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Sample records for hand rim wheelchair

  1. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Therapist In the Band: Jens' Story Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  2. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground. PMID:27062591

  3. The ergonomics of wheelchair configuration for optimal performance in the wheelchair court sports.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large

  4. Wheelchair ergonomic hand drive mechanism use improves wrist mechanics associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zukowski, Lisa A; Roper, Jaimie A; Shechtman, Orit; Otzel, Dana M; Hovis, Patty W; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Among conventional manual wheelchair (CMW) users, 49% to 63% experience carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) that is likely induced by large forces transmitted through the wrist and extreme wrist orientations. The ergonomic hand drive mechanism (EHDM) tested in this study has been shown to utilize a more neutral wrist orientation. This study evaluates the use of an EHDM in terms of wrist orientations that may predispose individuals to CTS. Eleven adult full-time CMW users with spinal cord injury participated. Motion data were captured as participants propelled across a flat surface, completing five trials in a CMW and five trials in the same CMW fitted with the EHDM. Average angular wrist orientations were compared between the two propulsion styles. Use of the EHDM resulted in reduced wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The shift to more neutral wrist orientations observed with EHDM use may reduce median nerve compression. PMID:25856042

  5. Biomechanics and physiology in active manual wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, H E; Dallmeijer, A J; Janssen, T W; Rozendaal, L A

    2001-12-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion in daily life and sports is increasingly being studied. Initially, an engineering and physiological perspective was taken. More recently a concomitant biomechanics interest is seen. Themes of biomechanical and physiological studies today are performance enhancing aspects of wheelchair use and the ergonomics of wheelchair design. Apart from the propulsion technique the focus of biomechanics research of manual wheelchair propulsion is mainly towards injury mechanisms, especially phenomena of overuse to the upper extremity. Obviously, the vehicle mechanics of wheelchairs must be included within this biological framework. Scientific research is progressing, but is still hampered by methodological limitations, such as the heterogeneity and small numbers of the population at study as well as the inconsistency of employed technologies and methodologies. There is a need for consensus regarding methodology and research strategy, and a strong need for collaboration to improve the homogeneity and size of subject groups and thus the power of the experimental results. Thus a sufficiently strong knowledge database will emerge, leading to an evidence-base of performance enhancing factors and the understanding of the risks of wheelchair sports and long-term wheelchair use. In the light of the current biomechanical and physiological knowledge of manual wheelchair propulsion there seems to be a need for the stimulation of other than hand rim propelled manual wheelchairs. PMID:11801413

  6. Relationship Between Hand Contact Angle and Shoulder Loading During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion by Individuals with Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Mulroy, Sara J.; Ruparel, Puja; Hatchett, Patricia E.; Haubert, Lisa Lighthall; Eberly, Valerie J.; Gronley, JoAnne K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder loading during manual wheelchair propulsion (WCP) contributes to the development of shoulder pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To use regression analysis to investigate the relationships between the hand contact angle (location of the hand on the pushrim at initial contact and release during the push phase of the WCP cycle) with propulsion characteristics, pushrim forces, and shoulder kinetics during WCP in individuals with paraplegia. Methods: Biomechanical data were collected from 222 individuals (198 men and 24 women) with paraplegia from SCI during WCP on a stationary ergometer at a self-selected speed. The average age of participants was 34.7 years (±9.3), mean time since SCI was 9.3 years (±6.1), and average body weight was 74.4 kg (±15.9). The majority (n = 127; 56%) of participants had lower level paraplegia (T8 to L5) and 95 (42%) had high paraplegia (T2 to T7). Results: Increased push arc (mean = 75.3°) was associated with greater velocity (R = 0.384, P < .001) and cycle distance (R = 0.658, P < .001) and reduced cadence (R = -0.419, P < .001). Initial contact angle and hand release angles were equally associated with cycle distance and cadence, whereas a more anterior release angle was associated with greater velocity (R = 0.372, P < .001). When controlling for body weight, a more posterior initial contact angle was associated with greater posterior shoulder net joint force (R = 0.229, P = .001) and greater flexor net joint moment (R = 0.204, P = .002), whereas a more anterior hand release angle was significantly associated with increased vertical (R = 0.270, P < .001) and greater lateral (R = .293, P < .001) pushrim forces; greater shoulder net joint forces in all 3 planes — posterior (R = 0.164, P = .015), superior (R = 0.176, P = .009), and medial (R = 0.284, P < .001); and greater external rotator (R = 0.176, P = .009) and adductor (R = 0.259, P = .001) net joint moments. Conclusions: Current

  7. Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress placed on this joint during activities of daily living, training and competition. The overall purpose of this narrative review was to use the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to examine how various constraints acting upon the wheelchair-user interface may alter hand rim wheelchair performance during sporting activities, and to a lesser extent, their injury risk. As we found no studies involving Paralympic athletes that have directly utilised the dynamical systems approach to interpret their data, we have used this approach to select some potential constraints and discussed how they may alter wheelchair performance and/or injury risk. Organism constraints examined included player classifications, wheelchair setup, training and intrinsic injury risk factors. Task constraints examined the influence of velocity and types of locomotion (court sports vs racing) in wheelchair propulsion, while environmental constraints focused on forces that tend to oppose motion such as friction and surface inclination. Finally, the ecological validity of the research studies assessing wheelchair propulsion was critiqued prior to recommendations for practice and future research being given. PMID:23557065

  8. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an intelligent wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jin Sun; Shin, Yunhee; Kim, Eun Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs) have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. Methods This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW) control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. Result & conclusion The advantages of the proposed system include 1) accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2) robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination. To prove these

  9. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  10. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-10-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  11. Variability in bimanual wheelchair propulsion: consistency of two instrumented wheels during handrim wheelchair propulsion on a motor driven treadmill

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a complex bimanual motor task. The bimanually applied forces on the rims determine the speed and direction of locomotion. Measurements of forces and torques on the handrim are important to study status and change of propulsion technique (and consequently mechanical strain) due to processes of learning, training or the wheelchair configuration. The purpose of this study was to compare the simultaneous outcomes of two different measurement-wheels attached to the different sides of the wheelchair, to determine measurement consistency within and between these wheels given the expected inter- and intra-limb variability as a consequence of motor control. Methods Nine able-bodied subjects received a three-week low-intensity handrim wheelchair practice intervention. They then performed three four-minute trials of wheelchair propulsion in an instrumented hand rim wheelchair on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed. The two measurement-wheels on each side of the wheelchair measured forces and torques of one of the two upper limbs, which simultaneously perform the push action over time. The resulting data were compared as direct output using cross-correlation on the torque around the wheel-axle. Calculated push characteristics such as power production and speed were compared using an intra-class correlation. Results Measured torque around the wheel axle of the two measurement-wheels had a high average cross-correlation of 0.98 (std=0.01). Unilateral mean power output over a minute was found to have an intra-class correlation of 0.89 between the wheels. Although the difference over the pushes between left and right power output had a high variability, the mean difference between the measurement-wheels was low at 0.03 W (std=1.60). Other push characteristics showed even higher ICC’s (>0.9). Conclusions A good agreement between both measurement-wheels was found at the level of the power output. This indicates a high

  12. A robotic wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.; Grant, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Many people who are mobility impaired are incapable, for a variety of reasons, of using an ordinary wheelchair. These people must rely on either a power wheelchair, which they control, or another person to push and guide them while they are in an ordinary or power wheelchair. Power wheelchairs can be difficult to operate. If a person has additional disabilities, either in perception or fine motor control of their hands, a power chair can be difficult or impossible for them to use safely. Having one person push and guide a person who is mobility impaired is very expensive, and if the disabled person is otherwise independent, very inefficient and frustrating. This paper describes a low-cost robotic addition to a power wheelchair that assists the rider of the chair in avoiding obstacles, going to pre-designated places, and maneuvering through doorways and other narrow or crowded areas. This system can be interfaced to a variety of input devices, and can give the operator as much or as little moment by moment control of the chair as they wish.

  13. WheelchairNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Society of Wheelchair Professionals! ISWP Home The International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP) was launched in February 2015 with a mission to provide wheelchair users worldwide with the best technology and service. The need is great. Nearly 70 ...

  14. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  15. Talking Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Communication is made possible for disabled individuals by means of an electronic system, developed at Stanford University's School of Medicine, which produces highly intelligible synthesized speech. Familiarly known as the "talking wheelchair" and formally as the Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP). Wheelchair mounted system consists of a word processor, a video screen, a voice synthesizer and a computer program which instructs the synthesizer how to produce intelligible sounds in response to user commands. Computer's memory contains 925 words plus a number of common phrases and questions. Memory can also store several thousand other words of the user's choice. Message units are selected by operating a simple switch, joystick or keyboard. Completed message appears on the video screen, then user activates speech synthesizer, which generates a voice with a somewhat mechanical tone. With the keyboard, an experienced user can construct messages as rapidly as 30 words per minute.

  16. Hybrid-powered wheelchair: a combination of arm force and electrical power for propelling a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Cremers, G B

    1989-01-01

    Many of the handicapped who could use a hand-driven wheelchair do not have sufficient arm force, arm movement and/or endurance for proper propulsion. Furthermore, there are users of electric wheelchairs who still have some arm functions and strength. In some cases a hand-driven chair, which can be propelled with reduced arm power, could be a better solution. By means of simulation, a study has been carried out to investigate the possibility of propelling a wheelchair by means of hybrid powering. Hybrid powering can be defined as a combination of arm force and electrical power. Using this hybrid principle, the necessary arm force can be decreased. PMID:2733008

  17. Gardening from a Wheelchair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... round handles) on gate latches, doors, and faucets. Gardening as therapy For Gene Rothert gardening is a ...

  18. A theory of wheelchair wheelie performance.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1987-01-01

    The results of this analytical study of wheelchair wheelie performance can be summarized into two wheelchair design equations, or rules of thumb, as developed in the paper. The equation containing the significant parameters involved in popping a wheelie for curb climbing is: fh = 0.8 mg theta c.g. [A] where fh is handrim force, m is the mass of the wheelchair + user less rear wheels, g is acceleration of gravity (9.807 m/s2), and theta c.g. is "c.g. angle," i.e., the angle between the vertical through the rear axle and a line connecting the rear axle and the system center-of-gravity. Equation [A] shows that reducing the mass and/or the c.g. angle will make it easier to pop a wheelie. The c.g. angle is reduced by moving the rear axle position forward on the wheelchair. Wheelie balance is the other aspect of performance considered; where the user balances the wheelchair on the rear wheels for going down curbs or just for fun. The ease with which a system can be controlled (balanced) is related to the static stability of the system. The static stability is defined as: omega 2 = mgl/J [B] where J is the mass moment of inertia at the center of gravity of the system about the direction perpendicular to the sideframe. For better wheelchair control during wheelchair balance the static stability should be reduced. Measurements of the value for the polar mass moment of inertia for a typical wheelchair + user of m = 90 kg was found to be J = 8.7 kg-m2. In order to decrease the value of the static stability, Equation [B], one can increase J or decrease m and/or l, where l is the distance from the rear axle to the c.g. of the system. It is also shown that balancing a rod in the palm of the hand (inverted pendulum) is a mathematical problem similar to the wheelie balance problem, and a rod of length 1.56 meters is similar to a wheelchair + user system mass of 90 kg. However, balancing a rod is done primarily by using visual perception, whereas wheelie balance involves human

  19. Biomechanics and the wheelchair.

    PubMed

    McLaurin, C A; Brubaker, C E

    1991-04-01

    Wheelchair biomechanics involves the study of how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility. Because a wheelchair can coast, power input need not be continuous, but each power strike can be followed by a period of recovery, with the stroking frequency depending on user preferences and the coasting characteristics of the wheelchair. The latter is described in terms of rolling resistance, wind resistance and the slope of the surface. From these three factors the power required to propel the wheelchair is determined, and must be matched by the power output of the user. The efficiency of propulsion is the ratio of this power output to the metabolic cost and is typically in the order of 5% in normal use. The features required in a wheelchair depend upon user characteristics and intended activities. The ideal wheelchair for an individual will have the features that closely match these characteristics and activities. Thus prescription is not just choosing a wheelchair, but choosing the components of the wheelchair that best serve the intended purpose. In this paper, each component is examined for available options and how these options effect the performance of the wheelchair for the individual. The components include wheels, tyres, castors, frames, bearings, materials, construction details, seats, backrests, armrests, foot and legrests, headrests, wheel locks, running brakes, handrims, levers, accessories, adjustments and detachable parts. Each component is considered in relation to performance characteristics including rolling resistance, versatility, weight, comfort, stability, maneouvrability, transfer, stowage, durability and maintenance. Where they exist, wheelchair standards are referred to as a source of information regarding these characteristics. PMID:1857638

  20. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work. PMID:21095654

  1. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Raôul R D; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-René J A C; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible. Participants drove under a large screen that initially blocked the basket. As soon as they saw the basket they shot. When training with the screen, shooting percentages increased. We conclude that visual control training is an effective method to improve wheelchair basketball shooting. The findings support the idea that perceptual-motor learning can be enhanced by manipulating relevant constraints in the training environment, even for expert athletes. PMID:22978196

  2. Isidis Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 03 April 2002) This lunar-like scene occurs along the southeastern rim of the Isidis Planitia basin. The Isidis basin is an ancient impact crater some 1200 km across that is found along the boundary separating the heavily-cratered southern highland terrain of Mars from the northern lowlands. Elements of both terrains are evident in this image as an island of rugged highland terrain surrounded by smoother lowland terrain. The resurfacing of the Isidis basin produced a system of wrinkle ridges, some of which are seen on the lowland terrain in the image. Wrinkle ridges are a common feature on the surface of the moon and add to the lunar-like quality of this image. Layers are visible in the large island, the most resistant of which likely are from lava flows that created the highland terrain. The process by which the global-scale highland/lowland dichotomy was created remains a mystery.

  3. Finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Rene

    1994-01-01

    The finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design is presented. The design is the result of a technology utilization request. The designer's intent is to soften the riding feeling by incorporating a mechanism attaching the wheel rim to the spokes that would allow considerable deflection upon compressive loads. A finite element analysis was conducted to verify proper structural function. Displacement and stress results are presented and conclusions are provided.

  4. A joystick controlled wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Amundson, J S; Amundson, S G

    1991-01-01

    A joystick based motor control for a child's wheelchair was designed and built. The design is intended to allow a child with limited strength to control a wheelchair. There is a master power switch that can be turned on and off by an instructor in a classroom situation. The joystick is made from resistors that provide the input to the pulse width modulation (PWM) circuits. The motors for each back wheel are operated by an H bridge network. The controller is built but modifications are needed for it to work properly. PMID:2065147

  5. Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The late afternoon sun casts a shadow over a 700 meter-high rim of Huygens Crater.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -15.2, Longitude 51.6 East (308.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  6. Wheelchair-related accidents caused by tips and falls among noninstitutionalized users of manually propelled wheelchairs in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R L; Ackroyd-Stolarz, S A; Brown, M G; Kirkland, S A; MacLeod, D A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document what proportion of noninstitutionalized users of manually propelled wheelchairs are affected by wheelchair-related accidents caused by tips and falls, determine the nature and severity of the resulting injuries, and, by comparison with an unaffected group, identify factors associated with the risk of such accidents. We administered a postal questionnaire to as many as possible of the estimated 2055 members of the target population in the province of Nova Scotia. Among the 577 appropriate respondents, 57.4% reported they had completely tipped over or fallen from their wheelchairs at least once, and 66.0% reported having partially tipped. Of the falls and tips that were reported, 46.3% were forward in direction, 29.5% backward and 24.2% sideways. Many of the accidents occurred outdoors or on ramps. A total of 292 injuries were reported by 272 (47.1%) respondents. Most of the injuries (84.3%) were minor (e.g., abrasions, contusions, lacerations and sprains). Of the 15.8% of injuries that were serious, the most common were fractures (10.6%) and concussions (2.7%). Factors that appear to be associated with an increased risk of accidents and injuries included younger age, male gender, paraplegia or spina bifida as the reason for wheelchair use, having had a wheelchair prescribed, some wheelchair features (lightweight, camber, adjustable rear-axle positions, a knapsack), daily use of a wheelchair, propelling the chair with both hands, use of the wheelchair for recreation, use of a sideways transfer (without a transfer board) and doing repairs themselves or having them done by the dealer. Factors associated with a decreased risk include multiple sclerosis, stroke or arthritis as the reason for wheelchair use, attendant propulsion and the use of a one-person assist for transfers. The results of this study, that wheelchair-related accidents caused by tips and falls are very common, that serious injuries are not unusual and that there

  7. Engineering manual and electric powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A

    1999-01-01

    The sophistication required to develop and properly configure a wheelchair is illustrated by the amount and complexity of the research being conducted. At this time there appears to be between 1.5 and 2.0 million full-time wheelchair users within the United States. The reliance of the user on the wheelchair and the amount of time in the wheelchair provide significant challenges for the wheelchair design engineer. Currently there are a wide variety of wheelchair designs that are commercially available. These wheelchairs accommodate a variety of people's needs, and represent significant progress. The current trend among manufacturers of manual wheelchairs seems to be cost-reduction engineering. The ergonomics of long-term wheelchair use are critical to the advancement of wheelchair design and to the clinical selection of wheelchairs. Electric powered wheelchairs appear to be progressing faster than nearly all other types of wheelchairs. This is due to the availability of computing power with low cost microcontrollers and associated peripherals. The greater range and availability of sensors are also making changes into the design of electric powered wheelchairs. The interaction between an electric powered wheelchair and the user can be extremely complex. In many cases, individual solutions are necessary. One of the more challenging questions is determining the abilities of the user required to drive an electric powered wheelchair effectively. There have been substantial improvements in the engineering of all wheelchairs. However, there remain significant issues to be addressed. PMID:10638849

  8. Electrooculogram wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Philips, Gavin R; Catellier, Andrew A; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the research, development, and implementation of an electrooculogram-controlled wheelchair. This system was designed specifically to fit the demands of users with limited use of their arms and legs. By monitoring ocular bio-electrical signals, this system allows the user to steer the wheelchair using only eye movements. The first generation prototype described here used a "sip and puff" unit for overall control of the system, allowing the user to change modes of operation using only his/her breath. Finally, an ultra-sonic rangefinder was added to provide an extra measure of safety, alerting the user to sudden changes in grade. This is part of an ongoing project to allow greater independence for those with special needs. PMID:17487075

  9. RESNA Wheelchair Service Provision Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arledge, Stan; Armstrong, William; Babinec, Mike; Dicianno, Brad E.; Digiovine, Carmen; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor; Pederson, Jessica; Piriano, Julie; Plummer, Teresa; Rosen, Lauren; Schmeler, Mark; Shea, Mary; Stogner, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Wheelchair Service Provision Guide is to provide an appropriate framework for identifying the essential steps in the provision of a wheelchair. It is designed for use by all participants in the provision process including consumers, family members, caregivers, social service and health care professionals, suppliers,…

  10. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor. PMID:15850119

  11. Kinematic features of wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, D J; Sommer, H J

    1985-01-01

    Three male paraplegics volunteered to push their wheelchairs on a motor driven treadmill, for a total of 80 min each, at a work rate of 60-65% of their VO2 maximum, determined on an earlier test session. At 20 min intervals 16 mm high-speed film of the subjects was taken for three consecutive push cycles. The digitized film was used to compute the angular kinematics of the shoulder and elbow joints, the variations in the position of the trunk (as measured by a marker on the neck) and hand relative to the axle of the rear wheel. There were no intrasubject variations over the 80 min testing period for any of the recorded variables. This was interpreted as implying that at that work rate, fatigue was not exhibited as variations in the kinematics of movement. There were considerable differences between the style of one subject when compared to the other two over all the trials of each subject. This variation in style was most obvious in subject number PT who had a pumping style of push and recovery whereas subjects CA and GW employed a more continuous circular motion. The differences in the amount of forward lean of each subject were related to residual muscle strength. The discussion centered on the influence of the different styles on performance. PMID:4030799

  12. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22) to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can also gain a short-term benefit

  13. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOEpatents

    Davis, D.E.; Ingham, K.T.

    1987-04-28

    A flywheel comprising a hub having at least one radially projecting disc, an annular rim secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface. 2 figs.

  14. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Donald E.; Ingham, Kenneth T.

    1987-01-01

    A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

  15. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  16. Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs with Their Thoughts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157593.html Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs With Their Thoughts Scientists say technology might ... made it possible for monkeys to operate a robotic wheelchair using only the monkey's thoughts say the ...

  17. The Functional Classification and Field Test Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Susana María; Yanci, Javier; Otero, Montserrat; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw). The IWBF class was correlated (p<0.05) to the hand dynamometry (r= 0.84), the maximal pass (r=0.67) and the medicine ball throw (r= 0.67). Whereas the years of dependence on the wheelchair were correlated to the velocity (p<0.01): 5 m (r= −0.80) and 20 m (r= −0.77) and agility tests (r= −0.77, p<0.01). Also, the 20 m sprint with a ball (r= 0.68) and the T-test (r= −0.57) correlated (p<0.05) with the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. Therefore, in this team the correlations of the performance variables differed when they were related to the disability class, the years of dependence on the wheelchair and the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. These results should be taken into account by the technical staff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players. PMID:26240665

  18. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

  19. Rim inertial measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.; Anderson, W. W.; Phillips, W. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The invention includes an angular momentum control device (AMCD) having a rim and several magnetic bearing stations. The AMCD is in a strapped down position on a spacecraft. Each magnetic bearing station comprises means, including an axial position sensor, for controlling the position of the rim in the axial direction; and means, including a radial position sensor, for controlling the position of the rim in the radial direction. A first computer receives the signals from all the axial position sensors and computes the angular rates about first and second mutually perpendicular axes in the plane of the rim and computes the linear acceleration along a third axis perpendicular to the first and second axes. A second computer receives the signals from all the radial position sensors and computes the linear accelerations along the first and second axes.

  20. Wheelchair caster loading during frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina E; van Roosmalen, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Many wheelchair users are required or choose to use their wheelchairs as a motor vehicle seat during transport. It is therefore key that the wheelchair components be designed to tolerate crash-level loading conditions. Casters are particularly prone to failure under crash loading conditions. Our study evaluated wheelchair caster loading during 20g/48 kph frontal sled impact testing using an 85-kg surrogate wheelchair base (SWCB) with casters positioned on a load-measuring platform. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male test dummy was seated in the SWCB, which simulated a power wheelchair and was secured using four-point tiedowns. Various rear securement point heights and wheelchair seating systems were used to study their effect on caster loading. Caster normal loading was found to vary from 769 to 7,209 N depending on rear securement location and integrity of the seating system. Dynamic sled impact test results showed that normal loading of the front wheelchair casters was influenced by wheelchair seating system integrity and rear wheelchair securement height. Shear loading varied from 781 to 1,589 N and did not appear to be dependent on seat integrity or rear securement height. The load/time histories measured during dynamic impact testing can be used to guide the development of transit-safe caster design. PMID:15137727

  1. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  2. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  3. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards. PMID:19398366

  4. Getting the Right Wheelchair for Travel: A WC19-Compliant Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.; Schneider, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Children and adults who must remain seated in their wheelchairs while traveling are often at a disadvantage in terms of crash safety. The new voluntary wheelchair industry standard WC19 (short for Section 19 of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards) works to close the safety gap by providing design and performance criteria and test methods to assess…

  5. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  6. Degraded Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 3 May 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Southern Arabia Terra is very degraded (beaten up). This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story When you think of Arabia, you probably think of hot deserts and a lot of profitable oil reserves. On Mars, however, Southern Arabia Terra is a cold place of cratered terrain. This almost frothy-looking image is the badly battered edge of an ancient crater, which has suffered both erosion and bombardment from asteroids, comets, or other impacting bodies over the long course of its existence. A blanket of dust has also settled over the region, which gives the otherwise rugged landscape a soft and more subdued appearance. The small, round crater (upper left) seems almost gemlike in its setting against the larger crater ring. But this companionship is no easy romance. Whatever formed the small crater clearly whammed into the larger crater rim at some point, obliterating part of its edge. You can tell the small crater was formed after the first and more devastating impact, because it is laid over the other larger crater. How much younger is the small one? Well, its rim is also much sharper and more intact, which gives a sense that it is probably far more youthful than the very degraded, ancient crater.

  7. Upper Body-Based Power Wheelchair Control Interface for Individuals with Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Elias B.; Abdollahi, Farnaz; Chen, David; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Lee, Mei-Hua; Pedersen, Jessica; Pierella, Camilla; Roth, Elliot J.; Gonzalez, Ismael Seanez; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.

    2016-01-01

    Many power wheelchair control interfaces are not sufficient for individuals with severely limited upper limb mobility. The majority of controllers that do not rely on coordinated arm and hand movements provide users a limited vocabulary of commands and often do not take advantage of the user’s residual motion. We developed a body-machine interface (BMI) that leverages the flexibility and customizability of redundant control by using high dimensional changes in shoulder kinematics to generate proportional controls commands for a power wheelchair. In this study, three individuals with cervical spinal cord injuries were able to control the power wheelchair safely and accurately using only small shoulder movements. With the BMI, participants were able to achieve their desired trajectories and, after five sessions driving, were able to achieve smoothness that was similar to the smoothness with their current joystick. All participants were twice as slow using the BMI however improved with practice. Importantly, users were able to generalize training controlling a computer to driving a power wheelchair, and employed similar strategies when controlling both devices. Overall, this work suggests that the BMI can be an effective wheelchair control interface for individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries who have limited arm and hand control. PMID:26054071

  8. RIMS Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraepelien, Hans

    Computer routines for the translation of teacher-prepared mark sense forms to magnetic tape are described. The program, Receiving IMS (RIMS), is part of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS). It accepts mark sense sheets from remotely located Xerox 660 scanner copiers and/or IMS update information from…

  9. The Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The articles in this special edition were compiled to provide information to Canadian social studies teachers about Pacific Rim countries. Section 1, entitled "The Big Picture and Future Interests," contains: (1) "Social Studies for the 21st Century" (J. Tucker); (2) "Culture and Communication: A Perspective on Asian Studies for Tomorrow's…

  10. Rim Dispute Explodes in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Bennie C.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the history of Maryland's controversial requirement that school buses use single-piece wheel rims. The author suggests precautions for using explosion-prone multipiece rims. (MCG)

  11. Flux Coupling for Wheelchair Battery Chargers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Battery-charger concept for wheelchairs includes magnetic-flux coupling instead of electrical connections between power sources and wheelchairs. Concept meant to facilitate operation by patients whose disabilities make it difficult or impossible to maneuver common electrical plugs into or out of ac wall outlets.

  12. All-terrain self-leveling wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Andrew; Barrett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Limited mobility is something that affects approximately 6.8 million Americans. Approximately 1.7 million are using wheelchairs or scooters of some kind to enhance mobility. Everyday obstacles present a challenge to those in a wheelchair. Also, outdoor environments such as campsites, lakes, or even grass fields provide additional challenges for those with limited mobility. This project provides a solution to some of the limitations faced by those in wheelchairs. The wheels and tires of the wheelchair allow navigation through most terrains such as grass, gravel, and sand. Furthermore, as a wheelchair climbs or descends a hill it becomes unstable and the user risks tipping the wheelchair causing injury or even death. The self-leveling wheelchair uses an accelerometer to determine its angle of inclination and depending on user interface choices will display the angle or raise the seat with linear actuators to keep the seat level. This will keep the center of gravity towards the front of the chair when going up a hill and towards the back of the chair when going down a hill. This enhanced stability will give the user the confidence and ability to go places where most traditional wheelchairs can not. The chair has the ability to self-level at up to 45 degree and can provide a manual lift of 6 inches. The design presented in this report is patent pending. PMID:25405455

  13. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  14. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  15. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  16. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  17. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  18. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  19. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  20. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  1. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair....

  2. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  3. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  4. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  5. Context-Based Filtering for Assisted Brain-Actuated Wheelchair Driving

    PubMed Central

    Vanacker, Gerolf; del R. Millán, José; Lew, Eileen; Ferrez, Pierre W.; Moles, Ferran Galán; Philips, Johan; Van Brussel, Hendrik; Nuttin, Marnix

    2007-01-01

    Controlling a robotic device by using human brain signals is an interesting and challenging task. The device may be complicated to control and the nonstationary nature of the brain signals provides for a rather unstable input. With the use of intelligent processing algorithms adapted to the task at hand, however, the performance can be increased. This paper introduces a shared control system that helps the subject in driving an intelligent wheelchair with a noninvasive brain interface. The subject's steering intentions are estimated from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and passed through to the shared control system before being sent to the wheelchair motors. Experimental results show a possibility for significant improvement in the overall driving performance when using the shared control system compared to driving without it. These results have been obtained with 2 healthy subjects during their first day of training with the brain-actuated wheelchair. PMID:18354739

  6. The wheelchair as a full-body tool extending the peripersonal space

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Giulia; Noel, Jean Paul; Canzoneri, Elisa; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated multisensory mechanisms in the brain represent peripersonal space (PPS), a limited portion of space immediately surrounding the body. Previous studies have illustrated the malleability of PPS representation through hand-object interaction, showing that tool use extends the limits of the hand-centered PPS. In the present study we investigated the effects of a special tool, the wheelchair, in extending the action possibilities of the whole body. We used a behavioral measure to quantify the extension of the PPS around the body before and after Active (Experiment 1) and Passive (Experiment 2) training with a wheelchair and when participants were blindfolded (Experiment 3). Results suggest that a wheelchair-mediated passive exploration of far space extended PPS representation. This effect was specifically related to the possibility of receiving information from the environment through vision, since no extension effect was found when participants were blindfolded. Surprisingly, the active motor training did not induce any modification in PPS representation, probably because the wheelchair maneuver was demanding for non-expert users and thus they may have prioritized processing of information from close to the wheelchair rather than at far spatial locations. Our results suggest that plasticity in PPS representation after tool use seems not to strictly depend on active use of the tool itself, but is triggered by simultaneous processing of information from the body and the space where the body acts in the environment, which is more extended in the case of wheelchair use. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying body–environment interaction for developing and improving applications of assistive technological devices in different clinical populations. PMID:26042069

  7. The wheelchair as a full-body tool extending the peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Galli, Giulia; Noel, Jean Paul; Canzoneri, Elisa; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated multisensory mechanisms in the brain represent peripersonal space (PPS), a limited portion of space immediately surrounding the body. Previous studies have illustrated the malleability of PPS representation through hand-object interaction, showing that tool use extends the limits of the hand-centered PPS. In the present study we investigated the effects of a special tool, the wheelchair, in extending the action possibilities of the whole body. We used a behavioral measure to quantify the extension of the PPS around the body before and after Active (Experiment 1) and Passive (Experiment 2) training with a wheelchair and when participants were blindfolded (Experiment 3). Results suggest that a wheelchair-mediated passive exploration of far space extended PPS representation. This effect was specifically related to the possibility of receiving information from the environment through vision, since no extension effect was found when participants were blindfolded. Surprisingly, the active motor training did not induce any modification in PPS representation, probably because the wheelchair maneuver was demanding for non-expert users and thus they may have prioritized processing of information from close to the wheelchair rather than at far spatial locations. Our results suggest that plasticity in PPS representation after tool use seems not to strictly depend on active use of the tool itself, but is triggered by simultaneous processing of information from the body and the space where the body acts in the environment, which is more extended in the case of wheelchair use. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying body-environment interaction for developing and improving applications of assistive technological devices in different clinical populations. PMID:26042069

  8. Rim of 'Erebus'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The center upper portion of this image shows a portion of the rim of 'Erebus Crater' in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. This approximately true-color view from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is a composite of frames acquired on the rover's 657th Martian day, or sol, (Nov. 28, 2005). This is a small portion of a large panorama. Other portions of the panorama were still being shot three sols later. This view is a composite of separate images taken through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Pacific rim lures explorationists

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, L.

    1991-09-01

    The Pacific Rim has been far and away the most attractive hunting ground for explorationists in the past year. Observers point to political initiatives coupled with a growing demand as igniting the region's numerous hydrocarbon possibilities. This paper describes some of the new incentives and the resultant exploration results and developments in China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Vietnam. A major sign of the region's political maturity is the willingness for the countries involved to solve the longstanding disputes over the claims in hydrocarbon-prone South China Sea.

  10. Wheelchair wheels for use on sand.

    PubMed

    Hillman, M

    1994-05-01

    Mobility over sand and other rough surfaces can be a major problem for people in wheelchairs. From tests with a simple prototype, model tests and theoretical calculations the following observations were made for an attendant propelled chair. The rolling resistance of a wheelchair on sand may be improved by pulling, rather than pushing the chair. The use of a ball wheel at the front improves the rolling resistance, though standard large diameter rear wheels give acceptable performance. From these observations a prototype device for fitment to a standard wheelchair has been designed. PMID:8061911

  11. Arsia Mons Caldera Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image shows part of the caldera rim and floor of Arsia Mons. The arcuate fractures along the rim indicate multiple periods of activity -- both eruptions and collapse after eruptions. The floor of the caldera is very flat, having been filled by lava.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 238.8 East (121.2 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Wheelchair Design Changes: New Opportunities for Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Changes in wheelchair design (such as larger tires and lighter overall weight) make it possible for disabled persons to exercise more mobility and control and participate in a greater variety of recreational activities. (CL)

  13. Biomechanics and Strength of Manual Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Boninger, Michael L; Souza, Aaron L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Koontz, Alicia M; Cooper, Rory A

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objective: Previous investigations have identified muscular imbalance in the shoulder as a source of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Our aim was to determine whether a correlation exists between strength and pushrim biomechanical variables including: tangential (motive) force (Ft), radial force (Fr), axial force (Fz), total (resultant) force (FR), fraction of effective force (FEF), and cadence. Methods: Peak isokinetic shoulder strength (flexion [FLX], extension [EXT], abduction [ABD], adduction [ADD], internal rotation [IR], and external rotation [ER]) was tested in 22 manual wheelchair users with a BioDex system for 5 repetitions at 60°/s. Subjects then propelled their own manual wheelchair at 2 speeds, 0.9 m/s (2 mph) and 1.8 m/s (4 mph), for 20 seconds, during which kinematic (OPTOTRAK) and kinetic (SMARTWHEEL) data were collected. Peak isokinetic forces in the cardinal planes were correlated with pushrim biomechanical variables. Results: All peak torque strength variables correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with Ft, Fr, and FR, but were not significantly correlated with Fz, FEF, or cadence. Finally, there were no relationships found between muscle strength ratios (for example, FLX/EXT) and Ft, Fr, FR, Fz, or FEF. Conclusion: There was a correlation between strength and force imparted to the pushrim among wheelchair users; however, there was no correlation found in wheelchair propulsion or muscle imbalance. Clinicians should be aware of this, and approach strength training and training in wheelchair propulsion techniques separately. PMID:16869087

  14. Clouds Over Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds above the rim of 'Endurance Crater' in this image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity can remind the viewer that Mars, our celestial neighbor, is subject to weather. On Earth, clouds like these would be referred to as 'cirrus' or the aptly nicknamed 'mares' tails.' These clouds occur in a region of strong vertical shear. The cloud particles (ice in this martian case) fall out, and get dragged along away from the location where they originally condensed, forming characteristic streamers. Opportunity took this picture with its navigation camera during the rover's 269th martian day (Oct. 26, 2004).

    The mission's atmospheric science team is studying cloud observations to deduce seasonal and time-of-day behavior of the clouds. This helps them gain a better understanding of processes that control cloud formation.

  15. A study of vibration characteristics on a luxury wheelchair and a new prototype wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostens, I.; Papaioannou, Y.; Spaepen, A.; Ramon, H.

    2003-09-01

    The transmission of wheelchair vibrations to the body will influence comfort, performance and the long-term health of the user. Improved knowledge of vibration transmissibility and its variability enhances our understanding of various human responses to vibration. In this study, an outdoor experiment and an experiment with vibration simulation using two wheelchairs (high-quality models of a new prototype wheelchair taken from two different stages of the iterative production procedure) were performed. The study confirms that the human body is very sensitive to the frequency range of 0.5- 10 Hz, as found in the literature. Both wheelchairs equipped with passive suspension system did not perform adequately in this frequency range and even amplified the input signal at the resonance frequency (3- 4.5 Hz). As the risk of physical damage is not likely to improve with these wheelchair suspension systems, the future depends on new designs with higher low-frequency comfort and affordable additional costs.

  16. Teaching about the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Presents ERIC Digest No. 43 which examines the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim," reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum, and useful strategies for teaching about that part of the world. Lists references, including ERIC resources, used in the digest's preparation. (GEA)

  17. Teaching about the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) the meaning of the term Pacific Rim, (2) the reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum, and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. Provides a list of reference and ERIC resources dealing with this subject. (GEA)

  18. Motion Evaluation Of A Wheelchair Prototype For Disabled People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented the design solution and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. It's developed a motion controller based on a PWM technology, which allows the user to control the wheelchair motion. The wheelchair has the ability of forward - backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it's implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video cameras recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  19. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R. Lee; Miller, William C.; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W.; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants 116 powered wheelchair users. Intervention Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Main Outcome Measures Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). Results There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Conclusions Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. PMID:26232684

  20. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  1. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in New Jersey Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation © 2016 The Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation is a registered 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization

  2. Principles and Practices for Championship Performances in Wheelchair Field Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses training and competing in wheelchair sports. General principles of training, including scheduling and content considerations, are listed. Principles for specific wheelchair events (shotput, discus, and javelin) are detailed. A final part addresses training for the wheelchair pentathlon, which includes archery, swimming,…

  3. Rim of Henry Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 02 April 2002) This portion of the rim of Henry Crater has numerous dark streaks located on the slopes of the inner crater wall. These dark slope streaks have been suggested to have formed when the relatively bright dust that mantles the slopes slides downhill, either exposing a dust-free darker surface or creating a darker surface by increasing its roughness. The topography in this region appears muted, indicating the presence of regional dust mantling. The materials on floor of the crater (middle to lower left) are layered, with differing degrees of hardness and resistance to erosion producing cliffs (resistant layers) and ledges (easily eroded layers). These layered materials may have been originally deposited in water, although deposition by other means, such as windblown dust and sand, is also possible. Henry Crater, named after a 19th Century French astronomer, is 170 km in diameter and is located at 10.9o N, 336.7o W (23.3o E) in a region called Arabia Terra.

  4. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  5. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  6. Semi-autonomous wheelchair developed using a unique camera system configuration biologically inspired by equine vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Tran, Yvonne; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and development of a semi-autonomous wheelchair system using cameras in a system configuration modeled on the vision system of a horse. This new camera configuration utilizes stereoscopic vision for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, combined with a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. This unique combination allows for static components of an unknown environment to be mapped and any surrounding dynamic obstacles to be detected, during real-time autonomous navigation, minimizing blind-spots and preventing accidental collisions with people or obstacles. This novel vision system combined with shared control strategies provides intelligent assistive guidance during wheelchair navigation and can accompany any hands-free wheelchair control technology. Leading up to experimental trials with patients at the Royal Rehabilitation Centre (RRC) in Ryde, results have displayed the effectiveness of this system to assist the user in navigating safely within the RRC whilst avoiding potential collisions. PMID:22255649

  7. Motorized wheelchair driving by disabled children.

    PubMed

    Butler, C; Okamoto, G A; McKay, T M

    1984-02-01

    Thirteen children with physical disabilities, normal intelligence and stable family situations were studied to learn whether children under age 4 years could learn competent control of a motorized wheelchair. Their mean age was 31.3 months (range 20 to 37 months). There were six girls and seven boys. Each child required adaptive seating to manipulate the control stick in a conventional motorized wheelchair. Without specific training instructions, parents introduced the wheelchairs under pleasant circumstances at home. Daily logs and engine-hour-meters indicate that 12 children learned seven pre-established driving skills within a mean cumulative period of 34.4 hours (range 6.6 to 168 hours) distributed over an average 16.3 days (range 3 to 50 days). Actual cumulative wheelchair movement averaged 8.1 hours (range 1.7 to 26.1 hours). All learned a cluster of four to five skills over a one to five day period. Start-stop and circling were the two initial skills in all but one case. In four children, the first skill appeared after a latent period of 5, 6, 12 and 43 days. Children as young as 24 months can learn to drive motorized wheelchairs. Because of the theoretical importance of approximating normal gross motor milestones, powered mobility should be considered an early rehabilitative intervention for physically disabled children. PMID:6230066

  8. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  9. Optimization of Turbine Rim Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. H.; Tew, D. E.; Stetson, G. M.; Sabnis, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments are being conducted to gain an understanding of the physics of rim scale cavity ingestion in a turbine stage with the high-work, single-stage characteristics envisioned for Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) aircraft gas turbine engines fo the early 21st century. Initial experimental measurements to be presented include time-averaged turbine rim cavity and main gas path static pressure measurements for rim seal coolant to main gas path mass flow ratios between 0 and 0.02. The ultimate objective of this work is develop improved rim seal design concepts for use in modern high-work, single sage turbines n order to minimize the use of secondary coolant flow. Toward this objective the time averaged and unsteady data to be obtained in these experiments will be used to 1) Quantify the impact of the rim cavity cooling air on the ingestion process. 2) Quantify the film cooling benefits of the rim cavity purge flow in the main gas path. 3) Quantify the impact of the cooling air on turbine efficiency. 4) Develop/evaluate both 3D CFD and analytical models of the ingestion/cooling process.

  10. Portable basketball rim testing device

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, W. Bruce; Davis, Karl C.

    1993-01-01

    A portable basketball rim rebound testing device 10 is illustrated in two preferred embodiments for testing the rebound or energy absorption characteristics of a basketball rim 12 and its accompanying support to determine likely rebound or energy absorption charcteristics of the system. The apparatus 10 includes a depending frame 28 having a C-clamp 36 for releasably rigidly connecting the frame to the basketball rim 12. A glide weight 60 is mounted on a guide rod 52 permitting the weight 60 to be dropped against a calibrated spring 56 held on an abutment surface on the rod to generate for deflecting the basketball rim and then rebounding the weight upwardly. A photosensor 66 is mounted on the depending frame 28 to sense passage of reflective surfaces 75 on the weight to thereby obtain sufficient data to enable a processing means 26 to calculate the rebound velocity and relate it to an energy absorption percentage rate of the rim system 12. A readout is provided to display the energy absorption percentage.

  11. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  7. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  8. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  12. The Mobility Decision. 1990 Wheelchair Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Cliff

    1990-01-01

    This article presents tips for parents shopping for wheelchairs for children with special mobility needs. Manual versus power chairs, dimensions, maneuverability, weight, transportability, durability, adaptability, maximum/minimum speeds, battery life (for power chairs), climbing angle, and other features are discussed. Factors to consider in…

  13. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  14. On "impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults".

    PubMed

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical efficiency of propelling manual wheelchairs is a very important topic. Wheelchair users, clinicians, manufacturers and payers would all benefit from better understanding of mechanical efficiency. However, the measurement of the mechanical efficiency is a nontrivial challenge. Cowan et al deserve a lot of credit for tackling such a difficult problem in their article "Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults." The study demonstrated good internal validity in detecting a 4% difference in peak propulsion forces in wheelchairs that differed in mass by 9.1 kg. However, the instrumentation used to measure forces altered both the mass and inertia of the wheelchair-occupant system--2 factors that directly affect system energy. This approach, therefore, affects external validity, and the results cannot be extended to infer differences across wheelchair codes. That said, this study adds important information to the body of work into mechanical efficiency of wheelchairs. We now have evidence to suggest that addition of 9 kg and an 8 cm posterior displacement of axle position adversely affects propulsion biomechanics in an elderly cohort. Improved methodology can lead to mechanical efficiency measurement of different wheelchair models and different wheelchair options. PMID:19577018

  15. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution. PMID:27046566

  16. RESNA's position on wheelchairs used as seats in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Bertocci, Gina; Schneider, Lawrence W; Manary, Miriam; Karg, Patricia; Brown, Dalthea; Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This position paper is based on the premise that those who ride seated in wheelchairs are entitled to equivalent occupant safety when they are traveling in motor vehicles. The document summarizes research and best practice for safety and selection of crashworthy wheelchairs with the requisite features required by the WC19 safety standard when it is necessary for individuals to use a wheelchair as a seat in a motor vehicle. Recommendations are based on data from accident and injury databases, prior research and a synopsis of the design, testing, performance and labeling requirements of ANSI and ISO voluntary industry standards for wheelchair transportation safety. This paper is intended for an audience of consumers, rehabilitation and health care professionals, manufacturers of wheelchairs and wheelchair transportation equipment and those who make reimbursement and public policy decisions. PMID:22876735

  17. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  18. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  19. DE 1 RIMS operational characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Reasoner, D. L.; Biddle, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) on the Dynamics Explorer 1 spacecraft observes both the thermal and superthermal (50 eV) ions of the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. It is capable of measuring the detailed species distribution function of these ions in many cases. It was equipped with an integral electrometer to permit in-flight calibration of the detector sensitivities and variations thereof. A guide to understanding the RIMS data set is given. The reduction process from count rates to physical quantities is discussed in some detail. The procedure used to establish in-flight calibration is described, and results of a comparison with densities from plasma wave measurements are provided. Finally, a discussion is provided of various anomalies in the data set, including changes of channeltron efficiency with time, spin modulation of the axial sensor heads, apparent potential differences between the sensor heads, and failures of the radial head retarding potential sweep and of the -Z axial head aperture plane bias. Studies of the RIMS data set should be conducted only with a thorough awareness of the material presented here, or in collaboration with one of the scientists actively involved with RIMS data analysis.

  20. The Injury Risk to Wheelchair Occupants Using Motor Vehicle Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Rotko, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    The transportation safety experience for persons using wheelchairs is largely unknown. Motor vehicle crash involvement and injury frequency was examined in a telephone interview completed by 596 wheelchair users. Overall, 42% were drivers. Most subjects also rode as passengers in private vehicles (87%) and public vehicles (61%). Wheelchair use as a seat in the vehicle was higher among passengers than drivers. Crash involvement was highest among drivers and lower in passengers. Reported injuries from non-crash scenarios, though, were higher in passengers compared to drivers. Persons seated in wheelchairs in vehicles appear to be at a greater safety risk. PMID:15319121

  1. Power wheelchair driving challenges in the community: a users’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Torkia, Caryne; Reid, Denise; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W.; Demers, Louise; Archambault, Philippe S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is limited information on the difficulties individuals experience in manoeuvring their power wheelchairs during daily activities. The aim of this study was to describe the nature and context of power wheelchair driving challenges from the perspective of the user. Methods A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews with power wheelchair users. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify themes. Results Twelve experienced power wheelchair users were interviewed. Findings revealed that power wheelchair driving difficulties were related to the accomplishment of activities of daily living, and the influence of environmental context. Four key themes emerged: (1) difficulties accessing and using public buildings-facilities, (2) outdoor mobility, (3) problems in performing specific wheelchair mobility tasks/manoeuvres and (4) barriers and circumstances that are temporary, unforeseen or specific to a particular context. Conclusion This qualitative study furthers our understanding of the driving difficulties powered wheelchair (PW) users experience during daily activities. This knowledge will assist clinicians and researchers in two areas: in choosing assessment measures that are ecologically valid for power wheelchair users; and, in identifying and refining the content of training programs specific to the use of power wheelchairs. PMID:24640944

  2. Linking wheelchair kinetics to glenohumeral joint demand during everyday accessibility activities.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Catherine S; Symonds, Andrew; Suzuki, Tatsuto; Gall, Angela; Smitham, Peter; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if push-rim kinetics could be used as markers of glenohumeral joint demand during manual wheelchair accessibility activities; demonstrating a method of biomechanical analysis that could be used away from the laboratory. Propulsion forces, trunk and upper limb kinematics and surface electromyography were recorded during four propulsion tasks (level, 2.5% cross slope, 6.5% incline and 12% incline). Kinetic and kinematic data were applied to an OpenSim musculoskeletal model of the trunk and upper limb, to enable calculation of glenohumeral joint contact force. Results demonstrated a positive correlation between propulsion forces and glenohumeral joint contact forces. Both propulsion forces and joint contact forces increased as the task became more challenging. Participants demonstrated increases in trunk flexion angle as the requirement for force application increased, significantly so in the 12% incline. There were significant increases in both resultant glenohumeral joint contact forces and peak and mean normalized muscle activity levels during the incline tasks. This study demonstrated the high demand placed on the glenohumeral joint during accessibility tasks, especially as the gradient of incline increases. A lightweight instrumented wheelchair wheel has potential to guide the user to minimize upper limb demand during daily activity. PMID:26736796

  3. Wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1985-07-01

    The hysteresis loss theory of rolling resistance is developed for solid rubber wheelchair tires. The analysis is used to correlate test data for a clay-filled natural rubber and a polyurethane tire material. A discussion of tire rolling work, hysteresis loss factor measurement, and rolling loss measurement is presented. An example calculation of rolling resistance for a polyurethane tire is given in detail. The subject of solid rubber tire design is developed on the basis of recommended fatigue life theory and practice. It is shown that polyurethane tires have a useful fatigue life due to a high shear modulus at useful values of hardness. This characteristic of polyurethane, if exploited, is predicted to lead to a tire with a lower rolling resistance than other wheelchair tires available. The effect of surface roughness on rolling resistance is briefly discussed and some experimental results are listed. The purpose of this paper is to give the rehabilitation engineer the means for wheelchair tire rolling resistance and fatigue life design and the methods to assess the tire characteristics when a tire design is modified or a new tire material is contemplated. Other important design factors, such as wear and chemical degradation, are not discussed, but references are suggested for information on these topics. As in most research and development projects, this study raises problems which need further work. For example, the fatigue properties of the rubber compounds employed in this application are not completely understood; this subject is planned for future investigation. PMID:3835263

  4. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    PubMed

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level. PMID:25536537

  5. Riding the Rim of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This cylindrical-projection view was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired on sol 103 (May 8, 2004). Opportunity traversed approximately 13 meters (about 43 feet) farther south along the eastern rim of 'Endurance Crater' before reaching the beginning of the 'Karatepe' area. Scientists believe this layered band of rock may be a good place to begin studying Endurance because it is less steep and more approachable than the rest of the crater's rocky outcrops.

  6. A Microcomputer Training System for Electric Wheelchair Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, D. M. E.; Turner, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the development of a computer-based means of assessment and training for motorized wheelchair users. Programs designed to run on a BBC microcomputer that allow the ability of a severely handicapped person to be tested are explained; a joystick-controlled wheelchair simulation is described, and its use with children highlighted.…

  7. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  8. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  9. Learning to Drive a Wheelchair in Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Dean P.; Loge, Ken; Cram, Aaron; Peterson, Missy

    2011-01-01

    This research project studied the effect that a technology-based training program, WheelchairNet, could contribute to the education of children with physical disabilities by providing a chance to practice driving virtual motorized wheelchairs safely within a computer-generated world. Programmers created three virtual worlds for training. Scenarios…

  10. [Work physiological studies performed to optimate the lever propulsion and the seat position of a lever propelled wheelchair (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Engel, P; Neikes, M; Bennedik, K; Hildebrandt, G; Rode, F W

    1976-11-01

    Spiroergometric examination with defined work loads and permanent records of the common circulatory and metabolic values were carried out on a group of healthy adults and one wheelchair occupant, using a fixed wheelchair simulator with lever propulsion, which was connected to an ergometer. Comparative studies were performed in three different seat positions in relation to the lever, as well as six different lengths of the connecting rod. The best values were measured, under steadystate conditions, with increasing lengths of the connecting rod and posterior placement of the seat unit. The results are in agreement with the experience gained by other authors with respect to arm work, and show that the optimal efficiency of hand lever work is obtained in the anterior position. In this context it proved to be particularly advantageious from the ergonomic viewpoint, if, when bending forward, as necessitated by a long connecting rod, both the upper part of the body and the trunk musculature are employed. The practical consequences of the simulator tests on an adequate wheelchair design and wheelchair prescription are discussed. PMID:137501

  11. Accretionary dark rims in unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. V. V.; King, E. A.

    1981-12-01

    Textural and qualitative EDX investigations of dark-rimmed particles in six low petrologic type chondrites indicate that the rims accreted on host particles over a wide range of temperatures prior to initial accumulation and lithification of the meteorites in which the rimmed particles are now contained. Many dark rims are enriched in moderately volatile trace elements such as Na, Cl, P, and K, relative to the host particles and matrix. The range of physical/chemical environments associated with hypervelocity impacts may have offered the setting for the formation of dark-rimmed particles early in solar system history.

  12. On the development of an expert system for wheelchair selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madey, Gregory R.; Bhansin, Charlotte A.; Alaraini, Sulaiman A.; Nour, Mohamed A.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of wheelchairs for the Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients involves the examination of a number of complicated factors including ambulation status, length of diagnosis, and funding sources, to name a few. Consequently, only a few experts exist in this area. To aid medical therapists with the wheelchair selection decision, a prototype medical expert system (ES) was developed. This paper describes and discusses the steps of designing and developing the system, the experiences of the authors, and the lessons learned from working on this project. Wheelchair Advisor, programmed in CLIPS, serves as diagnosis, classification, prescription, and training tool in the MS field. Interviews, insurance letters, forms, and prototyping were used to gain knowledge regarding the wheelchair selection problem. Among the lessons learned are that evolutionary prototyping is superior to the conventional system development life-cycle (SDLC), the wheelchair selection is a good candidate for ES applications, and that ES can be applied to other similar medical subdomains.

  13. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  14. Shoulder joint kinetics of the elite wheelchair tennis serve

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Machar; Elliott, Bruce; Alderson, Jacque

    2007-01-01

    Background The shoulder is a key joint in wheelchair locomotion and commonly implicated in injury among virtually all wheelchair populations. In tennis, quantification of the shoulder joint kinetics that characterise the wheelchair serve could enhance injury prevention and rehabilitation practices as well as assist coaches evaluate the efficacy of their current technical instruction. Methods A 12‐camera, 250 Hz Vicon motion analysis system (Oxford Metrics Inc., UK) recorded the 3D flat (WFS) and kick serve (WKS) motions of two male top 30‐ranked international wheelchair players. Mechanical comparisons between wheelchair players, as well as to the previously captured data of 12 high‐performance able‐bodied players executing the same types of serves, were undertaken. Results Without the benefit of a propulsive leg action, wheelchair players developed lower peak absolute (∼32 m/s) and horizontal (∼28 m/s) pre‐impact racquet velocities than able‐bodied players (∼42 m/s, ∼38 m/s). Wheelchair serve tactics nevertheless necessitated that higher pre‐impact horizontal and right lateral racquet velocities characterised the WFS (∼29 m/s, WKS: ∼26 m/s) and WKS (∼4 m/s, WFS: ∼11 m/s) respectively. The shoulder joint kinetics that contributed to the differential racquet velocity profiles were mostly developed independent of wheelchair serve type, but varied with and were likely related to the level and severity of spinal cord injury of the individual players. Conclusions Compared with able‐bodied players, wheelchair players experienced matching pre‐ and post‐impact shoulder joint loads, such that wheelchair and able‐bodied playing populations appear subject to similar shoulder joint injury risk. PMID:17957009

  15. Home in a Wheelchair: House Design Ideas for Easier Wheelchair Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasin, Joseph

    Intended to aid in the building or purchase of a home suitable for use by a handicapped individual in a wheelchair, the booklet provides detailed design guidelines. Included is information on the decision process, finances, ramps, a car shelter, doors communication devices, electrical needs, windows, elevators and chair lifts, the kitchen, an…

  16. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and wheelers' quality of life: an exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Levy, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To provide an overview of associations between wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for both everyday and racing wheelchairs, wheeling-related upper limb injuries, and quality of life of manual wheelchair users through a synthesis of the available information. METHODS. A search of publications was carried out in PubMed and SportsDiscus databases. Studies on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, upper limb injuries associated with wheelchair propulsion and quality of life of wheelchair users were identified. Relevant articles cited in identified articles but not cited in PubMed or SportsDiscus were also included. RESULTS. Wheelchair sports participation has positive impact on quality of life and research in racing wheelchair biomechanics can indirectly promote the visibility of wheelchair sports. The impact of pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (a hybrid between manual and battery-powered wheelchairs) and geared manual wheels on wheelers' everyday life were discussed. CONCLUSIONS. The study of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics focuses on how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility and the accumulated knowledge can help to improve wheelchair users' mobility, reduce physical stress associated with wheelchair propulsion, and as a result, enhance quality of life. PMID:20932232

  17. The ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards: sample evaluation and guide to interpreting test data for prescribing power wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    This study is a joint project of ECRI and the National Rehabilitation Hospital, supported by a grant from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR, U.S. Department of Education, Agreement No. H133E80016). ECRI is the first independent laboratory to test power wheelchairs according to the standards of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (RESNA), now known as the Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology (AART); these standards will ultimately be distributed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). We tested 10 power wheelchairs, which are similar in size and configuration, from seven manufacturers; all units are intended for adult use. Our testing showed that none of the sample wheelchairs are ideal for all environments in which these devices are typically needed. Each unit has advantages that should be carefully considered when specifying a power wheelchair. Numerous factors are involved in prescribing power wheelchairs, and learning the subtle differences in features and performance of a particular model and how they will affect the user is difficult. In addition, acquiring objective information about power wheelchairs from manufacturers is not typically easy. Considering these factors, and because the standards on which we based our testing do not generally provide criteria for passing or failing models under test, we did not rate the units. The purpose of this article is to present the data collected in our study, using wheelchair performance characteristics based on some parts of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards, as an example of what prescribers can expect to receive from manufacturers and to provide guidance in interpreting and applying the data in writing power wheelchair prescriptions. Thus, this article provides an overview of the types of problems faced by those who specify power wheelchairs for users, the problems faced by the users themselves, and the

  18. On the Rim of 'Erebus'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for On the Rim of 'Erebus' (QTVR)

    This is the Opportunity panoramic camera's 'Erebus Rim' panorama, acquired on sols 652 to 663 (Nov. 23 to Dec. 5, 2005 ), as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was exploring sand dunes and outcrop rocks in Meridiani Planum. The panorama originally consisted of 635 separate images in four different Pancam filters, and covers 360 degrees of terrain around the rover and the full rover deck. Since the time that this panorama was acquired, and while engineers have been diagnosing and testing Opportunity's robotic arm, the panorama has been expanded to include more than 1,300 images of this terrain through all of the Pancam multispectral filters. It is the largest panorama acquired by either rover during the mission.

    The panorama shown here is an approximate true-color rendering using Pancam's 750 nanometer, 530 nanometer and 430 nanometer filters. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    This panorama provides the team's highest resolution view yet of the finely-layered outcrop rocks, wind ripples, and small cobbles and grains along the rim of the wide but shallow 'Erebus' crater. Once the arm diagnostics and testing are completed, the team hopes to explore other layered outcrop rocks at Erebus and then eventually continue southward toward the large crater known as 'Victoria.'

  19. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework. PMID:24110214

  20. Evaluation of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility using advanced biomechanical methods.

    PubMed

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Graf, Adam; Krzak, Joseph J; Reiners, Kathryn; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twelve subjects with SCI underwent motion analysis while they propelled their wheelchair at a self-selected speed and propulsion pattern. Upper extremity joint kinematics, forces, and moments were computed using inverse dynamics methods with our custom model. The glenohumeral joint displayed the largest average range of motion (ROM) at 47.1° in the sagittal plane and the largest average superiorly and anteriorly directed joint forces of 6.1% BW and 6.5% BW, respectively. The largest joint moments were 1.4% body weight times height (BW × H) of elbow flexion and 1.2% BW × H of glenohumeral joint extension. Pediatric manual wheelchair users demonstrating these high joint demands may be at risk for pain and upper limb injuries. These evaluation methods may be a useful tool for clinicians and therapists for pediatric wheelchair prescription and training. PMID:25802860

  1. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  2. Shoulder pain and time dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion variability.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Moon, Yaejin; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-07-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable repetitive mechanical strain on the upper limbs leading to shoulder injury and pain. While recent research indicates that the amount of variability in wheelchair propulsion and shoulder pain may be related. There has been minimal inquiry into the fluctuation over time (i.e. time-dependent structure) in wheelchair propulsion variability. Consequently the purpose of this investigation was to examine if the time-dependent structure in the wheelchair propulsion parameters are related to shoulder pain. 27 experienced wheelchair users manually propelled their own wheelchair fitted with a SMARTWheel on a roller at 1.1m/s for 3min. Time-dependent structure of cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in contact angle and inter push time interval was quantified using sample entropy (SampEn) and compared between the groups with/without shoulder pain using non-parametric statistics. Overall findings were, (1) variability observed in contact angle fluctuations during manual wheelchair propulsion is structured (Z=3.15;p<0.05), (2) individuals with shoulder pain exhibited higher SampEn magnitude for contact angle during wheelchair propulsion than those without pain (χ(2)(1)=6.12;p<0.05); and (3) SampEn of contact angle correlated significantly with self-reported shoulder pain (rs (WUSPI) =0.41;rs (VAS)=0.56;p<0.05). It was concluded that the time-dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion may provide novel information for tracking and monitoring shoulder pain. PMID:27134151

  3. Simulation model of a lever-propelled wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Ota, Yuki; Hase, Kazunori; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair efficiency depends significantly on the individual adjustment of the wheelchair propulsion interface. Wheelchair prescription involves reconfiguring the wheelchair to optimize it for specific user characteristics. Wheelchair tuning procedure is a complicated task that is performed usually by experienced rehabilitation engineers. In this study, we report initial results from the development of a musculoskeletal model of the wheelchair lever propulsion. Such a model could be used for the development of new advanced wheelchair approaches that allow wheelchair designers and practitioners to explore virtually, on a computer, the effects of the intended settings of the lever-propulsion interface. To investigate the lever-propulsion process, we carried out wheelchair lever propulsion experiments where joint angle, lever angle and three-directional forces and moments applied to the lever were recorded during the execution of defined propulsion motions. Kinematic and dynamic features of lever propulsion motions were extracted from the recorded data to be used for the model development. Five healthy male adults took part in these initial experiments. The analysis of the collected kinematic and dynamic motion parameters showed that lever propulsion is realized by a cyclical three-dimensional motion of upper extremities and that joint torque for propulsion is maintained within a certain range. The synthesized propulsion model was verified by computer simulation where the measured lever-angles were compared with the angles generated by the developed model simulation. Joint torque amplitudes were used to impose the torque limitation to the model joints. The results evidenced that the developed model can simulate successfully basic lever propulsion tasks such as pushing and pulling the lever. PMID:25571588

  4. Advanced robust tracking control of a powered wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia T; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic multivariable model of the wheelchair system is obtained including the presence of transportation lags. The triangular diagonal dominance (TDD) decoupling technique is applied to reduce this multivariable control problem into two independent scalar control problems. An advanced robust control technique for the wheelchair has been developed based on the combination of a TDD decoupling strategy and neural network controller design. The results obtained from the real-time implementation confirm that robust performance for this multivariable wheelchair control system can indeed be achieved. PMID:18003071

  5. Powered wheelchairs: are we enabling or disabling?

    PubMed

    Beaumont-White, S; Ham, R O

    1997-04-01

    Following the unsuccessful issue of three powered indoor National Health Service (NHS) wheelchairs, a survey was carried out of 40 users in a London wheelchair service to identify the problems with issue and possible areas for improvement to practice. The survey identified improvements that were necessary both from the service and the manufacturers' booklets. The improvements include the issue of written instructions and information to complement verbal instruction given at handover. Such information should be as interesting to read as possible, make use of appropriate language and diagrams (especially in area where English is often not the first language), colour, text and print size to maximise comprehension to these severely disabled users and often their elderly relatives or carers. The importance of the role of the rehabilitation engineer in training the user, giving instruction at handover and annual review are highlighted to ensure that the equipment remains working, suitable and up to date for the individual's needs. Training in interpersonal and communication skills and the importance of recall should also be emphasised. The implementation of the findings should lead to increasing contact with the service by the user, reduction in repair and replacement costs, regular review, correct supply and will therefore enable users to increase their independence with appropriate equipment. PMID:9141127

  6. At the Rim, Looking In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  7. Impact of Surface Type, Wheelchair Weight, and Axle Position on Wheelchair Propulsion by Novice Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Design Crossover trial. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Participants Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65−87y); men = 20, women = 33. Intervention Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces; tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included: (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m), and (4) 9.05kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Main Outcome Measures Average self-selected velocity, push-frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Results Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Conclusion Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. Effects of weight and axle position are independent. Greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions. PMID:19577019

  8. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansiot, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lo, B.; Yang, G. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

  9. A Driving Behaviour Model of Electrical Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Hamam, Y.; Djouani, K.; Daachi, B.; Steyn, N.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the presence of powered wheelchairs, some of the users still experience steering challenges and manoeuvring difficulties that limit their capacity of navigating effectively. For such users, steering support and assistive systems may be very necessary. To appreciate the assistance, there is need that the assistive control is adaptable to the user's steering behaviour. This paper contributes to wheelchair steering improvement by modelling the steering behaviour of powered wheelchair users, for integration into the control system. More precisely, the modelling is based on the improved Directed Potential Field (DPF) method for trajectory planning. The method has facilitated the formulation of a simple behaviour model that is also linear in parameters. To obtain the steering data for parameter identification, seven individuals participated in driving the wheelchair in different virtual worlds on the augmented platform. The obtained data facilitated the estimation of user parameters, using the ordinary least square method, with satisfactory regression analysis results. PMID:27148362

  10. Influence of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion Training in Adolescent Wheelchair Users, A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L.; Rice, Ian M.; Rice, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13–18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury. PMID:26042217

  11. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI): a 2-D virtual wheelchair control based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization and state control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dandan; Qian, Kai; Fei, Ding-Yu; Jia, Wenchuan; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to propose an effective and practical paradigm for a brain-computer interface (BCI)-based 2-D virtual wheelchair control. The paradigm was based on the multi-class discrimination of spatiotemporally distinguishable phenomenon of event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) in electroencephalogram signals associated with motor execution/imagery of right/left hand movement. Comparing with traditional method using ERD only, where bilateral ERDs appear during left/right hand mental tasks, the 2-D control exhibited high accuracy within a short time, as incorporating ERS into the paradigm hypothetically enhanced the spatiotemoral feature contrast of ERS versus ERD. We also expected users to experience ease of control by including a noncontrol state. In this study, the control command was sent discretely whereas the virtual wheelchair was moving continuously. We tested five healthy subjects in a single visit with two sessions, i.e., motor execution and motor imagery. Each session included a 20 min calibration and two sets of games that were less than 30 min. Average target hit rate was as high as 98.4% with motor imagery. Every subject achieved 100% hit rate in the second set of wheelchair control games. The average time to hit a target 10 m away was about 59 s, with 39 s for the best set. The superior control performance in subjects without intensive BCI training suggested a practical wheelchair control paradigm for BCI users. PMID:22498703

  12. The Pacific Rim: New Geographic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Douglas A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the vital development of the Pacific Rim. Advocates integrating the study of this region into social studies curricula. Criticizes the Eurocentric bias that results in ignoring the Pacific Rim's geography, history, literature, and languages. Reports on social studies programs, primarily in Alaska schools, where study of the Pacific Rim…

  13. Development and pilot testing of a kneeling ultralight wheelchair design.

    PubMed

    Mattie, Johanne L; Leland, Danny; Borisoff, Jaimie F

    2015-01-01

    "Dynamic wheeled mobility" offers "on the fly" seating adjustments for wheelchair users such that various activities performed throughout the day can be matched by an appropriate seat position. While this has benefits for user participation and health, the added weight in existing dynamic wheelchairs may impact the user's ability to transport the frame, e.g. into cars. Other dynamic features to enable more participation avenues are also desirable. This paper outlines the development of a "kneeling" ultralight wheelchair design that offers dynamic wheeled mobility functionality at a weight that is comparable to many existing ultralight wheelchairs. In addition, the wheelchair's kneeling function allows a lowered seat position to facilitate low-to-the-ground tasks such as floor transfers and other activities where sustained low level reaching may be required (e.g. playing with children, changing a tire, etc.). This paper also describes the development and pilot testing of an end user evaluation protocol designed to validate the wheelchair's functionality and performance. Successful realization and commercialization of the technology would offer a novel product choice for people with mobility disabilities, and that may support daily activities, health, improved quality of life, and greater participation in the community. PMID:26737420

  14. Yaw rate and linear velocity stabilized manual wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Sara J; Dahlstrom, Robert J; Condon, John P; Hedin, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    We present the development of a prototype novel low-power, inexpensive stability control system for manual wheelchairs. Manual wheelchairs, while providing the ability to maneuver in relatively small indoor spaces, have a high center of gravity making them prone to tipping. Additionally, they can easily slide on sloped surfaces and can even spin and tip when attempting to turn or brake too quickly. When used on ramps and in outdoor environments where the surface is rarely perfectly flat (slopes greater than 1∶20 (5%) are common), wheelchair users can easily encounter potentially dangerous situations. The design and evaluation of an accident prevention system for independent manual wheelchair users that increases independence by enabling mobility with greater confidence and safety is described. The system does not limit a wheelchair user's ability to manually brake, rather, if the system detects that the wheelchair is out of control, braking force will be added by the system to either one or both wheels. The prototype utilized inexpensive bicycle technologies for the wheel brake and electrical power generator assemblies. Custom servos were designed along with custom electronics and firmware in the prototype to evaluate performance. The goal of the project was to derive specifications for a control and actuation system that utilizes inexpensive bicycle components in this cost-sensitive application. The design is detailed and the final specifications provided. PMID:24109828

  15. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  16. Computer simulation to aid the risk assessment of wheelchair and special seating systems used in transport.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P D; Gibson, C; Wilcox, S J; Chong, A

    2009-01-01

    The crashworthiness of occupied proprietary wheelchairs, which are transported in motor vehicles, is currently assessed by physical crash testing in accordance with ISO 7176-19. If such wheelchairs are modified to meet the needs of the occupant, e.g. the addition of special seating, environmental control systems or life support equipment, then those making the modifications take on the manufacturer's responsibilities, one of these being the assessment of the modified wheelchair's ability to withstand vehicle crash forces. Destructively testing bespoke wheelchair designs is not practical so, currently, the transport-related risk is assessed using best engineering judgement. To improve this process virtual crash testing of the wheelchair and occupant was used. A modified crash criteria from ISO 7176-19 is proposed to enable assessment of the wheelchair's crashworthiness and provide the clinical engineer with an informed judgement of how both wheelchair alone and occupant and wheelchair together will behave in a crash. PMID:19848858

  17. Accessibilities of Wheelchair Users to Cross the Gaps and Steps between Platforms and Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Ikuo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Shoichiro; Sueda, Osamu

    Gaps and steps between platforms and trains reduce the accessibility and mobility of people with wheelchairs in railway transportations. Using an experimental platform, the observations are performed how gaps and steps influence their capabilities for manual wheelchair or electric powered wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. A quantity of Normalized Driving Force (NDF) is introduced to evaluate the manual wheelchair user's abilities in the case of getting on or off the trains. Three types of electric powered wheelchairs are also tested under the same experimental conditions as the manual wheelchair. The dynamic wheelchair driving force is measured by using a torque meter equipped on a wheelchair to analyze the required force when getting on the trains. To improve practical accessibility of such people, an assistive device for boarding the trains is designed and its effect is verified.

  18. Physiology of wheelchair racing in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Yagesh

    2002-01-01

    Wheelchair racing is one of the most popular sporting activities of individuals with spinal cord injury. Athletes with this impairment have unique changes in metabolic, cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and thermoregulatory systems, which reduce their overall physiological capacity compared with able-bodied individuals or individuals with other types of impairments. This review on spinal cord injury: presents the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation classification of wheelchair athletes; describes methods commonly used to characterise anaerobic and aerobic fitness; presents the findings of physiological studies that have evaluated wheelchair racing performance; identifies the risks associated with temperature regulation when competing in wheelchair races; and discusses special conditions that can influence wheelchair racing performance. Currently there is limited research that has examined the relationship between sprint or distance wheelchair racing performance and the anaerobic and aerobic components of physical fitness. Although the descriptive evidence indicates that the profiles of these athletes reflect their training and participation in these specific events, the association between their physiological profiles and real or simulated racing performance is unclear. The generally accepted concept that high values of aerobic and anaerobic power are strongly correlated with endurance and sprint racing performance, respectively, are not necessarily true in this population. Athletes with spinal cord injury have an impaired thermoregulatory capacity, because the compromised autonomic and somatic nervous system functions disrupt control of skin blood flow and sweating below the level of the lesion. As a result, they may be more susceptible to hyperthermia during distance wheelchair racing performance. Wheelchair athletes should follow recommendations advocated for able-bodied individuals to minimise their risks of heat stress during competition. Many

  19. 'Mazatzal' Rock on Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Spirit took this navigation camera image of the 2-meter-wide (6.6-foot-wide) rock called 'Mazatzal' on sol 76, March 21, 2004. Scientists intend to aggressively analyze this target with Spirit's microscopic imager, Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer before brushing and 'digging in' with the rock abrasion tool on upcoming sols.

    Mazatzal stood out to scientists because of its large size, light tone and sugary surface texture. It is the largest rock the team has seen at the rim of the crater informally named 'Bonneville.' It is lighter-toned than previous rock targets Adirondack and Humphrey. Its scalloped pattern may be a result of wind sculpting, a very slow process in which wind-transported silt and sand abrade the rock's surface, creating depressions. This leads scientists to believe that Mazatzal may have been exposed to the wind in this location for an extremely long time.

    The name 'Mazatzal' comes from a mountain range and rock formation that was deposited around 1.2 billion years ago in the Four Peaks area of Arizona.

  20. A wind tunnel database using RIM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, W. O., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering data base development which has become increasingly widespread to industry with the availability of data management systems is examined. A large data base was developed for wind tunnel data and related model test information, using RIM as the data base manager. The arrangement of the wind tunnel data into the proper schema for the most efficient database utilization is discussed. The FORTRAN interface program of RIM is used extensively in the loading phases of the data base and by the users. Several examples to illustrate how the Wind Tunnel Data base might be searched for specific data items and test information using RIM are presented.

  1. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  2. A Study of Magnetic Fields on Bright-Rimmed Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), which are located at periphery of HII regions, are considered to be potential sites for induced star formation by UV radiation from nearby massive stars. Many theorists have developed 2D/3D hydrodynamical models to understand dynamical evolution of such molecular clouds. Most simulations, however, did not always include the magnetic field effect, which is of importance in the astrophysics. This is because that there are few observation results examining the magnetic field configuration of BRCs in detail. In order to obtain information on magnetic field in and around BRCs, we have made near-infrared (JHKs) imaging polarimetry toward 24 BRCs showing strong interaction with HII region (Urquhart et al. 2009). We used the imaging polarimeter SIRPOL/SIRIUS (FOV ~7.7’ x 7.7’) mounted on IRSF 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory.We found that polarization vectors, i.e., magnetic fields inside the clouds, follow the curved bright rim just behind the bright rim for almost all of the observed BRCs. Our investigation into the relation between the ambient magnetic field direction and the UV radiation direction suggests a following tendency. In the case that the ambient magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of incident UV radiation, the clouds are likely to have bright rims with small curvatures. On the other hand, in the case that the ambient field is parallel to the UV radiation, they would have those with larger curvatures. In this presentation, we will present the physical quantities for these BRCs (i.e., magnetic field strength, the post shock pressure by the ionization front, etc.) as well as these morphological results.

  3. The Role of Parents and Caregivers in Providing Safe Transportation for Occupants Seated in Wheelchairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam; Bertocci, Gina

    2007-01-01

    The responsibility for providing safe transportation for travelers seated in wheelchairs is shared by many stakeholders, including wheelchair and tiedown/restraint manufacturers, vehicle modifiers and equipment installers, transit providers, rehabilitation technology suppliers, wheelchair/seating clinicians, and even informed and responsible…

  4. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  5. Relationship between Functional Classification Levels and Anaerobic Performance of Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula

    2010-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…

  6. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  7. Rare diseases: matching wheelchair users with rare metabolic, neuromuscular or neurological disorders to electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs)

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Lorraine H.; Frank, Andrew O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To describe the clinical features of electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchair (EPIOC) users with rare diseases (RD) impacting on EPIOC provision and seating. Method: Retrospective review by a consultant in rehabilitation medicine of electronic and case note records of EPIOC recipients with RDs attending a specialist wheelchair service between June 2007 and September 2008. Data were systematically extracted, entered into a database and analysed under three themes; demographic, diagnostic/clinical (including comorbidity and associated clinical features (ACFs) of the illness/disability) and wheelchair factors. Results: Fifty-four (27 male) EPIOC users, mean age 37.3 (SD 18.6, range 11–70) with RDs were identified and reviewed a mean of 64 (range 0–131) months after receiving their wheelchair. Diagnoses included 27 types of RDs including Friedreich’s ataxia, motor neurone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, arthrogryposis, cerebellar syndromes and others. Nineteen users had between them 36 comorbidities and 30 users had 44 ACFs likely to influence the prescription. Tilt-in-space was provided to 34 (63%) users and specialised seating to 17 (31%). Four users had between them complex control or interfacing issues. Conclusions: The complex and diverse clinical problems of those with RDs present unique challenges to the multiprofessional wheelchair team to maintain successful independent mobility and community living.Implications for RehabilitationPowered mobility is a major therapeutic tool for those with rare diseases enhancing independence, participation, reducing pain and other clinical features.The challenge for rehabilitation professionals is reconciling the physical disabilities with the individual’s need for function and participation whilst allowing for disease progression and/or growth.Powered wheelchair users with rare diseases with a (kypho) scoliosis require a wheelchair system that balances spine stability and movement to maximise

  8. Rim Fire Time Lapse, August 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse photography shows various perspectives of the 2013 Rim Fire, as viewed from Yosemite National Park. The first part of this video is from the Crane Flat Helibase. The fire is currently bu...

  9. Rim sign: association with acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Perlman, S.B.; Wilson, M.A.; Polcyn, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 218 hepatobiliary studies in patients clinically suspected of acute cholecystitis, a rim of increased hepatic activity adjacent to the gallbladder fossa (the rim sign) has been evaluated as a scintigraphic predictor of confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of 28 cases with pathologic confirmation of acute cholecystitis in this series, 17 (60%) demonstrated this sign. When associated with nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr, the positive predictive value of this photon-intense rim for acute cholecystitis was 94%. When the rim sign was absent, the positive predictive value of nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr for acute cholecystitis was only 36%. As this sign was always seen during the first hour postinjection, it can, when associated with nonvisualization, reduce the time required for completion of an hepatobiliary examination in suspected acute cholecystitis.

  10. How to Make an Active Zone: Unexpected Universal Functional Redundancy between RIMs and RIM-BPs.

    PubMed

    Acuna, Claudio; Liu, Xinran; Südhof, Thomas C

    2016-08-17

    RIMs and RIM-binding proteins (RBPs) are evolutionary conserved multidomain proteins of presynaptic active zones that are known to recruit Ca(2+) channels; in addition, RIMs perform well-recognized functions in tethering and priming synaptic vesicles for exocytosis. However, deletions of RIMs or RBPs in mice cause only partial impairments in various active zone functions and have no effect on active zone structure, as visualized by electron micrographs, suggesting that their contribution to active zone functions is limited. Here, we show in synapses of the calyx of Held in vivo and hippocampal neurons in culture that combined, but not individual, deletions of RIMs and RBPs eliminate tethering and priming of synaptic vesicles, deplete presynaptic Ca(2+) channels, and ablate active zone complexes, as analyzed by electron microscopy of chemically fixed synapses. Thus, RBPs perform unexpectedly broad roles at the active zone that together with those of RIMs are essential for all active zone functions. PMID:27537484

  11. Rimmed and edge thickened Stodola shaped flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, S.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1983-10-11

    A flywheel is described that is useful for energy storage in a hybrid vehicle automotive power system or in some stationary applications. The flywheel has a body composed of essentially planar isotropic high strength material. The flywheel body is enclosed by a rim of circumferentially wound fiber embedded in resin. The rim promotes flywheel safety and survivability. The flywheel has a truncated and edge thickened Stodola shape designed to optimize system mass and energy storage capability. 6 figs.

  12. Towards an intelligent wheelchair system for users with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Luis; Díaz, Marta; Bhaskar, Sonu; Minguez, Javier

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates an intelligent wheelchair, adapted for users with cognitive disabilities and mobility impairment. The study focuses on patients with cerebral palsy, one of the most common disorders affecting muscle control and coordination, thereby impairing movement. The wheelchair concept is an assistive device that allows the user to select arbitrary local destinations through a tactile screen interface. The device incorporates an automatic navigation system that drives the vehicle, avoiding obstacles even in unknown and dynamic scenarios. It provides the user with a high degree of autonomy, independent from a particular environment, i.e., not restricted to predefined conditions. To evaluate the rehabilitation device, a study was carried out with four subjects with cognitive impairments, between 11 and 16 years of age. They were first trained so as to get acquainted with the tactile interface and then were recruited to drive the wheelchair. Based on the experience with the subjects, an extensive evaluation of the intelligent wheelchair was provided from two perspectives: 1) based on the technical performance of the entire system and its components and 2) based on the behavior of the user (execution analysis, activity analysis, and competence analysis). The results indicated that the intelligent wheelchair effectively provided mobility and autonomy to the target population. PMID:20071276

  13. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauerfeind, Joanna; Koper, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Jacek; Urbański, Piotr; Tasiemski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day. PMID:26834880

  14. Shoulder model validation and joint contact forces during wheelchair activities

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melissa M.B.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Chronic shoulder impingement is a common problem for manual wheelchair users. The loading associated with performing manual wheelchair activities of daily living is substantial and often at a high frequency. Musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques can be used to estimate the joint contact forces occurring at the shoulder to assess the soft tissue loading during an activity and to possibly identify activities and strategies that place manual wheelchair users at risk for shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity musculoskeletal model and apply the model to wheelchair activities for analysis of the estimated joint contact forces. Upper extremity kinematics and handrim wheelchair kinetics were measured over three conditions: level propulsion, ramp propulsion, and a weight relief lift. The experimental data were used as input to a subject-specific musculoskeletal model utilizing optimization to predict joint contact forces of the shoulder during all conditions. The model was validated using a mean absolute error calculation. Model results confirmed that ramp propulsion and weight relief lifts place the shoulder under significantly higher joint contact loading than level propulsion. In addition, they exhibit large superior contact forces that could contribute to impingement. This study highlights the potential impingement risk associated with both the ramp and weight relief lift activities. Level propulsion was shown to have a low relative risk of causing injury, but with consideration of the frequency with which propulsion is performed, this observation is not conclusive. PMID:20840833

  15. Crash simulations of wheelchair-occupant systems in transport.

    PubMed

    Kang, W; Pilkey, W D

    1998-01-01

    A nonlinear multirigid body dynamic computer model has been developed to simulate the dynamic responses of a wheelchair-occupant system in a vehicle during a crash. The occupant, restrained by safety belts, is seated in a wheelchair that is, in turn, tied down in a vehicle. Validated extensively by crash sled tests at three laboratories, this model has been used to predict the responses of wheelchair-occupant systems in various crash environments. To evaluate the crashworthiness of different wheelchair tie-downs, the sensitivity of several design parameters, such as tiedown stiffness, wheel stiffness, and tiedown positions, has been studied using this model, and optimal values of these parameters for the wheelchair-occupant system have been obtained. Moreover, the model has been used to study the sensitivity of crash sled test pulse corridors in an effort to develop a sled test standard. It has been found that an existing ISO corridor allows large variation and should be "tightened." The model was implemented using a version of the multibody dynamic simulator, the Articulated Total Body program. PMID:9505255

  16. Comparing handrim biomechanics for treadmill and overground wheelchair propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Turner, Jeffrey T.; Guo, Liyun; Richter, W. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional study. Objectives To compare handrim biomechanics recorded during overground propulsion to those recorded during propulsion on a motor-driven treadmill. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Methods Twenty-eight manual wheelchair users propelled their own wheelchairs, at a self-selected speed, on a low-pile carpet and on a wheelchair accessible treadmill. Handrim biomechanics were recorded with an OptiPush instrumented wheelchair wheel. Results Across the two conditions, all handrim biomechanics were found to be similar and highly correlated (r > 0.85). Contact angle, peak force, average force, and peak axle moment differed by 1.6% or less across the two conditions. While not significant, power output and cadence tended to be slightly higher for the treadmill condition (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively), due to limitations in adjusting the treadmill grade. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, a motor-driven treadmill can serve as a valid surrogate for overground studies of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:21042332

  17. "Bedside" test of static rear stability of occupied wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R L; Kumbhare, D A; MacLeod, D A

    1989-03-01

    The assessment of static stability can be helpful in wheelchair prescription and adjustment, but ordinarily requires a tipping platform. We developed a simple "bedside" test of rear wheelchair stability, using a goniometer and a plumb line. The angle of the wheelchair handle while the occupied wheelchair was on a level surface was subtracted from the angle measured while the occupied chair was balanced over the rear axle. The intraobserver and interobserver reliability and the validity in comparison with platform testing were assessed by studying 30 patient-occupied wheelchairs. There was a high correlation (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) between the values obtained from the beside and platform tests and no significant difference between them. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were 0.87 (p less than 0.001) and 0.94 (p less than 0.001). There was no significant difference between the first and second test values done by a single observer; the mean difference (+/- 1SD) between observers, 1.3 degrees (+/- 1.6 degrees), was small but statistically significant. The bedside test is simple, reliable, valid, and suitable for use as a screening test for the platform assessment of rear stability. PMID:2923546

  18. Neuro-sliding mode multivariable control of a powered wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a neuro-sliding mode multivariable control approach for the control of a powered wheelchair system. In the first stage, a systematic decoupling technique is applied to the wheelchair system in order to reduce the multivariable control problem into two independent scalar control problems. Then two Neuro-Sliding Mode Controllers (NSMCs) are designed for these independent subsystems to guarantee system robustness under model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances. Both off-line and on-line trainings are involved in the second stage. Real-time experimental results confirm that robust performance for this multivariable wheelchair control system under model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances can indeed be achieved. PMID:19163456

  19. Spherical vision cameras in a semi-autonomous wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the methods developed for extending the capabilities of a spherical vision camera system to allow detection of surrounding objects and whether or not they pose a danger for movement in that direction during autonomous navigation of a power wheelchair. A Point Grey Research (PGR) Ladybug2 spherical vision camera system was attached to the power wheelchair for surrounding vision. The objective is to use this Ladybug2 system to provide information about obstacles all around the wheelchair and aid the automated decision-making process involved during navigation. Through instantaneous neural network classification of individual camera images to determine whether obstacles are present, detection of obstacles have been successfully achieved with accuracies reaching 96%. This assistive technology has the purpose of automated obstacle detection, navigational path planning and decision-making, and collision avoidance during navigation. PMID:21097098

  20. Design intelligent wheelchair with ECG measurement and wireless transmission function.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Chiang; Wang, Yi-Ming; Chang, Huai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of aging populations has produced widespread health awareness and magnified the need for improved medical quality and technologies. Statistics show that ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death for older people and people with reduced mobility; therefore, wheelchairs have become their primary means of transport. Hence, an arrhythmia-detecting smart wheelchair was proposed in this study to provide real-time electrocardiography (ECG)-monitoring to patients with heart disease and reduced mobility. A self-developed, handheld ECG-sensing instrument was integrated with a wheelchair and a lab-written, arrhythmia-detecting program. The measured ECG data were transmitted through a Wi-Fi module and analyzed and diagnosed using the human-machine interface. PMID:26444818

  1. Improvement of the classification system for wheelchair rugby: athlete priorities.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Viola C; Hart, Anne L; van Limbeek, Jacques; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2014-10-01

    A representative sample (N=302) of the wheelchair rugby population responded to a survey about the classification system based on prioritized items by International Wheelchair Rugby Federation members. Respondents stated, "The classification system is accurate but needs adjustments" (56%), "Any athlete with tetraequivalent impairment should be allowed to compete" (72%), "Athletes with cerebral palsy and other coordination impairments should be classified with a system different than the current one" (75%), and "The maximal value for trunk should be increased from 1.0 to 1.5" (67%). A minority stated, "Wheelchair rugby should only be open to spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions" (36%) and "There should be a 4.0 class" (33%). Results strongly indicated that athletes and stakeholders want adjustments to the classification system in two areas: a focus on evaluation of athletes with impairments other than loss of muscle power caused by spinal cord injury and changes in classification of trunk impairment. PMID:25211483

  2. REAL-TIME MODEL-BASED ELECTRICAL POWERED WHEELCHAIR CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel-slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3-D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A model based, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that model based control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds. PMID:19733494

  3. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  4. Wheelchair integrated occupant restraints: feasibility in frontal impact.

    PubMed

    VanRoosmalen, L; Bertocci, G E; Ha, D; Karg, P

    2001-12-01

    Individuals often use their wheelchair as a motor vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles. The current use of fixed vehicle-mounted wheelchair occupant restraint systems (FWORSs) often results in poor belt fit and discomfort. Additionally, satisfaction, usability and usage rate of FWORSs during transit use are often low. The automotive industry has shown improved occupant restraint usage, belt fit and injury protection when integrating the upper torso and pelvic restraint in a motor vehicle seat. This study compared occupant injury measures of a FWORS to a concept wheelchair integrated restraint system (WIRS) using a 20g frontal sled impact test with a 30 mph change in velocity. Neck loads, neck moments, head, pelvis and chest acceleration, sternum compression and knee and head excursion data were recorded from the wheelchair seated 50th percentile male hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD). The WIRS resulted in a lower head injury criteria (HIC) value, lower sternum compression and a lower upper-torso restraint load than the FWORS. Compared with the FWORS, increased head, knee and wheelchair excursions and higher neck loads and moments were measured in the WIRS test. Both restraint scenario injury parameters were complied with occupant injury criteria based on General Motors Injury Assessment Reference Values (GM-IARVs) and occupant kinematic requirements defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) voluntary standard, J2249. A higher motion criteria index was calculated for the WIRS scenario and a comparable combined injury criteria index was calculated for both restraint scenarios. The sled impact test showed WIRS concept feasibility, facilitating further development by industrial manufacturers who might further want to pursue this restraint principle to increase wheelchair occupant safety and comfort during transport in motor vehicles. PMID:11801410

  5. Teaching about the Pacific Rim. ERIC Digest No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest examines: (1) the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim"; (2) reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum; and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. The terms, Pacific Rim and Pacific Basin, are used. interchangeably; however, the "Rim" refers to those nations bordering the…

  6. Recycling of polyurethane-urea RIM

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.X.; Kresta, J.E.; Suthar, B.; Li, X.H.

    1997-12-31

    Polyurethane-urea (PUU) RIM are crosslinked materials, which cannot be reprocessed or recycled by using the conventional process. The chemical decrosslinking reaction or transesterification of themosetting polyurethanes by using various inorganic and organic catalysts were investigated. The recycling of waste PUU RIM materials (unpainted, painted and filler reinforced) through decrosslinking (transesterification) using low molecular weight glycols in presence of catalyst was evaluated. It was established that the transestification of PUU RIM can be carried out at the low glycol (EG)/RIM ratio (15/84.5) and that the usual recovery step for the excess glycol (EG) can be avoided resulting in an economical process. The process was scaled up in a 50 gallon reactor at the LymTal International Inc. successfully. It was established that the products from the decrosslinking of PUU RIM are a mixture of the liquid oligomers (LOs) containing urethane, OH and NH{sub 2} groups. These functional groups in LOs exhibit many potential applications as raw materials in the preparation of RIM coatings, adhesives, foams, sealants and composites. PUU RIM made from LOs exhibited promising and interesting results. Both solvent-based and waterborne urethane coatings could be made from LOs. Urethane adhesives made from LOs showed improvement of properties with increasing amounts of LOs. Structural adhesives based on epoxy and LOs were prepared and the effects of equivalent ratios and curing conditions on the adhesive strength of the epoxy/LO adhesives were investigated. Solvent-free coating based on epoxy and LOs was prepared and their properties were determined. Both wood fiber and glass fabric reinforced composites were prepared by using epoxy and LOs and they exhibited interesting properties for different potential applications.

  7. Neural network based diagonal decoupling control of powered wheelchair systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Nghia; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an advanced diagonal decoupling control method for powered wheelchair systems. This control method is based on a combination of the systematic diagonalization technique and the neural network control design. As such, this control method reduces coupling effects on a multivariable system, leading to independent control design procedures. Using an obtained dynamic model, the problem of the plant's Jacobian calculation is eliminated in a neural network control design. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified in a real-time implementation on a powered wheelchair system. The obtained results confirm that robustness and desired performance of the overall system are guaranteed, even under parameter uncertainty effects. PMID:23981543

  8. Rimmed and edge thickened Stodola shaped flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Satish V.; Stone, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    A flywheel (10) is described that is useful for energy storage in a hybrid vehicle automotive power system or in some stationary applications. The flywheel (10) has a body (15) composed of essentially planar isotropic high strength material. The flywheel (10) body (15) is enclosed by a rim (50) of circumferentially wound fiber (2) embedded in resin (3). The rim (50) promotes flywheel (10) safety and survivability. The flywheel (10) has a truncated and edge thickened Stodola shape designed to optimize system mass and energy storage capability.

  9. East Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A high point on the distant eastern rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon in this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars.

    That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 34 kilometers (21 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  10. North Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A northern portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon of this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 7, 2009, during the 1,820st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars.

    That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  11. Effect of Wheelchair Frame Material on Users' Mechanical Work and Transmitted Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair propulsion exposes the user to a high risk of shoulder injury and to whole-body vibration that exceeds recommendations of ISO 2631-1:1997. Reducing the mechanical work required to travel a given distance (WN-WPM, weight-normalized work-per-meter) can help reduce the risk of shoulder injury, while reducing the vibration transmissibility (VT) of the wheelchair frame can reduce whole-body vibration. New materials such as titanium and carbon are used in today's wheelchairs and are advertised to improve both parameters, but current knowledge on this matter is limited. In this study, WN-WPM and VT were measured simultaneously and compared between six folding wheelchairs (1 titanium, 1 carbon, and 4 aluminium). Ten able-bodied users propelled the six wheelchairs on three ground surfaces. Although no significant difference of WN-WPM was found between wheelchairs (P < 0.1), significant differences of VT were found (P < 0.05). The carbon wheelchair had the lowest VT. Contrarily to current belief, the titanium wheelchair VT was similar to aluminium wheelchairs. A negative correlation between VT and WN-WPM was found, which means that reducing VT may be at the expense of increasing WN-WPM. Based on our results, use of carbon in wheelchair construction seems promising to reduce VT without increasing WN-WPM. PMID:25276802

  12. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adjusted to the angle of the stairs. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP for a device described... wheelchair shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adjusted to the angle of the stairs. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP for a device described... wheelchair shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in...

  14. Principles and Practices for Championship Performances in Wheelchair Track Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses training methods and approaches for wheelchair track and field. Detailed information and charts are presented on types of workouts (such as interval, distance, rhythm, speed play, and pace work) and mechanics of track events. A section on relay strategy and coaching approaches concludes the document. (CL)

  15. Student Attitudes toward Intimacy with Persons Who Are Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Irmo; Chan, Roy; Feist, Amber; Flores-Torres, Lelia

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored whether students would be attracted to having an intimate relationship with a wheelchair user if participants were able to first see a head shot photo and later read a short biography of the person. Four hundred and eight undergraduate students were surveyed regarding their interest in potentially being friends, dating…

  16. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3890...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3890...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3890...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3880 Special...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940...

  9. Gender and Attitudes toward People Using Wheelchairs: A Multidimensional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Werner, Shirli; Findler, Liora

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of observer's gender and target's gender on attitudes toward people who use wheelchairs due to a physical disability. Four hundred four Jewish Israeli students without disabilities completed the "Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities" (MAS). Initially, confirmatory factor…

  10. Multidimensional Self-Efficacy and Affect in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…

  11. Temporal parameters estimation for wheelchair propulsion using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manoela; Ding, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Due to lower limb paralysis, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) rely on their upper limbs for mobility. The prevalence of upper extremity pain and injury is high among this population. We evaluated the performance of three triaxis accelerometers placed on the upper arm, wrist, and under the wheelchair, to estimate temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion. Twenty-six participants with SCI were asked to push their wheelchair equipped with a SMART(Wheel). The estimated stroke number was compared with the criterion from video observations and the estimated push frequency was compared with the criterion from the SMART(Wheel). Mean absolute errors (MAE) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement. Results showed reasonable accuracies especially using the accelerometer placed on the upper arm where the MAPE was 8.0% for stroke number and 12.9% for push frequency. The ICC was 0.994 for stroke number and 0.916 for push frequency. The wrist and seat accelerometer showed lower accuracy with a MAPE for the stroke number of 10.8% and 13.4% and ICC of 0.990 and 0.984, respectively. Results suggested that accelerometers could be an option for monitoring temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:25105133

  12. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention. PMID:26479206

  13. HMM based automated wheelchair navigation using EOG traces in EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Fayeem; Arof, Hamzah; Mokhtar, Norrima; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a wheelchair navigation system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM), which we developed to assist those with restricted mobility. The semi-autonomous system is equipped with obstacle/collision avoidance sensors and it takes the electrooculography (EOG) signal traces from the user as commands to maneuver the wheelchair. The EOG traces originate from eyeball and eyelid movements and they are embedded in EEG signals collected from the scalp of the user at three different locations. Features extracted from the EOG traces are used to determine whether the eyes are open or closed, and whether the eyes are gazing to the right, center, or left. These features are utilized as inputs to a few support vector machine (SVM) classifiers, whose outputs are regarded as observations to an HMM. The HMM determines the state of the system and generates commands for navigating the wheelchair accordingly. The use of simple features and the implementation of a sliding window that captures important signatures in the EOG traces result in a fast execution time and high classification rates. The wheelchair is equipped with a proximity sensor and it can move forward and backward in three directions. The asynchronous system achieved an average classification rate of 98% when tested with online data while its average execution time was less than 1 s. It was also tested in a navigation experiment where all of the participants managed to complete the tasks successfully without collisions.

  14. Neural and fuzzy robotic hand control.

    PubMed

    Tascillo, A; Bourbakis, N

    1999-01-01

    An efficient first grasp for a wheelchair robotic arm-hand with pressure sensing is determined and presented. The grasp is learned by combining the advantages of neural networks and fuzzy logic into a hybrid control algorithm which learns from its tip and slip control experiences. Neurofuzzy modifications are outlined, and basic steps are demonstrated in preparation for physical implementation. Choice of object approach vector based on fuzzy tip and slip data and an expert supervisor, as well as training of a diagnostic neural tip and slip controller, are the focus of this work. PMID:18252342

  15. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Soltau, Shelby L.; Slowik, Jonathan S.; Requejo, Philip S.; Mulroy, Sara J.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free), level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast), and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded). All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding 5°. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment. PMID:26125019

  16. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Haselschwardt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    A Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) has been developed to service a circular floor area in variable gravity. On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry heavy equipment between various locations within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, moon, Mars, etc). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. This paper describes the RIMS system which is scalable for application in a variety of circular habitat volumes.

  17. Development of a wheelchair occupant injury risk assessment method and its application in the investigation of wheelchair securement point influence on frontal crash safety.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G E; Hobson, D A; Digges, K H

    2000-03-01

    To promote proper wheelchair securement in transportation, the proposed ANSI/RESNA Standard on Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles will require that all transit wheelchairs be equipped with four securement points compatible with strap-type tiedowns. Through computer simulations, the location of these securement points has been found to influence wheelchair user response to a frontal crash. This study develops and employs an injury risk assessment method to compare the crashworthiness of various securement point configurations. The comparative injury risk assessment method is designed to predict the risk associated with internalized crash forces, as well as risk associated with secondary occupant impact with the vehicle interior. Injury criteria established by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and General Motors, along with excursion limitations set by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2249 Wheelchair Tiedowns and Occupant Restraint Systems (WTORS) Standard were used as benchmarks for the risk assessment method. The simulation model subjected a secured commercial powerbase wheelchair with a seated 50th percentile male Hybrid III test dummy to a 20 g/30 mph crash. The occupant was restrained using pelvic and shoulder belts, and the wheelchair was secured with four strap-type tiedowns. Results indicated that securement points located 1.5 in to 2.5 in above the evaluated wheelchair's center of gravity provide the most effective occupant protection. PMID:10779116

  18. Aerothermal experiments in turbine rim seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Lionel Obadiah, Jr.

    Purge flows are necessary for ensuring that hot gasses do not penetrate the thermally sensitive rim seal and disk cavity regions of turbines. The temperature and mass flow rate of the purge air can affect the component life and aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Therefore it is of interest to understand the basic mechanisms that govern this complex flow problem. The present work focuses on two turbine rim seal investigations. The first focused on temperature measurements in the rim cavity region of a rotating, high-speed, low-pressure turbine as means to quantify a rim seal's effectiveness. The seal had a realistic geometry with a small axial overlap between the stationary and rotating components. The purge flow rate was varied from 0 to 1 percent of the core mass flow rate. The results will describe the temperatures as well as the seal's effectiveness as a function of the purge flow rate, and turbine operating point. The second was a study on the effect of purge flow on the aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Exit flow field surveys were taken in both a low pressure turbine stage and a high pressure turbine stage. Also a computational study was done on the low pressure turbine stage to add insight into the effect of purge flow on turbine stage performance. In addition, the computation results provide insight into the effect of purge flow on the low pressure turbine blade passage flow field.

  19. Pacific Rim Partnerships: Alaska's Bold Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrett, William H.; Calkins, Annie

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Alaska Sister Schools Network, formed in 1985 to create opportunities for Alaskan students to experience more directly the cultural and economic perspectives of their Pacific Rim neighbors. Network organizers go beyond the "pen-pal" approach to encourage three partnership levels: initial acquaintance, curriculum development, and…

  20. More Material on the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights a variety of ERIC materials for teaching about the Pacific Rim. Titles include "Teaching about South Korea"; "Bringing Chinese Culture Alive through Language"; "Teaching about Japan"; "Teaching about Korea: Elementary and Secondary Activities"; and "Cultural Differences in Self-Consciousness and Self-Monitoring." (GEA)

  1. Shared control strategies for obstacle avoidance tasks in an intelligent wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Hoang T; Nguyen, Hung T; Willey, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of shared control strategy for an intelligent wheelchair to assist a disable user in performing obstacle avoidance tasks. The system detects obstacles in front of the wheelchair using a laser range finder sensor. As the wheelchair moves the information from the laser range finder is combined with data from the encoders mounted in its driving wheels to build a 360 degrees real-time map. The accuracy of the map is improved by eliminating the systematic error that would result from both the uncertainty of effective wheelbase and unequal driving wheel diameters. The usable wheelchair accessible space is determined by including the actual wheelchair dimensions in producing the real-time map. In making a decision the shared control method considers the user's intentions via the head-movement interface, accessible space of the environment and user safety. The experiments show promising results in the intelligent wheelchair system. PMID:19163652

  2. Car Transfer and Wheelchair Loading Techniques in Independent Drivers with Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Haubert, Lisa Lighthall; Mulroy, Sara J.; Hatchett, Patricia E.; Eberly, Valerie J.; Maneekobkunwong, Somboon; Gronley, Joanne K.; Requejo, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Car transfers and wheelchair (WC) loading are crucial for independent community participation in persons with complete paraplegia from spinal cord injury, but are complex, physically demanding, and known to provoke shoulder pain. This study aimed to describe techniques and factors influencing car transfer and WC loading for individuals with paraplegia driving their own vehicles and using their personal WCs. Sedans were the most common vehicle driven (59%). Just over half (52%) of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer. Overall, the leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver’s seat (66%) prior to transfer and the trailing hand was most often place on the WC seat (48%). Vehicle height influenced leading hand placement but not leg placement such that drivers of higher profile vehicles were more likely to place their hand on the driver’s seat than those who drove sedans. Body lift time was negatively correlated with level of injury and age and positively correlated with vehicle height and shoulder abduction strength. Drivers who transferred with their leading hand on the steering wheel had significantly higher levels of shoulder pain than those who placed their hand on the driver’s seat or overhead. The majority of participants used both hands (62%) to load their WC frame, and overall, most loaded their frame into the back (62%) vs. the front seat. Sedan drivers were more likely to load their frame into the front seat than drivers of higher profile vehicles (53 vs. 17%). Average time to load the WC frame (10.7 s) was 20% of the total WC loading time and was not related to shoulder strength, frame weight, or demographic characteristics. Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators. Understanding car transfers and WC loading in independent drivers is crucial to prevent shoulder pain and injury and preserve community participation. PMID:26442253

  3. Distal Radius Volar Rim Fracture Fixation Using DePuy-Synthes Volar Rim Plate.

    PubMed

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Tarabochia, Matthew; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-03-01

    Background To assess the results of distal radius fractures with the involvement of the volar rim fixed with the DePuy-Synthes Volar Rim Plate. Case Description We searched for the patients with volar rim fracture and/or volar rim fractures as part of a complex fracture fixed with a volar rim plate. Ten patients met the inclusion criteria: three patients with type 23B3, six patients with type 23C, and one patient with very distal type 23A. The mean follow-up was 14 months (range: 2-26). Fractures healed in all patients. Of the three patients with isolated volar rim fractures (type 23B3), two patients had no detectable deficits in motion. These patients had an average Gartland and Werley score of 9 (range: 2-14). Of the other seven patients (six with type 23C and one with type 23A fracture), three patients healed with full range of motion and four had some deficits in range of motion. Two patients had excellent results, three had good results, and two had fair results using the Gartland and Werley categorical rating. One patient healed with a shortened radius and ulnar impingement requiring a second surgery for ulnar head resection arthroplasty. Literature Review Results after nonoperative treatment of volar rim fractures are not satisfactory and often require subsequent corrective osteotomy. Satisfactory outcomes are achieved when the fragments are well reduced and secured regardless of the device type. Clinical Relevance Volar rim plates give an adequate buttress of the volar radius distal to volar projection of the lunate facet and do not interfere with wrist mobility. Furthermore, the dorsal fragments can be fixed securely through the volar approach eliminating the need for a secondary posterior incision. However, patients should be informed of the potential problems and the need to remove the plate if symptoms develop. PMID:26855829

  4. Quantitative Models of CAI Rim Layer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1995-09-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to account for the ~50 micrometer-thick layer sequences (Wark-Lovering rims) that typically surround coarse-grained Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), but to date no consensus has emerged on how these rims formed. A two-step process-- flash heating of CAIs to produce a refractory residue on the margins of CAIs [1,2,3], followed by reaction and diffusion between CAIs or the refractory residue and an external medium rich in Mg, Si and other ferromagnesian and volatile elements to form the layers [3,4,5]-- may have formed the rims. We have tested the second step of this process quantitatively, and show that many, but not all, of the layering characteristics of CAI rims in the Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka CV3 chondrites can be explained by steady-state reaction and diffusion between CAIs and an external medium rich in Mg and Si. Moreover, observed variations in the details of the layering from one CAI to another can be explained primarily by differences in the identity and composition of the external medium, which appears to have included vapor alone, vapor + olivine, and olivine +/- clinopyroxene +/- vapor. An idealized layer sequence for CAI rims in Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka can be represented as MSF|S|AM|D|O, where MSF = melilite (M) + spinel (S) + fassaite (F) in the interior of CAIs; S = spinel-rich layer; AM = a layer consisting either of anorthite (A) alone, or M alone, or both A and M; D = a clinopyroxene layer consisting mainly of aluminous diopside (D) that is zoned to fassaite towards the CAI; and O = olivine-rich layer, composed mainly of individually zoned olivine grains that apparently pre-existed layer formation [3]. A or M are absent between the S and D layers in roughly half of the rims. The O layer varies considerably in thickness (0-60 micrometers thick) and in porosity from rim to rim, with olivine grains either tightly intergrown to form a compact layer or arranged loosely on the outer surfaces of the CAIs

  5. DOE DEF RIM-to-IGES. File Writer documentation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, K.L.; Leake, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document will define the design specifications for the RIM-to-IGES File Writer Program. It describes the purpose of the File Writer, lists references, defines the structure of the program, and discusses the Fortran/RIM interface.

  6. 9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF CRENELATED LAVA STONE GUARD WALL AND ROCK CUT OPPOSITE. NOTE CATTLE GUARD ACROSS ROAD PARTIALLY PAVED OVER. - Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  7. Support of Wheelchairs Using Pheromone Information with Two Types of Communication Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Nitta, Katsumi

    In this paper, we propose a communication framework which combined two types of communication among wheelchairs and mobile devices. Due to restriction of range of activity, there is a problem that wheelchair users tend to shut themselves up in their houses. We developed a navigational wheelchair which loads a system that displays information on a map through WWW. However, this wheelchair is expensive because it needs a solid PC, a precise GPS, a battery, and so on. We introduce mobile devices and use this framework to provide information to wheelchair users and to facilitate them to go out. When a user encounters other users, they exchange messages which they have by short-distance wireless communication. Once a message is delivered to a navigational wheelchair, the wheelchair uploads the message to the system. We use two types of pheromone information which represent trends of user's movement and existences of a crowd of users. First, when users gather, ``crowd of people pheromone'' is emitted virtually. Users do not send these pheromones to the environment but carry them. If the density exceeds the threshold, messages that express ``people gethered'' are generated automatically. The other pheromone is ``movement trend pheromone'', which is used to improve probability of successful transmissions. From results of experiments, we concluded that our method can deliver information that wheelchair users gathered to other wheelchairs.

  8. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties. PMID:25785910

  9. Power wheelchair range testing and energy consumption during fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; VanSickle, D P; Albright, S J; Stewart, K J; Flannery, M; Robertson, R N

    1995-10-01

    The range of a power wheelchair depends on many factors including: battery type, battery state, wheelchair/rider weight, terrain, the efficiency of the drive train, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three methods of estimating power wheelchair range. Another significant purpose was to compare the current draw on pavement to current draw on an International Standards Organization (ISO) Double Drum tester at one m/sec. Tests were performed on seven different power wheelchairs unloaded, and loaded with an ISO 100 kg test dummy. Each chair was configured according to the manufacturer's specifications, and tires were properly inflated. Experienced test technicians were used for the tennis court tests, and treadmill tests. An ISO 100 kg test dummy was used for the ISO Double Drum test. Energy consumption was measured over a distance of 1500 m for each of the three test conditions. The rolling surface was level in all cases. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) between the predicted range at maximum speed for the three tests. Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in estimated range at maximum speed between the Double Drum test and the treadmill test, as well as between the Double Drum test and the tennis court test. Our results indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the predicted range at maximal speed between the treadmill and tennis court tests. A simple relationship does not exist between the results of range testing with the Double Drum tester and the tennis court. An alternative would be to permit the use of a treadmill for range testing as simple relationships between all pertinent treadmill and tennis court range data were found. For the Double Drum tester used, the current demand is higher than under normal usage. This presents a problem as current is related to load torque in a power wheelchair. Hence, the Double

  10. Rim-spoke composite flywheels: Stress and vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Kiraly, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Elementary relations are described to determine the material utilization efficiency of a thin wall rim composite flywheel over other configurations. An algorithm is generated for the automatic selection of the optimum composite material for a given thin rim flywheel environment. Subsequently, the computer program NASTRAN is used to perform a detailed stress and vibration analysis of thin wall cylindrical shell rim spoke, single rim and multirim composite flywheels for a specific application.

  11. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  12. Rim Sim: A Role-Play Simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Robert C.; Frew, Suzanne L.; Howell, David G.; Karl, Herman A.; Rudin, Emily B.

    2003-01-01

    Rim Sim is a 6-hour, eight-party negotiation that focuses on creating a framework for the long-term disaster-recovery efforts. It involves a range of players from five countries affected by two natural disasters: a typhoon about a year ago and an earthquake about 6 months ago. The players are members of an International Disaster Working Group (IDWG) that has been created by an international commission. The IDWG has been charged with drawing up a framework for managing two issues: the reconstruction of regionally significant infrastructure and the design of a mechanism for allocating funding to each country for reconstruction of local infrastructure and ongoing humanitarian needs. The first issue will involve making choices among five options (two harbor options, two airport options, and one rail-line option), each of which will have three levels at which to rebuild. The second issue will involve five starting-point options. Participants are encouraged to invent other options for both issues. The goal of Rim Sim is to raise questions about traditional approaches to disaster-preparedness planning and reconstruction efforts in an international setting, in this case the Pacific Rim. Players must confront the reverberating effects of disasters and the problems of using science and technical information in decisionmaking, and are introduced to a consensus-building approach emphasizing face-to-face dialog and multinational cooperation in dealing with humanitarian concerns, as well as long-term efforts to reconstruct local and regional infrastructure. The Rim Sim simulation raises four key points: ripple effects of disasters, role of science, multiparty negotiation, and building personal relationships.

  13. Riding the Rim of 'Endurance' (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This polar-projection view was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired on sol 103 (May 8, 2004). Opportunity traversed approximately 13 meters (about 43 feet) farther south along the eastern rim of 'Endurance Crater' before reaching the beginning of the 'Karatepe' area. Scientists believe this layered band of rock may be a good place to begin studying Endurance because it is less steep and more approachable than the rest of the crater's rocky outcrops.

  14. Crater Rim Path, Sol 1,215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The route followed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during its exploration partway around the rim of Victoria Crater is marked on this map. The rover first reached the edge of the crater on it's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). This map shows travels through sol 1,215 (June 24, 2007). The underlying image is from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  15. The Rocky Road to the Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rocky road the rover traversed to reach its current position 16 meters (52 feet) away from the rim of the crater called 'Bonneville.' The terrain here slopes upward about five degrees. To the upper right is the rock dubbed 'Hole Point,' which is about 60 centimeters (two feet) across. This image was taken on the 63rd martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission.

  16. The Articulated Alar Rim Graft: Reengineering the Conventional Alar Rim Graft for Improved Contour and Support.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse C; Kim, Haena; Chance, Elizabeth; Davis, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Surgical refinement of the wide nasal tip is challenging. Achieving an attractive, slender, and functional tip complex without destabilizing the lower nasal sidewall or deforming the contracture-prone alar rim is a formidable task. Excisional refinement techniques that rely upon incremental weakening of wide lower lateral cartilages (LLC) often destabilize the tip complex and distort tip contour. Initial destabilization of the LLC is usually further exacerbated by "shrink-wrap" contracture, which often leads to progressive cephalic retraction of the alar margin. The result is a misshapen tip complex accentuated by a conspicuous and highly objectionable nostril deformity that is often very difficult to treat. The "articulated" alar rim graft (AARG) is a modification of the conventional rim graft that improves treatment of secondary alar rim deformities, including postsurgical alar retraction (PSAR). Unlike the conventional alar rim graft, the AARG is sutured to the underlying tip complex to provide direct stationary support to the alar margin, thereby enhancing graft efficacy. When used in conjunction with a well-designed septal extension graft (SEG) to stabilize the central tip complex, lateral crural tensioning (LCT) to tighten the lower nasal sidewalls and minimize soft-tissue laxity, and lysis of scar adhesions to unfurl the retracted and scarred nasal lining, the AARG can eliminate PSAR in a majority of patients. The AARG is also highly effective for prophylaxis against alar retraction and in the treatment of most other contour abnormalities involving the alar margin. Moreover, the AARG requires comparatively little graft material, and complications are rare. We present a retrospective series of 47 consecutive patients treated with the triad of AARG, SEG, and LCT for prophylaxis and/or treatment of alar rim deformities. Outcomes were favorable in nearly all patients, and no complications were observed. We conclude the AARG is a simple and effective method for

  17. Tests of two new polyurethane foam wheelchair tires.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1989-01-01

    The performance characteristics of four 24-inch wheelchair tires are considered; one pneumatic and three airless. Specifically, two new airless polyurethane foam tires (circular and tapered cross-section) were compared to both a molded polyisoprene tire and a rubber pneumatic tire. Rolling resistance, coefficient of static friction, spring rate, tire roll-off, impact absorption, wear resistance, and resistance to compression set were the characteristics considered for the basis of comparison. Although the pneumatic tire is preferred by many wheelchair users, the two new polyurethane foam tires were found to offer a performance similar to the high-pressure pneumatic tire. In addition, the foam tires are less expensive and lighter in weight than the other tires tested. PMID:2918486

  18. A Front-Row Seat at a Wheelchair Crash Test: EP Kicks Off Its Wheelchair Transportation Safety Series with a Visit to the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    The centerpiece of the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) Sled Lab is "the impact sled," as it is called in the business. It's the business of conducting sled impact tests, perhaps better known as crash tests, on all types of wheelchairs and wheelchair seating systems as well as wheelchair tiedowns and…

  19. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Rafols, Claudio; Monckeberg, Juan Edo; Numair, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson. PMID:25722907

  20. Wheeled mobility (wheelchair) service delivery: scope of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Greer, Nancy; Brasure, Michelle; Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-01-17

    Identifying the appropriate wheelchair for a person who needs one has implications for both disabled persons and society. For someone with severe locomotive problems, the right wheelchair can affect mobility and quality of life. However, policymakers are concerned about the increasing demand for unnecessarily elaborate chairs. The Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, issued 4 reports between 2009 and 2011 detailing fraud and misapplication of Medicare funds for powered wheelchairs, more than a decade after similar concerns were first raised by 4 contractors who process claims for durable medical equipment. Subsequent concerns have arisen about whether some impaired persons who need wheeled mobility devices may now be inappropriately denied coverage. A transparent, evidence-based approach to wheeled mobility service delivery (the matching of mobility-impaired persons to appropriate devices and supporting services) might lessen these concerns. This review describes the process of wheeled mobility service delivery for long-term wheelchair users with complex rehabilitation needs and presents findings from a survey of the literature (published and gray) and interviews with key informants. Recommended steps in the delivery process were identified in textbooks, guidelines, and published literature. Delivery processes shared many commonalities; however, no research supports the recommended approaches. A search of bibliographic databases through March 2011 identified 24 studies that evaluated aspects of wheeled mobility service delivery. Most were observational, exploratory studies designed to determine consumer use of and satisfaction with the process. The evidence base for the effectiveness of approaches to wheeled mobility service delivery is insufficient, and additional research is needed to develop standards and guidelines. PMID:22250145

  1. Rasch analyses of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Miller, William C.; Rushton, Paula W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the functioning of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale’s 101-point response format with shortened 11-point formats, and to evaluate the scale’s measurement properties using principal components and Rasch analyses. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting Community. Participants Volunteer participants from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia, Canada were manual wheelchair-users (n=220), ≥19 years of age, with ≥6 months experience with daily wheelchair-use, and no cognitive impairment. Intervention None. Measurements 65-item Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale (WheelCon). Results The 11-point response format outperformed the original 101-point format. Principal components analyses confirmed the presence of two dimensions: 1) Mobility efficacy; and 2) Self-management efficacy. Thirteen items in the Mobility efficacy subscale, and eight items in the Self-management efficacy subscale fit the Rasch Rating Scale model. Five items misfit the model developed using the 21-items from both subscales. In each of the 13- and 8-item subscales, and the 21-item short form, the two lowest and highest scores had internal consistency reliability estimates below 0.70; all other scores had reliability estimates above 0.70. Conclusion The WheelCon is comprised of two dimensions. The recoded measurements using a 0 to 10 response scale from the 13-item mobility and 8-item self-management efficacy subscales have good reliability as do the measurements from the 21-item WheelCon Short Form. The use of the subscales and/or the short form depends on the context in which they are being considered. Research to establish the reliability and validity of the measurements using the 0 to 10 response format is warranted. PMID:25461823

  2. Transfer component skill deficit rates among Veterans who use wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Alicia M; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Boninger, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the deficit rates for transfer component skills in a Veteran cohort and explore the relationship between deficit rates and subject characteristics. Seventy-four men and 18 women performed up to four transfers independently from their wheelchair to a mat table while a therapist evaluated their transfer techniques using the Transfer Assessment Instrument. The highest deficit rates concerned the improper use of handgrips (63%). Other common problems included not setting the wheelchair up at the proper angle (50%) and not removing the armrest (58%). Veterans over 60 yr old and Veterans with moderate shoulder pain were more likely to set up their wheelchairs inappropriately than younger Veterans (p = 0.003) and Veterans with mild shoulder pain (p = 0.004). Women were less likely to remove their armrests than men (p = 0.03). Subjects with disabilities other than spinal cord injury were less inclined to set themselves up for a safe and easy transfer than the subjects with spinal cord injury (p ≤ 0.001). The results provide insight into the disparities present in transfer skills among Veterans and will inform the development of future transfer training programs both within and outside of the Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:27149389

  3. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition. PMID:24506819

  4. Design of a composite monocoque frame racing wheelchair.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, M S; Cooper, R A; Harralson, J; Ster, J F

    1993-01-01

    Design of present-day racing wheelchairs developed out of necessity and common sense. The chairs first used in racing were everyday chairs; through years of trial and modification the racing chairs of today evolved. Very little advanced engineering has been applied to the design of racing chairs. The Finite Element Analysis model executed on a computer provided insight into structural problem areas in the design of unibody frame racing chairs. Slight modifications to the model can be used to investigate new shapes, loads, or materials without investing large amounts of time and money. Wind tunnel testing with scale models provided perspectives on different improvements to reduce drag. Shape improvements may play an important role in reducing the racer's time during competition. Shape may help to decrease drag for the user in either the upright or down position. Considering that the frontal area increases around 30% in the up position with current strut and chassis frames, monocoque shapes should excel. Finite element analysis and air drag analysis are important to the design of a composite racing wheelchair. Composite materials may promote more efficient and ergonomic racing wheelchairs. PMID:8035352

  5. Trace elements in rims and interiors of Chainpur chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, L. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.

    1984-05-01

    Trace elements were measured in the rims and interiors of nine chondrules separated from the Chainpur LL-3 chondrite. Whole rock samples of Chainpur and samples of separated rims were also measured. Chondrule rims are moderately enriched in siderophile and volatile elements relative to the chondrule interiors. The enriched volatile elements include the lithophilic volatile element Zn. The moderate enrichment of volatiles in chondrule rims and the lack of severe depletion in chondrules can account for the complete volatile inventory in Chainpur. These results support a three-component model of chondrite formation in which metal plus sulfide, chondrules plus rims and matrix silicates are mixed to form chondrites.

  6. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  7. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  8. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  9. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  10. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...