-Flash heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David; Boynton, William V.

    2001-08-01

    Wark-Lovering rims of six calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) representing the main CAI types and groups in Allende, Efremovka and Vigarano were microsurgically separated and analysed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). All the rims have similar ~4x enrichments, relative to the interiors, of highly refractory lithophile and siderophile elements. The NAA results are confirmed by ion microprobe and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of rim perovskites and rim metal grains. Less refractory Eu, Yb, V, Sr, Ca and Ni are less enriched in the rims. The refractory element patterns in the rims parallel the patterns in the outer parts of the CAIs. In particular, the rims on type B1 CAIs have the igneously fractionated rare earth element (REE) pattern of the melilite mantle below the rim and not the REE pattern of the bulk CAI, proving that the refractory elements in the rims were derived from the outer mantle and were not condensates onto the CAIs. The refractory elements were enriched in an Al2O3-rich residue <50 um thick after the most volatile ~80% of the outermost 200 um of each CAI had been volatilized, including much Mg, Si and Ca. Some volatilization occurred below the rim, and created refractory partial melts that crystallized hibonite and gehlenitic melilite. The required "flash heating" probably exceeded 2000 degrees C, but for only a few seconds, in order to melt only the outer CAI and to unselectively volatilize slow-diffusing O isotopes which show no mass fractionation in the rim. The volatilization did, however, produce "heavy" mass-fractionated Mg in rims. In some CAIs this was later obscured when "normal" Mg diffused in from accreted olivine grains at relatively high temperature (not the lower temperature meteorite metamorphism) and created the ~50 um set of monomineralic rim layers of pyroxene, melilite and spinel.

  18. Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant of Rab3A/Rab27A recognition by Rim2.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2003-04-25

    Rabphilin, Rim, and Noc2 have generally been believed to be the Rab3 isoform (Rab3A/B/C/D)-specific effectors that regulate secretory vesicle exocytosis in neurons and in some endocrine cells. The results of recent genetic analysis of rabphilin knock-out animals, however, strongly refute this notion, because there are no obvious genetic interactions between Rab3 and rabphilin in nematoda (Staunton, J., Ganetzky, B., and Nonet, M. L. (2001) J. Neurosci. 21, 9255-9264), suggesting that Rab3 is not a major ligand of rabphilin in vivo. In this study, I tested the interaction of rabphilin, Rim1, Rim2, and Noc2 with 42 different Rab proteins by cotransfection assay and found differences in rabphilin, Rim1, Rim2, and Noc2 binding to several Rab proteins that belong to the Rab functional group III (Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab26, Rab27A/B, and Rab37) and/or VIII (Rab8A and Rab10). Rim1 interacts with Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab10, Rab26, and Rab37; Rim2 interacts with Rab3A/B/C/D and Rab8A; and rabphilin and Noc2 interact with Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab8A, and Rab27A/B. By contrast, the synaptotagmin-like protein homology domain of Slp homologue lacking C2 domains-a (Slac2-a)/melanophilin specifically recognizes Rab27A/B but not other Rabs. I also found that alternative splicing events in the first alpha-helical region (alpha(1)) of the Rab binding domain of Rim1 alter the Rab binding specificity of Rim1. Site-directed mutagenesis and chimeric analyses of Rim2 and Slac2-a indicate that the acidic cluster (Glu-50, Glu-51, and Glu-52) in the alpha(1) region of the Rab binding domain of Rim2, which is not conserved in the synaptotagmin-like pro tein homology domain of Slac2-a, is a critical determinant of Rab3A recognition. Based on these results, I propose that Rim, rabphilin, and Noc2 function differently in concert with functional group III and/or VIII Rab proteins, including Rab3 isoforms. PMID:12578829

  19. Wheelchair Propulsion Biomechanics in Junior Basketball Players: A Method for the Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Specific Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, Elena; Morelli, Francesca; Marchetti, Flavia; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Polidori, Lorenzo; Paradisi, Francesco; Traballesi, Marco; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Delussu, Anna Sofia

    2015-01-01

    As participation in wheelchair sports increases, the need of quantitative assessment of biomechanical performance indicators and of sports- and population-specific training protocols has become central. The present study focuses on junior wheelchair basketball and aims at (i) proposing a method to identify biomechanical performance indicators of wheelchair propulsion using an instrumented in-field test and (ii) developing a training program specific for the considered population and assessing its efficacy using the proposed method. Twelve athletes (10 M, 2 F, age = 17.1 ± 2.7 years, years of practice = 4.5 ± 1.8) equipped with wheelchair- and wrist-mounted inertial sensors performed a 20-metre sprint test. Biomechanical parameters related to propulsion timing, progression force, and coordination were estimated from the measured accelerations and used in a regression model where the time to complete the test was set as dependent variable. Force- and coordination-related parameters accounted for 80% of the dependent variable variance. Based on these results, a training program was designed and administered for three months to six of the athletes (the others acting as control group). The biomechanical indicators proved to be effective in providing additional information about the wheelchair propulsion technique with respect to the final test outcome and demonstrated the efficacy of the developed program. PMID:26543852

  20. Estimating pushrim temporal and kinetic measures using an instrumented treadmill during wheelchair propulsion: A concurrent validity study.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Dany H; Jouval, Camille; Chénier, Félix

    2016-06-14

    Using ground reaction forces recorded while propelling a manual wheelchair on an instrumented treadmill may represent a valuable alternative to using an instrumented pushrim to calculate temporal and kinetic parameters during propulsion. Sixteen manual wheelchair users propelled their wheelchair equipped with instrumented pushrims (i.e., SMARTWheel) on an instrumented dual-belt treadmill set a 1m/s during a 1-minute period. Spatio-temporal (i.e., duration of the push and recovery phase) and kinetic measures (i.e. propulsive moments) were calculated for 20 consecutive strokes for each participant. Strong associations were confirmed between the treadmill and the instrumented pushrim for the mean duration of the push phase (r=0.98) and of the recovery phase (r=0.99). Good agreement between these two measurement instruments was also confirmed with mean differences of only 0.028s for the push phase and 0.012s for the recovery phase. Strong associations were confirmed between the instrumented wheelchair pushrim and treadmill for mean (r=0.97) and peak (r=0.96) propulsive moments. Good agreement between these two measurement instruments was also confirmed with mean differences of 0.50Nm (mean moment) and 0.71Nm (peak moment). The use of a dual-belt instrumented treadmill represents an alternative to characterizing temporal parameters and propulsive moments during manual wheelchair propulsion. PMID:27178022